The parish and township of Aughton: Manors

Pages 292-304

A History of the County of Lancaster: Volume 3. Originally published by Victoria County History, London, 1907.

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Before the Conquest Aughton contained two manors—Aughton in the south and Litherland in the north. Uctred, in 1066, held Achetun, and Uctred, perhaps the same person, held Litherland; in each case the assessment was a plough-land and the value 32d. (fn. 1)

After the Conquest LITHERLAND seems to have been included in the royal demesne or held in thegnage at a rent or service of 10s. a year. (fn. 2) About the middle of the twelfth century it was granted to Warin de Lancaster, chief forester, by the serjeanty of keeping the lord's falcons. (fn. 3) The thegnage tenant would hold it of him. The mesne lordship did not endure very long, for though King John, while count of Mortain and afterwards as king, confirmed Uplitherland to Warin's descendant, Henry de Lea, in 1207 he exchanged this manor and Liverpool for that of English Lea in Amounderness. (fn. 4) From this time the thegnage tenant again held directly of the lords of the honour of Lancaster.

The first of these tenants whose name is known was Richard le Waleys, who also held a third of the manor of Aughton. In 1212 it was found that he was holding a ploughland in Litherland for 10s. He died in 1221, and his son and heir Richard agreed to pay 40s. —four times the annual rent—as his relief, and was placed in possession. (fn. 5) He had also four oxgangs of land in Whittle and a quarter of Dalton. (fn. 6) His father's widow Quenilda was 'of the King's donation, and her land was worth half a mark.' (fn. 7) In 1235 he was one of the patrons of the rectory of Aughton, (fn. 8) and was still living ten years later when he was defendant in a suit brought by Henry de Standish. (fn. 9)

After the death of Richard, a Robert le Waleys appears to have been the principal member of the family; (fn. 10) possibly he was a brother and held some part of the manor, acting as guardian to John le Waleys of Litherland, the son and heir of Richard, who lived on till the beginning of the next century, and was after his death said to have been a 'centenarian.' (fn. 11) John held Uplitherland in 1297, paying the old rent of 10s. (fn. 12) Before 1303, however, he had been succeeded by his son Richard. (fn. 13)

Richard married Maud, daughter of Robert de Bold of Bold, and was still holding the manor by the old service in 1323–4; (fn. 14) in 1329, however, Maud was a widow. (fn. 15)

Richard Walsh succeeded. (fn. 16) His name occurs as witness to deeds down to 1361. He left two daughters—Maud, who married Roger son of Richard de Bradshagh of Pennington, (fn. 17) and Eleanor, who married Thomas de Formby. Roger de Bradshagh's name appears among the attesting witnesses of charters from 1371 onwards. (fn. 18)

There is some uncertainty as to the exact succession at this point. Richard may have left a son, (fn. 19) but if so he died without issue before 1372, when Eleanor had brought to her husband a moiety of the estates, which was settled upon them by fine in that year; she had the third part of Aughton, the fourth of Dalton, and a moiety of the advowson, so that to her sister Uplitherland was left. (fn. 20) This sister and her husband Roger de Bradshagh were in possession of the whole in 1381, when they enfeoffed Richard de Sutton and Henry de Bradshagh. (fn. 21)

Richard, the son and heir, must have been over thirty years of age when his widowed mother in 1418 covenanted with Sir Henry de Scarisbrick that he should marry Isabel, daughter of Sir Henry; she agreed to surrender to Richard and Isabel all her manor of Uplitherland, the windmill alone being reserved. (fn. 22) Richard's son and heir was Thomas, whose name occurs in a deed of 1457–8. In 1472 Thomas agreed that his son Richard should marry Alice, daughter of Joan the wife of William Mainwaring. (fn. 23) Thomas was succeeded by his grandson James, the son of Richard and Alice.

James Bradshagh died 28 November, 1527, his son and heir William being then fourteen years of age. The service of 10s. is duly recorded in the inquisition, which gives the value of the manor as 20 marks clear. (fn. 24) As soon as he came of age William Bradshagh (fn. 25) began to dissipate his inheritance. In 1535–6 he demised Aughton Meadow to Brian Moorcroft, clerk, who transferred it to Peter Stanley of Bickerstaffe. Eight years later he sold other lands to the same Peter Stanley. (fn. 26) In 1551 he sold the manor of Uplitherland, the third part of Aughton, and all the demesne lands not previously disposed of, to James Scarisbrick of Scarisbrick; and this was confirmed by fine in the following year. (fn. 27) In 1599 William Bradshagh of London exhibited a bill of complaint in the duchy chamber, apparently with a view to testing the validity of his ancestor's alienations. The answer of the defendants reviewed their title and disposed of any doubt as to its soundness. It appears from the complaint that the William Bradshaw who sold Uplitherland died about 1565, leaving two sons—Edward who died about 1587, and William who died a little later, leaving a son, the petitioner. (fn. 28)

Bradshagh. Argent, three mullets between two bendlets sable.

James Scarisbrick held Uplitherland for less than ten years, selling it to Gabriel son of Bartholomew Hesketh, who had already an estate in the parish. (fn. 29) In 1561 George and Gabriel Hesketh mortgaged the manor to Edward Halsall for £500, recovering part of the land two years later, (fn. 30) the manor being restored to Gabriel's son and heir Bartholomew in 1573. Gabriel Hesketh died 21 November, 1573, (fn. 31) and his holding is described in the subsequent inquisition as four messuages, land, &c. held of Henry Starkie of Aughton, by a rent of 3s. 2d.; other land in Aughton held of James Scarisbrick by a rent of 6s. 2d.; lands, &c. in Uplitherland held of the queen in socage by a rent of 4s. 3d. Bartholomew Hesketh was his son and heir, and twenty-nine years of age. (fn. 32)

Hesketh of Aughton. Argent, on a bend sable cotised gules three garbs or.

Soon after his father's death Bartholomew Hesketh was involved in disputes with his stepmother Elizabeth (fn. 33) and halfsisters. (fn. 34) Much more serious trouble fell upon the family through their adherence to the Roman Catholic religion. Among those who attended the ministrations of a Cistercian monk (Dominic Halsall) at North Meols Hall in 1577 were Mr. Bartholomew Hesketh of Aughton and his second wife Margaret, (fn. 35) daughter of a noteworthy victim of the persecution—Sir John Southworth. Mrs. Hesketh was at this time returned by the bishop of Chester as 'a busy recusant.' She acted so undisguisedly that in 1584 Walsingham wrote to the bishop of Chester touching her 'bad disposition,' and 'how she did much hurt in being at liberty to go (as she used to do) where she would among recusants and like persons.' (fn. 36) She was accordingly arrested at Meols Hall and confined in the New Fleet in Salford. The husband, though returned in 1590 as 'in some degree of conformity,' (fn. 37) was reported about the same time for having 'kept for sundry years now together one Gabriel Shaw to be his schoolmaster, which Shaw is most malicious against truehearted subjects.' (fn. 38)

Bartholomew Hesketh died in February, 1600, and was succeeded by his son Gabriel, (fn. 39) who died, outlawed, about the end of 1615. His widow Jane renounced executorship of his will on 8 December, and at an inquiry made in the following March an account was taken of his goods, which were seized to the king's use. (fn. 40) Gabriel's son Bartholomew was his heir, being about fifteen years of age. (fn. 41) In the civil war Bartholomew Hesketh (fn. 42) escaped any penalties until, upon some charge of 'delinquency,' his estate was seized at the beginning of 1652. (fn. 43)

Gabriel Hesketh, who succeeded to the manor and other estates of his father about 1672, quickly fell into financial difficulties. He mortgaged or sold his estate to his younger brother Alexander, who seems to have taken up his residence at Aughton and kept the place in repair. (fn. 44) In 1682 Gabriel demanded the estate from his brother, offering £200, on the allegation that he had merely mortgaged it, and had a right to redeem it; but Alexander contended that the bargain was absolute, and retained the whole. (fn. 45) He does not seem to have prospered. (fn. 46) In 1718 he and his son Thomas joined in the sale of the hall and demesne of Aughton and all other their lands in Uplitherland and Aughton to John Plumbe of Waver tree; and the latter having in 1724 obtained a decree in the Court of Chancery confirming the same, Thomas Hesketh surrendered possession. (fn. 47)

Of the ancestry of John Plumbe, the purchaser of the manor, nothing has been ascertained. He was an attorney in Liverpool. (fn. 48) He must have been born about 1670, and is stated to have married Sarah Marsh, niece and co-heir of James Vernon of Liverpool. (fn. 49) His eldest son William died before his father, who survived until 1763, (fn. 50) and left a son Thomas, who succeeded his grandfather at Aughton. Thomas Plumbe (fn. 51) married Elizabeth, eldest daughter and heir of John Tempest of Tong near Bradford, and his son John in 1824 assumed the name and arms of Tempest. (fn. 52) John Plumbe Tempest dying on 6 April, 1859, was succeeded by his son Thomas Richard, who on his death in 1881 was followed by his nephew Robert Ricketts, son of his sister Henrietta by her husband Sir Cornwallis Ricketts, baronet. Sir Robert succeeded to the baronetcy in 1885, having in the previous year assumed the name and arms of Tempest in lieu of his own, and died at Torquay on 4 February, 1901. His son and successor, Sir Tristram Tempest Tempest, baronet, of Tong Hall and Aughton, was born 10 January, 1865.

Plumbe. Ermine, a bend vair cotised sable; on a canton argent a rose gules.

Tempest of Tong. Argent, a bend between six martlets sable.

The old hall of Uplitherland (now a farmhouse) was rebuilt in stone about 1686.

Litherland was used as a surname. In 1246 Edith de Litherland complained that Yarwerth de Litherland had taken her cow; but he proved that she was his 'native' and that he seized the cow in lieu of her service. She was poor and had been abetted in the matter by Richard le Waleys and Henry de Standish. (fn. 53)


AUGHTON proper is supposed to have been granted to Thurstan Banastre about the middle of the twelfth century, and to have been carried by Margery his daughter to Richard son of Roger de Lytham, who died in or about 1201, leaving five daughters his co-heirs. One of these was Quenilda, wife of Roger Gernet the Forester, (fn. 54) and after her death in 1252 it was found that she had held one plough-land in Aughton in chief of William de Ferrers, earl of Derby, by knight's service; but that she received nothing from it except wardship and relief. Her next heirs were Robert de Stockport and Sir Ralph de Beetham, as representing her sisters. (fn. 55) The superior lordship descended to their heirs, and in 1327 twothirds was held by Robert de Beetham and the other third by Nicholas de Eaton, in right of his wife Joan de Stockport, in socage by homage and fealty. (fn. 56) The Beetham share, in this as in other cases, came before the sixteenth century into the hands of the earls of Derby. The Stockport share disappears; perhaps it was united with the other.

