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The parish of Winwick: Introduction, church and charities

Pages 122-132

A History of the County of Lancaster: Volume 4. Originally published by Victoria County History, London, 1911.

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WINWICK

NEWTON GOLBORNE HOUGHTON, MIDDLETON, AND ARBURY
HAYDOCK LOWTON SOUTHWORTH WITH CROFT
WINWICK WITH HULME KENYON
ASHTON CULCHETH

The ancient parish of Winwick lies between Sankey Brook on the south-west and Glazebrook and a tributary on the north and east, the distance between these brooks being 4½ or 5 miles. The extreme length of the parish is nearly 10 miles, and its area 26, 502 acres.

The highest ground is on the extreme north-west border, about 350 ft.; most of the surface is above the 100 ft. level, but slopes down on three sides to the boundaries, 25 ft. being reached in Hulme in the south. The geological formation consists of the Coal Measures in the northern and western parts of the parish, and of the Bunter series of the Nèw Red Sandstone in the remainder. Except Culcheth, which belonged to the fee of Warrington, the whole was included in the barony of Makerfield, the head of which was Newton.

The townships were arranged in four quarters for contributions to the county lay, to which the parish paid one-eighth of the hundred levy, each quarter paying equally:—(1) Winwick with Hulme, half; Newton, half; (2) Lowton and Kenyon, half; Haydock and Golborne, half; (3) Ashton; (4) Culcheth, two-thirds; Southworth and Croft, a third. To the ancient 'fifteenth,' out of a levy of £106 9s. 6d. on the hundred, the parish contributed £8 3s. 6¾d., as follows:—Newton, £1 10s.; Haydock, 10s. 9¼d.; Ashton, £2 14s. 5¼d.; Golborne, 8s.; Lowton, 15s. 8d.; Culcheth, £1 8s. 10¼d.; Southworth and Croft, 9s. 2d.; Middleton with Arbury, 6s. 8d.

One of the great roads from south to north has from the earliest times led through Winwick, Newton, and Ashton, and there are several tumuli and other ancient remains.

The Domesday Survey shows that a large part of the surface consisted of woodland, and Garswood in Ashton preserves the name of part of it. In the Civil War two battles were fought near Winwick. In more modern times coal mines have been worked and manufactures introduced, and Earlestown has grown up around the wagon-building works of the London and North-Western Railway Company.

The agricultural land in the parish is utilized as follows:—Arable land, 16, 258 acres; permanent grass, 4,820 acres; woods and plantations, 653 acres. The following are details:—

Arable Grass Woods, &c.
Winwick 2,192 247 25
Southworth and Croft 1,596 130
Newton in Makerfield 1,614 423 17
Lowton 960 570
Haydock 1,244 411 72
Golborne 951 448 16
Ashton in Makerfield 3,228 1,210 433
Culcheth and Kenyon 4,473 1,381 90

Newton has given the title of baron to the lord of the manor, who has, however, no residence in the parish; Lord Gerard of Brynn has his principal seat at Garswood.

Dr. Kuerden thus describes a journey through the parish made about 1695:—'Entering a little hamlet called the Hulme you leave on the left a deep and fair stone quarry fit for building. You meet with another crossway on the right. A mile farther stands a fair-built church called Winwick church, a remarkable fabric. . . . Leaving the church on the right about a quarter of a mile westwards stands a princely building, equal to the revenue, called the parsonage of Winwick; and near the church on the right hand stands a fair-built schoolhouse. By the east end of the church is another road, but less used, to the borough of Wigan.

'Having passed the school about half a mile you come to a sandy place called the Red Bank, where Hamilton and his army were beaten. Here, leaving Bradley park, and a good seat belonging to Mr. Brotherton of Hey (a member of Parliament for the borough of Newton) on the left hand, and Newton park on the right, you have a little stone bridge over Newton Brook, three miles from Warrington. On the left hand close by a water mill appear the ruins of the site of the ancient barony of Newton, where formerly was the baron's castle.

'Having passed the bridge you ascend a rock, where is a penfold cut out of the same, and upon the top of the rock was lately built a court house for the manor, and near to it a fair re-edified chapel of stone built by Richard Legh, deceased, father to Mr. Legh, the present titular baron of Newton. There stands a stately cross, near the chapel well, adorned with the arms belonging to the present baron. Having passed the town of Newton you leave a cross-road on the left going to Liverpool by St. Helen's chapel. You pass in winter through a miry lane for half a mile; you leave another lane on the left passing by Billinge. . . .

'Then passing on a sandy lane you leave Haydock park, and (close by the road) Haydock lodge, belonging to Mr. Legh, and going on half a mile you pass by the chapel and through the town of Ashton, standing upon a rocky ground, which belongeth to Sir William Gerard, bart., of Brynn, who resides at Garswood, about a mile to the east (sic). Having passed the stone bridge take the left hand way, which though something fouler is more used. You then pass by Whitledge Green, a place much resorted to in summer by the neighbouring gentry for bowling. Shortly after, you meet with the other way from Ashton bridge by J. Naylor's, a herald painter and an excellent stainer of glass for pictures or coats of arms. Through a more open coach-way passing on upon the right leave the Brynn gate, a private way leading to the ancient hall of Brynn, and upon the left another road by Garswood to the hall of Parr, a seat belonging to the Byroms, and to St. Helen's chapel; and thence past Hawkley to Wigan.' (fn. 1)

INDEX MAP to the PARISH of WINWICK

Among the worthies of the parish may here be noted Thomas Legh Claughton, born at Haydock Lodge in 1808, who became Bishop of Rochester in 1867, resigning in 1890, and died in 1892; (fn. 2) also Thomas Risley, a Nonconformist divine, 1630 to 1716. (fn. 3)

The following in 1630–3 compounded by annual fines for the two-thirds of their estates liable to be sequestered for their recusancy: Ashton, Sir William Gerard of Brynn, £106 13s. 4d.; Jane Gerard; Culcheth, Richard Urmston, £6; Lowton, Peter and Roger Haughton, £3; Southworth, Christopher Bow of Croft, £2 10s. (fn. 4)

CHURCH

The church of ST. OSWALD has a chancel (fn. 5) with north vestry, nave with aisles and south porch, and west tower and spire. It is built of a very inferior local sand-stone, with the result that its history has been much obscured by repairs and rebuildings, and cannot be taken back beyond the 14th century; though the dedication and the fragment of an early cross, now set up outside the chancel, both point to an early occupation of the site.

The chancel was entirely rebuilt in 1847–8 in 14th-century style, the elder Pugin being the architect, and is a fine and well-designed work with a high-pitched leaded roof, a four-light east window, and three-light windows on north and south. There are three canopied sedilia and a piscina, and the arched ceiling is panelled, with gilt bosses at the intersection of the ribs, and a stone cornice with carved paterae.

The nave is of six bays, with a north arcade having pointed arches of two orders with sunk quarter-round mouldings, and curious clustered piers considerably too thick for the arches they carry, and projecting in front of the wall-face towards the nave. The general outline is octagonal with a hollow between two quarter-rounds on each cardinal face, and a deep V-shaped sinking on the alternate faces. The abacus of the capitals is octagonal, but the necking follows the outline of the piers, and pairs of trefoiled leaves rise from the hollows on the cardinal faces. The bases, of very rough work, are panelled on the cardinal faces, with engaged shafts 6 in. high, while on the diagonal faces are badly-cut mitred heads.

There is a curious suggestion of 14th-century detail in the arcade, in spite of its clumsiness, but the actual date is probably within a few years of 1600. The clearstory above has three windows set over the alternate arches, of four lights with uncusped tracery and low four-centred heads.

The south arcade, 'from the first pillar eastward to the fifth west,' was taken down and rebuilt from the foundations in 1836. It has clustered piers of quatrefoil section, and simply moulded bell capitals with octagonal abaci, the arches being of two chamfered orders with labels ending in pairs of human heads at the springing. The original work belonged to the beginning of the 14th century. The clearstory on this side has six windows, of four uncusped lights without tracery, under a four-centred head, all the stonework being modern.

