A History of the County of Hampshire: Volume 5. Originally published by Victoria County History, London, 1912.
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Melleford (xi cent.); Melneford (xii cent.); Mulneford, Muleford (xiii cent.); Mulleford (xiii and xiv cent.); Meleford, Mullesford (xiv cent.); Milleford (xiv and xv cent.); Mulford (xiii–xvii cent.).
A century ago the parish of Milford was entirely inland, being separated from the sea by a narrow strip of coast-line, which was an extension eastwards of Hordle parish and terminated in the curious shingle promontory on the extremity of which Hurst Castle stands. In about 1800 the sea began to encroach upon this coast-line, and the process having continued has resulted in almost the whole of the south of the parish becoming exposed to the sea, with the consequent detachment of the promontory and Hurst Castle from the main parish of Hordle. (fn. 1)
Milford now contains 4,688 acres, of which 1,930¼ are arable, 1,596¾ permanent grass, 192¼ woods and plantations, (fn. 2) and 41 land covered with water. At low tides the area of the parish is increased by nearly 1,000 acres of mud. It lies entirely upon the Hamstead, Bembridge, Osborne and Headon Series. Several now disused gravel pits are scattered throughout the parish. The land rises gradually from the sea towards the north, the greatest height, just over 100 ft., being reached close to Batchley or Bashley.
The Avon Water flows south through the centre of the parish, being joined by a small stream running east from Newlands just before it enters the sea at Keyhaven. Danes Stream, entering the parish from the west close to the coast, flows parallel with the coast before it expands into the large sheet of water known as Sturt Pond, and thence flows into the sea. It is crossed just outside the village by Milford Bridge.
The village, composed of brick and plastered houses, lies in the extreme south-west of the parish on the irregular slopes which lead down to the cliffs from the higher ground inland. There is a modern extension of villas along the cliffs to the westward called Milford-on-Sea, which is in Hordle parish. An extensive view is here obtained of the western end of the Isle of Wight with the Needle Rocks, and westwards to Hengistbury Head and Christchurch Bay.
Keyhaven, which was a port as early as 1206, (fn. 3) is east of Milford village. Thence a road runs north past Vidley Van and Lymore, where are brick and tile works, to the hamlet of Everton. North again of Everton is Batehley, while Pennington is further east. The main road from Christchurch to Lymington, cutting across the north of the parish, skirts the grounds of Efford House (Sir James Beethom Whitehead, K.C.M.G.) and crosses the Avon Water at Efford Bridge, near Efford Farm and Mill. A mile and a half from Everton it is crossed at right angles by a road running north from Pennington Marshes through Lower Pennington and past Sadler's Farm and the Manor House to the village of Pennington, about half a mile west of Lymington. Pennington was in 1839 constituted a distinct ecclesiastical parish with an area of 1,698 acres. In the village is Priest-lands Farm.
Newlands Manor is the property and residence of Col. William Cornwallis-West, V.D., Rookcliff is the residence of Mrs. Charles James Robinson, Wainstord House of Mrs. Powell King, Pennington House of Mr. Measures, Milford House of Mr. Edward L. Agar, Milford Lodge of Miss Magnay, and Everton Grange of Col. William Kemmis, C.M.G., M.V.O.
Upon Pennington Marshes there are butts with a range of 800 yards. Saltings have existed upon these marshes and also upon Keyhaven marshes from very early times. They have not been worked, however, for the past fifty years, the development of the Cheshire salt mines and springs having superseded them. In 1217 the sheriff was ordered to restore to Henry de Pont Audemer the possession of his 'customs' of salt in Pennington and Efford which had been taken into the king's hands. (fn. 4) Four years later, however, the sheriff was ordered to give the men of Southampton seisin of these customs, which were stated to belong to the vill. (fn. 5)
Among place-names the following occur:—Shorefield (the modern Shorefield Copse and Road) (xvi cent. (fn. 6)); Westover (surviving in Westover Farm) (xvii cent. (fn. 7)); Ranley, North Danes (xviii cent. (fn. 8)).
At the time of the Domesday Survey there were two separate estates in Milford, one being held by Alvric. In King Edward's time it had been held by Saolt. (fn. 9) The other was held by Ulgar, who had himself held it of King Edward. (fn. 10) At a later date three separate manors were evolved from these estates and were known by the names of Milford, afterwards Milford Montagu, Milford Barnes and Milford Baddesley.