In the meantime, however, the manor had been divided among two or three subordinate holders. It is supposed, from their names, that they were descendants of the Welshmen who settled in Lancashire in 1177, when Robert Banastre was expelled from Rhuddlan by Owen Gwynedd, and that Aughton being a Banastre manor, lands were granted to them there. Early in the thirteenth century the three mesne lords seem to have been Richard le Waleys (or, the Welshman), who had a third of the manor; Madoc de Aughton and Bleddyn de Aughton. These three were defendants in a suit touching the advowson of the church in 1235. (fn. 57)

1. Richard le Waleys settled at Uplitherland, and the descent of his portion of Aughton has been traced in the account of that manor. Though the matter is not quite clear, the Waleys third seems to have descended or to have been sold with Uplitherland, and is thus held by Sir Tristram Tempest Templest. (fn. 58)

2. The share of Madoc de Aughton, ancestor of the Aughton family, is harder to trace. He granted to Einion de Aughton the mill by the pool of Aughton and the land of Haylandhurst in exchange for the overflow of the mill waters. (fn. 59) Madoc his son gave to William son of Jugge land adjoining Cokemonhurst. (fn. 60) Walter son of Madoc succeeded in or before the time of Edward II. (fn. 61) Walter's heir was his son Thomas, (fn. 62) who in turn was succeeded by Nicholas de Aughton, probably his son or grandson, whose name occurs down to the middle of the reign of Henry IV. He was followed by his son and heir Roger. (fn. 63) Roger was succeeded by his son and heir John de Aughton, whose name occurs as late as 1468. John probably died without issue. The heir to this portion of the manor and the lands held with it was Nicholas Aughton, son of Nicholas Aughton and Cecily his wife; and the latter Nicholas was son of Thomas de Aughton, probably uncle or brother of the above-named Roger. Nicholas Aughton the son married Emma, and his son and heir John leaving two daughters, Alice and Margery, the estate was divided between them. Alice, though twice married—one of her husbands was named David Griffith (fn. 64) —died without issue in 1520; and thus the whole came into the possession of John Starkie, grandson of Margery, who had married a John Starkie, supposed to have been a younger son of the Stretton family. (fn. 65)

The will of John Starkie, son of Margery, has been preserved. It is dated in September, 1526, and was proved a year later. (fn. 66) In 1545 John Starkie, his son, conveyed to trustees his manor and estate in Aughton. (fn. 67) He died before 1569, when his son and heir Henry was in possession, and said to be 34 years of age. (fn. 68) By his will, made a few weeks before his death, Henry Starkie desired to be buried at Aughton church, 'in that place where his ancestors had been buried'; to John, his son and heir, he gave two long boards and forms in the hall as also a screen there, with the wish that these might remain as heirlooms in the house. (fn. 69) He died at Aughton on 6 March, 1593–4, and was succeeded in the manor of Aughton by his son John, then 39 years of age. The manor was said to be held of the queen by the fortieth part of a knight's fee; it and the lands were worth £20 clear. (fn. 70)

Starkie of Aughton. Argent, a stork sable membered gules, a mullet for difference.

John Starkie was almost immediately involved in disputes with his neighbour Lawrence Ireland of Lydiate. (fn. 71) Shortly before the death of John Starkie in 1626, his windmill and various lands, including the Furlongs and Broad Carr, (fn. 72) were the subject of family disputes. His son Henry, to whom he had refused to make any allowance for many years, put in a claim to them. The rector of Aughton expressed his belief that the 'unnaturalness' of the father to plaintiff and the persuasions of the stepmother and others would greatly endanger Henry's overthrow and be the ruin of that house. (fn. 73) Possibly this anticipation was justified, as the family seems to have declined in importance. For instance their manor was ignored in 1657, when it was awarded that Uplitherland was a particular district and a distinct manor, Bartholomew Hesketh being sole lord; and that Aughton was another distinct manor, Caryl Lord Molyneux, Lawrence Ireland, and Bartholomew Hesketh being the three lords of it; boundaries were then fixed by the referees. (fn. 74) In 1640 the lands of Richard Tatlock were said to be held of Lord Molyneux, Edward Ireland, Bartholomew Hesketh, and Edward Starkie 'as of their manor of Aughton.' (fn. 75)

Henry Starkie, the son, died in 1639. His will mentions his wife, Edward his son and heir, and other children. (fn. 76) Edward Starkie was one of the 'commanders and officers' in the siege of Lathom House, thus taking part with the Parliament. (fn. 77) He recorded a pedigree at the visitation of 1664, describing himself as forty-six years of age. (fn. 78)

Bostock. Sable, a fesse bumettle argent.

His younger son John seems to have succeeded to the manor shortly after the father's death, for early in 1682 he and Mary his wife by fine transferred to Roger Bostock the 'manor of Aughton,' various lands and a grain mill. (fn. 79) He died about a year later, administration of his goods being granted to his widow Mary on 12 May, 1683. (fn. 80) This appears to have been the end of his family's connexion with the place. In 1687 an agreement was signed by Lord Molyneux, Sir Charles Anderton, Alexander Hesketh, and Roger Bostock, lords of the manor and parish of Aughton, concerning the election of officers within the parish.

The hall afterwards became the property of the Stanleys of Hooton, owners of Moor Hall; on the sale of their estates in 1840 it was bought by — Gaskell of Wigan; in 1857 it was again sold, to Edgar Musgrove, and after his death to Thomas Seddon. (fn. 81)

3. Bleddyn de Aughton was succeeded by his son Madoc, who had three sons—Einion (sometimes surnamed Gam), Wido or Guy, and Madoc. Several charters of the elder Madoc have been preserved. (fn. 82) Einion son of Madoc was twice married. By his first wife he had two daughters, Margaret who married Henry de Litherland, and Nesta (or Nigella) who married Owen Seys; (fn. 83) by his second wife he had a son John (fn. 84) and a daughter Dionysia. (fn. 85)

About 1320 the next Henry de Litherland demised to Margaret his mother for life all his lands in Aughton, except his field of Stockbridge, with services, escheats, reliefs, &c., and the half of the wastes and waters. (fn. 86) Henry's wife was Joan, and probably his son was the Henry de Litherland who in 1361 gave a yearly rent of £20 from his lands in Aughton to William de Stanley and Agnes his wife, the widow of John de Lascelles. (fn. 87) Eight years later William de Stanley gave to Agnes de Beckington, (fn. 88) formerly wife of Henry de Litherland, lands in Wallasey, while Agnes gave to William lands she had in Storeton in Wirral. (fn. 89) Henry—apparently the same—was living in 1371, when a re-feoffment of his lands in Liscard was made to him; (fn. 90) and a little later a settlement of his Cheshire lands was made upon John his son, with remainders to his other children, Matthew and Katherine. (fn. 91)

The Litherland family continued to hold lands in Aughton down to the sixteenth century. In 1548 William Bradshaw, of Uplitherland, released to Peter Litherland his right in certain lands there; (fn. 92) but it would appear from what has been stated above that most, if not all, of the Litherland estate was, not long afterwards, sold to the Irelands of Lydiate, (fn. 93) who acquired portions of other estates also. (fn. 94)

The Ireland estate continued to descend with Lydiate, passing to the Andertons and Blundells in succession. At the exchange of lands in 1772 by Robert Blundell of Ince and his son Henry, the lands in Aughton, including Hollinhurst, were given to the earl of Sefton. (fn. 95)

The second of the sons of Madoc son of Bleddyn was Guy, who renounced England for Wales and was killed in or before September, 1282, while accompanying some Welshmen fighting against Edward I. He was, therefore, a rebel, and his lands were confiscated. (fn. 96)

The third son of Madoc son of Bleddyn, also named Madoc, seems to have had a son Baldwin, who had a son Madoc and a grandson Baldwin, (fn. 97) and this last a son John. There are various notices of this branch of the family, but it does not appear that any manorial rights were claimed through them or for them. (fn. 98)

The interest of the Molyneuxes of Sefton seems to have originated in the purchase, in 1479, by Thomas Molyneux of Richard Faldworthing's lands in Aughton and Lydiate. Sir William Molyneux in 1527 bought from John Lunt a tenement granted in 1340 to Robert de Lunt by Thomas de Aughton. Another small purchase of lands in Aughton and Melling (this including Tatlock's Mill) was made in 1542 from Katherine daughter and heir of John Tatlock. (fn. 99) Sir William Molyneux died in 1548, holding in Aughton a messuage and twenty acres of land, &c., of John Starkie by the rent of 8d. (fn. 100) The mill and lands of the abbot of Merivale seem to have been acquired at the same time as Altcar; and part of the Middlewood estate (but not Middlewood itself) which belonged to Henry Beconsaw, was resold in 1557 by Lawrence Ireland to Sir Richard Molyneux; and this included 'all courts and view of frankpledge.' (fn. 101) Thus in 1569 it was stated that Sir Richard had held 'the manor of Aughton,' but of whom the jurors did not know. (fn. 102) The same manor appears in the later inquisitions, and was in the eighteenth century described as 'a quarter or third of the manor.' In 1772 the family's holding here was increased by the exchange made with Henry Blundell of Ince; but all was sold in 1798 to James Gill. (fn. 103)

The lordship of the manor of Aughton therefore is a matter of doubt. In 1730 the two constables of the township were appointed by Lord Molyneux and John Plumbe as lords of the manor; but after the earl of Sefton sold his estates, the parishioners elected one, and his right in the matter lapsed. (fn. 104)

Molyneux of Hawkley held lands in Aughton and Uplitherland in the sixteenth century. (fn. 105) A considerable number of minor estates in Aughton deserve notice, the evidences being more abundant than for similar estates elsewhere, and the owners of more note.

The Walshes of WALSH HALL and Brookfield were a junior branch of the Uplitherland family. (fn. 106) Two early deeds relating to Stockbridge House have been given. Brookfield was partly held of Cockersand Abbey, partly by a grant from John le Waleys, and partly by others from the Aughton families. (fn. 107) Henry son of John le Waleys, and rector of Aughton, acquired various lands, particularly in Haylandhurst, (fn. 108) and transferred them to his brother Gilbert, who purchased others. (fn. 109) A settlement was made by Gilbert and Joan his wife, with remainders to sons John and Richard. (fn. 110) Nevertheless the lands seem to have descended to Henry, another son, who is frequently mentioned from 1356 to 1367, and himself made further acquisitions, including land called Greenhearth. (fn. 111) There is some obscurity in the descent from Henry le Waleys. In 1408 a claim was made by Joan the wife of William de Huddleston, as daughter and heir of Ralph de Freckleton, who was son of Emma, the daughter (and, as Joan asserted, the heir) of Henry, to the whole property. (fn. 112) Roger son of Henry held it, and is found attesting deeds in 1389 and 1405. (fn. 113) Joan Huddleston's suit led to a fine by which her right was acknowledged, upon which she granted the lands to Roger. (fn. 114)

Robert Walsh, son of Roger, in 1474 settled his estate on Gilbert his son, with remainders to younger sons Thomas, Edmund, and Henry. (fn. 115) Gilbert married about 1464, when Joan his wife is mentioned. (fn. 116) He was living in 1501, and holding lands in Aughton which his father had had in 1451 and 1461. (fn. 117) He was succeeded before 1506 by his son Robert, who in turn was succeeded between 1523 and 1529 by Gilbert Walsh. (fn. 118)

This Gilbert was succeeded by his sons Robert, who died in November, 1571, and Thomas, who survived till 1594. (fn. 119) The inquisition taken after Robert's death describes the estate as ten messuages, 100 acres of land, with meadow, &c. in Aughton, Ormskirk, and Eggergarth. In 1566 he had arranged the succession as to his heirs male by any other woman than Ellen Toxteth, then his wife; (fn. 120) in default, to his brother Thomas and his heirs male. The Brookfield was held of the queen, as of the late monastery of Cockersand, by a rent of 12d.; other lands in Aughton were held of Henry Starkie and Edward Scarisbrick. (fn. 121) Thomas Walsh made sales or settlements of part of his estate in 1578 and 1584; (fn. 122) and the lands in Aughton were in 1595 held of the queen, John Starkie, and Bartholomew Hesketh. Thomas's heir was his sister Anne Prescott, aged fifty years and more. (fn. 123) By the settlement, however, Thomas Walsh succeeded his father. He died in June, 1614, his heir being his son Robert, then twenty-eight years of age. (fn. 124)

The Walshes appear to have been conformists, but Thomas, the son of this Robert, took part against the Parliament, and in 1653 an exact survey of his lands was made by the commissioners appointed for the sale of estates forfeited for treason. (fn. 125) The father survived till the Restoration, (fn. 126) and Thomas Walsh died in 1694. (fn. 127) Mr. Edward Wignall of Lathom is said to be the present owner of the Walsh Hall estate.