At the east end of the north aisle is the Gerard Chapel, inclosed with an iron screen, which about 1848 replaced a wooden screen dated 'in the yere of our Lord MCCCCLXXXI.' There is a three-light east window and two four-light windows on the north, all with 16th-century uncusped tracery. In the aisle west of the chapel are three four-light north windows with embattled transoms and uncusped tracery, and a north doorway with a square-headed window over it, of four uncusped lights. The tracery, except part in the Gerard Chapel, has been lately renewed, the original date of the windows being perhaps c. 1530–50. On the external faces of the transoms is carved the IHS monogram. The two east bays of the south aisle are taken up by the Legh Chapel, and separated by an arch at the west from the rest of the aisle. This western portion was rebuilt in 1530, being dated by an inscription running round the external cornice, and the Legh Chapel is somewhat earlier in date, perhaps c. 1500. The chapel has a small doorway on the south, a three-light window on the east, and two on the south, all with uncusped tracery, the stonework being mutilated, and in the aisle are three four-light windows on the south, with embattled transoms and tracery uncusped except in the upper middle lights, and one window at the west, also of four lights, but of different design. On the external faces of the transoms are carved roses, all the stonework being modern. The aisle has a vice at the southwest angle. The south porch is low, and the inscribed cornice of the aisle runs above it without a break. The porch has been completely refaced, and opens to the south aisle by a four-centred doorway with continuous mouldings. Both aisles and clearstory have embattled parapets and leaded roofs of low pitch. The inscription round the south aisle is in leonine hexameters, running from west to east, and is as follows:—

Hic locus Oswalde quondam placuit tibi valde;
Nortanhumbrorum fueras rex, nuncque polorum
Regna tenes, prato passus Marcelde vocato.
Poscimus hinc a te nostri memor esto beate.
Anno milleno quingentenoque triceno
Sclater post Christum murum renovaverat istum;
Henricus Johnson curatus erat simul hic tunc.

The tower retains much of its old facing, though the surface is much decayed. It has a vice at the south-east angle, which ends with a flat top at the level of an embattled parapet at the base of the spire. The spire is of stone, and has two rows of spire lights, and the belfry windows are of two trefoiled lights with quatrefoils in the head. All the work belongs to the first half of the 14th century, and in the ground story is a three-light west window with modern net tracery, flanked by two empty niches, with below it a four-centred doorway with continuous wave-mouldings. The tower arch is of three continuous wavemoulded orders. On the west face of the tower, to the south of the niche flanking the west window on the south, is a small and very weathered carving of a pig with a bell round his neck, known as the Winwick pig. His story is that, like other supernatural agencies under similar circumstances elsewhere, he insisted on bringing all the stones with which the church was being built on another and lower site to the present site, removing each night the preceding day's work. (fn. 6)

The roof of the Gerard Chapel is modern, but that of the Legh Chapel has heavily-moulded timbers, ceiled between with plaster panels having moulded ribs and four-leaved flowers at the centres. Below the beams, at the wall plates, are angels holding shields with heraldry. (fn. 7)

The roofs of the aisles have cambered tie-beams and braces, with panels between the beams divided into four by wood ribs. Neither roof is set out to space with the arcades or windows, the south aisle roof being of seven bays, that in the north aisle of six; they belong probably to c. 1530.

In the vestry is a very fine and elaborate 15th-century carved beam, found used up in a cottage. It has eleven projecting brackets for images, that in the middle being larger than the others, and may have been the front beam of the rood-loft. It is 15 ft. long. An altar table in the vestry dated 1725 is inlaid with mahogany, with a 'glory' in the middle and initials at the corners, and a monogram A T.

In the Gerard Chapel is the fine brass of Piers Gerard, son of Sir Thomas Gerard of the Brynn, 1485, and in the Legh Chapel is a second brass, now set against the east wall, with the figures of Sir Peter Legh, 1527, and his wife Ellen (Savage), 1491. Sir Peter was ordained priest after his wife's death, and is shown on his brass tonsured and with mass vestments over his armour. Below are figures of children. There is a brass plate in the chancel pavement to Richard Sherlock, rector, 1689.

Later monuments in the Legh Chapel are those of Sir Peter Legh, 1635, and Richard Legh and his wife, 1687. On the south side of the chapel some alabaster panels with strapwork and heraldry, from a destroyed Jacobean monument, are built into the wall. (fn. 8)

There are six bells, re-cast in 1711.

The church possesses two chalices, patens, and flagons of 1786; two chalices, four patens, and two flagons of 1795; and a sifter and tray of the same date. Also a pewter flagon and basin, two large copper flagons, red enamelled, with gold flower painting of Japanese style, a gilded brass almsdish and two plates, designed by Pugin, and an ebony staff with a plated head, the gift of Geoffrey Hornby, rector, 1781–1812.

In the chancel hangs a brass chandelier, given by the Society of Friends of Warrington.

The registers begin in 1563, the paper book not being extant. The first volume contains the years 1563–1642, the entries to 1598 being copies. The next volumes in order are 1630–77, 1676–95, 1696–1717, 1716–33.

The octagonal bowl of a 14th-century font found in 1877 beneath the floor of the church now lies outside the east end of the chancel, in company with the piece of an early cross-head described in a previous volume. (fn. 9) It is much worn, but has had four-leaved flowers on each face, with raised centres, and must have been a good piece of work when perfect. (fn. 10)

ADVOWSON

'St. Oswald had two plough-lands exempt from all taxation' in 1066, so that the parish church has been well endowed from ancient times. (fn. 11) Possibly the dedication suggested to Roger of Poitou the propriety of granting it to St. Oswald's Priory, Nostell, (fn. 12) a grant which appears to have been renewed or confirmed by Stephen, Count of Mortain, between 1114 and 1121. (fn. 13) In 1123 Henry I wrote to the Bishop of Chester, directing that full justice should be done to the prior and canons of Nostell, whose clerks in Makerfield were depriving them of their dues. (fn. 14) From this time the prior and canons presented to the church, receiving certain dues or a fixed pension; but beyond the statement in the survey of 1212 (fn. 15) nothing is known until 1252, when Alexander, Bishop of Lichfield, having been appealed to by the prior and the canons, decreed that on the next vacancy they should present 'a priest of honest conversation and competent learning' as vicar, who should receive the whole of the fruits of the church, paying to Lichfield Cathedral and to Nostell Priory a sum of money as might be fixed by the bishop. In the meantime the annual pension of 50s. then paid to Nostell from the church of Winwick was to be divided equally, half being paid to the church of Lichfield. (fn. 16) A century later it appears that a pension of 24 marks was due from the vicarage to the monastery. (fn. 17)

Nostell Priory. Gules a cross between four lions rampant or.

In 1291 the annual value was estimated as £26 13s. 4d., (fn. 18) while in 1341 the ninth of the corn, wool, &c. was valued at 50 marks. (fn. 19)

The first dispute as to the patronage seems to have occurred in 1307, when John de Langton claimed it in right of his wife Alice, heiress of the lords of Makerfield. The priors of Nostell, however, were able to show a clear title, and the claim was defeated. (fn. 20) About fifty years later the patronage was acquired by the Duke of Lancaster. (fn. 21) In 1381 the king was patron, (fn. 22) and the Crown retained the right until Henry VI granted it to Sir John de Stanley, reserving to the prior an annual pension of 100s. (fn. 23) From this time it has descended with the main portion of the Stanley properties, the Earl of Derby being patron.

In 1534 the net value was returned as £102 9s. 8d., (fn. 24) but in 1650 the income was estimated at over £660, (fn. 25) and Bishop Gastrell reckoned it at about £800 after the curates had been paid. (fn. 26) At the beginning of last century, before the division of the endowment, the benefice was considered the richest in the kingdom, (fn. 27) and its gross value is still put at £1,600. (fn. 28)

