A History of the County of Huntingdon: Volume 2. Originally published by Victoria County History, London, 1932.
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The parish of Broughton lies on the Oxford Clay and is watered by a stream running from Kings Ripton north-eastward to Wistow. The northern part of the parish, which is only 50 ft. above ordnance datum, is liable to floods, but the land rises towards the south near Hungry Farm to 131 ft. The total area is 2,372 acres, of which about three-quarters are arable land producing wheat, barley and beans, and one quarter permanent grass. There is no woodland.
The picturesque little village lies about 55 ft. above ordnance datum in the valley formed by the stream which runs through the parish and is here crossed by a bridge called Bull Bridge. It stands about a mile from the road from St. Ives to Warboys and about an equal distance from the less important road from Huntingdon to Wistow. The cottages, mostly timber framed with thatched or tiled roofs, are built round the church. To the west of the church is the rectory, originally built about 1600, probably by Sir Oliver Cromwell, the patron of the living, but added to at later dates. It is a timber framed house of two stories with attics, and a tiled roof. The chimney stack of the main block bears the date 176. On the west side of the road leading south from the church is a typical late 17th-century brick house with tiled roofs having Dutch gables and large central chimney stack. The entrance front has a porch which is carried up to the second story and has a hipped roof. The Manor Farm in Bull Lane is a modern building and is now the residence of Mr. Harry Mann. Adjoining it is a 17th-century barn of five bays. At the east side of the village is White Hall Farm, a brick house, in the porch of which are the initials and date R.P. 1647. Here at the end of the 19th century lived Mr. James How, a breeder of specially pure bred shorthorns. To the south-east of this farm is a 16th-century timber framed house with thatched roof, now ruinous.
Adjoining the stream to the north-east of the village is a moated inclosure, called The Moat, in which are remains of the foundations of the Hall where the Courts of the Barony of Broughton were held. We know nothing of the hall except that in the time of the anarchy of Stephen's reign, Daniel, the evildisposed monk of Ramsey, built a tower here with many hiding places. (fn. 1) The manor with the hall was frequently in lease, the lessee having to bear all the costs of the abbot's steward with six or seven men and their horses attending once a year to hold the court leet, when he was not to demand any compensation for trespass in his corn or grass by the suitors coming to the court. The abbot, on the other hand, maintained all the buildings within the moat, but the lessee was to provide board for the carpenters and labourers. (fn. 2)
BARONY OF BROUGHTON
Broughton was the head of the barony or honour of the abbots of Ramsey. There had been an important court of the sokemen of Broughton going back to the reign of Edward the Confessor or earlier. It is specially noted in the Domesday Survey that the sokemen claimed fines for 'leyrwite' or incontinence and for 'bloodwite' or bloodshed; they also claimed the scarce privilege of latrocinium or right to have forfeitures for larceny up to 4d., above which the forfeitures went to the abbot. (fn. 3) The exercise of these liberties must have necessitated a court, but that this court was the origin of the Norman court of the Barony, which was of much wider jurisdiction, is perhaps unlikely. The obligation of the suitors of the court of the Barony to attend the court when judgment was to be given on a thief by inquiry (efforciamentum) of this court, may, however, suggest some survival of the privilege of latrocinium. A like obligation to attend when the king's writ was to be heard might possibly be connected with the right to 'bloodwite,' (fn. 4) but more probably it concerned the service due in the king's army. The court of the Barony can be traced back to the early part of the 12th century or before, as Baldwin de Stowe claimed to be quit of suit by charter of Abbot Reinald (1114–30) made to his predecessor. (fn. 5) Later in the same century (1161–77) Robert Foliot was granted a charter in a full court at Broughton in consideration of the counsel he gave to the brethren and barons of Ramsey. (fn. 6)
The general courts of the Barony were held every three weeks and the two great courts (magnae curiae) were held after Easter and Michaelmas before the abbot or his steward. In the early part of the 13th century there were about 114 suitors (fn. 7) composed of knights and larger freeholders who were summoned to attend by the 'ridemen.' The majority of these suitors owed suit at both the three-weekly courts and the great courts, but the barons or knights who performed military service were only bound to attend the two great courts unless the king's writ of summons for military service was received, or when judgment was given on a thief. (fn. 8) Besides being a court for hearing the pleas and presentments usual to a court leet and cases reserved from manorial courts, and also the payment of homage, fealty and relief, the court of the Barony was an assembly for the consideration of the affairs of a tenurial group. (fn. 9) At it the four knights that the abbot had to provide for forty days' service in the king's army, were elected from among the knights of the Barony who held a hide of land or over, by all the knights and freeholders owing suit. The court also assessed the cost of such service which was levied upon the whole body of knights and freeholders of the Barony according to the custom of the Barony. (fn. 10) In 1258, each of the four knights received 4s. a day, the hidage for which was assessed at 2s. on every hide. Permission was given to serve by deputy or by an equivalent service, two sergeants or esquires being apparently taken to equal a knight. (fn. 11) At the court of this Barony, provision was also made for the carriage of the arms and armour of the knights while on military service, for which Thomas Pyel of Isham (co. Northants) had to find horses and a sack. (fn. 12) The military service was burdensome and the cause of constant dispute. For service in Wales in 1245. John de Harpefeude denied his liability and the abbot was obliged to send two sergeants in his place. Again, for the like service in 1257 four knights were elected, and although distrained to do the service, the abbot had eventually to send four other knights at his own expense. (fn. 13) The distraint which the abbot was able to impose was insufficient to compel the knights to give their service, and early in the 14th century, if not before, the court began to decay.