The Stanleys of Bickerstaffe had a house in Aughton called the LITTLE HALL. (fn. 128)

The Bickerstath family of the adjacent township very early secured lands in this. Thus Madoc son of Bleddyn de Aughton granted to Simon de Bickerstath and his heirs by Margery, daughter of Richard de Westhead, various lands with the usual liberties, to be held by a rent of 6d. (fn. 129) This Simon had a son Simon to whom he gave three acres purchased from Einion de Aughton, and to whom Madoc de Aughton released the rent of 13d. and three peppercorns due. (fn. 130) In 1282 Simon the father settled upon his son an estate, later known as MOOR HALL, of a messuage and 120 acres in Aughton, subject only to an annuity of 30s. payable to the father during his life. (fn. 131)

Simon the son appears to have died without male issue, and the estate came to Richard de Ince by the latter's wife Dionysia. (fn. 132) She was probably the mother of Henry de Ince, the father of John de Ince, through whose heirs the estate came to Roger Aughton and Thomas Bradshagh in the fifteenth century.

Ince of Ince. Argent, three torteaux between two bendlets sable.

After the death of John de Ince, in August, 1428, it was found that he had held the manor of Moor Hall, of Thomas de Beetham, and lands called Stotfoldshagh in Bickerstaffe, and some others. The next heir was Roger de Aughton, as son of Nicholas de Aughton, son of Agnes de Ince. (fn. 133) Some twenty years later a division of the lands took place between Thomas Bradshagh (as heir of his uncle Thomas Bradshagh), and John Aughton (son of Roger); the former was to have Moor Hall and its demesne lands together with the mill, and John Aughton the rest. This was confirmed in 1457–8, and in the next year Thomas Bradshagh gave a formal release. (fn. 134)

Moor Hall descended like Uplitherland until in 1533–4 William Bradshagh conveyed to Peter Stanley of Bickerstaffe the reversion of the hall and its lands. (fn. 135) The purchaser died on 22 July, 1592, holding seven messuages, lands, meadow, &c., in Bickerstaffe Aughton, Ormskirk, and Skelmersdale. (fn. 136) The family adhered to the old religion; in 1584 Peter Stanley, like other recusants or suspected persons, was required to furnish a light horseman accoutred (or £24) for the queen's service in Ireland. (fn. 137) Edward Stanley, his successor, died at Moor Hall on 30 March, 1610. He held his patrimony unchanged; his wife Bridget survived him, and his son Peter, though only eleven years of age, was already married to Elizabeth daughter of Thomas Wolfall of Huyton. (fn. 138) He was succeeded in 1673 by his son Edward Stanley, (fn. 139) who married Margaret daughter of Thomas Gerard of Aughton; their sons died young, and of their two daughters Elizabeth died unmarried, and Anne, born about 1650, married Richard Wolfall of Huyton, but died without issue in 1731.

Stanley of Moor Hall. Argent, on a bend azure cotised gules, three bucks' heads cabossed or.

The estate then passed to the head of the family, Sir William Stanley of Hooton. On the sale of the Hooton estates in 1840 it was purchased by John Rosson, (fn. 140) who died in 1857, and was succeeded by his sister Frances. She sold it to J. P. Duff in 1863, but re-purchased it in 1865, disposing of it in 1873 to Thomas Walmesley, sometime mayor of Bolton. (fn. 141) After his death it was sold to Mrs. William Potter of Liverpool.

The site of the hall is level, and there are traces of a moat. The house is interesting as a good example of the transition stage of domestic architecture. In general arrangement it is of the mediaeval type, having a central hall, with screens and entrance passage at the lower end, between two wings set at right angles to the hall, one containing the living rooms and the other the offices. But the small accommodation provided by the living wing, being quite inadequate for Elizabethan ideas of comfort, rendered some further development necessary, and accordingly the hall was cut up into two floors, an arrangement which had the additional advantage of giving access from the upper floor of one wing to that of the other, without having to use the hall as a passage room on all occasions. Another evidence of the stage of development is the lesser relative importance of the hall; its height and width are exactly equal to those of the wings, instead of exceeding them, and it is treated as one of several large rooms, rather than as the nucleus round which everything else is grouped.

An inscribed tablet over the doorway of the porch gives the date of the building, 1566. To this date the whole of the main building, of two stories and an attic, belongs, though much refaced and otherwise altered. The walls are 2 ft. 6 in. thick, faced with wrought stone; the windows are square-headed of two orders under a label, with plain hollow-chamfered mullions. A weathered string of the same section as the labels ran at half-height. How the gables were originally finished does not appear, but the back gable of the office wing is filled in with half timber work, which is said to be a reproduction of the former design. One of the weak points of the plan is that a good and convenient staircase could not be provided; the stairs had to be fitted on at one end of the hall, taking up the minimum of space; so that as might be expected, the first alteration of the house was in the direction of providing a better staircase. To get enough room for it the five-light window at the end of what is now the drawing-room was slightly overlapped. The next step was that a porch with a room over was built on to the front entrance, and the kitchen and offices accommodated in a new building parallel to the wing which they had hitherto occupied, and communicating with it by a short passage. In this way the whole of the space in the main building was made available for living rooms. All this work may be placed in the seventeenth century; and since that time, beyond the addition of a few offices and outbuildings, the plan has undergone no important change. The front elevation has been refaced and all window mullions removed and replaced by sashes. The doorways at both ends of the screens are original, with low four-centred arches, and retain their oaken doors, which have been rehung with the hanging styles outward to their old wrought-iron strap hinges. The line of the right-hand screen (on entering by the front doorway) is shown by the beam in the ceiling, though the screen itself has gone; that on the left, forming the end of the hall, remains in position, though recased and panelled. The hall fireplace is 8 ft. 2 in. wide, by 2 ft. 8 in. deep, with a flat four-centred head and moulded and splayed jambs. The bay window is modern. The drawing-room, separated from the hall by an eighteenth-century panelled partition, on the old line, retains its fireplace, which is like that of the hall, but smaller, 7 ft. 3 in. wide by 2 ft. 3 in. deep. The ceiling beams are original, and very roughly cut; the windows are all modernized except the large fivelight square-headed window at the back. This end of the room was once partitioned off from the rest, and is by tradition the chapel. It opens by a modern doorway into a porch, which is of two stories, forming a small bay to a bedroom on the first floor; it had as first built no entrance at the ground level and was probably a garderobe. The stairs occupy the place of the original staircase by the side of the hall chimney, but are on a larger scale. They are of eighteenth-century date, but the masonry of the walls is probably a century older. Owing to the difficulties of fitting, a good deal of the side space is boxed in with panelling, giving rise to the customary 'priest's chamber' story. A plain four-centred doorway on the first floor is pointed out as the door of this chamber, but is very probably the stairhead of the first staircase, which was taken up, as at present, outside the main wall of the house. The 'office' wing, which now contains the dining-room and an inner hall with a second staircase, has an original five-light window in the back wall, set very much to one side to allow for some former subdivision of the space. The stairs in the angle conceal an original two-light window in the side wall. The dining-room fireplace is modern, but the old chimney stack, and probably the arched fireplace, remain.

Moor Hall, Aughton

The kitchen offices are built with the usual 12 in. stone outer walls, and cut up by wooden partitions; they contain no ancient features of interest.

The first floor rooms call for no remark, but the attics have the original clay flooring between the joists. The trusses are king-posts with struts; nearly all the king-posts have been cut away to make a central passage in the roof space, but the tie-beams are sufficiently strong and do not seem to have sagged in consequence.

The MIDDLEWOOD estate, already mentioned, belonged to another Bickerstath family. (fn. 142) Madoc son of Madoc de Aughton granted to his daughter Emma lands called the New Ridding and 'Steuensis Field.' This was afterwards known as the Cock Beck estate. She married Thomas Blundell and had a son Robert, who married Maud, daughter of William Blundell (of Ince), and had a daughter Joan. Maud married as her second husband Henry de Ince. (fn. 143) No doubt through her influence, if not her right, the lands descended to her son Gilbert de Ince, whose wife Emma Ward was an heiress, Wido son of Madoc son of Bleddyn having granted lands known as Crawshaw (fn. 144) to her ancestor William the Ward. Gilbert de Ince acquired Bangardus Field, and was a prominent man in the district in the latter part of the reign of Edward III. (fn. 145) The two daughters of Gilbert and Emma divided the inheritance in 1399, but one sister, Malma or Maud, who married Henry de Bickerstath, seems ultimately to have inherited the other's share also.

The family prospered, and Thomas Bickerstath, the representative at the beginning of the seventeenth century, purchased another estate in Aughton, called Middlewood, which had originated in grants made by Madoc son of Bleddyn and his son Einion (fn. 146) to Adam son of Stephen de Aughton, and others, and had come to the Beconsaw (or Beckinshaw) family of Becconsall and Aughton, (fn. 147) descending regularly till 1557, when it was sold (fn. 148) to John Charnock of Farington. (fn. 149) In 1613 it was sold by Robert Charnock to Thomas Bickerstath. The latter by his will gave all his lands to his son Robert—his eldest by his first wife—excepting the Cock Beck estate, which he gave to John, one of his sons by his second marriage, and it was quickly sold to Henry Pye of Aughton. The Middlewood estate descended from Robert Bickerstath to his nephew, another Robert, who also died childless; it then passed to Thomas, half-brother to the former Robert, and was sold by his great-grandson Robert to John Dannett, whose son (the Rev. Henry Dannett of Liverpool) sold it to an ancestor of the present owner, Major Hughes of Sherdley in Sutton. (fn. 150)

Beconsaw. Sable, a cross patée and in sinister chief an escallop argent.

Another Bickerstath family acquired an estate before 1326, when Henry de Bickerstath contributed 3s. to the subsidy. He appears to have been son of a Simon de Bickerstath, and his own son was Henry, to whom on his marriage with Margaret, daughter of Richard de Sankey, the father gave lands in Aughton and Bickerstaffe. (fn. 151) Father and son dying without further issue, Richard de Sankey in 1361 released to John son of Simon de Bickerstath all his lands, mills, &c., wardships and reliefs, with remainder to John Bas of London and Margaret his wife. (fn. 152) John's widow Alice de Bickerstath was afterwards placed in possession of certain of her husband's lands, with remainder to Simon son of John de Bickerstath. (fn. 153) Gilbert occurs in 1408; and Joan widow of John held part of the lands in dower in 1479, Nicholas Bickerstath being in possession of the remainder. The estates were in this year settled upon Nicholas, with remainders to his two sons, two brothers, and the four sons of Gilbert Bickerstath. (fn. 154) Hugh, one of his sons, succeeded Nicholas, and in 1498–9 released to Miles Gerard of London, gentleman, twelve messuages, 200 acres of land, 100 acres of meadow, and 200 acres of pasture in Bickerstaffe and Aughton. (fn. 155) GERARD'S HALL takes its name from this family.

Nothing is known of the ancestry of Miles Gerard; in his will (fn. 156) he describes himself as having been born in Ormskirk. At the inquest in 1522, taken after his death, it was found that he held lands, &c. in Aughton of Alice Griffith and Margery Stanley in socage, by the yearly rent of 6d., and another parcel called the Halt Heyve Wood, of James Bradshagh, by the service of 1d. yearly. Peter Gerard, clerk, was his brother and heir, and over fifty years of age. (fn. 157)

Gerard of Aughton. Azure, a lion rampant ermine crowned or.