The following have been rectors:—

Instituted Name Presented by Cause of Vacancy
oc. 1191 Hugh (fn. 29)
oc. 1212 Richard (fn. 30)
oc. 1232 Robert (fn. 31)
c. 1250 N (fn. 32)
Alexander de Tamworth (fn. 33) Priory of Nostell
Augustine de Darington (fn. 34) "
oc. 1287 John de Mosley (fn. 35) "
8 Feb. 1306–7 John de Bamburgh (fn. 36) "
— 1325 John de Chisenhale (fn. 37) Bishop of Lichfield d. of J. de Bamburgh
12 Dec. 1349 Geoffrey de Burgh (fn. 38) Priory of Nostell d. J. de Chisenhale
William de Blackburn (fn. 39)
oc. 1384–5 John de Harwood (fn. 40)
23 Jan. 1384–5 Thomas le Boteler (fn. 41) The King
— 1386 Walter de Thornholme (fn. 42) "
— 1388 Robert le King (fn. 43) The Pope
6 May 1389 William Daas (fn. 44) The Pope
The King
3 April 1423 Mr. Richard Stanley (fn. 45) Bishop of Lichfield
11 Mar. 1432–3 Thomas Bourchier (fn. 46) Sir John Stanley d. R. Stanley
oc. 1436 George Radcliffe, D. Decr. (fn. 47)
19 June 1453 Edward Stanley (fn. 48) Sir Thomas Stanley d. G. Radcliffe
22 Nov. 1462 James Stanley (fn. 49) Henry Byrom d. E. Stanley
25 Aug. 1485 Robert Cliff (fn. 50) Lord Stanley d. J. Stanley
27 Feb. 1493–4 Mr. James Stanley, D.Can.L. (fn. 51) Earl of Derby res. R. Cliff
21 June 1515 Mr. Thomas Larke (fn. 52) " d. Bp. of Ely
— 1525 Thomas Winter (fn. 53) The King res. T. Larke
23 Dec. 1529 William Boleyne (fn. 54) " res. T. Winter
10 April 1552 Thomas Stanley (fn. 55) Earl of Derby d. W. Boleyne
19 Mar. 1568–9 Christopher Thompson, M.A. (fn. 56) Thomas Handford d. Bp. Stanley
7 Jan. 1575–6 John Caldwell, M.A. (fn. 57) Earl of Derby depr. or removal of Chr. Thompson
18 Feb. 1596–7 John Ryder, M.A. (fn. 58)
27 Mar. 1616 Josiah Horne (fn. 59) The King prom. Bp. Ryder
27 June 1626 Charles Herle, M.A. (fn. 60) Sir Edward Stanley d. J. Horne
Thomas Jessop (fn. 61)
19 Oct. 1660 Richard Sherlock, D.D. (fn. 62) Earl of Derby
24 July 1689 Thomas Bennet, B.D. (fn. 63) John Bennet d. R. Sherlock
30 July 1692 Hon. Henry Finch, M.A. (fn. 64) Earl of Derby d. T. Bennet
9 Sept. 1725 Francis Annesley, LL.D. (fn. 65) Trustees res. H. Finch
13 Sept. 1740 Hon. John Stanley, M.A. (fn. 66) Charles Stanley d. F. Annesley
18 May 1742 Thomas Stanley, LL.D. (fn. 67) Earl of Derby res. J. Stanley
24 Aug. 1764 Hon. John Stanley, M.A. (fn. 68) " d. T. Stanley
7 June 1781 Geoffrey Hornby (fn. 69) Earl of Derby d. J. Stanley
19 Dec. 1812 James John Hornby, M.A. (fn. 70) " d. G. Hornby
Nov. 1855 Frank George Hopwood, M.A. (fn. 71) " d. J. J. Hornby
29 April 1890 Oswald Henry Leycester Penrhyn, M.A. (fn. 72) " d. F. G. Hopwood

As in the case of other benefices the earlier rectors were probably married 'clerks,' enjoying the principal part of the revenues of the church, and paying a priest to minister in the parish. Two sons of Robert, rector in 1232, are known. After the patronage had been transferred to the Stanleys the rectory became a 'family living,' in the later sense.

In the Valor of 1535 the only ecclesiastics mentioned are the rector, two chantry priests at Winwick, and a third at Newton. (fn. 73) The Clergy List of 1541–2 (fn. 74) shows three others as residing in this large parish, including the curate, Henry Johnson, paid by Gowther Legh, the rector's steward. The list is probably incomplete, for at the visitation of 1548 the names of fourteen were recorded—the rector, his curate, Hugh Bulling, who had replaced Henry Johnson; the three chantry priests and two others just named, and seven more. By 1554 these had been reduced to six—the rector, his curate, Richard Smith, two of the chantry priests still living there, but only two of the others who had appeared six years earlier. In 1562 a further reduction is manifest. The rector, Bishop Stanley, was excused from attendance by the bishop; three others appeared, one being a surviving chantry priest, but the fifth named was absent. In the following year the rector was again absent; the curate of Newton, the former chantry priest, did not appear; but the curates of Ashton and Culcheth were present, and another is named. The improvement was only apparent, for in 1565 the rector, though present, non exhibuit, and only two other names are given in the Visitation List, and they are crossed out and two others written over them. It seems, therefore, that the working staff had been reduced to two—Andrew Rider and Thomas Collier. (fn. 75)

How the Reformation changes affected the parish does not appear, except from these fluctuations and reductions in the staff of clergy. The rector was not interfered with on the accession of Elizabeth; his dignity and age, as well as his family connexions, probably saved him from any compliance beyond employing a curate who would use the new services. His successor became a Douay missionary priest, suffering imprisonment and exile. Though the rector in 1590 was 'a preacher' he lived in Cheshire, and his curate was 'no preacher'; nor were the two chapels at Newton and Ashton any better provided. (fn. 76) The list drawn up about 1610 shows that though the rector, an Irish dignitary, was 'a preacher,' the resident curate was not; while at the three chapels there were 'seldom curates.' (fn. 77)

The Commonwealth surveyors of 1650 were not quite satisfied with Mr. Herle, for though he was 'an orthodox, godly, preaching minister,' and one of the most prominent Presbyterians in England, he had not observed the day of humiliation recently appointed by the Parliament. They recommended the creation of four new parishes—the three ancient chapelries, and a new one at Lowton. (fn. 78) After the Restoration two or three meetings of Nonconformists seem to have been established. (fn. 79) In 1778 each of the four chapelries in the parish was served by a resident curate, paid chiefly by the rector, except Newton, paid by Mr. Legh. (fn. 80)

The great changes brought about by the coal mining and other industries in the neighbourhood have ecclesiastically, as in other respects, produced a revolution; and by the munificence of Rector J. J. Hornby—a just munificence, but rare—the modern parishes into which Winwick has been divided are well endowed.

There were two chantries in the parish church. The older of them was founded in the chapel of the Holy Trinity in 1330 by Gilbert de Haydock, for a fit and honest chaplain, who was to pray for the founder by name in every mass, and say the commendation with Placebo and Dirige, every day except on double feasts of nine lessons. The right of pre sentation was vested in the founder and his heirs, but after a three months' vacancy it would lapse to the bishop. (fn. 81) A few of the names of the priests of this foundation occur in the Lichfield Registers, and others have been collected by Mr. Beamont from the Legh deeds. (fn. 82) In 1534 the income was 66s. 8d., and it remained the same till the confiscation in 1548. (fn. 83)

The second chantry, known as the Stanley chantry, was founded by the ancestors of the Earl of Derby. It was in the rector's chapel, and endowed with burgages in Lichfield and Chester, bringing in a rent of 66s. 8d. (fn. 84)

A grammar school, once of some note, was founded by Gowther Legh in the time of Henry VIII, and refounded in 1619 by Sir Peter Legh. (fn. 85)

CHARITIES

The charities of this parish are numerous and valuable. As in other cases, some are general, others applicable to particular objects or townships.

For the whole parish are the ancient bread charities and other gifts to the poor, (fn. 86) the Bible charity founded by Dean Finch, (fn. 87) and the modern educational funds. (fn. 88)

For Winwick-with-Hulme are gifts of linen, &c., for the poor, (fn. 89) and funds for binding apprentices, (fn. 90) and buying school books. (fn. 91) At Houghton, Middleton, and Arbury are poor's cottages. (fn. 92) Golborne and Lowton together share in William Leadbeater's benefaction. (fn. 93) The townships separately have some minor charities, (fn. 94) including poor's cot tages at Lowton. (fn. 95) Newton had an ancient poor's stock, spent in providing linen, and other benefactions. (fn. 96) A legacy by James Berry in 1836 has failed. (fn. 97)

For the township of Culcheth as a whole, most of the ancient charities have been united; (fn. 98) the Blue Boy Charity continues. (fn. 99) For Newchurch with Kenyon are funds for the poor, &c.; (fn. 100) at Risley the almshouse has failed, (fn. 101) but John Ashton's Charity, founded in 1831, produces £31 10s. a year, distributed in money doles. (fn. 102)

At Southworth-with-Croft a calico dole is maintained. (fn. 103) Ashton in Makerfield has charities for linen, woollen, apprenticing boys, &c. (fn. 104) At Hay dock there are an ancient poor's stock and a clothing endowment. (fn. 105)