The lands whose holders owed suit at the court of the Barony were scattered over the vast estates of the abbey. According to a list of about 1300 (fn. 14) they lay at Abbots Ripton, Broughton, Ellington, Elton, Gidding, Hemingford, Holywell and Need, ingworth, Houghton, Little Raveley, Sawtrey, StoweLittle Stukeley, Warboys, Old Weston, Wistow, Woodhurst and Old Hurst, and Yelling in Huntingdonshire; Burwell, Elsworth, Graveley, Girton, Knapwell and Over in Cambridgeshire; Barford, Barton, Cranfield and Shillington in Bedfordshire; Lawshall in Suffolk; Therfield in Hertfordshire; Whiston in Northamptonshire; and Cranwell in Lincolnshire. (fn. 15)
King Edward the Martyr (975–979) gave the Abbey of Ramsey two hides in BROUGHTON (fn. 16) and Aednoth, a Ramsey monk, obtained for his abbey another hide there from Aethelwold, Bishop of Winchester. (fn. 17) Aethelred the Unready, who succeeded his brother, the martyr, in 979, granted the abbey 9 hides in Broughton, (fn. 18) while Aetheric, Bishop of Dorchester, who was buried at Ramsey in 1034, also gave three hides. (fn. 19) These gifts were confirmed by Edward the Confessor, who further bestowed all his land there with sac and soc. (fn. 20) On 29 December, 1077, William the Conqueror confirmed to the abbey 3 hides in Broughton. (fn. 21)
In 1086 we learn from the Domesday Survey that the abbot had 4 hides in Broughton which paid geld. There were in the time of King Edward 5 hides of sokemen's land which paid geld, but the land and the soke had been given to Abbot Ailwin (fn. 22) for services rendered to Edward the Confessor while he was in exile in Saxony. The sokemen claimed the privileges already referred to. At the time of the Survey there were a priest and a church and a mill, 10 acres of meadow, and wood for pannage 3 furlongs long and 2 in breadth. In the time of King Edward the manor had been worth £9, and was then worth £10. Eustace, the Sheriff claimed 5 hides; (fn. 23) the abbot paid geld for a hide. (fn. 24)
An extent of Broughton of the 12th century shows that the abbot held 9 hides, each of 6½ virgates, which he held in the time of Henry I; that 2 hides were in the court; and that Richard Foliot (Fluilet) had a free hide, (fn. 25) probably the abbot's hide already mentioned.
An inquisition of 1252 (fn. 26) states that there belonged to the manor a wood called Broughton Wood, with rights of common shared with Raveley. Rights of common were also exercised in the marshes of Ramsey, Warboys and Wistow. There seems to have been 22 freeholders and 56 customary tenants, some of whom owed service with horse and carriage for conveying the lord to London, Shillington in Bedfordshire, or 'elsewhere in such remote parts.' There was a windmill at which all the villeins of Broughton, Warboys, Caldecote, Woodhurst and Old Hurst owed suit.