By the will of Miles Gerard the estate descended to his natural son Lionel, (fn. 158) whose son and heir Miles Gerard was in 1599 accused of withholding a rent due to the chantry of St. Mary Magdalen in Ormskirk church. (fn. 159) Henry Mossock of Bickerstaffe made complaints against him and his son Thomas in 1584. (fn. 160) This Thomas Gerard died in 1595 or 1599, before his father, leaving a son Miles, about ten years of age. (fn. 161)

Miles Gerard the elder deceased in June, 1602; by his will he desired to be buried in the parish church of Aughton 'near his ancestors,' and bequeathed 'all his harness and his cross bow' to his grandson Miles, and a dagger to Paul, one of his younger sons. (fn. 162) Miles Gerard the younger died 28 December, 1616, (fn. 163) and was succeeded by his eldest son Thomas, then a minor, not thirteen years of age. Thomas Gerard paid double to the subsidy of 1628 as a convicted recusant. (fn. 164) What became of his thirteen children is unknown. He appears to have died in 1671, when administration was granted, and his daughter Margaret, who married Edward Stanley of Moor Hall, is called his heir; Moor Hall and Gerard's Hall thus passed into the same ownership.

The MICKERING was one of the estates sold by the Bradshaghs in the reign of Henry VIII. It was purchased in 1547 by William Laithwaite; (fn. 165) a further small portion was acquired in 1552. (fn. 166) William died in 1565, and his son Robert in 1572, when James Laithwaite succeeded to the Mickering. (fn. 167) He died at the beginning of 1610, and in his will describes the difficulties he had had, and the heavy payments necessary, before he obtained the estate. These, he considered, amounted almost to a new purchase; consequently, he and his brother Henry, having no male issue, resolved to put aside the restriction imposed by their father. James willed that the Mickering should go to his grandchild James Burscough, although aware that William, the son of Robert, was desirous to claim under the old entail. (fn. 168)

James Burscough died in 1633, and the estate descended to his second son Maximilian. The elder brother Gilbert had his estate sequestered for 'delinquency' in 1643, and dying next year Maximilian claimed it, conforming to the existing government, but had to petition again in 1652, a new sequestration being enforced. (fn. 169) In 1658 part of it was purchased by John Tatlock of Cunscough from Maximilian, and more in 1682 from his daughters. From John Tatlock (who died in 1712) this and other estates descended to his son Richard; and on the latter's death in 1737 to his daughters Elizabeth and Ellen. The latter died unmarried; the former, ultimately sole heir, married in 1743 William Johnson, vicar of Whalley. (fn. 170)

There was also a Bochard or Butcher family residing in Aughton, the members of which are mentioned from time to time. (fn. 171)

One of the free tenants of Aughton about 1300 was Adam del Green. He had been a 'native' under the priory of Burscough, and the charter of his manumission has been preserved. By this the prior and convent gave to Adam son of John del Green and all his issue perpetual liberty, so that thenceforward they should be free men of St. Nicholas of Burscough wheresoever they wished to dwell; for this grant sixpence of silver was to be paid annually to the priory. (fn. 172)


