A History of the County of Hampshire: Volume 3. Originally published by Victoria County History, London, 1908.
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HAVANT PARISH AND LIBERTY
The market town of Havant is situated on the approximate line of the Roman road from Clausentum to Regnum, now the main road from Chichester to Southampton, and is built very regularly round the intersection of this road with that running north and south from Hayling Island to Rowland's Castle. In the south-west angle of the cross roads stands the church of St. Faith, with a low central tower which is nevertheless seen above all the houses near it, the most interesting of which is the late sixteenth-century half-timbered 'Old House at Home.' At a short distance to the south-west of the church rises the copious spring of Homewell, which never fails in summer nor freezes in winter. West Street leads past the church, by large parchment works and tanneries. The fellmonger's trade, indeed, has prospered in Havant since the seventeenth century. (fn. 1) A still older industry, now extinct, was the manufacture of cloth. In 1571 William Simpson, of Rye, cloth-merchant, travelled to Havant in pursuit of 'some gainful bargain,' and was detained there as a suspicious character until the bailiff and constable (fn. 2) of the town were advertised of his honesty. (fn. 3) This trade was also centred in West Street, (fn. 4) which leads through Brockhampton tithing towards Bedhampton, past the Roman Catholic church of St. Joseph, and the Wesleyan chapel built in 1888. On the borders of the two parishes stands the Primitive Methodist chapel, and by a high-walled garden Brockhampton Road takes the traveller past the Portsmouth Waterworks through green fields watered by a small stream and across a bridge past more tanneries back into the town. Brockhampton Mill, on the right of this road, probably stands on the site of a mill valued at 15s. in the Domesday Book. (fn. 5) In the same Survey two mills are mentioned under Havant; these seem to have been represented later by South Mill and Asshewell Mill. (fn. 6) Amongst other mills in the town the most picturesque is the disused one at Langstone. It stands on the harbour of that name, near the causeway which connects Hayling Island with the main-land, and is surrounded by a few houses, some thatched and some roofed with red tiles, which, together with a coastguard station, form the hamlet of Langstone. There were also salterns here, one of which dated from the eleventh century, (fn. 7) and close by across the meadows are the grounds of Wade Court. The greater part of the parish is used for pasture, 1,150 acres being permanent grass, while only 557½ acres are employed as arable land, this lying chiefly around the town, and in the north of the parish there are over 750 acres of wood. (fn. 8) The soil differs considerably, the subsoil near Langstone being chalk while the town itself is built on a bed of clay, and the northern part of the parish is also of Eocene formation. This northern portion has been formed for civil purposes into a separate parish, known as North Havant. The road northwards skirts Leigh Park, in a well-wooded and well-watered country. Green slopes studded with fine old trees stretch up to the house which is now the residence of the lord of Havant manor. Beyond it, in the distance, are the trees of the 'Thicket,' the old 'Havant Chace' of the bishop of Winchester, which form the southern extremity of the forest of Bere. Here at the Thicket was obtained, in 1436, potters' earth. (fn. 9) When the park is passed the road curves downhill, and in the hollow lie a few houses, each with its garden abounding in fruit trees. This hamlet is known as Durrants; still further north on another slope of the road lies Redhill, which was formed into an ecclesiastical district in 1840, when the little church of St. John was built half-way up the hill.
Havant has a station on the direct Portsmouth branch of the London, Brighton, and South Coast Railway. It is also connected with Hayling by the Hayling Island Railway, laid down in 1851, (fn. 10) which crosses Langstone Harbour. The shore along the harbour is in most places shingly. The fishery, which was once of considerable importance, has decreased materially during the last two centuries, though the oyster trade still flourishes.
The name Billy which survives in Billy Lawn and Billy Copse dates from early in the seventeenth century, when pastures called 'Billyes' were conveyed with Havant manor to William Wolgar: (fn. 11) half an acre in 'Conquerauntescrouch' was owned by Jordan the Hayward in 1289, (fn. 12) and ' Boyes Buttes ' in Leigh tithing was sold by Richard Softley in 1692. (fn. 13) In the same tithing lies Stockheath Common, known in the fifteenth century as Stoke Heath. (fn. 14) It was inclosed in 1870 together with Havant Thicket, Leigh Green, and South Moor, (fn. 15) the award being in the custody of the Deputy Clerk of the Peace.