In 1279 the Abbot of Ramsey held in demesne 4 carucates of land and 5 acres of meadow within the manor, 4 acres in the meadows of St. Ives, and 4 acres in the meadows of Houghton, belonging to his manor of Broughton; the manor with its garden contained 5 acres, and there was a windmill. (fn. 27)
In 1539 the Abbot of Ramsey surrendered his monastery and possessions, including Broughton, which was granted with the site of the abbey to Richard Williams, alias Cromwell, (fn. 28) and was leased by him and his descendants. (fn. 29) From this date the manor followed the descent of Ramsey (q.v.) until the middle of the 17th century, when the estate of Sir Oliver Williams, alias Cromwell, having become hopelessly involved, William Hetley, of Brampton, Sir Oliver Williams, alias Cromwell, of Ramsey, Henry Cromwell, of Ramsey, the elder son and heir apparent of Sir Oliver, and Henry, son and heir apparent of Henry Williams, alias Cromwell, and James Ravenscroft, of Alconbury Weston, by deed dated 17 July, 1651, conveyed to Sir Robert Barkham, of Waynfleet (co. Lincoln), and Anne Huxley, of Edmonton (co. Middlesex), spinster, the manor of Broughton with the capital messuage and the messuage or farm called Horley Farm, in the occupation of John Desborowe, for the sum of £4,650, paid by James Huxley, of London. (fn. 30) Possibly this was only a mortgage, as the name of Sir Henry Cromwell appears on the headings of the Courts held for the manor down to 1666. (fn. 31) The manor, however, seems to have passed to James Huxley, perhaps by foreclosure, for in 1678 his daughter and co-heir Jane, the wife of Sir Nicholas Pelham, and Elizabeth, the wife of Robert Cresset, of Upton Cresset, conveyed the manor to Robert Jenkinson, bart., of Walcote, in Oxon. (fn. 32) Sir Robert died in 1709–10, and apparently left the manor to his younger son, Banks Robert Jenkinson, who held a court at this time. He succeeded to the title on the death of his elder brother in 1717, but before his death in 1738 he had parted with the manor to John, tenth Lord St. John of Bletsoe, who, with Elizabeth, his wife, held a court in February, 1736–7. Lord St. John died in 1757, and his widow, Elizabeth, held the manor. At her death in 1769 it passed to her two unmarried daughters, Elizabeth and Lettice, and after the death of the former in 1780 it was held by Lettice alone. At her death in 1791 it went to her nephew, Henry St. John, son of Capt. the Hon. Henry St. John, (fn. 33) who dealt with the manor in that year, (fn. 34) and in 1800, with Katherine, his wife, conveyed it to Sir Henry Dalrymple and John Thomas Batt, (fn. 35) probably on behalf of Charles Pinfold, of Walton Hall (co. Bucks), who held a court at the house of Joseph Scratton, being the manor house, on 4 November in that year, and with Charles John Pinfold settled the manor in 1827. (fn. 36) Charles Pinfold died in 1857, and his granddaughter, Fanny Maria Pinfold, inherited his property. She died in 1902 and left the manor to Miss Seagrave, a relation on her mother's side, (fn. 37) who in 1903 sold Broughton to Mr. George Frederick Beaumont, on whose death on 1 June, 1928, the manor passed to his widow, Mrs. Amy Beaumont, and his two sons, Horace Frederick and John Lionel, the present owners.