Footnotes

  • 1. Local Gleanings Lancs. and Ches. i, 209. On p. 214 is his note of the other road from Winwick to Wigan as follows: 'Leaving the church on the left hand, half a mile from thence you have a fair built house formerly belonging to Charles Herle, parson of Winwick. . . . You leave Lowton township, passing over Lowton Cop, leaving Byrom not far on the right and the New Church, being a parochial chapel to Winwick.'
  • 2. Dict. Nat. Biog.
  • 3. Ibid.; see also the account of Culcheth.
  • 4. Lucas, 'Warton' (MS.).
  • 5. For the former chancel see Sir S. Glynne's account, Ch. of Lancs. (Chet. Soc.) 27, 91; also generally the Rev. W. A. Wickham in Trans. Hist. Soc. 1908.
  • 6. Lancs. and Ches. Antiq. Soc. xxiii, 213. The niche may have held an image of St. Anthony.
  • 7. These shields have been repainted, and it is evident that this has been done incorrectly. They seem, however, to be intended for the arms of the following families:—Butler of Merton, Croft of Dalton, Legh of Lyme, Boydell, Boydell and Haydock.
  • 8. The inscriptions on the various monuments are given in Beamont, Winwick, 119–25; see also Thornely, Brasses, 61, 169. Notes of the arms, &c. found in the church in the 16th and 17th centuries are printed in Trans. Hist. Soc. (new ser.), vi, 265; xiv, 210.
  • 9. V.C.H. Lanes. i, 262.
  • 10. Local Glean. Lancs. and Ches. ii, 113; Trans. Hist. Soc. (new ser.), xvii, 69. For a traditional rhyme—'When a maid is married there the steeple gives a nod'—see Lancs. and Ches. Hist. and Gen. Notes, iii, 10.
  • 11. V.C.H. Lancs. i, 286.
  • 12. Lancs. Inq. and Ext. (Rec. Soc. Lancs. and Ches.), i, 72.
  • 13. Farrer, Lancs. Pipe R. 301.
  • 14. Ibid. 300.
  • 15. Lancs. Inq. and Ext. loc. cit.
  • 16. Lich. Epis. Reg. v, fol. 61b. It may perhaps be inferred from the notices of the rectors that the prior and canons had farmed out the church to a family of hereditary 'clerks'; and when this arrangement was terminated, opportunity was taken to secure a certain payment to the priory, and also an equal sum to Lichfield Cathedral. In future the actual holder of the rectory was to be styled a 'vicar,' though he received all the revenues; and for a century and a half accordingly he was usually so called, though 'parson' also occurs frequently. The poverty of both priory and cathedral was alleged as the reason for the pensions.
  • 17. Lich. Epis. Reg. ii, 125b.
  • 18. Pope Nich. Tax. (Rec. Com.), 249.
  • 19. Inq. Non. (Rec. Com.), 40. The separate townships stood thus:—Ashton, £8 6s. 8d.; Haydock, 31s. 8d.; Newton, £4 3s. 4d.; Golborne, £3 1s. 8d.; Lowton and Kenyon, £4; Middleton and Houghton, £1; Culcheth, £5 16s. 8d.; Croft and Southworth, £2 6s. 8d.; Winwick and Hulme, £3.
  • 20. De Banco R. 162, m. 4. The canons had presented on the three preceding vacancies, viz., Alexander de Tamworth, Augustine de Darington in the time of Henry III, and John de Mosley. These were probably all that had been appointed since the termination of the old arrangement. Again in 1325, on the death of John de Bamburgh, the Prior of Nostell had to defend his right, the Bishop of Lichfield claiming on the ground that the prior having presented an unfit person (Roger de Atherton, Canon of Nostell) the right had devolved on himself as ordinary, and he had conferred the vicarage on one John de Chisenhale. The prior vindicated his right, but the bishop's presentee retained possession; De Banco R. 258, m. 4 d. In 1349 it was agreed that a canon of Nostell should thenceforward be appointed to the vicarage; Cal. Pat. 1348–50, p. 423.
  • 21. In 1360, and later, the king and John of Gaunt claimed the advowson, the church being then vacant; De Banco R. 404, m. 3; 406, m. 252; 409, m. 18 d. All charters relating to Winwick have been omitted from the Nostell chartulary.
  • 22. See the appointments in 1384 and later years. One of those nominated was a Boteler, as if the claim of Sir William Boteler had been recognized in some way. At this time, however, the prior of Nostell sold to Robert de Morton an annuity of 8 marks for £240, which sum the prior was to employ in procuring the appropriation of Winwick; he misspent the money and involved the house in a debt of 1,200 marks; Beamont, Winwick, 12, quoting Batty, Nostell Priory, 20.
  • 23. Close, 12 Hen. VI, m. 13 d. which records a grant (undated) of the advowson made by John, Prior of Nostell, to Sir John de Stanley, Sir Thomas de Stanley, and Henry de Byrom. It will be seen that Sir John de Stanley was patron earlier, having presented Thomas Bourgchier at the beginning of 1433. The Bishop of Lichfield had presented, by lapse, ten years before; and as the rector then appointed was a Stanley, it is probable that this family had already acquired the patronage, or the promise of it. In 1518 the Prior of Nostell claimed the 100s. rent and £30 arrears from the executors of Bishop Stanley; Pal. of Lanc. Plea R. 123, m. 9.
  • 24. Valor Eccl. (Rec. Com.), v, 220. The gross total was made up thus: Rents, £44 8s. 4d.; great tithes, £58 16s. 8d.; small tithes, oblations, and Easter roll, £15—in all £118 4s. Gowther Legh (the steward) and the bailiff had each a fee of £5; the same amount was paid to Nostell Priory; and 15s. 4d. was paid to the Archdeacon of Chester. 'A good benefice' is Leland's note on Winwick; Itin. vii, 47.
  • 25. Commonwealth Ch. Surv. (Rec. Soc. Lancs. and Ches.), 46. The parsonage house and glebe lands were worth £160 a year; three water corn-mills, £30; rents of tenants, £28; tithes, £445 2s.—all of which the rector then had to his own use.
  • 26. Not. Cestr. (Chet. Soc.), ii, 260–4; the tenants of the glebe renewed with every new rector, and once in twenty-one years if he continued so long; what was paid by the tenants upon each renewal amounted to about £1,000, but the rector was not obliged to renew. There were four churchwardens and four assistants, serving for the four quarters they lived in.
  • 27. Gregson, Fragments (ed. Harland), 340. In 1835 its value was said to be £7,000 a year, of which £3,000 was from tithes; Baines, Lancs. (1st ed.), iii, 623. The Winwick Church Acts authorizing the division are 4 & 5 Vic. cap. 9 (private), and 8 & 9 Vic. cap. 9 (private).
  • 28. Liverpool Dioc. Cal.
  • 29. Whalley Coucher (Chet. Soc.), i, 40.
  • 30. Lancs. Inq. and Ext. i, 72.
  • 31. Lich. Epis. Reg. Stavenby, v, fol. 61b; rector named as then living in the ordinance concerning a vicarage at Winwick. Robert is mentioned also in a suit in 1277 as having made a grant of land; De Banco R. 19, m. 54d. In 1271 Robert son of the rector of Winwick, and Amaria and Juliana his sisters accused Henry de Sefton of taking their goods and chattels; Cur. Reg. R. 204, m. 11d. He was a son of Robert the rector; see Beamont, Winwick, 16. William son of Robert the rector also occurs; Towneley MS. HH, no. 1699.
  • 32. 'N. rector of Winwick' attested a deed made about 1250; Dods. MSS. liii, fol. 17b.
  • 33. De Banco R. 162, m. 4.
  • 34. Ibid.; appointed in the time of Henry III, and vicar for thirty years. He appears as plaintiff in the early years of Edward I down to 1279, and is sometimes called Augustine de Winwick; De Banco R. 18, m. 15; 23, m. 21.
  • 35. De Banco R. 162, m. 4; his death was the occasion of a dispute as to the patronage early in 1307. He was vicar as early as 1287 and in 1292; Harl. MS. 2112, fol. 158b–194b; Assize R. 408, m. 58 d. In a plea of 1352 it was asserted that 'John de Warnefield, vicar of the church of Winwick,' granted the lands in dispute in the time of Edward II; Duchy of Lanc. Assize R. 2, m. 6 (Mich.). Beamont, however, states that his name occurs in 1292 (Winwick, 17); in which case he must be identical either with John de Mosley, who died a short time before the accession of Edward II, or with John de Bamburgh.
  • 36. Lich. Epis. Reg. Langton, i, fol. 10b; he was ordered to reside in the parish. Nothing further is known of him except that he was defendant in a case in 1307; De Banco R. 164, m. 324.
  • 37. For the circumstances of his presentation see a preceding note. He gave a bond to the prior of Nostell for £316; Nostell Reg. fol. 23 (B.M. Cott. Vesp. E. xix). He occurs as vicar in 1332 as defendant in a suit concerning land in Culcheth: De Banco R. 290, m. 3; and Final Conc. (Rec. Soc. Lancs. and Ches.), ii, 86, and in later cases, e.g. Coram Rege R. 297, m. 6d. (where he is called 'parson').