In 935 A.D. King Athelstan granted seven ' mansae ' at HAVANT to his thegn Witgar for three lives. (fn. 16) The third in succession after Witgar was a certain widow who gave the land to the monks of St. Peter and St. Paul, Winchester, to whom King Ethelred confirmed the gift in 980 and again in 984. (fn. 17) At the latter date it was extended at 10 hides, its assessment before the Conquest according to the Domesday Survey in 1086, at which time it was still held by the monks of St. Swithun. (fn. 18) The monks were given a weekly market there on Tuesdays in 1200, and the sheep and cattle market is still held on that day. (fn. 19) In July, 1284, the monks exchanged Havant manor with the bishop of Winchester for certain privileges. (fn. 20) In January, 1450–1, the bishop was granted a market, probably for corn, on Saturdays, and an annual fair to be held on the eve and feast of St. Faith (6 October). (fn. 21) This fair was held till 1871, when it was abolished together with another formerly held in June. (fn. 22) From 1553 onwards the bishop leased the manor from time to time. Under the Act of the Commonwealth for the sale of bishops' lands it was purchased by William Wolgar of Havant, (fn. 23) who obtained a lease of it after the bishop's restoration in 1660. (fn. 24) Finally Sir George Thomas Staunton, then lessee of the manor, purchased the fee in 1827. (fn. 25) It ultimately passed to W. H. Stone, from whom Sir F. W. FitzWygram purchased it in 1875. He was succeeded by his son Sir F. L. FitzWygram, the present owner. (fn. 26)
Under the terms of Ethelred's grant to the priory Havant was free from all service except the trinoda necessitas, and before the exchange with the bishop the monks had return of all writs there. This privilege was confirmed to the bishop in 1284. (fn. 27) The profits of court leet, formerly held twice yearly, (fn. 28) were very valuable, since it seems to have been considered an advantage to be under the bishop's jurisdiction. Thus in 1337 Henry le Bold gave the lord 4d. to be allowed to remain in his liberty and to come to two lawdays yearly. Tithingmen of Hayling, Leigh, Brockhampton, and Havant attended the tourns, and as late as 1817 two constables for the liberty, a coroner of the market, leather-sealer, ale-taster, and haywards besides the tithingmen were appointed at the court leet. (fn. 29) After the exchange between the prior and the bishop the men of Havant still owed suit at the prior's hundred-court of Fawley, for Havant was included in Fawley hundred in 1316, (fn. 30) and in May, 1465, the tithingman of Havant paid a fine at the hundred-court of Fawley to have release from suit of court of four men till Michaelmas. (fn. 31) The lord of Havant also had wreck of sea. (fn. 32) He was responsible for the repair of the market house, and in 1645 was amerced £5, to be paid to the poor of the town failing its repair before a fixed date. (fn. 33)
BROCKHAMPTON (Brochemtune, xi cent. ; Brokhampton, xiv cent.), on the western borders of the parish, was held of Earl Harold by Sired, who also held Newtimber in Warblington. After the Conquest the overlordship with that of the neighbouring manor of Bedhampton was vested in Hugh de Port, Herbert the Chamberlain being the actual tenant. (fn. 34) It was subsequently known as a hamlet of Bedhampton, and was held in dower with that manor by Joan widow of Reginald FitzPeter, (fn. 35) and the histories of the two are coincident till 1428, after which Brockhampton seems to have been merged in Bedhampton manor (fn. 36) (q. v.).
There was also at Brockhampton at the time of the Domesday Survey land with a mill, part of the possessions of the monks of St. Swithun. (fn. 37) It was apparently amalgamated with the manor of Havant, with which it was conveyed to the bishop of Winchester. The farm of the mill there formed an important item in the profits of Havant manor. (fn. 38) According to an account dated 1319 this land consisted of rather more than 60 acres, and the jurors then stated that six oaks had been felled in 'the Newgrove.' (fn. 39) It is doubtful whether separate courts were ever held for the bishop's tenants at Brockhampton. In an account tendered by the bailiff of Brockhampton perquisites of court are mentioned, but from other items on the same roll it would appear that the bailiff was including also the profits of Havant manor. (fn. 40)