  • 1. V.C.H. Lancs. i, p. 284b.
  • 2. Lancs. Inq. and Extents (Rec. Soc. Lancs. and Ches.), p. 27. It contributed a mark to the tallage of 1177; Farrer, Lancs. Pipe R. 36.
  • 3. See the account of Raven Meols.
  • 4. Ibid. p. 116, 123; Charter R. 9 John, m. 6.
  • 5. Fine R. 6 Hen. III, m. 9.
  • 6. He granted part of his land in Dalton to Burscough Priory; Burscough Reg. fol. 35.
  • 7. Inq. and Extents, 127.
  • 8. Final Conc. (Rec. Soc. Lancs. and Ches.), i, 63.
  • 9. Originalia R. 29 Hen. III, m. 6.
  • 10. He was witness to a number of the early Scarisbrick charters; but may have been of the Waleys of Lathom family.
  • 11. Dods. MSS. xxxix, fol. 140b. See the account of Melling chapel. John le Waleys was a benefactor of Burscough, granting the prior and canons a portion of his land near the northern boundary of Litherland, with common of pasture and other easements and liberties in both Aughton and Litherland; Burscough Reg. fol. 36. Another charter varied this grant, the words 'the boundary between Hurleton and Litherland' being changed to 'Nazelarwe' and Litherland, and free passage being reserved for the grantor and his heirs and the tenant of his land by Nazelarwe syke, to till and carry away the produce of this land; ibid. fol. 36b. Further grants included Walshcroft, its bounds commencing at an oak marked with a cross, and land in Aughton adjoining Halsall, and next to lands held by Simon de Ince and Adam de Bootle the mason ('cementarius'); this last grant is noteworthy for the easements, which included 'housebote and heybote of oak and other timber trees in the thick wood ("nemus") of Aughton and Litherland, except the shaw of Lamylache, which must not be cut'; ibid. fol. 38.
  • 12. Inq. and Extents, 288.
  • 13. Scarisbrick charters, Trans. Hist. Soc. (New Ser.) xii, xiii. In 1316 John, son of Simon, son of Mabel, demised to Richard ten acres in the townfields of Litherland, lying between Mahount field and 'Crawachay,' which divides Litherland from Halsall; Charter at Ince Blundell.
  • 14. Dods. MSS. cxxxi, fol. 34. Richard's name is among those returned by the sheriff at this time as holding 15 librates of land; Palgrave, Mil. Writs, ii (1), 638. He was also a 'sub-custos pacis' for the wapentake; ibid. ii (2), 238.
  • 15. The marriage covenant was early in 1322 confirmed by a fine, which describes his property as the manor of Litherland, a fourth part of the manor of Dalton, and a third part of the manor of Aughton and the advowson of the church; while the two former and the advowson were settled upon his issue by Maud, the third part of Aughton was to descend to his son John for life and then to another son Richard and his heirs; Final Conc. ii, 46. Maud his widow in 1329 demised to her father, 'Richard' de Bold, all the lands as well in demesne as in service, with wardships and other rights which she had in dower; Kuerden, fol. MS. p. 448, n. 569.
  • 16. Whether he was the son Richard mentioned in the preceding note or a younger son is not clear. The third part of the manor of Aughton continued to descend with Litherland. The extent of the county made in 1346 states that 'Richard Walsh holds in socage a plough-land in Uplitherland, with the advowson of the church of Aughton appurtenant to the same, rendering yearly 10s. for all services'; Survey of 1346 (Chet. Soc.), p. 40.
  • 17. Richard de Bradshagh and Christiana his wife had a suit concerning lands in Dalton in 1352; Duchy of Lanc. Assize R. 2, m. viij d.
  • 18. Scarisbrick charters, n. 114. He joined in the presentation to Aughton rectory in 1369.
  • 19. See the presentation referred to.
  • 20. Final Conc. ii, 183. Eleanor seems to have died without issue before 1381.
  • 21. Baines, Lancs. (ed. 1836), iv, 223. Through these trustees a settlement was made three years later by fine; the succession was to be to their heirs, then to the heirs male of Maud, then to Margaret, Isabel, Katherine, Agnes, and Cicely in succession, the daughters. There was a third provision, that the fourth part of Dalton should remain to their son Thomas for life, and after his decease to the heirs male of Roger and Maud, and then to the heirs male of Maud and so on, as before. Pal. of Lanc. Feet of F. bdle. 1, m. 23. For Thomas see the account of Moor Hall.
  • 22. Scarisbrick charter, n. 151. (Trans. Hist. Soc. New Ser. xiii.) The feodary of 1430–1 shows that Richard de Bradshagh was still holding the manor by the ancient service; Dods. MSS. lxxxvii, fol. 58b.
  • 23. Towneley MS. DD, n. 112. Provisions for Thomas and other younger sons may be seen in Kuerden MSS. ii, fol. 269b, n. 102; 271, n. 40, &c. Thomas Bradshagh's seal bore 'Three mullets between two bendlets'; 'Crest, a bird.' There are named Robinson House and Moor Hall in Aughton, lands in Brook Acre, Kirk Acre, and in Ormskirk and Burscough.
  • 24. Duchy of Lanc. Inq. p.m. vi, n. 26.
  • 25. One night in 1538 or 1539 William Bradshagh, described as 'a man of light disposition and behaviour,' and 'a very troublous and seditious person,' with six companions entered the house of Lionel Gerard in Ormskirk and carried off Lionel's wife Grace and some of his goods, and took sanctuary at Ripon. The aggrieved man recovered his wife and some of his goods, but Bradshagh being 'a man of great possessions, substance and riches' was able to molest and defraud him; Duchy Pleadings (Rec. Soc. Lancs. and Ches.), ii, 124.
  • 26. Kuerden MSS. ii, fol. 269b, n. 103, 107, 110.
  • 27. Pal. of Lanc. Feet of F. bdle. 14, m. 139. The property included a dovecote and a windmill. A curious remissness in the care of the 'evidences' is shown by an inquiry relating to this manor. Thomas Kirkby, clerk, stated that he could make deeds and other writings after copies made to him; he had learned to write at school and afterwards 'exercised' writing when he dwelt with his master Edward Molyneux (sometime rector of Sefton). He had never embezzled or forged deeds, but knew that James Lightollers had an ill fame for making untrue deeds and writings. As to the Bradshagh deeds Edward Molyneux had had the custody of them, as trustee for James Bradshaw, and they were put into a basket. This basket was kept locked, and had been in Kirkby's custody for fourteen years or more, ever since the death of Edward Molyneux, but he had cut it open and sent to London the writings demanded; afterwards he found some other writings therein, and sent those up to London. He had heard Edward Molyneux say that whoever bought William Bradshagh's lands would lose both his money and the lands; and Sir William Molyneux was said to have other evidences as to Uplitherland; Duchy of Lanc. Depos. Edw. VI, lvii, U. 2. In 1582 William Bradshagh of Killingworth in Warwickshire, son of the abovenamed William, sold to Peter Stanley of Bickerstaffe the Little Meadow and an acre of land in the tenure of Henry Moorcroft; Kuerden MSS. ii, fol. 269b, n. 109.
  • 28. Duchy of Lanc. Pleadings, Eliz. cxcii, B. 35.
  • 29. In 1536 Bartholomew Hesketh, senior, one of the Hesketh of Maynes family, acquired Walshcroft from the Halsalls, who had held it of the Bradshaghs. See the Inq. p.m. of Henry Halsall, 1472; Lancs. Inq. p.m. (Chet. Soc.), ii, 87. Lands in Downholland were given for it; Duchy of Lanc. Inq. p.m. vii, n. 13 (Sir T. Halsall). It passed to George Hesketh, who between 1543 and 1547 alienated it to his half-brother Gabriel, as is brought out in a complaint by James Lightollers of Eggergarth, gentleman, who had had a lease for six years granted by George Hesketh in 1543, and yet was expelled by force by Gabriel Hesketh in 1547; Duchy of Lanc. Pleadings, Edw. VI, xxiv, L. 5. In 1549 Gabriel claimed, as having succeeded to his brother's title, the Walsh and Bradshagh estates, which had come into the hands of Richard Molyneux of Sefton. This claim is of interest as giving a number of farm and field names: Broad Hey, Akens and Pyggill, Potter's Hey, Finch Hey, Whight Shaw, and Whightshaw Worrall, Cuttes Heys, Parson's Heys, Marewood Heys and Banks Hey; ibid. Edw. VI, xxvi, H. 5. Gabriel Hesketh is called 'son and heir' of Bartholomew Hesketh, deceased, in 1543; he was then a minor, and a ward of the king; Duchy of Lanc. Mins. Acct. (Burscough), bdle. 136, n. 2025–6.
  • 30. Pal. of Lanc. Feet of F. bdle. 23, m. 120; 25, m. 7.
  • 31. An abstract of his will is in Wills (Chet. Soc. New Ser.) i, 211.
  • 32. Duchy of Lanc. Inq. p.m. xii, n. 32. Gabriel's first wife, the mother of Bartholomew, was Jane Halsall, sister and ultimately co-heir of Henry Halsall; see the account of Melling. The second son, Sir Thomas, made a fortune by the law and purchased Heslington in Yorkshire, where he was succeeded by his younger brother Cuthbert; Wills (Chet. Soc. New Ser.), ii, 165. As no 'manor of Uplitherland' is mentioned and the annual service is changed, it will be proper to add the account of its possession as given by Bartholomew Hesketh in 1599 in reply to William Bradshaw: 'As for the manor of Uplitherland and the messuages, lands, &c., in Uplitherland and Aughton, now in the tenure of the defendant or his tenants or farmers (other than the advowson of Aughton), the said Bartholomew Hesketh says that he by virtue of divers fines, recoveries, &c., levied and suffered and made by William Bradshaw the grandfather and William Bradshaw the father [of plaintiff] to this defendant's late grandfather and father or to defendant, is seised in the fee of some good estate of inheritance . . . . ever since the making of the said conveyances, part whereof were made in the time of Hen. VIII and Edw. VI, and the rest in Queens Mary and Elizabeth'; Duchy of Lanc. Pleadings, Eliz. cxcii, B.35.
  • 33. She afterwards married William Gerard, the licence being granted 1 June, 1576; Pennant's Acct. Bk. at Chest.
  • 34. These had leases of lands and tithes, and it appeared that they had been prevented from carrying the produce, and had only made a way by force; Duchy of Lanc. Pleadings, Eliz. lxxxvii, H. 11, 16.
  • 35. Both are in the bishop of Chester's report of 1577; Gibson, Lydiate Hall, 216. The marriage licence was granted 20 September, 1575; Pennant's Acct. Bk. The first wife was Elizabeth, daughter of Sir William Norris of Speke; her son Gabriel was baptized in 1574.
  • 36. Desiderata Curiosa (ed. 1779), bk. iv, 149.
  • 37. Gibson, op. cit. 245.
  • 38. Ibid. 258. Here Mr. Hesketh is described as 'of New Hall.'
  • 39. He recorded a pedigree in 1613; Visit. (Chet. Soc.), 22.
  • 40. Wills (Chet. Soc. New Ser.), i, 212; and Testimony (1619) in the Dioc. Reg. at Chester. Margaret Hesketh, probably his step-mother, was the administratrix.
  • 41. Aged 64 in 1664; pedigree recorded by Dugdale, Visit. (Chet. Soc.), 134. Jane Hesketh died about the end of 1622; among her bequests is one of 'my best heifer' to Gabriel Shaw. Will at Chest.
  • 42. He paid £10 on refusing knighthood in 1631; Misc. (Rec. Soc. Lancs. and Ches.), i, 212. By fine in Lent, 1641, a settlement was made of the manors of Aughton and Uplitherland, and the advowson of Aughton, Bartholomew Hesketh and Alice his wife, and Alexander Hesketh being deforciants; Pal. of Lanc. Feet of F. bdle. 138, m. 35.
  • 43. Royalist Comp. P. (Rec. Soc. Lancs. and Ches.), iii. 185–6. No mention is made of recusancy, but his son Gabriel was described as 'a papist' in 1674. In 1665 Alice wife of Bartholomew Hesketh, Gabriel Hesketh, Alice his wife, and many others were presented as recusants, and in 1671 Bartholomew Hesketh himself was included; Visit. Rec. at Chest. Bartholomew's will, made 22 Feb. 1669–70, was proved at the beginning of 1673; it mentions his second wife Alice, and his sons (by his first wife, Anne Halsall) Gabriel, Bartholomew, and Alexander; he describes himself as 'of the manor of Uplitherland.' The inscription of the New Hall shows that he had made alterations in the building and that his son was married. The younger son Bartholomew seems to have died shortly afterwards (12 January, 1674–5), and administration was granted to his brother Alexander, described as 'of Croston.' The inventory (preserved at Chester) is noticeable: Nag, apparel, trunk, colt; books £5; two periwigs £1; his picture that hangeth in the gallery £1; the total was £14 14s.
  • 44. At the time of the bargain (1675) Gabriel was a prisoner in the Counter in London, and on the 'common' or poor man's side; there were fourteen actions against him. Through a friend, Cuthbert Gerard of Garswood, he was relieved and transferred to the Fleet. His brother soon afterwards procured his release, paying £130 for him. It appeared that Gabriel had been living in Falcon Court, London, in great splendour all the previous winter, being known as 'the great esquire Hesketh of Lancashire.' A few years later he was anxious to join the earl of Macclesfield's regiment; see Duchy of Lanc. Depos. 1682, n. 3.
  • 45. Ibid. The estate was described as worth 'about £100 or £120 a year, and to be an esquire's estate.'