  • 38. Lich. Epis. Reg. Northburgh, ii, fol. 125b. He was a canon of Nostell. His institution was confirmed eight years later, viz., 28 Nov. 1357; ibid. ii, fol. 126. In the following year he was described as 'lately vicar'; Raines MSS. (Chet. Lib.), xxxviii, 425. The church was vacant in 1360; De Banco R. 404, m. 3.
  • 39. Dep. Keeper's Rep. xl, App. 523. It is not known whether Blackburn and his immediate successors were ever instituted.
  • 40. Ibid. A protection for John de Harwood, vicar of Winwick, against William de Blackburn, late usurper of the benefice; dated 22 Jan. 1384–5.
  • 41. Cal. Pat. 1381–5, p. 528. It will be noticed that he was presented the day after the protection to John de Harwood was granted.
  • 42. Ibid. 1385–9, p. 127; this was only a 'ratification of his estate.' He was to have accompanied John of Gaunt into Aquitaine in 1388, but stayed behind in London; ibid. pp. 497, 518.
  • 43. Robert le King is named as 'perpetual vicar' of Winwick, in July 1388; Towneley MS. OO, no. 1539.
  • 44. Cal. Pat. 1388–92, pp. 32, 363. After the disputes and unsettlement indicated by these rapid changes came a time of rest, this rector remaining for about thirty years. It was the pope who presented William Daas to the rectory, the advowson being in his hands; but the Statute of Provisors causing difficulty the king presented the same clerk, and afterwards ratified his title. These facts appear from a petition by the rector, about 1398, complaining that a certain Robert de Hallam had informed the king that the church was vacant, and procured a presentation for himself; P.R.O. Anct. Pet. file 220, no. 10999. William Daas had licence for an oratory in 1393; Lich. Epis. Reg. Scrope, vi, fol. 129b. From this and other evidences he appears to have been resident. A complaint was made by him in 1393 that having closed a path through one of his glebe fields, Sir John le Boteler and others had forcibly broken through. The verdict was in his favour; Pal. of Lanc. Misc. bdle. 1, file 8, m. 6, 7. He is also mentioned in 1404 and 1405; ibid. file 9, m. 71, 68. In 1407 he purchased from Sir William Boteler the right to make a weir or attachment for capturing fish in Sankey water; Beamont, Winwick, 19 (quoting Butler Deeds). He with Thomas de Longley (late Archdeacon of Norfolk), Eustace Daas, and John Drewe, gave fine for a writ in 1411–12; Dep. Keeper's Rep. xxxvii, App. i, 173.
  • 45. Lich. Epis. Reg. Heyworth, ix, fol. 112b. As the bishop collated, the 'vicarage,' as it is still called, must have been vacant for some time, but the reason is not given. Master Richard Stanley was appointed archdeacon of Chester in 1426; Le Neve, Fasti, i, 567.
  • 46. Lich. Epis. Reg. Heyworth, ix, 121b. The new 'rector' probably held the benefice till his consecration as Bishop of Worcester in 1435; he became Archbishop of Canterbury; Dict. Nat. Biog.
  • 47. Dr. George Radcliffe, son of Sir Ralph Radcliffe of Smithills, was Archdeacon of Chester in 1449; Le Neve, op. cit. He held a canonry in St. John's, Chester, till his death; Ormerod, Ches. (ed. Helsby), i, 310. He is mentioned as rector in 1436; Kuerden MSS. iii, W. 6, no. 79. He had been rector of Wilmslow and Longford in succession; Earwaker, East Cheshire, i, 88. For pedigree see Whitaker, Whalley (ed. Nichols), ii, 319.
  • 48. Lich. Epis. Reg. Boulers, xi, fol. 37b. He was also appointed Archdeacon of Chester; Le Neve, loc. sup. cit.
  • 49. Lich. Epis. Reg. Hales, xii, fol. 100b. Henry Byrom was patron for this turn. James Stanley was a son of the first Lord Stanley; Archdeacon of Chester 1478, Warden of Manchester 1481, and Rector of Warrington 1482, holding all these till his death; see Le Neve.
  • 50. Lich. Epis. Reg. Hales, xii, fol. 120; he engaged to pay a pension of 24 marks a year to the dean and chapter of Lichfield. One Robert Cliffe was priest of a chantry in St. John's, Chester, from 1478 to 1516; Ormerod, op. cit. i, 313.
  • 51. Lich. Epis. Reg. Smith, xii, fol. 157b. He was son of the patron, and had succeeded his uncle as Warden of Manchester in 1485. He became Bishop of Ely in 1506, retaining Winwick till his death. An account of him will be found in Dict. Nat. Biog.
  • 52. Lich. Epis. Reg. Blyth, xiii-xiv, fol. 59. He held various benefices, being one of Cardinal Wolsey's chaplains, and his confessor. He continued faithful to Wolsey on his fall and died just before him in 1530; see L. and P. Hen. VIII, iv, 2936, &c. The scandal of the times alleged that his sister had been the cardinal's mistress. In July 1515 Thomas, Earl of Derby, granted to Sir William Pole and others the advowson of Winwick, with instructions to present Randle Pole, clerk, at the next vacancy; Duchy of Lanc. Inq. p.m. v, no. 68. Randle Pole was rector of Hawarden in 1516.
  • 53. L. and P. Hen. VIII, iv, 3095; the king presented on account of the minority of the patron. Thomas Winter is usually stated to have been the son of Cardinal Wolsey, but was perhaps his nephew. He appears at this time to have been only a boy, and in 1519 was learning Latin. In 1528 he was living in Paris, continuing his studies. The manner in which benefices and dignities (e.g. the deanery of Wells, the archdeaconries of York, Richmond, Suffolk, and Norfolk) were heaped upon this non-resident youth is a singular illustration of the zeal for Church reform sometimes attributed to Cardinal Wolsey. Winter appears to have resigned his preferments at or soon after the cardinal's fall, and nothing more is known of him. See L. and P. Hen. VIII, iii, iv, and Le Neve.
  • 54. Lich. Epis. Reg. Blyth, xiii-xiv, fol. 65b. The presentation, dated 20 Nov., was made by the king, the Earl of Derby being still a minor; L. and P. Hen. VIII, iv, 2710. He received other church preferments about this time, being probably William Bolen, Archdeacon of Winchester, 1529; Le Neve, op. cit. iii, 26. For the bells, plate, and other ornaments in 1552 see Ch. Gds. (Chet. Soc.), 62–5.
  • 55. Act Bks. at Ches. Dioc. Reg. He paid his first-fruits 5 Apr. 1552; Lancs. and Ches. Recs. (Rec. Soc. Lancs. and Ches.), ii, 408. A fuller account of him will be found under Wigan, of which church, as also of North Meols, he was rector; Bishop of Sodor and Man; see Dict. Nat. Biog. In Oct. 1563 Bishop Stanley leased the rectory, including the manor and glebe, for ninety-nine years at a rent of £120 to Sir Thomas Stanley. The Earl of Derby, father of the lessee, and the Bishop of Chester were consenting parties. This lease appears to have caused much difficulty and loss, and in 1618 the rector endeavoured to have it cancelled; by a compromise the hall and manor were given to the rector, but the remainder continued to be held by the Earl of Worcester, Sir John and Dame Frances Fortescue, and Petronilla Stanley, representatives of Sir Thomas Stanley, whose son, Sir Edward, had left four daughters as co-heirs. It continued to give trouble until its expiry in 1662. See Beamont, Winwick, 32, 37, 41, 56; also references in Lancs. and Ches. Recs. ii, 263, 346.
  • 56. Church Papers at Chester Dioc. Reg. Thomas Handford presented by grant of the Earl of Derby. The new rector paid his first-fruits 31 March 1569; Lancs. and Ches. Recs. ii, 409. He afterwards renounced Protestantism, went to Douay, and being ordained priest, was sent on the English mission in 1577; Knox, Douay Diaries, 8, 25, 276. He was very soon apprehended by the Earl of Derby 'as a vagrant person and one suspected of some lewd practices by reason of his passing to and fro over the seas'; Acts of Privy C. 1577–8, p. 309. After suffering seven years' imprisonment in the Marshalsea and Tower he was sent into exile in 1585; Misc. (Cath. Rec. Soc.), i, 70; ii, 228; Knox, op. cit. 288.
  • 57. Raines MSS. (Chet. Lib.), xxii, 52. It appears that the Bishop of Chester claimed the presentation, perhaps by lapse, John Shireburne, B.D., being nominated by him (see Brindle). The Earl of Derby's nomination prevailed, and Caldwell paid his first-fruits on 20 Feb. 1575–6; Lancs. and Ches. Recs. ii, 410. He was also rector of Mobberley; Ormerod, Ches. (ed. Helsby), i, 412, 428. He was one of the earl's chaplains, and a favourite preacher; Derby Household Bks. (Chet. Soc.), 132, 133.