The manor of FLOOD (fn. 41) (Flode, xiii–xv cent.; Fludd, xvii cent.) was held of Havant manor by a certain 'Geoffrey de la Flode,' who was succeeded late in the thirteenth century by Ralph de Swanewych, the bishop's servant. (fn. 42) In 1483 Joan, wife of William Vernon, joined John Goring the elder and John Goring the younger in releasing the 'manor of Flood' to Reginald Bray and others. (fn. 43) Sir Reginald Bray bequeathed a large part of his estates, and apparently Flood with them, to his niece Margery wife of Sir William Sandys, knt. (fn. 44) afterwards Lord Sandys of the Vyne, whose son and heir, Thomas, Lord Sandys, died seised of Flood. (fn. 45) In 1612 William Sandys conveyed the manor to John Dean with warranty against the heirs of William, Lord Sandys, and others. (fn. 46) Probably this conveyance was in trust to sell, for Flood came with Hall Place (fn. 47) to Francis Wooder, (fn. 48) who bequeathed it to his halfsister Dorothy Evans, (fn. 49) whose sister and legatee, Elizabeth wife of Ascanius Christopher Lockman, conveyed it in 1725 to Isaac Moody. (fn. 50) Under the will of his son John it passed to Richard Bingham Newland, who conveyed it in 1812 to William Garrett, (fn. 51) who sold it again in 1820. (fn. 52)
The manor of LIMBORNE, which includes Wade Court, was probably parcel of Warblington manor, for the lands of Wade were amongst the 'terrae Normannorum,' and as such were granted in 1204 (fn. 53) to the earl of Arundel, with whose successors the overlordship remained. Rominus Hospinel, who succeeded Juliane de Wade as actual tenant, gave I carucate in Wade in marriage with his daughter Agnes to Richard Falconer in 1205. (fn. 54) William Falconer, probably a descendant, was enfeoffed of a messuage at Wade by Hilary wife of Adam de Wanstead in 1250 ; (fn. 55) and John Falconer, to whom Isabel de Merlay in 1256 granted a messuage and land in 'La Wade and Nytimbre,' (fn. 56) died seised of Limborne c. 1305, leaving a daughter and heir, Joan wife of John Butler. (fn. 57) In 1352 John Butler was holding Limborne of the earl of Arundel, (fn. 58) and twelve years later settlement was made upon John Butler, probably son of the former John and his wife Katherine. (fn. 59) It was possibly the same Katherine who, as wife of William Upton, was imprisoned there and almost starved to death in 1389, (fn. 60) and whose husband, William Upton, had been outlawed for felony in the previous year, while his estates, including Limborne, fell to the mortgagees, John Brinkebon, Gilbert Bannebury, and Hugh Tildesleghe. (fn. 61) Nevertheless, Isabel wife of Geoffrey Roukele and sister and heir of John Butler, died seised of Limborne, (fn. 62) which was inherited by her grandson William Wayte of Wymering (q. v.), who apparently conveyed it to Richard Dalingrigge and his wife Sybil, for it was released to them in 1441 by Margaret wife of William Wayte. (fn. 63) Richard Dalingrigge died in 1470–1, having settled Limborne upon Thomas Pound and his wife Mercy in payment of a debt of 200 marks. (fn. 64) This Thomas died 23 November, 1476, leaving a son and heir John, (fn. 65) afterwards Sir John, Pound, who was succeeded by a son William, (fn. 66) whose son Anthony inherited Limborne on his father's death in 1525. (fn. 67) Anthony Pound entailed his estates on his son and heir Richard Pound and Elizabeth daughter of William Wayte of Wymering in 1542, with remainder in tailmale to his own daughters Honor and Mary. (fn. 68) The latter evidently married Edward White, for in November, 1580, Edward White died holding Limborne by courtesy after the death of his wife Mary. He was succeeded by his son John White, (fn. 69) who conveyed the manor in 1594 to Robert Paddon, (fn. 70) from whom it was purchased in 1604 by Henry Best, (fn. 71) who immediately conveyed it to Arthur Swayne of Anne Savage. (fn. 72) In 1615 Edward Swayne of Anne Savage died seised of Limborne, leaving a brother and heir Robert, (fn. 73) who conveyed the estate in 1619 to William Dunches and Thomas Southe, (fn. 74) perhaps in trust for sale, for Arthur Hyde was in possession in 1646, (fn. 75) and was succeeded in 1654 by Lawrence Hyde. (fn. 76) Late in the same century it seems to have become the property of Sir John Stonehouse, with whose daughter Elizabeth it passed in marriage to Thomas Jervoise of Herriard, (fn. 77) who conveyed it to trustees, from whom it was purchased in 1752 by Robert Bold. (fn. 78) His son James died without issue, and his co-heiresses sold the manor to John Knight, (fn. 79) who bequeathed it to his two sons John and William. (fn. 80) John Knight, having purchased his brother's moiety, in his will dated 6 March, 1824, directed that the whole manor should be sold. It was purchased by Messrs. Knight and Moore, who sold it in 1846 to Charles John Longcroft, author of a history of the hundred of Bosmere, (fn. 81) in whose family it still remains.