The manor of HORLEYS can perhaps be traced to the hide separately assessed at the time of the Domesday Survey, and referred to later as the Foliot hide. (fn. 38) Henry I desired Abbot Reinald (1114–30) to acknowledge the right of Roger Foliot to this hide. (fn. 39) Robert Foliot, counsellor to the abbey, apparently owed suit at the court of Broughton. (fn. 40) Robert, Abbot of Ramsey (1180–1200), confirmed a grant of Walter Foliot to Henry his brother of all his lands in Broughton, (fn. 41) and Henry conveyed his land at Wylyhide (Wilehide, Wyllehida), in Broughton, to his nephew Richard, son and heir of Walter. (fn. 42) Richard granted this land to the almoner of Ramsey Abbey. (fn. 43) Henry Foliot retained a rent in Wylyhide which in the middle of the 13th century he conveyed to William de Clunches. (fn. 44) The land upon which the rent was charged was held in 1252 by Ralph de Broughton, Philip de Clervaux, and others. (fn. 45) Ralph de Broughton held other lands of the abbot in Broughton. John, son of Ralph de Broughton, was holding lands in Broughton in 1279, and William, son of Ralph de Broughton, a little later. (fn. 46) In 1382 Isabella, late the daughter of William de Broughton, released to Robert de Tychmershe and Margaret his wife, sister of the said Isabella, lands which were her father's in tail. (fn. 47) In 1454, apparently another Isabella, then widow of Ambrose Germyn, released to John Horley (Hurle), clerk, Henry Torkington, and Sir Edward Ingoldesthorp, kt., the lands called Titmershes, in Broughton, (fn. 48) and in 1457, John Horley (Hurlegh), clerk, and Henry Torkington, granted to Walter Grete and others all the lands which they held in Broughton, Wistow, and Ramsey, on condition of a yearly payment of 40 marks at the Swan Inn, in Huntingdon, till 200 marks were paid. (fn. 49) In 1483 Margaret Grete, widow, John Grete, William Grete, Richard and Thomas Pulter and others released a messuage, etc., in Broughton to Laurence Merton, and in 1523 Joan Rowley, widow of William Grete, of Broughton, (fn. 50) made a settlement of all her lands and tenements in Broughton on herself and her heirs. (fn. 51) John Grete, of Broughton, in 1535 mortgaged to John Lawrence, of Ramsey (the lessee of the site of the manor in that year), all his manors in Broughton for £46, upon condition of repayment with expenses within sixteen years, (fn. 52) and in the following year the manor of Horleys, in Broughton, was conveyed by John Grete, of Woodwalton, and Thomasina his wife, to George Robinson, citizen and mercer of London, who in 1541 conveyed to William Lawrence, of St. Ives, 'all that manor called Horles, late Grekes.' (fn. 53)
William Lawrence and Margery his wife conveyed the manor of Horleys to Sir Henry Williams, alias Cromwell, in 1570, (fn. 54) and later in the same year it was granted by Sir Henry to trustees for his wife, Dame Joan, in place of the manor of Woodwalton, part of her jointure which he had sold. (fn. 55) After this date, it followed the descent of the chief manor of Broughton.
The Church of ALL SAINTS is built of rubble with Barnack stone dressings, and consists of a chancel (34 ft. by 17 ft.), a north vestry (10 ft. by 7 ft.), nave (53¼ ft. by 20 ft.), north aisle (9½ ft.), south aisle (9½ ft.), west tower (11 ft. square), all internal measurements. There is now nothing remaining of the church which existed here in the time of the Domesday Survey (1086). A 12th-century church, of which there alone remains the plinth below the chancel arch and a small portion of the wall on either side, consisted probably of a chancel and nave only. It is possible that a claim to the church which was relinquished by Osbern de Broughton, between 1120 and 1130, was due to his having rebuilt the church or at all events the chancel while he was the Abbot of Ramsey's tenant of Broughton. (fn. 56) There was a scheme for rebuilding the church in the 13th century. In 1252 it was stated that the altar had been moved and had not since been dedicated. The moving of the altar may indicate a rebuilding of the chancel at this time, although the architecture possibly suggests a slightly later date. The work of rebuilding which took place in the latter half of the 13th century and the early part of the 14th century was gradually continued from the chancel to the nave, aisles and tower, and to the south porch. Early in the 16th century there was a further scheme for reconstruction of the church. The tower and north aisle were rebuilt, the clearstory added and new windows were inserted in the south aisle; contributions towards this work are recorded in a will of 1528, (fn. 57) when we may presume it was in progress. In 1845 the north vestry was added and the chancel roof was renewed. The nave was restored and reseated in 1888–9.
The east window of the chancel, of three lights in the 14th-century style, is modern. The communion table is modern, but the 18th-century table now in the south aisle was probably formerly in the chancel, being contemporary with the turned communion rails. On the south side of the communion table is a fine double piscina of the 13th century which has a trefoiled head and moulded jambs. There is an early 17th-century chair, repaired, within the sanctuary. The windows on the north side are of the 13th century, both of two lights, but the smaller window to the west has been much restored. The doorway to the modern vestry between these windows appears to incorporate some old stones. On the south side, the easternmost window corresponds to that on the north, but the western window, somewhat restored, is of early 14th-century date and is of two trefoiled ogee lights with a quatrefoil in a two-centred head. The doorway on the south side is of the 13th century and has a two centred head, the rear arch of which is painted with a masonry pattern in red, and imitation marble of contemporary date. The chancel arch is of the late 13th century, of three orders, the inner of which springs from attached shafts and the two outer die into the responds. The shafts stand on a wall which may be a part of the plinth of a 12th-century arch.