The manor of MILFORD or MILFORD MONTAGU, which was held of the lords of Christchurch, (fn. 11) seems to have originated in an estate held by William Spileman for the thirty-seventh part of a knight's fee at his death in 1291. (fn. 12) From this date Milford Montagu followed the descent of Brockenhurst (q.v.) until the death of John de Grimstead in 1350. (fn. 13) Milford passed to his daughter Joan, wife of Thomas de la Rivere, with contingent remainder to the heirs of her grandmother Margery, (fn. 14) widow of John de Grimstead. Joan died childless before 1376, when Thomas de la Rivere died seised of the manor held by courtesy of William Farnhull, cousin and right heir of Margery. (fn. 15) In 1378 William Montagu Earl of Salisbury held a water mill and 16 marks rent, representing this estate in Milford, and Robert Sparry was pardoned for acquiring it for life without licence. (fn. 16) In 1428 Thomas son of John nephew of William Montagu Earl of Salisbury died possessed of the manor, which was then held of Robert Wallop. (fn. 17) He was succeeded by his only child Alice, the wife of Richard Nevill Earl of Salisbury, (fn. 18) but the manor must have reverted to the family of Montagu, for the next record that has been found of it is a settlement by William Montagu in 1559. (fn. 19) There were other conveyances of the manor by him in 1574 (fn. 20) and 1580, (fn. 21) and it subsequently passed to Henry Chicke, who with his wife Dorothy conveyed it to Simon Courte in 1598. (fn. 22) It was acquired from the latter in 1610 by Sir Thomas Gorges, kt., (fn. 23) who, dying in the following year, was succeeded by his son Sir Edward. (fn. 24) He in 1618 received a grant of free warren in Milford, (fn. 25) and still owned the manor in 1630. (fn. 26) Eight years later he sold it to Edward Hopgood. (fn. 27) Towards the end of the 18th century the manor was purchased by Admiral Sir William Cornwallis, and it now belongs to his descendant, Colonel William Cornwallis-West, V.D.
The manor of MILFORD BARNES originally belonged to the priory of Christchurch. (fn. 28) After the Dissolution a twenty-one years' lease of ' the site of the manor with the appurtenances and all land and fisheries belonging, together with 20 acres in Shorefield,' was in 1557 granted to John Wavell, (fn. 29) and in 1574 a similar lease, to date from the determination of the former one, was granted to John Rowe, the rent being 100s. (fn. 30) The entire estate, described as 'the manor of Milford Barnes lately belonging to the monastery of Christchurch,' was in 1590 granted to Arthur Swayne and Henry Best, who were at the same time given the rent reserved in John Rowe's lease. (fn. 31) From them it passed to Sir Thomas Gorges, who owned it in 1611, and from that time its descent was the same as that of the manor of Milford Montagu (fn. 32) (q.v.), together with which it now belongs to Col. William Cornwallis-West.
The manor of MILFORD BADDESLEY originated in an estate held in Milford by the Knights Templars, and appertaining to their preceptory of Baddesley. In the time of King John Hugh de Whitwell and his son William granted land at Milford to William Mackerel, towards the endowment of a hospital for the poor which William Mackerel had founded at Gremne. William granted it to the Templars, for their preceptory of Baddesley. (fn. 33) It was held of Christchurch Manor for a quarter of a knight's fee.
On the suppression of the order of Knights Templars this estate was granted, about 1312, (fn. 34) as was most of their land, to the Hospital of St. John of Jerusalem, to which it continued to belong until the dissolution of the priory in 1540. It was re-granted to the Hospitallers for the short period of their re-establishment. (fn. 35) In 1599 Elizabeth granted the manor to Hugh Samford and William Stockman, (fn. 36) who in the following year conveyed it as the manor of Milford Baddesley to Arthur Swayne and Philip Tyse. (fn. 37) From them it was in about 1609 acquired by Robert Rickman, (fn. 38) in whose family it remained until in 1728 it was conveyed by John Rickman and Thomas Gillet to Peter Hawker, (fn. 39) and in 1762 William Rickman, his wife Rebecca, and Thomas Rickman made a settlement of it. (fn. 40) In the year 1806 it belonged to William Reynolds, (fn. 41) who soon after sold it to Anna Maria the wife of Capt. John Whitby. Their only daughter Theresa married Frederick Richard West, and their son Col. William Cornwallis-West is now lord of the manor.
In the taxation of Pope Nicholas of 1291 the Prior of Bath was entered as owning the manor of Milford, which was worth £5 yearly. (fn. 42) This, however, was probably the estate which he held in Keyhaven and Letton (fn. 43) for half a knight's fee, subsequently known as the manor of Keyhaven (q.v. infra).