  • 58. Lancs. and Ches. Recs. ii, 411. He was born at Carrington in Cheshire, and educated at Jesus Coll. Oxf.; M.A. 1583. He had a number of preferments in England and Ireland, and does not seem to have resided at Winwick. On being made Bishop of Killaloe in 1613 he was allowed to hold Winwick 'in commendam'; but resigned it in 1615; Foster, Alumni Oxon.; Dict. Nat. Biog. John Andrews, M.A., was presented by the Earl of Worcester in 1609; Act Bks. at Ches.
  • 59. Lancs. and Ches. Recs. ii, 412; Pat. 13 Jas. I, pt. xxiii. The king presented on the ground that the previous rector had been appointed to a bishopric; but the claim was challenged, and Thomas Bold, M.A., was presented by the Earl of Worcester; later still John Mere, a prebendary of Chester, was presented. Horne, however, retained the rectory till his death in 1626. There was a lecturer at Winwick, Mr. Golty, who paid £1 to a subsidy in 1622: Misc. (Rec. Soc. Lancs. and Ches.), i, 53, 65.
  • 60. From this point the dates of institution have been taken from those in the Inst. Bks. P.R.O. printed in Lancs. and Ches. Antiq. Notes. Herle paid his firstfruits 1 July 1628; Lancs. and Ches. Recs. ii, 412. This, the most distinguished of the modern rectors of Winwick, was born at Prideaux Herle, in Cornwall; educated at Exeter Coll. Oxf.; M.A. 1618; had various preferments, and was chaplain to the Countess of Derby; was a zealous Puritan, and became president of the Westminster Assembly, 1643. He was not resident at Winwick during the war, but returned in 1650, and was buried at Winwick in 1659. See Dict. Nat. Biog.; Fuller, Worthies; Foster, Alumni Oxon. For his conduct in 1651 see Royalist Comp. Papers (Rec. Soc. Lancs. and Ches.), iii, 175.
  • 61. As early as 20 June 1660 Dr. Sherlock petitioned for admission to the rectory, stating that he had been presented by the true patron, whereas Mr. Jessop had only 'an illegal grant from the commissioners of the pretended Great Seal, after the interruption of the late Parliament so called;' Hist. MSS. Com. Rep. vii, App. 500. Mr. Jessop conformed, and in Oct. 1662 became vicar of Coggeshall in Essex; Baines, Lancs. (ed. Croston), iv, 359.
  • 62. Dr. Sherlock was a kinsman of Richard Sherlock, rector of Woodchurch, Cheshire; educated at Trinity Coll., Dublin; M.A. 1633; he was a zealous adherent of the royalist party during the Civil War, and employed by the Earl of Derby in the Isle of Man. He published various works, including Mercurius Christianus; the Practical Christian, in 1673; Dict. Nat. Biog. The 6th edition of the Practical Christian, printed in 1713, contains a portrait of Sherlock and a memoir by Bishop Wilson. He did not obtain full possession of Winwick for some time, owing to the disputes with his predecessor. He received a presentation or confirmation of the rectory from the king in 1663; Pat. 15 Chas. II, pt. iv, no. 27. He constantly resided on his benefice and employed three curates; Beamont, Winwick, 61. His will is printed in Wills (Chet. Soc. new ser.), i, 173. The inventory shows a library valued at £64. The funeral sermon, preached by his curate Thomas Crane (see Newburgh in Lathom), was printed; N. and Q. (2nd Ser.), ii, 233.
  • 63. He was the son of John Bennet of Abingdon, Cambridgeshire; educated at University Coll. Oxf.; M.A. 1681; B.D. 1689. He became master of the college in 1690, and died there 12 May 1692; Foster, Alumni Oxon. The patron for this turn was probably the John Bennet of Abingdon, who was one of the members for Newton from 1691 to 1695, and afterwards a master in Chancery; Pink and Beaven, Lancs. Parl. Representation, 284.
  • 64. A son of Sir Heneage Finch, Earl of Nottingham. He was educated at Christ's Coll. Camb., of which he was fellow; M.A. 1682. His brother Edward was for a time rector of Wigan. Henry was in 1702 made Dean of York, but held Winwick also until 1725; Le Neve, Fasti, iii, 127.
  • 65. The patrons were the Earl of Anglesey and Francis Annesley, trustees of the Hon. Henrietta Ashburnham, granddaughter and heir of William, ninth Earl of Derby. Annesley was educated at Trinity Coll. Dublin; LL.D. 1725; married Elizabeth Sutton, divorced 1725; and secondly, Anne, daughter and co-heir of Sir Robert Gayer, by whom he had a son Arthur, ancestor of the present Viscount Valentia; Baines, op. cit. iv, 361.
  • 66. The patron exercised his right according to the wish of James, Earl of Derby. The earl's will reads; 'To the same Charles Stanley (eldest son of Thomas Stanley, of Cross Hall, deceased), the first and next turn of presentation and right of nomination to the rectory of the parish church of Winwick, whensoever vacant; providing he instituted the said Thomas Stanley (younger brother of Charles) if of age and ordained; if not, then to appoint some other clerk who should give security to resign the said rectory when the said Thomas was of age, if then ordained.' The new rector was a younger son of Sir Edward Stanley of Bickerstaffe, who became Earl of Derby in 1735; educated at Sidney-Sussex Coll. Camb. of which he became a fellow; M.A. 1717. He held many benefices—Liverpool, 1726 to 1740; Winwick, 1740 to 1742, and 1764 to 1781; Bury, 1743 to 1778; Halsall, 1750 to 1757. For his character see Beamont, op. cit. 67. He took Winwick till his successor was ready.
  • 67. Of Trinity Hall, Camb.; LL.B. 1744; LL.D. 1757. Second son of Thomas Stanley of Cross Hall, Lathom; from his son James descends the present owner. This was the relation the late earl had wished to appoint, but in 1735 he was at Cambridge, and had not been ordained when Dr. Annesley died; Gregson, Fragments (ed. Harland), 285.
  • 68. He died 16 May 1781, and there is a tablet to his memory in Winwick Church.
  • 69. Eldest son of Edmund Hornby of Poulton and Scale Hall. He is said to have served in the Navy in his early years; in 1774 he was sheriff of Lancashire; P.R.O. List, 74. Afterwards he was ordained, and having married a sister of the Earl of Derby was presented to Winwick. He died in 1812, and was buried at Winwick. One of his curates, the Rev. Giles Chippendale, who had lost an arm in the naval service, was said to have been with him in the same ship; Beamont, op. cit. 68. His son Sir Phipps Hornby had a distinguished career in the Navy.
  • 70. Second son of the preceding rector. Educated at Trinity Coll. Camb.; M.A. 1802. An attractive sketch of his character is given by Mr. Beamont (op. cit. 71–80). As rector, his most conspicuous act was the procuring, in conjunction with the Earl of Derby as patron, of the Winwick Church Acts of 1841 and 1845, by which Croft, Newton, Culcheth (Newchurch), Lowton, Golborne, and Ashton became separate parishes, each being endowed with its tithes; and two other chapelries were formed. Thus the glebe of Winwick and the tithes of Houghton were all that was left of the ancient endowment of the parish church. Besides this Mr. Hornby contributed liberally to the erection of churches in the detached portions of his parish, and rebuilt the chancel of his own church at a cost of £6,000. He died 14 Sept. 1855.
  • 71. Educated at Christ Church, Oxf.; M.A. 1840; Foster, Alumni Oxon. In this year he became incumbent of Knowsley and chaplain to the Earl of Derby; canon of Chester, 1866. He had married in 1835 Lady Eleanor Mary Stanley, daughter of Edward, Earl of Derby. He died at Winwick 11 March 1890.
  • 72. The new rector is a cousin of the patron. He was educated at Balliol Coll. Oxf.; M.A. 1852; incumbent of Bickerstaffe, 1858; vicar of Huyton, 1869, and canon of Liverpool, 1880. Foster, Alumni Oxon.
  • 73. Valor Eccl. (Rec. Com.), v, 220.
  • 74. Published by the Rec. Soc. Lancs. and Ches. 15. It should be stated that Henry Johnson's name does not occur in the later lists, so that the remarks in Baines, Lancs. (ed. Croston), iv, 355, are baseless. The other priests probably served Ashton and Culcheth.
  • 75. From the Visitation lists, 1548–65, preserved at the Ches. Dioc. Reg.
  • 76. Gibson, Lydiate Hall, 248 (quoting S.P. Dom. Eliz. ccxxxv, 4). In 1598 the curate did not wear the surplice, and again in 1622 there was neither Bible nor surplice; Raines MSS. xxii, 182, 188 (from Chest. Act Bks.).