The nave arcades of four bays belong to the rebuilding of the early part of the 14th century. They consist of two-centred arches of two chamfered orders springing from octagonal columns with moulded capitals and bases. The clearstory has three windows on either side, each window being of three cinquefoiled lights in a four-centred head. Over the chancel arch is a 15th-century painting of the Doom. In this the central figure of Christ has been lost, but indications survive of the usual surrounding angels, one with a trumpet. On the north side of the central figure are shown the nude figures of the Elect kneeling and some wearing a crown denoting a king or queen, a mitre for a bishop and a cardinal's hat for a cardinal. They are facing the gates of heaven, which are guarded by St. Peter wearing a mitre and holding a crozier or perhaps the key of heaven, and attended by an angel. Under this is seen the resurrection of the dead from their graves. On the south side of the central figure are shown the damned being driven into the jaws of hell by angels with drawn swords and underneath demons driving them further into hell. The lower painting, which extends on to the south wall, represents hell and shows in four compartments the souls of the damned in the flames of hell tortured by demons. Forming a part of this scheme of painting, and over the extension of the picture of hell on the south wall, are paintings of the expulsion of Adam and Eve from the Garden of Eden and of Adam delving and Eve spinning. The paintings, although now faded and indistinct, form an interesting example of mural decoration of the latter part of the 15th century. Further west on the south wall and on the west wall are the remains of 17th-century black letter inscriptions. On the north side of the chancel arch is the figure of St. George carved in wood as a memorial to those who fell in the Great War of 1914–1918. Many of the oak bench ends and some of the seating are of the middle of the 16th century and have been carefully restored and renewed. The flat roof, much restored, is probably of the late 14th century, and has some interesting carvings. The eastern wall posts show the carved figures of St. Andrew on the north and another apostle with a book, possibly St. John, on the south. On the soffits of the intermediate tie beams are carved figures of angels holding respectively a scroll, an organ and a dulcimer on the north side and similar figures holding a harp, a book and a lute on the south side. On the south side there is also a portion of a dentilled cornice of the 17th century.
The north aisle with its east and three north windows is a part of the rebuilding of the early part of the 16th century. Each of the windows is of three cinquefoiled lights in a four-centred head. The north doorway, which has probably been reset, is of the 14th century; it has a two-centred head and attached shafts. On the wall west of the doorway are faint indications of an inscription. The rood loft which once crossed the chancel arch seems to have been erected at the end of the 15th century. The doorway to the stairs to the loft, at the south-east angle of the north aisle, is of this date, and in 1491 R. Pulter of Broughton left 20s. towards painting the rood loft (fn. 58) by which date it had doubtless been built.
The south aisle belongs to the early 14th-century rebuilding, but the east window and three south windows were inserted in the early 16th century to correspond with those in the north aisle. In the east window in the south wall is a piece of glass contemporary with the window showing a roundel with a crowned I H S. There is a piscina in the south-east corner of the aisle to serve the altar here. The south doorway is of the 14th century with a two-centred head and attached shafts. The south porch is of the same date as the doorway and has an outer archway with a two-centred head of two chamfered orders and a window on each side of two trefoiled ogee lights in a square head. On the walling east of the south doorway is the Lord's Prayer in a panel bearing the date 1632, which may be the date of the other wall inscriptions in the church.
The west tower, which is of three stages, was practically rebuilt in the early part of the 16th century. It is surmounted by a broach spire which seems to have been reconstructed when the tower was rebuilt with the material of the 14th-century spire, as it is in the style of that period. The spire has two series of windows set in gables, the lower of two trefoiled lights with tracery and the upper of single trefoiled lights. The west window is of three cinquefoiled lights with Perpendicular tracery in a four-centred head. The next stage has one single-light window with a square head on the south side and the bell chamber has a window of two lights under a four-centred head in each wall. The stair turret on the north side has a doorway with a four-centred head and chamfered jambs.