The manor of EFFORD (Einforde, xi cent.; Esseforde, xiv cent.; Ebbeford, xiii–xv cent.) was held in 1086 by Alvric, whose father had held it in the reign of King Edward. (fn. 44) In the 13th century it belonged, as did the manor of Milford Montagu, to the family of Spileman, who held it in chief for half a knight's fee and the serjeanty of providing one armed horseman for service in England for forty days. (fn. 45) For some years Efford followed the descent of Milford Montagu, but passed on the death of Thomas de la Rivere to John Rous, a minor, grand-nephew and right heir of John de Grimstead, sen. (fn. 46) The custody of the manor, then worth £10 yearly, was granted to Sir Philip Fitz Warren during the minority. (fn. 47) In 1397 the manor belonged to William Montagu Earl of Salisbury, who dying that year was succeeded by his nephew Sir John. (fn. 48) He was beheaded and attainted in the year 1400, but his son Thomas was restored to the estates on coming of age in 1409. (fn. 49) The manor subsequently passed to the grandson of the latter, John Nevill Marquess of Montagu, younger brother of the king-maker; his widow Isabel married Sir William Norris, kt., and dying in 1476 was succeeded by her son George Nevill, who six years before had been made Duke of Bedford. (fn. 50) He being still a minor, his father-in-law Sir William was given the custody of the manor. (fn. 51) On the death of the duke without issue in 1483 (fn. 52) Efford seems to have passed to the eldest of his four sisters and co-heirs, Elizabeth the wife of Thomas Lord Scrope of Masham; she in 1504, being then a widow, conveyed the manor to Guy Palmes, who died in 1515, having devised it to his second son John for life, with remainder to his eldest son Brian in tail. (fn. 53) The latter owned it at his death in 1528, when it passed to his son Francis, (fn. 54) a minor.
In the 17th century Efford apparently lost all manorial status and Sir Beethom Whitehead, K.C.M.G., the present owner of Efford House, has in spite of many inquiries failed to trace any later descent for the manor.
Efford House was built about 1838 by Col. Sheddon; it then became the property of the Marchioness of Hastings, but by 1853 belonged to Warren Peacocke. From the Peacocke family it passed to Sir Beethom Whitehead.
The manor of PENNINGTON (Penintune, Penigtone, xiii cent.) was held of the de Clares, whose descendants continued to be overlords (fn. 55) till it passed to the Crown by the attainder of the Earl of Salisbury in 1499. (fn. 56)
John de Acton, who held it for a knight's fee of the de Clares, seems to have parted with two-thirds of it to John Neyrnoit, but to have re-acquired onethird from the latter. This he settled in the year 1312 upon himself and his wife for life, with remainder to his daughter Joan and her husband John Randolf for their lives, the ultimate remainder being to his son John de Acton. (fn. 57) He died in the same year, this estate being described as the 'manor' of Pennington, (fn. 58) and four years later his widow was returned as one of the three lords of Pennington. (fn. 59) In 1346 John de Acton the son had succeeded to the estate, which was held for one-third of a knight's fee. (fn. 60) In this year he settled it upon himself and his wife Joan, (fn. 61) but appears to have soon after disposed of it to Sir John de Poyntz, for the latter in 1360 conveyed to Sir John de Hale, kt., and his wife Joan 'one-third of the manor of Pennington which lately belonged to Sir John de Acton.' (fn. 62)
It has been seen that John de Acton, the original owner of the whole estate, granted two-thirds of it to John Neyrnoit (fn. 63) or Nervett. The remaining third seems to have been acquired by Henry Thistleden, who in 1285, together with his wife Isabel, settled some land in Pennington upon William, the son of Walter, and Margery his wife for their lives, with remainder to himself and his wife in tail. (fn. 64) Twenty years later further land there was conveyed by John de Drokensford to Henry de Thistleden and his wife Thomasine, to hold during their lives, with remainder to their son Adam. (fn. 65) Henry still owned the property in 1316, (fn. 66) but he or his son subsequently disposed of it. (fn. 67) Probably it was this estate which was conveyed in 1337 by Walter of Milton, vicar of Boldre, and Thomas son of Sir John Tichborne, kt., to Henry Peverell and his wife Katherine, (fn. 68) and which was held by Henry Peverell in 1346 for a third of a knight's fee. (fn. 69) Thomas Peverell his son conveyed it to Sir