The CHURCH OF ST. FAITH, HAVANT, is an interesting cruciform building, with a vaulted chancel, 30 ft. 6 in. by 19 ft. 3 in. ; north vestry and south organ chamber ; central tower, 18 ft. 7 in. square ; north transept, 21 ft. 9 in. by 19 ft. 6 in. with north porch and west aisle, 13 ft. wide ; south transept of practically the same dimensions ; and nave 55 ft. long by 19 ft. 3 in., with north and south aisles 7 ft. 6 in. wide. (fn. 82)
The oldest architectural details date from the end of the twelfth century, and are to be seen in the tower, transepts, and nave. The chancel belongs to the first quarter of the thirteenth century, the north vestry to the fourteenth, while the stair-turret at the north-east angle of the tower is a fifteenth-century addition. There was no doubt an earlier church on the site. From a note on the destruction of the nave in 1832, (fn. 83) it appears that a concrete foundation of Roman brick and cement underlay the pillars, and several Roman coins were found during the work. The only feature in the present building which suggests the incorporation of work older than the end of the twelfth century is the fact that the west wall of the tower is 6 in. thinner than the others, and may therefore represent the east wall of an earlier nave. The unusual western aisles to the transepts (if indeed they are contemporary with the transepts) may owe their existence to some previous arrangement. The whole building has been much repaired ; in 1832 the nave arcades were taken down, apparently to give more room for galleries, and the nave practically rebuilt. In 1874 the central tower was found to be unsafe, perhaps by reason of the loss of abutment brought about by the destruction of the nave arcades, and it was taken down, except the north-east stair-turret, and rebuilt with the old materials. A plaster ceiling which hid the vaulted roof of the chancel was taken away, an organ-chamber added at the south-west of the chancel, and the nave was entirely rebuilt on the old lines, the capitals being copied from a late twelfth-century capital belonging to the nave destroyed in 1832, and now reset on the first pillar from the east in the south arcade. The chancel is of two bays with a quadripartite stone vault with moulded ribs springing from Purbeck marble corbels, the rubble filling of the vault being set in courses parallel to the ridge. The east window is a modern triplet of lancets, but in the north wall the original lancet window remains in the east bay, blocked on the outside by the fourteenth-century vestry. In the west bay on this side is a fifteenth-century window of three cinquefoiled lights with tracery in the head, set somewhat to the west in the bay in order to clear the west wall of the vestry.
In the south wall is a fifteenth-century window of two cinquefoiled lights with tracery in the head, and below it modern sedilia and piscina, with a small south doorway to the west of them, also of modern stonework. In the west bay on this side is a modern arch opening to the organ-chamber. The vestry on the north of the chancel opens to it by a plain fourteenth-century doorway, and has also a modern external doorway at the north-west. It is lighted on the east by a fourteenth-century window of two trefoiled lights, and in the north gable is a second window, much restored, set at a height which suggests that the vestry once had an upper floor.
The four arches carrying the central tower are pointed, of two orders with edge-chamfers, the outer orders on the west side of the east and west arches having a keeled roll between hollows, as being those which are most conspicuous from the nave. Their capitals are scalloped and of late twelfth-century type, and the jambs have half-round shafts to the inner orders, flanked by fine Purbeck marble nook-shafts, while the responds of the north and south arches are of plain half-round section, and have modern foliate capitals. The rood-loft was set against the east arch, and the fifteenth-century stair leading to it still exists at the north-east angle of the tower, and is continued upwards to the battlements. The upper stage of the tower has in each face a belfry window of two pointed lights divided by a shaft with base and capital of late twelfth-century style, and the level of the eaves or parapet of this date is shown by a row of corbels projecting from the wall. The tower has been heightened, and now ends with an embattled parapet, the turret being carried up above it and having a like finish.
The north transept has an early sixteenth-century east window of three cinquefoiled lights, and a north window with modern stonework of three cinquefoiled lights and tracery of fifteenth-century style. Both transepts have the unusual addition of a western aisle, that in the north transept having an arcade of two bays in late fifteenth-century style with moulded arches and octagonal columns. It is lighted by a west window of two uncusped lights, perhaps fifteenth-century work with the cusps cut away, and is entered at the north end through a modern porch and doorway, over which is a window, also modern.
Its south window is of three lights and modern, and in the west aisle, which is separated from the transept by a modern arcade of like detail with that in the north transept, is a fifteenth-century south window of three cinquefoiled lights with tracery over, and a round-headed west window of late twelfth-century date. This if in position shows that the west aisles are contemporary with the rest of the transepts. In the nave the eastern responds of the late twelfth-century arcades remain in position, and as before noted the capital of the first column of the south arcade is in part original work re-used. The rest of the arcades are modern, but old material is worked into the west respond of the south arcade. The clearstory has round windows enclosing quatrefoils or cinquefoils. The height of the original nave roof may be recovered from openings on the west face of the tower below the present roof, one in the centre being a round-headed doorway formerly opening on to the nave roof, while on either side of it at a higher level are two blocked pointed windows which looked over the roof.