  • 77. Hist. MSS. Com. Rep. xiv, App. iv, 13.
  • 78. Commonwealth Ch. Surv. 46–50.
  • 79. In 1669 several persons were presented to the Bishop of Chester for having unlawful conventicles in their houses, Oliver Taylor of Holcroft Hall being one; Visit. Papers, at Chester. See also Hist. MSS. Com. Rep. xiv, App. iv, 231, 232.
  • 80. Return by Rector Stanley in the Dioc. Reg. Chester.
  • 81. Lich. Epis. Reg. Northburgh, iii, fol. 76b, and Beamont, Winwick, 82. The original endowment consisted of eight messuages, seven tofts, 41¾ acres of land, with appurtenances in Newton in Makerfield, with the reversion of others held for life by Adam de Walton. Chalices, books, vestments, and other ornaments were provided by the founder. Should the chaplain be unable through infirmity to attend to his duties he was to receive a portion of the fruits sufficient to support him decently. See Final Conc. ii, 81.
  • 82. Beamont, 83–6. The list (omitting the first names and making one or two other corrections) is as follows:—           1334.     Peter de Winwick, nominated by the founder, Gilbert de Haydock; Lich. Epis.                        Reg. Northburgh, ii, fol. 109b. oc.     1343.     William de Rokeden.           1358.     Richard de Heton, presented by John de Haydock, on the death of W. de                        Rokeden; Lich. Epis. Reg. Northburgh, ii, fol. 134b.           1361.     Ralph de Tabley, presented by John de Haydock, on the resignation of Richard                        de Heton; ibid. Stretton. iv, fol. 78b. oc.     1370.     William de Wigan, by the same patron. —     —           Matthew de Haydock by the guardian of P. Legh. oc.     1478.     Matthew Fowler, by Peter Legh. oc.     1478.     William Gam, by Sir Peter Legh.           1505.     Christopher Houghton, by the same.          —           Robert Garnet; by the same.           1532.     Lawrence Pennington; by the same. He was celebrating according to his                        foundation up to the suppression; Raines, Lancs. Chant. (Chet. Soc.), i, 69. He                        was then aged 48, and lame; ibid. i, 72 n. He appeared at the Visitation of 1554,                        but not later.
  • 83. Valor Eccl. (Rec. Com.), v, 220. In 1478 a further endowment was made by Sir Peter Legh the patron; Raines MSS. xxxviii, 523. The endowment in 1548 is given in detail in Lancs. Chant. i, 71–4 it was derived from a number of tenements in Newton in Makerfield, the principal tenant being James Greenforth, who paid a rent of 14s. A chalice and two old vestments belonged to it.
  • 84. Valor Eccl. v, 220; Lancs. Chant. i, 67–9. There was no plate. The chantry priest in 1534 was Roger Gillibrand, and in 1548 William Stanley; the latter was fifty-six years of age. He was living in 1553, but did not appear at the Visitation of 1554. The lands of the Stanley chantry were given by Queen Mary to the Savoy Hospital when she refounded it, and were leased by the Master to Christopher Anderton; Anderton of Lostock D. no. 8, 10, 15; Duchy of Lanc. Misc. Bks. xxiii, 168.
  • 85. End. Char. Rep. The Rev. Robert Wright, master of the school from 1717 to 1735, published tables of longitude; Local Glean. Lancs. and Ches. i, 177, 226.
  • 86. The particulars in the following notes are taken from the Winwick Endowed Charities Report of 1901, which includes a reprint of that of 1828. Dr. Richard Sherlock, rector, by his will in 1689 directed £300 to be invested for the use of the poor; it was employed in buying chief rents from premises in Croft, amounting in 1824 to £11 8s. 5d., distributed in bread at the parish church and four chapels-of-ease. In 1900 the rent-charges amounted to £9 13s. 3d., others having been redeemed and the money invested in consols. The sum available is divided in a customary proportion among the different ecclesiastical districts, and is spent chiefly in bread for the poor. Adam Mather in 1818 left money for bread for poor persons who were also communicants; the latter condition is now not insisted upon. Rector Stanley in 1772 left £1,000 for the poor, and £50 interest was in 1828 given in various ways—doles or blankets, &c. The capital, invested in the Warrington and Wigan Turnpike, was in great part lost on the termination of the Turnpike Act; £400 was recovered and invested in consols, producing £11 17s. 4d. yearly; this is distributed by the rector and other clergy at their discretion.
  • 87. He died in 1728 and left £200 to the rector and churchwardens for Bibles, prayer books, and instruction in the Church of England catechism. In 1828 the income was £9 15s. 9d., given usually in books, but sometimes applied to the Sunday schools. The income is now £6 14s. 8d., and is distributed by the rector every three years, being chiefly devoted to the Sunday schools.
  • 88. These are partly derived from the endowments of the older schools, and partly by gifts by George McCorquodale, of about £600 in all, for prizes at the Endowed School and St. Peter's School, Newton.
  • 89. In 1685 a poor's fund had accumulated by the gifts of sundry benefactors, and Dr. Sherlock, the rector, added £89; other gifts were made in subsequent years, and in 1828 the interest amounted to £7 2s., spent on gifts of linen, &c., to poor cottagers. The capital has to a great extent been lost, and the yearly income is now £1 13s. 8d., distributed in gifts of calico.
  • 90. Thomas March and Henry Low about 1720 left money for binding apprentices, but by 1828 half the original capital, £52, had been lost, and the interest was added to the linen charity; this erroneous use continued down to 1900.
  • 91. John Bankes, sometime schoolmaster at Winwick (died 1775), left a small sum for books for the children attending the school in Winwick churchyard. This in 1828 had been wrongly united to the linen charity, and so continued in 1900.
  • 92. The poor's money appears to have been invested in two cottages, but the rents, £11, were applied to the poor rate in 1828. A rent of 12s. from Delph House in Middleton had then ceased. In 1840 the rent had increased to £14, but £3 was and is payable to the highway authority: the rest is given by the rector of Winwick in clothing.
  • 93. The testator gave an estate in Lowton and Golborne to the poor, and by his will in 1685 gave £40 to erect at his house at Lowton two good bays of building, and £10 more to raise up the bay called 'the shop' the height of the aforesaid bays, &c.; a large stone was to be laid upon his burial place inscribed so that people might learn of his benefaction. In 1828 the rents amounted to £55, equally distributed in linen or flannel for the poor of the two townships. Various changes have since occurred; part of the land has been sold to the Wigan Junction Railway, 1877; another part has been let on a building lease of 999 years; and the coal under another has been mined. The rental is now £119 17s. 6d., of which £23 is derived from the founder's house in Church Lane, Lowton, and is distributed by the trustees appointed under a scheme made in 1892.
  • 94. For Golborne John Mather left a charge of 10s. for the poor, to be added to Leadbeater's Charity; and Hannah Hooper left £20, the interest, £1, being paid in 1828. These have been added to the Golborne share of the Leadbeater Charity under the scheme of 1892, and the amount is applied in subscriptions to dispensaries, nurses, clothes, &c., or temporary relief in money. Miss Frances Moon, by her will in 1873 bequeathed £1,000 for the sick and aged poor; but only about £420 was realized.
  • 95. For Lowton Richard France left £5 to the poor, and in 1828 5s. was paid as interest by the overseer of Lowton. Nicholas Turner, by his will of 1712, charged the Little Meadow in Golborne with 20s. for linen for the poor; this also was still paid in 1828; and like the previous sum was added to the Lowton half of Leadbeater's Charity. So also was £2 10s. derived from tenements purchased with a bequest of Elizabeth Byrom, widow, in 1738. The overseers in 1828 had £22 10s. derived from the rents of two cottages, which sum had been devoted to the poor, but was then applied to the debt incurred in rebuilding the cottages. In 1900 these charities had been united with the Lowton share of the Leadbeater Charity, and were administered under the scheme of 1892, the objects permissible being almost the same as those in Golborne. The payment of 5s. out of the rates had been disallowed by the auditor in 1846, and thus France's Charity has lapsed.