Thomas Tyrrell, kt., in 1364, (fn. 70) it being then held as a separate manor. The following year it was granted by Sir Thomas Tyrrell to Sir John de la Hale, kt., (fn. 71) who, as has been seen, already owned one-third of the manor. The two-thirds, described as the 'manor' of Pennington, were in 1367 settled by Sir John upon himself and Eleanor his wife in tail. (fn. 72) There was another settlement in 1384, (fn. 73) and later in the same year John de la Hale, son of Sir John, received a conveyance of the manor from the trustees. (fn. 74) He must have disposed of it, for Sir Peter Courtenay owned it at his death in 1405, holding it of the heirs of John de la Hale. (fn. 75)
Soon after this the two thirds became separated once more, and were not held together again until recent times. That which Henry de Thistleden had held was acquired by Richard Garton, who granted it in 1417 as 'half the manor' of Pennington to William, third Lord Botreaux (fn. 76); that is, half of the two thirds formerly held by the de la Hales as one manor. He still held it in 1428, described as the third of a knight's fee which Henry Peverell once held, (fn. 77) and three years later he was one of the three who held among them the manor of Pennington for one-eighth of a knight's fee. (fn. 78) He died in 1462, the manor (i.e. his third part) being then held of John Garton. (fn. 79) It went as dower to his widow Margaret, who soon after married Sir Thomas Burgh, kt. (fn. 80) It subsequently passed to Margaret, only child of Lord Botreaux and widow of Robert Lord Hungerford, and she granted it to Robert White, whose son John White owned it at his death in 1469, (fn. 81) when he was succeeded by his son Robert. (fn. 82) After this date the manor remained in the White family and belonged to William White in 1571. (fn. 83) Seven years later the manor (fn. 84) was settled on his daughter and heiress Alice, wife of William the son and heir of Richard Beconsawe, (fn. 85) a life interest being reserved to William White and his wife Margaret. (fn. 86) In 1605 Margaret, who after the death of her husband William White married Robert Southcott, released her life estate to Alice and her husband, (fn. 87) and the latter died possessed of the manor in 1634–5. (fn. 88) From this time Pennington followed the descent of Ellingham (fn. 89) (q.v.) until it was sold between 1822 and 1834 to William Edward Tomline, and from that date followed the descent of Lymington (q.v.), Mr. Keppel Pulteney, J.P., being the present lord of the manor.
It has been seen that in 1405 Sir Peter Courtenay, kt., owned two of the three manors, or thirds of a manor, and the descent of that one which had belonged to Henry de Thistleden and Henry Peverell has been traced. That which had belonged to Sir John de Acton, kt., was in 1428 held for one-third of a knight's fee by John Parell, (fn. 90) but three years later had passed to William Bole, one of the three who held the whole manor for one-eighth of a knight's fee. (fn. 91) In 1486 this third part belonged to John Bole and Isabel his wife, who conveyed it, described as the 'manor' of Pennington, to Richard Burton. (fn. 92) Seven years later it was conveyed by Tristram Fauntleroy and Isabel his wife (fn. 93) to Agnes Burton, widow, and others. (fn. 94) Soon afterwards it appears to have devolved upon two heiresses, as in 1517 William Netherway died owning half the manor, which he held in right of his late wife Sibyl, (fn. 95) while in 1528 John Bartholomew conveyed the other half to William Clement or Browne. (fn. 96) This later half belonged in 1544 to Edward Clement or Browne, subject to the life estate of Margaret Browne, and in that year he conveyed it to Henry Crede, (fn. 97) who joined with him the following year in conveying it to George Crede. (fn. 98) The latter in 1559 disposed of it to John Martin, (fn. 99) who in the following year acquired also the other half from John the son of William Netherway. (fn. 100) From him the manor passed to John Cheeke, who owned it in 1574 (fn. 101); there was a settlement of it by his successor Edward Cheeke in 1596, (fn. 102) and three years later he conveyed it to William Oglander. (fn. 103) No further record of the manor has been found until the year 1803, when Giles Stibbert and his wife Sophronia sold it, together with the third manor (q.v. infra), to George Tomline, Bishop of Lincoln. (fn. 104) From him both manors were acquired by William Edward Tomline, the subsequent descent being to Mr. Keppel Pulteney, J.P., as stated above.