  • 46. In August, 1692, Alexander Hesketh and Mary his wife by fine remitted to Thomas Earl Villiers and his heirs the manors of Uplitherland and Aughton, and various lands there and in Ormskirk, Scarisbrick, Aspinwall, Harleton, and Snape; Pal. of Lanc. Feet of F. bdle. 229, m. 77. On 21 January, 1705–6, he wrote to Richard Norris of Liverpool urging the completion of a sale of land: 'All persons was agreed and you and Mr. Greene did take possession. The estate is yours and none of mine . . . . though writings was not made out'; Norris Papers (Chet. Soc.), 148. In 1716 he appears, as a magistrate, 'happily' preventing his grandson Edward Molyneux from going over the seas to be educated for the priesthood; Payne, Rec. of Engl. Cath. 152. In his will, dated 21 July, 1717, and proved 12 March, 1718–9, Alexander Hesketh described himself as 'of Uplitherland,' and desired to be buried 'in his own chancel' in Aughton Church. There are bequests to his wife Mary and his son Thomas; no other children or relatives are mentioned.
  • 47. Will at Chester, with deposition attached. It does not appear what became of the son; but in 1741 Anne Holme of West Derby, principal creditor of Thomas Hesketh, late of Aughton, gentleman, deceased, gave a bond of £100 to exhibit an inventory and truly administer his goods; Administration granted 19 Nov. 1741. A similar bond was in 1749 given by Stanley Hesketh of Liverpool, as son of Thomas Hesketh, late of Ormskirk, gentleman, deceased; administration granted 20 March, 1748–9. In 1745 Stanley Hesketh was vouchee in a recovery of the manor; Pal. of Lanc. Plea R. 560, 3; Pal. of Lanc. Feet of F. bdle. 332, m. 90. A full account of the descent from the Restoration down to Stanley Hesketh may be found in the rolls of the Exch. of Pleas, 10 Geo. II, Trin. m. 25–9. There appears to have been an unsuccessful attempt to regain the manor for the Heskeths.
  • 48. He is several times mentioned in the Diary of N. Blundell of Little Crosby, for whom he held courts.
  • 49. Baines, Lancs. (ed. Croston), v, 244.
  • 50. Gent. Mag. 1761, p. 237—William Plumbe of Liverpool, died 10 May; 1763, p. 201—John Plumbe of Liverpool, died about March, aged 92.
  • 51. He was vouchee in a recovery of the manor in Aug. 1763; Pal. of Lanc. Plea R. 598, 6.
  • 52. Gregson writes in 1823: 'Of the family of Plumbe one in our time (in the law) resided in Liverpool and owned the lands on which Plumbe Street is built'; Fragments (ed. Harland), 218. This street has now disappeared, Exchange Station standing on the site.
  • 53. Assize R. 404, m. 19. For another family named Litherland, see below, in Aughton, 3.
  • 54. V.C.H. Lancs. i, 368; Farrer, Lancs. Pipe R. 44.
  • 55. Lancs. Inq. and Extents (Rec. Soc. Lancs. and Ches.), 189–191.
  • 56. Dods. MSS. cxxxi, fol. 34. Ellen widow of Robert de Stockport early in the reign of Edw. I, brought an action against Adam de Aughton in Newsham and Madoc de Aughton in Aughton; De Banc. R. 10, m. 71 d.
  • 57. See the account of the church. In the Lichfield registers of the fourteenth century the parish is called Acton Blundell. Robert Blundell, rector, in 1246 claimed two oxgangs from Madoc son of Lewel (Llewelyn), and Quenilda widow of Richard le Waleys. He did not prosecute his claim (Assize R. 404, m. 3d.), and it is uncertain whether he based it on inheritance or the right of his church. Blundells appear afterwards in this township, and also in the Formby district. Madoc de Aughton is in this instance called Madoc son of Llewelyn; it will be seen that his daughter married a Blundell.
  • 58. Add. MS. 22644 (quoting 'Col. Plumbe's evidences'). One of the earliest charters relating to this portion of Aughton is that of a grant of land to Cockersand Abbey, made by Richard le Waleys about 1210. The bounds were—From Stanriford down the brook to Sigerith's pool, up this pool (or brook) to the moor, and so to Stanriford. This was afterwards held of the abbey by John son of Richard of the Cross, who released it to the abbot, granting also the service of Hugh de Mulnelewe for 'Herbert's assart' in Eggergarth. Simon de Halsall also resigned all his claim in Brookfield, apparently the same piece of land; and Henry le Waleys gave a quitclaim. See Cockersand Chartul. (Chet. Soc.), ii, 544–5, 752. The Walshes of Walsh Hall were long the tenants under the abbots, and after the dissolution under the crown and the earls of Derby. The following charter, made about 1270, is the original grant of Stockbridge House. John le Waleys of Litherland gave to Robert son of Cokemon land within bounds beginning at the road leading from Aughton to Litherland, where a way leads to Stockbridge syke; along this way to the road from Lydiate to Ormskirk, by this road to the road from Aughton to Halsall, and by the last road to Stockbridge syke, then by the syke to the first-named way; Kuerden MSS. iii, A. 6, n. 1. The same John granted to William son of Henry son of Wilcock land in Heine Haswell (or Old Haselwall), Woodlache snape, the Turmeris (touching the road from Aughton to Halsall) and other parcels; ibid. A. 6, n. 2. Some of the above names appear in 1267–8, when Robert de Winstanley proceeded against William son of Richard, Thomas Cokemon's son of Haselwall, Robert the Tunwright, Madoc son of Bleddyn and Madoc son of Madoc in a plea concerning common of pasture in Aughton; Cur. Reg. R. 186, m. 19. Cokemon's croft, on the north side of the Hesleniacre, is referred to in a release by Henry son of Henry de Aughton to Henry de Litherland, together with the Fluland or Fowland; Townley MS. OO (in possession of W. Farrer), n. 1351; Kuerden MSS. ii, fol. 262, n. 37–8.
  • 59. Charter at Ince Blundell.
  • 60. Kuerden MSS. iii, A. 1, n. 1.
  • 61. He made provision for his younger children by granting a small piece of land, with the appurtenances, to his son Gilbert, with remainders to the latter's brothers David and Richard; Dods. MSS. cxlii, fol. 227b. Richard de Aughton married Katherine de Cowdray, the heiress of North Meols.
  • 62. Some of his charters have been preserved. One gave to Owen son of William son of Jeui certain land in Aughton; Add. MS. 32106, n. 57. Another, dated 1353, leased to Richard de Litherland the Platt meadow in the same township for a term of 9 years, the rent being a wreath of roses annually on St. John's Nativity; Ince Bundell deed in Gibson's Lydiate Hall, p. xxxvi. 'This deed was probably executed at the local court, and the seal is that of the judge, bearing the device of a man's head surrounded by the inscription REVELARI LEGISLANDO.'
  • 63. After the death of Maud, daughter and heir of Robert de Holand and widow of Sir John Lovel, it was found that she had held 6 acres in Aughton of Roger de Aughton, in socage, at a yearly rent of 3d.; Lancs. Inq. p.m. (Chet. Soc.), ii, 2.
  • 64. It appears that she was his wife about 1500.
  • 65. This account is based upon pleadings of 1540 and later years concerning the inheritance. In them Henry Starkie states that Alice Griffith, widow, daughter and one of the heirs of John Aughton, held lands in Aughton, Lathom, Bickerstaffe, Claughton, and Scarisbrick; that she gave parts, called Shadhouse, Stotfoldshaw, Crawshaw, Coldshaw, Greetby, and Mill House, and 3s. rent, to certain trustees for the maintenance of a priest to be named by her, who was to sing in Aughton Church for a hundred years, Henry Leatherbarrow being the first. Henry Starkie was to hold Stotfoldshaw during this term at a rent of 26s. 8d., and his complaint was that John Starkie (his nephew) had taken possession a few months ago, after Alice's death, as being her heir. John Starkie in reply quoted the disposition of this property made by Nicholas, son of Thomas Aughton, by which after the death of himself and Cecily his wife it should descend to their son and heir Nicholas. A later settlement was made for the younger Nicholas and his wife Emma, by which it descended to John their son and heir, and so to Margery Starkie and Alice Griffith; from Margery's son and heir John it had come to defendant as his son and heir. He alleged also that Alice, as wife of David Griffith, had granted the lands in dispute to feoffees for the benefit of her sister's heirs. See Duchy of Lanc. Pleadings (n.d.), xix, S. 1. John Starkie was the next to complain, desiring to upset the trust for the maintenance of a priest. Sir William Leyland was called upon to prove the validity of Alice Griffith's will; he stated that in Lent, 1529, shortly before her death, she had desired him and Sir Alexander Radcliffe of Ordsall to be present at the making of the will, and that she had told him —Sir Alexander being absent through illness—she had given 4 marks yearly to Henry Starkie, her sister's son, with remainder to John Starkie. She did not wish to disinherit the latter; but he had married without her consent, and therefore £4 a year should be paid to a priest to pray for the souls of her parents and husbands until the sum amounted to one half of the marriage (portion) 'after the custom of the country.' Thomas Starkie, aged about 60, then lying at the point of death, having 'received all the rites of holy church as a Christian man ought for to do,' said no such will was made as his brother Henry alleged, but Sir William Leyland's statement was true. From the statements made it appears that the testatrix was afraid that her nephew and the priest would make a will too favourable to the former; hence her desire to see the two knights. In the end, after the priest's yearly fee had been confirmed, the final decree was in favour of John Starkie, Henry Leatherbarrow not to take any rent from the premises in dispute until he could show a better title; Duchy of Lanc. Depos. Hen. VIII, xli, S. 1; Duchy of Lanc. Decrees and Orders, 34 Hen. VIII, vii, fol. 150, and 34–35 Hen. VIII, vii, fol. 1844.
  • 66. He desired to be buried at Aughton Church, before the altar of St. Nicholas. He gave his best beast to the rector in the name of principal; also 10s. for a trental of masses, to be distributed among the priests, and 6s. 8d. for the repairs of the church. His lands in Aughton inherited from his mother were to be to the use of his wife Elizabeth and her children, as also his two houses and moiety of a salthouse in Northwich, and his goods generally. He made a bequest to John Starkie, his son 'unlawfully begotten'; also to John Starkie his son and heir, and Lawrence and Margery, his other children; Piccope, Wills (Chet. Soc.), i, 6.
  • 67. Pal. of Lanc. Feet of F. bdle. 12, m. 120. There was a windmill. In 1550 Henry Starkie and Katherine (Halsall) were divorced; Towneley MS. RR, n. 56. This was a child-marriage. Then in 1553 Henry son and heir of John Starkie was contracted to marry Isabel daughter of Edward Radcliffe of Todmorden; Towneley MS. DD. n. 634.
  • 68. Duchy of Lanc. Depos. 11 Eliz. n. 3; and Duchy of Lanc. Pleadings, Eliz. lxiv, S. 1.
  • 69. Piccope, Wills, iii, 51. Mr. Ireland of Lydiate owed him for chief rent 4s. 6d. On a map of about this date the hall and the land round it are coloured as 'Mr. Starkie's,' but upon the building is inscribed 'Mr. Ireland's.'
  • 70. Duchy of Lanc. Inq. p.m. xvii, n. 70. There was a dispute about this time among the members of the Edgeacre family. In 1553 John Starkie of Aughton, aged about 46, and Henry Starkie his son and heir apparent, aged 19, gave evidence in the claim made by James Edgeacre against his step-mother Janet for 'evidences' which she first promised to bring to Aughton church, and then asserted she had burnt. Henry Edgeacre of Coleshill, Berks, as brother and heir of James, laid claim to lands in Aughton (Longley, &c.), of which Henry Starkie (aged about 34 in 1569) was chief lord, and of which Robert son of James was in possession. There was a dipute as to Robert's legitimacy. See Duchy of Lanc. Depos. Edw. VI, lx, E. 1; Duchy of Lanc. Pleadings, Eliz. xlviii, E. 3, and lxxxvi, E. 1; also Pal. of Lanc. Feet of F. bdle. 21, m. 8; and bdle. 32, m. 29. James Edgeacre had when a boy (about 1530) married Cecily daughter of Nicholas Barnes (or Jackson) at Melling Chapel. Afterwards he procured a divorce and married (about 1540) Ellen daughter of William Shurlacres, after due proclamation of the banns on three several feast days in Halsall and Aughton churches. Robert Kirkby, then curate (in 1569 rector of Bladon, Oxford), officiated, and Richard Dodson, clerk, was present; the marriage was duly entered in the Halsall register.
  • 71. From the pleadings it appears that John Litherland had held various lands called Bycall—where West Tower now stands—adjoining John Starkie's land called Highfield; also land in the Furlongs, and the Michell Acre in the Watermill Hey. There had, about 1579, been a claim put in by Henry Starkie, who had defaced the old meres and bounds. This had been remedied, and John Litherland about 1590 sold Bycall to Lawrence Ireland, who was forcibly ejected by John Starkie, claiming possession 'from time immemorial.' Other lands in dispute had been held of his ancestors by 'a yearly rent of 3s. 3d., a day's ploughing, a day's loading of "worthing," and a day's shearing.' Lawrence Ireland acknowledged a rent of 2s. 5d., professing ignorance of the immediate superior, and denying the other services, which the former tenant grudgingly acknowledged as follows: 'John Starkie and his father being gentlemen and her near neighbours and able to do her pleasure and displeasure (she being a poor woman and a widow) she had helped them by starts both with ploughing and worthing.' Another tenant admitted a day's shearing once. Another point in dispute was a right of way for horse or man, called a bridleway, from Ireland's manor of Eggergarth to Aughton church, with the right to carry a corpse that way for burial, a yearly rent of 12d. being paid. John Starkie having alleged that the 12d. was due for a close called Watson's Hey, and not for the right of way over his lands, Lawrence Ireland had refused to pay; Duchy of Lanc. Pleadings, Eliz. clxiv, 14.