Into the west wall of the nave is built a Purbeck marble slab with a curved lower edge, on which is carved in twelfth-century style a lion between two rosettes. It is perhaps part of a font. The existing font, which stands near the west door of the nave, was made in 1847.
None of the wood fittings of the church are old, and the only monument of interest is the fine brass of Thomas Aileward, rector, who died 6 April, 1413. His effigy is shown in a cope, fastened with a morse, bearing his initials T. A., while on the orphreys are sheaves, roses, and fleurs-de-lis. The sheaves are taken from his arms, which are shown on the only remaining one of the four shields which formerly surrounded the effigy and inscription. The inscription ends with the couplet:
In the central tower is a ring of eight bells, the treble and second given by Sir F. W. Fitzwygram in 1876, the third, fourth, fifth, and tenor being cast in 1714, the seventh in 1723, and the sixth recast in 1896.
The registers begin in 1653, the first book containing baptisms to 1703, marriages to 1726, and burials to 1731. The second contains the burials in woollen, 1678–1730, and the third the burials from 1730–1812. The fourth contains baptisms 1713– 1812, and marriages 1730–54, and there is also a list of inductions of the rectors from 1618 to 1892. The fifth book is the printed marriage register 1754–93, and the sixth continues the marriages to 1812.
The advowson of the church of St. Faith was, like the manor, a possession of the monks of St. Swithun, and was transferred with the manor to the bishop, in whose gift it has been ever since. (fn. 84) Under Bishop Stratford inquisition was made for the ordination of Havant vicarage, (fn. 85) but no appropriation seems to have taken place, for the living was and is still a rectory. (fn. 86) The rector had peculiar jurisdiction in the parish, (fn. 87) but these rights were virtually abolished early in the last century. (fn. 88) There was also a rectory manor the lands of which are now practically enfranchised. (fn. 89) Special privileges had been attached to the church before the reign of Henry I, who confirmed to it exemption from pleas as in the time of William II and Bishop Walkelin. (fn. 90)
A parish was assigned to the chapelry of St. John Redhill in 1840, (fn. 91) the chapel having been built there two years before. (fn. 92) The living, which is a rectory, is in the alternate gift of the rectors of Havant and Warblington.
Under the will of Richard Dalingrigge of Wade, a chantry was founded in the church about 1471, and maintained for a time from the profits of his manor of Iford in Sussex. Two priests were provided to sing continually in Havant church for the souls of Richard Dalingrigge, his wife Sibyl and their ancestors, but four years after his death, Roger Lewkenor, his nephew and heir-at-law, entered upon the manor of Iford, declaring that Richard had made no such will, and that Iford had descended from Sir Roger Lewkenor to Thomas Lewkenor, his father. (fn. 93) The chantry evidently fell into disuse, for no mention of it occurs in the certificates of chantries returned in 1547 ; mention is made, however, of a stipendiary priest maintained in Havant church for the ministration of a brotherhood there, founded ' of the devotion of the inhabitants,' and endowed with land and money. (fn. 94)
The elementary school was built in 1895, and another in connexion with St. Joseph's was opened in 1875, while of the two Nonconformist schools, that at Redhill was opened in 1860 and the Havant and Bedhampton school in 1871.
The Congregational Chapel trust property and charities consist of the chapel, schoolroom, and other buildings erected on a site conveyed by deed of 13 January, 1891, with the proceeds of sale of the old chapel (1791), and of a piece of land on the south side of the vestry thereto ; the Lecture Hall erected on part of the same site with the proceeds of sale in 1893 of the British School formerly in Market Road; the Parsonage House, let at £18 a year ; £252 2s. 8d. Consols given by Thomas Bayly Silver, two-thirds of dividends for the pastor and one-third for the chapel alms fund ; £203 13s. 1d. Consols given by Isaac Clements, by deed of 1880, for the benefit of the pastor ; and £46 17s. 2d. Consols left by will of Miss Elizabeth Moore, proved 1886, dividends for the poor of the chapel. The sums of stock are held by the official trustees, and the trusts are administered under a Scheme of the Charity Commissioners, dated 11 December, 1891.
In 1876 William Henry Stone by deed gave 5 acres, 5 poles adjoining the cemetery on the east side, to let in allotments for the poor, the rents to be applied in prizes to the cultivators. In 1894 1 acre, 3 roods, 8 poles were taken for the enlargement of the cemetery, and a like quantity of land to the north of the allotment was acquired by exchange.