It has been stated that John de Acton conveyed two-thirds of his original estate in Pennington to John Nervett, who re-granted one of them to him. The other third, known from the 16th century onwards as the manor of PENNINGTON NARVETT, (fn. 105) John Nervett continued to hold as a separate manor, and in 1313 he charged it with an annual sum of 8 marks to be paid to his son Henry and his son's wife Alice during the life of the latter. (fn. 106) He still owned the manor three years later, (fn. 107) and in 1327 settled it upon his grandson John Nervett son of Henry and Alice his wife in tail (fn. 108); it was held by the grandson in 1346 for onethird of a knight's fee. (fn. 109) It was afterwards acquired by the family of Philpott, who continued to possess it for nearly 300 years. Sir John Philpott, kt., owned it at the close of the 14th century, and in 1409 there was a settlement of it by his son John. (fn. 110) In 1428 John Neylond held it for one-third of a knight's fee, (fn. 111) and three years later he was returned as one of the three who held between them the manor of Pennington for one-eighth of a knight's fee. (fn. 112) John Philpott owned it, described as 'one-third of the manor of Pennington,' at his death in 1484, (fn. 113) and from that date it followed the descent of Compton Wasseling (fn. 114) (q.v.) until 1640, when Crompton was sold to the Tichbornes. Pennington still remained with the Philpotts until it passed with South Baddesley (fn. 115) (q.v.) to Henry Lord Arundell of Wardour. When South Baddesley was sold in 1841 Pennington was being mortgaged for the purpose of raising portions, (fn. 116) and it subsequently passed to Giles Stibbert and Sophronia his wife, who in 1803, as has been stated, sold it, together with their other manor of Pennington, to George Tomline, Bishop of Lincoln. This conveyance also comprised two-thirds of an estate on Pennington Common called 'the Fourth manor of Pennington.' (fn. 117)
The manor of KEYHAVEN (Kyavene, Kyhavene, xiii–xvi cent.) originated in the estate held there and in Letton by the priory of Bath of the lords of Christchurch for half a knight's fee. As has been suggested above, this estate belonged to the prior in 1291, and was styled ' the manor of Milford.' (fn. 118) The prior was one of the lords of Keyhaven in 1316, (fn. 119) and continued to hold it till the Dissolution. (fn. 120) In 1545 Robert Grove was appointed bailiff, (fn. 121) and the manor was soon after acquired by Edward Arnwood, who in 1564 conveyed it to Thomas Carew, (fn. 122) in whose family it continued for a number of years. Thomas died in 1578 and was succeeded by his son Henry Carew, (fn. 123) who was in turn succeeded by his son Henry in the year 1614. (fn. 124) Three years later the latter settled the manor upon himself and his wife Dorothy in tail-male, (fn. 125) but in 1639, upon his conviction for recusancy, two thirds of the manor were forfeited to the king, who granted Brian Williams and Richard Bingham a twenty-one years' lease of them, if the recusancy should continue so long. (fn. 126) Henry Carew, however, died a few months later, and was succeeded by his son George. (fn. 127) It is probable that after the 17th century this manor of Keyhaven was merged in that of Keyhaven and Letton (vide infra) and is with it now the property of Col. William Cornwallis-West.
The manor of KEYHAVEN or KEYHAVEN and LETTON originated in an estate in Milford, Keyhaven and Letton, also held for half a knight's fee of the lords of Christchurch, which belonged from early times to the Bishop of Salisbury. (fn. 128) The property continued to belong to the bishopric until the beginning of the 16th century. In 1791 the bishop leased the manor to Sir John Hadley D' Oyley, bart., at a rent of £9 12s., and in 1802 Sir John purchased it for the sum of £2,205 18s. (fn. 129) He subsequently sold it to Mrs. Anna Maria Whitby, from whom it descended, in the same way as did the manor of Milford Baddesley (q.v. supra), to Col. William CornwallisWest, V.D., the present lord of the manor.
The estate of YALDHURST (Cildeest, xi cent.) was held in 1086 by Alvric the Little. It then, owing to the encroachment of the king's forest, only consisted of 2 acres of meadow, but in the time of the Confessors, when held by Brixi, it had been assessed at 5 hides. (fn. 130)
At the time of the Domesday Survey there was a water mill in Milford worth 30d., (fn. 131) and some later references to it are found. A millstream still exists in the village, but there is no mill.
There was in 1086 a mill at Efford, which was held by the keeper of the king's house there. (fn. 132) There is still a mill at Efford, situated upon the Avon Water.