  • 72. This carr was 'well replenished with ash and sapling wood,' according to one deponent.
  • 73. Duchy of Lanc. Depos. 2 Chas. I, n. 22. John Starkie's will (dated 6 May, 1625, and proved at Chester 8 Dec. 1626) mentions a settlement made in 1605 by him and Henry his son; his other sons were Nathan, James, Thomas, Nathaniel, and Samuel; and his 'younger children,' Sarah (who had married Richard Tyrer against her father's will), Tabitha, Rebecca, Joseph, Susan, Priscilla, Mary, and Ruth. The number of Bible names may indicate that he was a Puritan. The inventory includes 'a standish and in printed books' 20s., also 'a pair of playing tables,' 2s. 6d.
  • 74. Add. MS. 22644; from 'Col. Plumbe's evidences.'
  • 75. Patchett, Tatlocks of Cunscough, 27.
  • 76. Will at Chest. dated 1 Dec. 1638; proved 6 Mar. 1639–40; inventory, 19 July, 1639. 'The "armore," the long board now standing on the east side of the hall, and the evidence chest' were to be heirlooms.
  • 77. Royalist Comp. P. (Rec. Soc. Lancs. and Ches.), i, 235–6.
  • 78. Dugdale, Visit. (Chet. Soc.), 295. His will, dated in 1670, and proved in Jan. 1674–5 by his eldest son Aughton, records that as 'Edward Starkie of the hall of Aughton' he had on 24 Sept. 1670, granted to trustees 'all the manor and lordship of Aughton and all the capital messuage and mansion house called the hall of Aughton', also the mill called 'Aughton windmilne,' the great common called Aughton moss, and his other lands. He left bequests to his sons Henry and John, his daughters Ellen and Mary, also to others. From the will at Chester proved 22 Jan. 1674–5; inventory (£69) 20th of same.
  • 79. Pal. of Lanc. Feet of F. bdle. 208, m. 121. Roger Bostock of Ormskirk was one of the father's trustees.
  • 80. Admon. at Chester. The inventory had been taken on 24 Feb.; the total was only £6 5s.
  • 81. Newstead, Aughton, 87.
  • 82. In one he granted to Einion his son all the land which Thomas son of Cokemon held in Aughton and a third of the Moor Hey; Towneley MS. OO. n. 1363; Kuerden, fol. MS. (Chet. Lib.) K. p. 38. See also Towneley OO, n. 1428. Kuerden fol. MS. 449, n. 64. One grant was of land on Cock Beck, beginning at Blakeford; Kuerden, fol. MS. p. 38.
  • 83. In 1292 the latter farmed all her land for twenty years to Henry de Litherland; Towneley MS. OO, n. 1358.
  • 84. John married Alice daughter of Alan de Lascelles; Towneley MS. OO, n. 1350.
  • 85. After his death some dispute arose as to a moiety of 22s. rent and lands in Aughton, but in 1292 the younger children secured their right; Assize R. 408, m. 8. The claim of Thomas de Formby and Eleanor his wife to a third of the manor seems to refer to this portion, Eleanor being probably daughter and heir of John son of Einion; Final Conc. (Rec. Soc. Lancs. and Ches.), ii, 183. It seems possible also that the Dionysia who married Richard son of William Bymmeson of Formby was the daughter of Einion; Kuerden, fol. MS. 448, n. 612.
  • 86. Towneley MS. OO, n. 1359 (the date given, 14 Edw. I, is probably an error for 14 Edw. II). A grant to Henry from Adam le Flesheur mentions the road from Lydiate to Ormskirk, and the lands of Robert Wolvesey and William Pigin; Ince Blundell D. A re-feoffment in 1331 mentions his lands at Stockbridge, Haselwall, and Oldfield end; Kuerden's fol. MS. p. 449, n. 9.
  • 87. Kuerden's fol MS. 249, n. 13.
  • 88. Henry de Litherland and Agnes his wife were defendants in a Cheshire plea in 1369; Ormerod, Ches. (ed. Helsby), ii, 451.
  • 89. Kuerden's fol. MS. 475, n. 73; Ormerod, Ches. (ed. Helsby), ii, 446–7.
  • 90. Kuerden fol. MS. 315, n. 77. He was alive in 1375; Towneley MS. OO, n. 1417.
  • 91. Kuerden fol. MS. 137, n. 109. The following notes may be useful: John de Litherland was in 1404 pardoned for a share in the Percy rising; he appears on the Recognizance Rolls of Ches. down to 1416; Dep. Keeper's Rep. xxix, App. 63; Rep. xxxvi, App. 463. In 1410 he was executor of the will of the bishop of Sodor and Man; Towneley MS. OO, n. 1355. About the same time John de Meols of Wallasey, lord of Great Meols, made a grant to Isabel, daughter of John son of Henry de Litherland; Towneley MS. GG. n. 2592. John had a dispute with the abbot of St. Werburgh's in 1403 as to the presentation to Wallasey church; Ormerod, Ches. (ed. Helsby), ii, 477. His widow Alice sued Henry de Litherland for dower in 1426; Dep. Keeper's Rep. xxix, App. 79. See also Ches. Sheaf (ser. 3), ii, 197. His son Henry appears on the Recognizance Rolls, &c., from 1427 to 1445, as a commissioner or collector; Dep. Keeper's Rep. xxxvi, App. 463–4. He was a godfather in 1412; and had a 'dies amoris' for settlement with John Launcelyn in 1422; Ormerod, Ches. (ed. Helsby), ii, 496, 774. He continued the suit as to the Wallasey rectory. Edmund Litherland was bound over to keep the peace towards the abbot of St. Werburgh's, Chester, between 1464 and 1476; Dep. Keeper's Rep. xxxvi, App. 463–4. Henry de Litherland and his son John made a grant in 1476; Towneley MS. OO, n. 1342. John Litherland occurs on the Recognizance Rolls from 1476 to 1512; Dep. Keeper's Rep. xxxvi, App. 464, and xxxix, 178. In 1517 he made a grant of lands in Wallasey on the marriage of Robert, son and heir of Peter Litherland, with Elizabeth, daughter and heiress of Nicholas Page and Emma his wife; Kuerden fol. MS. 249, n. 21. The parentage of Peter Litherland, the heir of the properties, does not appear. His son Robert died in 1557, leaving as his son and heir John, the vendor of Aughton, then aged about eighteen months; Dep. Keeper's Rep. xxix, App. 178.
  • 92. Kuerden, fol. MS. 475, n. 70, 72.
  • 93. A fine of 1588 mentions John Litherland's wife Ellen; Pal. of Lanc. Feet of F. bdle. 50, m. 146. The Wallasey estates were sold by Edward Litherland; Trans. Hist. Soc. (New Ser.), viiviii, 13, 14; ix, 38, 71. Lawrence Ireland in 1596 complained that Henry Stanley of Bickerstaffe and others had disseised him of lands called Litherland's earth, and Bear Hill, and the Five or Fye lands, formerly belonging to Robert Litherland and afterwards to his son John, from whom the plaintiff had bought them; Duchy of Lanc. Pleadings, Eliz. clxxii, I, 2. From another complaint it appears that John Litherland was in possession of Hollinhurst in 1586, and afterwards sold his lands to Lawrence Ireland, to whom the lessee continued to pay the reserved rent; Duchy of Lanc. Pleadings, Eliz. clxvi, S. 25.
  • 94. The Irelands also purchased lands in Aughton when William Bradshagh began the dispersal of his estate; Duchy of Lanc. Pleadings, Eliz. clxxxvii, B. 1. Lawrence Ireland of Lydiate purchased some of the Beconsaw inheritance from Anthony and Joan Browne in 1556, and from Dorothy Huddleston and her husband Edmund in 1561; Pal. of Lanc. Feet of F. bdle. 16, m. 95 (16 messuages, 100 acres of land, &c.); and bdle. 23, m. 68 (20 messuages, land, &c.). The purchase of 1556 was resold in the next year to Sir Richard Molyneux. When he bought the manor of Eggergarth from James Scarisbrick in 1546 Lawrence Ireland appears also to have purchased lands in Aughton; at the inquest taken after his death his lands were said to be held of the earl of Derby, by services unknown; Duchy of Lanc. Inq. p.m. xi, n. 33. It does not appear that any 'manor' was claimed—see, for instance, Lancs. Inq. p.m. (Rec. Soc. Lancs. and Ches.), i, 127; but in 1657 Lawrence Ireland was one of the three lords of Aughton.
  • 95. Croxteth D.
  • 96. The subsequent inquiry held at West Derby showed that he had held some land in the wastes, worth 29s. 4d. a year, and 9s. rents from free tenants in Aughton, of his brother Einion. A further inquiry showed that he held a messuage and a plough-land in Aughton. See Inq. p.m. 11 Edw. I, n. 62. What became of Guy's estate seems to be shown by a grant from Edmund, earl of Lancaster in 1285, by which he gave in free alms to the abbot of Merivale a water-mill, with the millpool and suit to the mill, and 3 acres of land in Aughton. A century later (1386) Robert le King recites that the abbot had time out of mind held the mill and pool, with the stream running from Cock Beck through Robert's land, and that Robert's ancestors had been accustomed to repair the mill stream as needful, in return for which they had held lands from the abbot; he wished to resign all right in these lands. From Croxteth D.
  • 97. In 1328 occur Madoc son of Baldwin and Mabel his wife; Blundell of Crosby D., Kuerden MSS. ii, n. 217. Madoc son of Baldwin de Aughton in 1329 made a grant to Baldwin his son; ibid. iii, A. 5, n. 564. Baldwin son of Madoc was defendant in a plea by John son of Thomas de Aughton in 1347; Assize R. 1435, m. 51 d.; see also Duchy of Lanc. Assize R. 4, m. 5.
  • 98. It was reported that in 1331 Madoc son of Baldwin feloniously killed Ralph the servant of Richard de Scarisbrick at Aughton, and that William del Burgh, bailiff of the wapentake, accepted 6s. 8d. from him for proclaiming peace at Liverpool by a false charter; Assize R. 430, m. 12, 38 d. In 1374 Nicholas de Aughton complained that Baldwin de Aughton had broken into his close at Aughton, cutting down his trees and doing other damage; De Banc. R. 453, m. 65.
  • 99. Croxteth D., C.
  • 100. Duchy of Lanc. Inq. p.m. ix, n. 2.
  • 101. Croxteth D., C. See the account of Middlewood later; the Beconsaws' title was derived from grants made by Einion son of Madoc.
  • 102. Duchy of Lanc. Inq. p.m. xiii, n. 35.
  • 103. No copyholds were held of this manor, but seven small chief rents were payable, including 3s. 5d. for Middlewood (John Dennett), 1s. 6d. for Winfield, 1s. 1d. for Town Green, &c.
  • 104. Newstead, op. cit. 135.
  • 105. Duchy of Lanc. Pleadings, Eliz. cviii, M. 3.
  • 106. In Kuerden MSS. ii, fol. 262, &c., is a collection of 127 deeds relating to this estate.
  • 107. Loc. cit. n. 23, 11, 12.
  • 108. Ibid. n. 22, 5, 7, 44.
  • 109. Ibid. n. 8, 42.
  • 110. Ibid. n. 29.
  • 111. Ibid. n. 62–4, 66, 78, 70, 125. In 1329 Henry son of John le Waleys conveyed land called the Fall in Aughton to a trustee for Simon son of Cecily de Formby and his issue, with remainder to Gilbert le Waleys; and a further settlement was made by Simon in 1347; ibid. n. 105, 58, 106.
  • 112. Ibid. n. 60.
  • 113. In 1394 Thomas de Hothersall had pardon of outlawry incurred for having with force and arms disseised Roger of his tenements in Aughton, Ormskirk, and Maghull; Towneley MS. CC. n. 388.
  • 114. Kuerden, fol. MS. 433. Nevertheless, nearly forty years later Roger's son Robert is found taking action against Joan, widow of William Huddleston, concerning land in Aughton; Pal. of Lanc. Plea R. 7, m. 2; 8, m. 4.
  • 115. Kuerden MSS. ii, fol. 262, n. 85, 43, 74, 112, 97. References to Robert occur from 1437.
  • 116. Ibid. n. 109.
  • 117. Cockersand Chartul. (Chet. Soc.), iv, 1244, 1249, 1247.
  • 118. Kuerden MSS. ii, fol. 262, n. 94, 89.
  • 119. Ibid. 116, 55, 107. New trustees were appointed in 1555 when Robert Walsh was already in possession; Pal. of Lanc. Feet of F. bdle. 15, m. 141.
  • 120. She had an illegitimate son Roger; Kuerden MSS. ii, fol. 263, n. 107.
  • 121. Duchy of Lanc. Inq. p.m. xiii, n. 11.
  • 122. Pal. of Lanc. Feet of F. bdle. 40, m. 203; bdle. 46, m. 120. The uses in the second case were—to Thomas and Eleanor for life, then to bastard sons, named Thomas and John.
  • 123. Duchy of Lanc. Inq. p.m. xvi, n. 23. This inquisition contains a partial description of the mansion house; 'the upper end' contained hall, parlour, three rooms, and a buttery; with which went three bays of the barn, the old shippon, the swine-houses, and the kiln; a garden, hempyard, orchard, and stackyard.
  • 124. Lancs. Inq. p.m. (Rec. Soc. Lancs. and Ches.), ii, 129. By his will Thomas Walsh desired to be buried in Aughton church, as near as possible to his father. He mentions his wife Mary, and makes his brother-in-law, 'Mr. Edward Moorcroft, one of his majesty's servants,' the overseer. Among the farm stock, &c., were a peacock and a peahen, worth 12d.; Will at Chester, dated 5 and proved 23 June, 1614.
  • 125. His lands were sold under the Act of 1652; Index of Royalists, 44; Cal. Com. for Comp. iv, 3134. The account embraces not only what he held, but what would come to him after his father's death. What he held included the 'lower part' of the mansion house, containing six rooms, with farm buildings adjacent, his father living in the remainder, which had also six rooms; also the washingpit, croft and other fields near the house, bounded by the Common Lane, High Lane, and Mrs. Ireland's lands on east, north, and west. The Hills, Dolly Lane, and the Willow Snapp are some of the local names mentioned. S.P. Dom. Inter. G. 58a, fol. 513.
  • 126. The inventory after his death was taken on 18 Dec. 1668, on which day his widow Anne asked that administration should be granted to the youngest son, John Walsh; Inventory at Chester, total £34.