The monuments in the church are as follows: On the north wall of the chancel to Alan Brooke Johnston of the Egyptian Police, d. 3 Mar. 1897, erected by his friends at Cambridge University; to Rev. Robert Hodgson, d. 30 Dec. 1774. In the nave a broken brass to Lawrence Martun or Merton, d. 1509, and Agnes his wife, the upper part only of the figure of the man in civil dress, emblem of St. Luke and shield with rebus of a tun under the letters L.M. The slab shows indents for marginal inscriptions, the emblems of the other evangelists at corners, figure of woman with shield over man. There are also indents for figures of a priest and civilian under crocketed canopies of about mid 15th century and for muchworn figures of a civilian and his wife with inscription plate. On the wall of the north aisle a brass tablet to George Allpress, d. 7 April 1907, and on west wall of south aisle a marble tablet to Mrs. Martha Holdwick, wife of Edward Holdwick, for many years apothecary to His Majesty's household, d. 25 Nov. 1797.
There are four bells, the first bearing the inscription 'Omnia fiant ad gloriam Dei 1624'; the second by T. Norris with the inscription 'Non clamor sed amor cantat in aure Dei 1616'; the third 'I H S Nazarenus rex Judæorum filius Dei miserere mei Tho: Embery John Cox C. W. 1748'; and fourth 'Thomas Norris made me 1661 I. Biggs. H. Wells.'
The registers are as follows: (i) Baptisms, marriages and burials, 24 Jan. 1572 to 18 Mar. 1721–2; (ii) ditto, 27 Mar. 1722 to 13 Dec. 1812; marriages to 17 Dec. 1754; (iii) the official marriage book, 17 Dec. 1754 to 26 May 1812.
A church was returned with the manor in the Domesday Survey. Between 1120 and 1130 the church was the subject of a claim by Osbern de Broughton (probably the abbot's lessee of the manor), who then in full chapter surrendered to the abbey of Ramsey whatever he had possessed in Broughton either in land or in the church and at the same time surrendered to the archdeacon the cure of souls belonging to the church. (fn. 59)
In 1252 the advowson belonged to the abbey; and further it was returned that the church had been built in honour of All Saints and dedicated of old, but that the altar had been moved, and so remained still to be dedicated; in spite of this, however, the parishioners made their offering on the dedication day, of which the cellarer of Ramsey received one mark yearly in pension. There was a messuage in which the parson lived, and an acre of land in two places; the parson received tithes from the abbot's demesne, and found two men for the first boon-day in autumn on account of this messuage; he had no right of common with the abbot, but if he had animals he had right of common with the village. (fn. 60)
The advowson was held by Ramsey Abbey until the Dissolution, when it was granted with the manor to Richard Williams alias Cromwell. (fn. 61) It appears to have been leased by Henry Cromwell to John Phillips, who presented in 1556. (fn. 62) Sir Oliver Cromwell presented in 1601, and the advowson was mortgaged by him with the manor to Thomas Ravenscroft in 1619. In 1668 Robert and John Christmas, probably lessees, presented and in 1680 Robert Hobson and John Christmas junior. After this date the advowson became severed from the manor and was held by the Whitebreads of Carrington, Stephen and Henry Whitebread presenting in 1697 and Henry Whitebread in 1713. In 1775 Richard Oakley presented himself. It was later acquired by the Pointers and Henry Pointer Standley presented for his turn in 1784. The Rev. Robert Pointer was holding in 1784 and James Pointer of Bucklersbury for his turn in 1797 presented the Rev. Thomas Johnson, who obtained the advowson and presented in 1838 and his executors in 1886. (fn. 63) From 1900 it was held by Sir Thomas Beecham, who conveyed it to his wife, and in 1922 Lady Beecham gave it to Mrs. M. M. Murray. In 1929 Mrs. Murray conveyed it to the Bishop of Ely. (fn. 64)
In 1279 the parson held one acre of land in free alms belonging to the church and 4 acres of (?) Foliot land. (fn. 65) At the Inclosure Act passed for the parish in 1794, the Rev. Robert Pointer was seised of the perpetual advowson of the rectory and was also rector and entitled to all rectorial and small tithes. Provision was made in the Act for exchange to be made of the rectory house. The house belonging to the late Hon. Lettice St. John was suggested for the purpose and lands to be allotted to the rector were to be given in exchange for the house. (fn. 66)