In addition to these two there was a water mill on Pennington Common, which was from early times held in undivided thirds by the three lords there. (fn. 133) The last record of it that has been found is in 1819. (fn. 134) There are now no mills at Pennington.
There seems to have been another water mill at Pennington belonging in 1578 to the manor which was then owned by the White family (fn. 135) (q.v. supra). This manor went to the Beconsawes and finally to the Lisles, and the mill passing with it was owned in 1819 by Susan March Phillips and Edward Hales Taylor. (fn. 136)
In 1528 yet another mill in Pennington seems to have belonged to that manor, of which John Bartholomew in that year conveyed half to William Clement or Browne. (fn. 137) It followed the descent of the manor down to 1590, (fn. 138) but in 1803, when the manor belonged to Giles Stibbert, there was no mill there. (fn. 139) It is not improbable that the mill mentioned in the records was in fact only the undivided third of the mill on Pennington Common.
It is a very fine and interesting building, wonderfully spacious and dignified considering its comparatively small size, chiefly built of Binstead stone from the Isle of Wight, which as usual has stood well, so that the original details are for the most part in excellent preservation.
The earliest church from which the present structure developed was probably an early 12th-century aisleless church of chancel and nave, the extent of the latter being represented by that of the three western bays of the present nave. To this church, c. 1180, a south aisle was added, narrower than the present one. In the 13th century the church was more than trebled in size and brought to its present plan. All the work is not contemporary, the west tower and vestries seeming to have been begun before the work at the east, while the two western bays of the north arcade of the nave apparently are of the same date as the tower. This may have been begun about 1240 and the chancel chapels and transepts about 1260. The planning and construction of the chancel and transepts are admirable, the supports within the walls being reduced to a minimum, giving the greatest possible area of floor space. The chancel is considerably wider than the old nave, and is about 35 ft. long, with a wide arch on very shallow responds at the west. Between this arch and the east end of the older nave, with which the west walls of the 13th-century transepts coincide, is a space about 35 ft. 4 in. by 19 ft. 2 in. of equal width with the chancel, divided into two equal bays by arcades, the first bay opening to north and south chapels and the second to the transepts. The transepts also open eastwards to the chapels and westwards to the aisles, with arches spanning each opening and springing from circular Purbeck marble columns at the four angles of the second bay. The thrusts of these arches are counteracted by tall pointed arches crossing the bay from north to south at east and west, completing the system of abutment required, so that from each of the four marble columns spring four arches all of different height and span, and all dying into a circular drum standing on the marble capital of the column. Those springing westwards to join the nave arcades are canted inwards to suit the narrower span of this part of the church. Presumably nothing was to be gained by widening the old nave to equal the chancel and new eastern bays of the nave, and being of equal width with the lately built tower, its north and south walls were of use in abutting the arches opening to the north and south vestries. In any case it was left standing, though the aisles were widened. The south porch is probably of c. 1270, set over a contemporary doorway, and the late 12th-century north and south doorways of the nave were re-used in the new transepts. The arch from the south transept to the south aisle is also in part of 12th-century masonry, and doubtless formed part of the old nave.
The chancel is lighted on the east by a window of three uncusped lights with two cinquefoiled niches and a trefoiled circle in the head. There is no rebate for a frame, but this and all other 13th-century windows in the church have had glass grooves from the first. The rear arch is moulded and has shafts with moulded capitals and bases. Externally the east gable has moulded kneelers and pairs of angle buttresses, and there are dwarf buttresses midway in the north and south walls. In the north wall are three windows of two uncusped lights with trefoiled circles in the head; the mullions and jambs are hollow chamfered, and the rear arches and their jambs also have hollow chamfers. In the south wall are two similar windows with renewed tracery, and a third at the south-west with a plain circle in the head and a wider splay, the rear arch being moulded with a fillet between two flattened keeled rolls, the outer of which is continued down the angles of the jambs. The south door between the second and third windows has a pointed head and continuous chamfer with modern stops and label in Roman cement. The chancel arch is high, two centred, and of two chamfered orders with slender engaged shafts, having moulded capitals and bases to the inner order, the outer being continuous. Set against its north-east face is a corbel for the roodloft. The arches opening to the transepts and chapels are all of low pitch, of two chamfered orders with roll labels, springing from the four Purbeck marble columns with marble moulded capitals and bases, already mentioned, and having small engaged shafts in the responds, which have been cut away below the capitals, except at the west of the north chapel. The arches