  • 127. By his will, made in 1692, he desired that his body should be buried in the ancestral burial place in Aughton church; certain houses were to descend to his son Robert and issue, with remainders to his daughter Mary, then wife of Robert Fazakerley of Spellow House, and her issue, and to his grandson Thomas Farrer, son of his daughter Elizabeth. He mentions also his daughters Katherine Walsh, Margaret King, Susan Carter, Anne Johnson, and Jane Walsh; Will at Chester. The inventory shows farm stocks, &c. worth £178. The will of his widow, who died in 1708, makes bequests to her daughter Mary, her son-in-law Robert Fazakerley, and their son Robert and others; and leaves the residue to the children of her son Robert Walsh, towards their preferment. The inventory gives a list of household stuff at 'Hall Walsh,' and shows a total of £170; Will at Chester (made 27 Sept. 1705; proved 20 May, 1710); inventory, 17 July, 1708.
  • 128. See the account of Bickerstaffe.
  • 129. Kuerden MSS. ii, fol. 268, A. 8. Three of the lords of the place—John le Waleys, Madoc son of Madoc de Aughton, and Guy son of Madoc son of Bleddyn—made a further grant of land touching on Bickerstaffe. Later, Einion son of Madoc released 2s. 7d. rent due from certain lands given by his father; in addition he granted land between the bank of Crawshaw and the lands which Simon already held from Einion and that which Adam de Birches held, viz. beginning at the ditch on the east, following the mid-stream of the water of Crawshaw to the ditch on the south, and so to that on the west; thence to that on the east, and back to the starting point; ibid. fol. 269b, n. 75.
  • 130. Ibid. fol. 268, n. 6, 1. The younger Simon was of sufficient position to marry Dionysia, daughter of John le Waleys of Litherland, receiving from her father a fresh grant of land in Longley, with liberty (among other things) to grind his corn at the granter's mill at Winckley without multure, rendering a peppercorn yearly; ibid. fol. 269, n. 66. Einion de Aughton added a further grant upon Longfield, the boundaries touching the Alt; ibid. fol. 269b, n. 76.
  • 131. Final Conc. i, 159.
  • 132. Gilbert le Walsh in 1328 gave land to Dionysia, formerly wife of Richard de Ince; Kuerden MSS. ii, fol. 268, n. B. 4.
  • 133. Lancs. Inq. p.m. (Chet. Soc.), ii, 23. See also Kuerden, ii, fol. 269, n. 58. Thomas Bradshagh of Uplitherland petitioned the archbishop of York as chancellor—probably 1426 to 1432—to do him justice against Roger de Aughton, who while petitioner had been over the seas in company of the duke of Bedford, laid claim to certain lands of which John de Ince had enfeoffed the petitioner, his brother Richard Bradshagh, and others, for the performance of his will, as follows: 'Isabel his wife, sister of Thomas Bradshagh, to have part of the lands, with the reversion to Thomas.' John and Isabel were both dead. Early Chan. Proc. bdle. 7, n. 284.
  • 134. Kuerden MSS. ii, fol. 269, n. 113; fol. 271, n. 59, 13.
  • 135. Kuerden MSS. ii, fol. 269b, n. 98, 99, 110.
  • 136. He had (by fine, 1566) settled them upon his second wife Cecily for her life, with remainders to himself and his children Edward, William, Anne, Alice, and Margaret (wife of Henry Stanley), and for default to John son of John Stanley the brother of Peter. He had other lands in Netherton, Ormskirk, and Rainford. The premises in Aughton were held of the earl of Derby in socage by fealty only; a house and some land in Uplitherland of the queen (but not in chief) by the yearly rent of 6d. Edward Stanley, the son and heir, was over thirty years of age; Duchy of Lanc. Inq. p.m. xvi, n. 1; also Pal. of Lanc. Feet of F. bdle. 28, m. 69. Cecily died before her husband, whose will mentions 'Jane now my wife.' To Edward Stanley and Katherine (Ireland) his wife, and their children Jane and Elizabeth, various bequests were made, including the furnishings of Moor Hall, a chest in the great chamber, 'all armour and furniture for wars and one great stone used for the preservation of swine meat'; Piccope, Wills, ii, 282. For the marriage contract of Edward and Katherine (1579) with its provision for payment 'upon the font at the parish church,' see Newstead's Aughton, 74, 75.
  • 137. Gibson, Lydiate Hall, 231; Kenyon MSS. (Hist. MSS. Com.), 593.
  • 138. Lancs. Inq. p.m. (Rec. Soc. Lancs. and Ches.), i, 167. In 1628 Peter Stanley and Bridget his mother, as convicted recusants, paid double to the subsidy; Norris D. (B.M.). The will of Bridget Stanley was made in Apr. 1639, and proved in May, 1640. Her sons Thomas and Peter received legacies; the former, with her friends Hugh Aspinwall of Aughton and Thomas Burscough of Lathom, were made executors. The inventory amounted to £188. Peter Stanley had two-thirds of his estate sequestered by the Parliament for recusancy, and in 1652 complained that the remaining third had been taken from him 'on some charge of delinquency.' It was in fact sold under the Confiscation Act of 1652, and bought by William Barton; but seems to have been repurchased; Cal. Com. for Comp. iv, 2937; Index of Royalists (Index Soc.), 44.
  • 139. He was indicted for recusancy, 1678; Kenyon MSS. (Hist. MSS. Com.), 110; and marked out for banishment in 1680; Cavalier's Note-book. He was buried at Aughton 9 Sept. 1689.
  • 140. He was a Liverpool barrister, and had been a prominent member of the Catholic Association, which did good service in promoting the cause of emancipation; Gibson, Lydiate Hall, 313.
  • 141. Newstead, Aughton, 10. For a claim of chief rent made by the earl of Derby, see ibid. p. 27.
  • 142. Its fortunes have been traced in A. Patchett's Ancient Charters relating to Aughton; privately printed (Liverpool), 1899. It contains 81 charters, an introduction and notes, and a pedigree of the Bickerstath family. The author has not been followed in identifying Madoc de Aughton with Madoc son of Bleddyn.
  • 143. This summary is from the work cited, where the evidences are printed. Henry de Ince of Aughton, and Gilbert Anian, John and William, his brothers, are mentioned in 1344; Assize R. 1435, m. 45 d.
  • 144. 'Crotia' gives names to fields in the Moor Hall estate. There was also a Crawshaw in Bickerstaffe.
  • 145. Probably he married again, as Banastre of Bank held lands of Alice wife of Gilbert de Ince of Aughton; De Banc. R. 364, m. 12.
  • 146. One of these mentions 'Broad Oak' as a boundary. The land of William son of William the Harper was adjacent.
  • 147. The Beconsaws had lands in Wallasey also. In 1329 the prior of the Hospitallers claimed land in Aughton from Gilbert le Walsh and Henry de Beconsaw; the latter held half the manor of Becconsall, which the prior also claimed; De Banc. R. 279, m. 180 d. Gilbert Walsh about 1530 held Crossfield in Aughton of the Hospitallers by the yearly rent of 12d. and Thomas Walton had two messuages, paying 2d.; Kuerden MSS. v, fol. 84.
  • 148. Pal. of Lanc. Feet of F. bdle. 17, m. 74. Part of the estate was sold to Ireland of Lydiate, who resold it to Sir Richard Molyneux.
  • 149. Duchy of Lanc. Inq. p.m. xii, n. 35.
  • 150. Among the field names are Bastenhead, Bangart, and Willfield. James Bickersteth, a brother of this last-named Robert, settled in Kendal, and became the ancestor of Bishop Bickersteth of Ripon, Bishop Bickersteth of Exeter, Lord Langdale, Master of the Rolls, and other distinguished men.
  • 151. Kuerden MSS. ii, fol. 269b, n. 63.
  • 152. Final Conc. (Rec. Soc. Lancs. and Ches.), ii, 182.
  • 153. Kuerden MSS. ii, fol. 286b, n. 2.
  • 154. Ibid. fol. 268b, n. 27.
  • 155. Ibid. n. 26; also fol. MS. 462. Hugh's sisters, Katherine Mossock and Margary Faldering, released their claim in 1514–15.
  • 156. P.C.C. 29, Mainwaring. It is dated 1 June, 1518. He is called citizen and fishmonger of London. He left money to Ormskirk church, including £4 for a priest there to pray for his soul and the soul of Hugh Bickerstath and all Christian souls for ever; also to 'the new chapel founded by the Fishmongers in St. Michael's in Crooked Lane (London) and built, I being their warden and chief deviser thereof, and for my "lestow" there I bequeath a silver gilt chalice of the value of £8 sterling to serve in the said chapel.' His lands in Ormskirk, Aughton, Ashton, Liverpool, and Wigan were to go to his illegitimate son Lionel, with remainder to his daughter Barbara, also base; for default of heirs, to Miles son of Godfrey Gerard, 'my brother.' There was also a daughter Pernell. His brother Sir Piers was to be guardian of the children. His lands in Hertfordshire were to be sold. Sir Thomas Seymour was one of the executors and Sir Henry Wyatt the overseer.
  • 157. Duchy of Lanc. Inq. p.m. v, n. 43. At the inquest after Peter's death, made in 1529, it was found that Miles son of Godfrey Gerard was his heir, and aged twenty-six and more; ibid. vi, n. 58.
  • 158. For the abduction of his wife Grace see above, under Litherland. In Pal. of Lanc. Feet. of F. bdle. 13, m. 127, is a feoffment by Lionel Gerard. Miles his son and heir apparent appears with Lionel Gerard and his wife Grace in 1574; ibid. bdle. 36, m. 29.
  • 159. He admitted that Peter Gerard by his will in 1528 desired an annual payment of 46s. to be made to Roger Shaw, priest, for his life, and gave £20 to the building of St. Mary Magdalen's Chapel; but denied that any permanent endowment was made or intended, his father and himself having enjoyed the lands, after Roger Shaw's death, without any burden upon them; Duchy of Lanc. Pleas, Eliz. cxc, W. 12.
  • 160. Ibid. cxxx, M. 8.
  • 161. The widow Dorothy claimed the Gerard tenements in Aughton, Ormskirk, and elsewhere, including burgages and gardens lying outside the Northgate of Chester, in right of her marriage settlement. She complained that her son was being badly trained, spending his time 'in dissolute and unbridled manner without learning or virtuous education,' and was not suitably clothed; ibid. ccxi, G. 4.
  • 162. Will at Chester dated 31 May, 1602; proved 24 June. The inventory (9 June) shows a total of £60 8s.
  • 163. He held four messuages and land in Aughton of Bartholomew Hesketh and John Starkie; also two cottages built on land recently improved from the waste, of the king, in right of his duchy, by th 300th part of a knight's fee. He had other houses and lands in Ormskirk, Burscough, Bickerstaffe, Lathom, and Formby; also in Ashton in Makerfield, Liverpool, and Chest. See Lancs. Inq. p.m. (Rec. Soc. Lancs. and Ches.), ii, 46–8.
  • 164. Norris D. (B.M.). He did not persevere. The troubles of the Civil War period seem to have made him ready to swear or abjure anything in order to preserve his property. At the beginning of the war, being one of the trained bands, he had been 'enforced' to take arms against the Parliament. Sequestration followed and he compounded, paid a fine of £80, and was discharged in 1648. He took the National Covenant in 1644 and again in 1646, and the Negative Oath also. Next came the more serious accusation of recusancy; notwithstanding his former conviction, he maintained that though his wife was a recusant 'he had been brought up in the Protestant religion according to the laws of England; he was conformable to the Church and Commonwealth of England as the same is now [1651] established, to the best of his knowledge.' Even in 1644 he had 'frequented the church of Liverpool, joined with the congregation there in prayers, hearing the word and receiving the sacrament from the hands of Joseph Thomson, then minister there.' In 1652 he professed that he dared not return to his own county, on account of his debts, he, his wife, and thirteen children being forced to beg their bread. Soon afterwards he took the oath of abjuration, and it is probable that his lands were then restored to him; Royalist Comp. P. (Rec. Soc. Lancs. and Ches.), iii, 27–33. In some of these he is called 'gent.', and in others 'yeoman.'
  • 165. Pal. of Lanc. Feet of F. bdle. 13, m. 278.
  • 166. Ibid. bdle. 14, m. 244. The purchaser made a settlement in 1563, providing for the succession to his sons James, Henry, Robert, and William in tail male; the names of the fields are given as Wolton Greves, Green Hey, Gorsey Hey, Oller Croft, Bog Land, Milne Croft, Washing Hey, Cow Hey, and Geld Grass.
  • 167. He had several lawsuits concerning the property. James Bradshagh in 1516 had granted a long lease of the estate which William Bradshagh had in 1535 confirmed and extended for sixty years, and the new owner wanted possession; Duchy of Lanc. Pleadings, Eliz. cxxii, L. 2, 3; clxxiv, M. 17.
  • 168. Will at Chester; proved 24 April, 1610; inventory £45.
  • 169. Royalist Comp. P. i, 257. From the date of Gilbert's death, and the fact that he was buried at Newbury, it will be gathered that he fell, fighting on the Royalist side, Oct. 1644.
  • 170. Much of the information as to this estate is derived from The Tatlocks of Cunscough, by A. Patchett (1901). See the account of Melling. For descendants see Burke's Landed Gentry, under Johnson of Temple Belwood and Hughes of Sherdley Hall.
  • 171. The will of John Bochard, clerk, made in 1542, shows that he was of this neighbourhood. He left money for Ormskirk church. He names his brother Hugh Bochard; his sister appears to have married one Davy of Chester, and several children are mentioned; P.C.C. 20, Spert. The name is preserved in Budget's or Butcher's Lane.
  • 172. Towneley MS. OO, n 1424.