crossing the nave in the second bay are of much steeper pitch and equal in height to the chancel arch, but have no labels. The north chapel, now containing the organ, has a three-light east window like that of the chancel, but with shafted mullions and jambs, as well as shafts to the rear arch, and the three circles in the head are all quatrefoiled. An external label and stops of Roman cement have been added. In the north wall are two two-light windows as in the side walls of the chancel, but with plain chamfered mullions and jambs and chamfered internal rear arches with moulded labels. Beneath the windows is a roll string. The south chapel corresponds to that on the north, except that its east window, which has been restored, has uncusped circles in the head. A quatrefoiled piscina drain is set in a recess in the sill of the south-east window, the roll string breaking round it. The walls over the transept arches do not run up to the roof, the ceilings of the transepts running through and uniting with that of the nave. The north transept has at the north-east a double lancet with wide splayed inner jambs and a recess below for an altar. In the north gable is a modern window of three lights in 13th-century style, and below it a blocked late 12th-century doorway, doubtless from the old nave, having a round arch trefoiled with roll cusps and simple label and abaci. The south transept has a modern south window of three lights, and below it a second late 12th-century round-headed doorway with quirked abacus and flattened chamfered label; the work is clearly reused, and doubtless comes from the old nave. West of the transepts are three bays of arcades, the east bay on each side being contemporary with the transepts and having an arch slanting inwards to the first columns of the narrower part of the nave. The slanting arch on the north side is pointed, of two chamfered orders and label, while that on the south is of one pointed chamfered order with chamfered label to adapt itself to the 12th-century arcade which it joins. The two remaining bays on the north are smaller but with similar arches springing from octagonal piers with 13th-century moulded capitals and bases of much poorer workmanship than the eastern part of the arcades.
The west respond has a capital to the inner order only, resting on a corbel, and on the inner wall face is a straight joint, perhaps marking the junction of the respond with older work. The remaining two bays of the south arcade have round arches of one square order with flattened, chamfered labels; the piers are round, with square, hollow-chamfered abaci, capitals with simple foliate or volute ornaments and moulded bases with leaf spurs at the angles.
The outer walls of the north aisle appear to be entirely modern and are pierced by two-light windows with trefoils over; the segmental arch of one chamfered order opening from the aisle into the transept is also partly rebuilt. The south aisle has a similar arch at the east with a re-used late 12th-century abacus in the south respond. In the south wall are two three-light square-headed windows considerably restored, originally of 15thcentury date, and between them a pretty 13th-century south doorway with undercut and filleted roll mouldings, small engaged jamb shafts, a moulded label following the line of the arch and centring with a gabled label of the same section. In the head of the gable has been a carved spandrel, now mutilated. The south porch is apparently contemporary and has an external arch of two chamfered orders, the inner resting on half-round shafts with moulded capitals and bases. At the west ends of both aisles are half-arches, now blocked, but formerly opening into the chambers on each side of the tower. Each of the chambers has a low pent roof of the original pitch as shown by the external weatherings, that on the north having at the eaves a few courses of stone slates. Each has a lancet in the west wall, that in the north chamber being modern, and both have the original ashlar copings at the west.
The tower is in two stages with clasping pairs of stepped ashlar-faced buttresses at the angles. It was evidently meant to be one stage higher. It is now finished with a low leaded spire and has a line of original corbels at the eaves, though not in the position they are meant to occupy. Those at the angles are partly buried in the unfinished buttresses.
The present belfry windows are each of two plain lancets under an inclosing arch, and in the west wall of the ground stage are two tall lancets divided by a buttress which ends below the second stage. Internally the tower opens by arches of two chamfered orders, with moulded strings at the springing, to the nave and north and south chambers; the ground stages of the tower and the south chamber are used as vestries. The roofs of the chancel, the east half of the nave, and the transepts are ceiled below with arched plaster ceilings divided into panels by slender moulded wooden ribs with carved bosses at the intersections, of 13th-century date. The roofs of the chapels and of the rest of the nave are modern. The altar table is of 17th-century date, with heavy carved legs. In the south-west vestry is a chest with rough carving 1727 N.B. The octagonal stone font is modern and stands at the west end of the nave.
On the south wall of the chancel is a wall monument to Jane daughter of William Jordan of Shawcombe, Isle of Wight, ob. 1649. Two cherubim support the inscription on a rectangular marble panel, and two above them hold a shield Azure crusilly fitchy a lion or with a chief gules. There are a number of white marble wall monuments of modern date in the chancel and transepts.
The plate consists of a silver chalice of 1683 given by John Priaulx in 1684; a silver tray and loose cover undated; a silver secular dish, parcel gilt, of 18th-century date, given by Thomas Legh and Maud his wife in 1856; a silver chalice and paten and flagon in 1877.
The first book of registers is two volumes bound in one, part paper, part parchment; there are many gaps 1603 to 1620. It contains all entries 1594 to 1691. The second, in which the early sheets are loose and misplaced, has baptisms and burials 1692 to 1784 and marriages 1692 to 1753. The third has marriages 1754 to 1797, and the fourth baptisms and burials 1785 to 1812, and it also contains charities 1794 to 1809. There are also two volumes of churchwardens' accounts 1716 to 1796.
The church of ST. MARK, PENNINGTON, consisting of chancel, nave, transepts, a double bellturret with one bell, and a porch on the north-east, is entirely modern, having been built in 1839. The plate is a chalice, two patens and a flagon, all of silver and modern.
Milford Church was granted to Christchurch Priory in about 1140 by Baldwin de Redvers, first Earl of Devon, and Richard his son, (fn. 140) and their charter was confirmed on three subsequent occasions, by King Stephen in 1150, (fn. 141) by Isabel de Fortibus, Countess of Devon and Albemarle, towards the end of the 13th century, and by Edward II in 1313. (fn. 142) The advowson and rectory remained the property of the priory down to the Dissolution. In 1552 the advowson was granted by the king to John Poynet, Bishop of Winchester, in exchange for other property, (fn. 143) and this grant was confirmed six years later. (fn. 144) Before very long, however, it reverted to the Crown, and James I presented to the vicarage in 1617. (fn. 145) Nine years later it was granted to the provost and scholars of Queen's College, Oxford, (fn. 146) in whose hands it continued down to the year 1871, (fn. 147) when the advowson with two others was conveyed to the Bishop of Winchester in exchange for that of Crawley near Winchester. The bishop is still patron.
A few months before the priory of Christchurch was suppressed in 1539 a fifty years' lease of the rectorial tithes was granted to Richard Worsley; this he surrendered to the king in 1543 and was granted a new lease for twenty-one years at the rent of £15 3s. 4d. (fn. 148) The reversion was granted in 1552 to John Poynet, Bishop of Winchester, at the same time that he received a grant of the advowson. (fn. 149) It had reverted to the Crown, however, by 1561, in which year a lease for twenty-one years from the determination of Worsley's lease at the same rent was granted to Thomas Carew, captain of Hurst Castle. (fn. 150) In the following year, however, upon the surrender of his lease by Richard Worsley, a lease of the rectory for the remaining year of his term and for a further term of twenty-one years was granted to John Stockman. (fn. 151) Eight years later Thomas Carew's lease was confirmed, and the term extended to continue throughout the duration of his tenure of the office of captain of Hurst Castle; upon that ceasing, the rectory was to be held by Thomas Gorges, his prospective successor as captain, so long as he retained the post. (fn. 152) In 1590 the rectory was granted to Arthur Swayne and Henry Best together with the priory manor of Milford Barnes (fn. 153) (q.v. supra). In 1606, however, it was granted to Sir Thomas Gorges, kt., at the fee-farm rent of £15 3s. 4d., (fn. 154) and it belonged to him together with the manor at his death in 1610. (fn. 155) From that date its descent was for some years the same as that of the manor, the tithes being included in the sale to Edward Hopgood in 1638. (fn. 156) They belonged in 1834 to William Edward Tomline, who sold them in that year together with Pennington Manor (q.v. supra) to John Pulteney. They have been commuted for the annual sum of £92 and now belong to Mr. Keppel Pulteney, J.P. The vicarage of Pennington has been since its ordination in 1839 in the gift of the vicar of Milford.
There was a chantry chapel at Pennington, the earliest known record of which dates from 1285. The advowson of the chapel seems to have belonged to the three lords of Pennington, who no doubt made joint presentations. There are records at different dates of the ownership of each of these lords, that of Harry de Thistleden and of his successor Henry Peverell in 1285 (fn. 157) and 1337 (fn. 158) respectively, that of John Nervett and his successors the Philpotts in 1327, (fn. 159) 1485, (fn. 160) 1503 (fn. 161) and 1531, (fn. 162) and that of John Bole and his successors from 1486 (fn. 163) to 1596. (fn. 164) The last-mentioned record of the chapel shows that it survived the confiscation of such foundations in 1547–8. The dedication was to the honour of St. Mary Magdalene. (fn. 165)