  • 96. James Low in 1634 and others subsequently contributed various sums, which together amounted to £273 by 1733; sixty years later the total was £288, laid out upon the workhouse, and the interest was spent on linen for the poor. In 1825, interest having fallen into arrear, it was agreed that the capital should be considered £400, and in 1827 £20 was paid as interest. Robert Bankes in 1747 left £40 for the poor, and the interest in 1828 was added to the foregoing charity. —Brotherton left £50 to found a bread charity; and Mrs. Legh left £100, which with £50 (probably the last-mentioned sum) was in 1800 in the hands of Thomas Claughton, trustee of Thomas Legh of Lyme during minority, by whose bankruptcy the capital was endangered. A sum of £5 had been paid out of the estate of William Brown Brotherton to the eldest poor widow in Newton; the estate having been sold about 1821 to Thomas Legh, the payment has been since discontinued. The workhouse was sold in 1856, when £288 was invested in consols, this being held to be all that was legally chargeable. The income, £8 5s. 8d., is distributed in tickets for clothing. The Bankes Charity was still continued in 1900 by Mrs. Bankes of Winstanley Hall, and distributed with the foregoing. The other charities had been lost, no dividend apparently having been paid out of Thomas Claughton's estate.
  • 97. This was a bequest of £50 for the benefit of poor communicants at Newton Chapel. The executors paid interest for some time, but the residuary legatee, on coming of age, refused to pay.
  • 98. The amalgamation took place under a scheme of the Charity Commissioners in 1898. There were six different foundations:— i. Twiss Green School, founded by John Guest of Abram, Adam Shaw and Christopher Bordman assisting. A lease of 1808 stated that the purpose of the school was instruction in the English language and in the precepts of the Christian religion. ii. Thomas Shaw gave £80 to the poor. iii. John Risley gave £60 to the same. iv. William Smith in 1626 left lands in Culcheth called Gregory's Land to a Ralph Bate, the interest on £60 being payable to the poor. In 1828 the fields were called Shackshots. v. Ambrose Yates in 1722 left his tenements at Twiss Green to his cousins Henry and James Bate for the benefit of the poor. The property, called Quakers, was in 1828 in the possession of Thomas Bate of Macclesfield as heir-at-law of Henry Bate. vi. Mrs. Anne Clough left £40 for the poor, and Thomas Ellames Withington of Culcheth Hall gave £50 consols to the official trustees. The yearly payment of £3 for Smith's Charity in 1861 was redeemed by John Clare, owner of the land, who paid £78 to the official trustee; and the real estate of the Yates Charity was sold in 1887 for £500; in each case the money was invested in consols. By the new scheme all these charities are administered by the same trustees; the Twiss Green School is managed as a Church of England Sunday and day school, and the dole charities are distributed to various ways, but chiefly in small gifts in the poor. Richard Garton by will in 1670 charged £5 a year for the poor on lands called Radcliff Meadows in Kenyon; the rent, after a short discontinuance through inadvertence, is paid to the same trustees.
  • 99. Henry Johnson by his will in 1727 left various amounts of South Sea Stock for the education at Twiss Green School of poor Protestant children, and providing them with clothing and books. In 1828 the income was £32 16s., and nine boys were provided for. A sum of £155, then in the hands of a John Cockshott, cannot be traced, but the capital of the charity, invested in consols, now brings in £25 7s. 4d. a year, sixteen boys (not necessarily members of the Church of England) benefiting.
  • 100. Anne Withington gave £100 in 1868 for the use of the poor; the interest is distributed by the rector. The same benefactor, as Mrs. Anne Boulton of Aughton Rectory, gave £300 London and North-Western Debenture Stock for the schools and for the curate of Bury Lane. The stock has been divided, the interest of part being paid to the Church of England school, and the rest of the capital applied to the endowment of Glazebury ecclesiastical parish, which has grown out of the Bury Lane curacy. Mary Lucy Black in 1893 left money towards the payment of the organist's salary at the parish church; and the £4 interest is so applied.
  • 101. John Risley (? 1702) directed an almshouse to be built, and in 1828 six houses were used rent free by as many poor families. The occupants, however, have long claimed a freehold in them, the property passing from time to time by delivery of the keys, in consideration of a cash payment. William Ashton, who died in St. Croix in the West Indies in 1814, left £10,000 for the poor of Risley. Many difficulties arose, and it was uncertain whether the testator's assets were sufficient to do more than discharge his debts; hence John Blackburne, lord of the manor, after spending a considerable amount in the endeavour to secure this benefaction, seems to have ceased his efforts, and nothing resulted.
  • 102. A scheme was made by the Charity Commissioners in 1891, but seems to have been a dead letter. The money is distributed in doles at Michaelmas.
  • 103. Thomas Gerard in 1723 gave a cottage and croft to Thomas Stanley on a 1000 years' lease, and seven years later the latter gave it to the trustees of the poor's stock of Croft. In 1828 there were three cottages, Arkenshaw, Round Thorn, and the Smithey; the overseers managed the property and disposed of the rents, some £5 to £7, in calico and linen for the poor. None of the cottages are now standing, and part of the land has been sold; the gross income is now only £1 16s. The Rev. Robert Barker of Winwick in 1797 proposed to give £105 for the benefit of the free school in Croft; but it does not appear that the money was ever paid. Richard Speakman of Winwick gave £20 for the purchase of books for the same school; the money was given to the Rev. Geoffrey Hornby, rector, and so used by him. After his death payments ceased.
  • 104. This charity began in 1588 with a sum of £10 given by Robert Birchall for shirts and smocks for the poor of Ashton; he also gave £4 for the repair of the foul ways of the township, which was afterwards added to his former gift. Various other benefactors appeared from time to time, and investments were made in land which in 1828 produced an income of £41 11s. spent in linen for distribution each January. The land bought included the Two Makerfields, Two Lower Overfields, and the Overfields next the Lane. A woollen stock charity was founded by the will of Thomas Harrison 1692, to which others added, and land called the Two Stubshaws was purchased in 1720. Other sums were given afterwards and buildings were erected, producing a rent of £24 15s. a year in 1828. The trustees also had 30s. a year by the gift of Catherine Wallis, and 10s. from George Latham; 10s. was paid to the incumbent for a sermon on St. John's Day. An apprentice stock charity was founded in 1704 by James Pilkington devising his tenements in Blakeley for this purpose; and others gave various sums for the same object, and the Fleece Inn and other properties were added, £261 being borrowed from the school stock. James Burn in 1782 charged his tenement called Stubshaw Cross with 42s. a year for bedgowns and petticoats. A subsequent owner becoming bankrupt, the purchaser refused to pay the 42s. on the ground that the gift was void in law. Land producing £4 5s. a year had been given by Gerard Ashton in 1759, but nothing was known of it in 1828. The apprenticing system having become obsolete the fund was in 1886 added to the grammar school estates. The property belonging to the other stocks now brings in £92 2s. 1d. annually, but from various causes the charity was in debt in 1899 to the extent of £260, so that the amount of clothing distributed had had to be curtailed. Something appears to have been recovered from the Burn bequest, for in 1832 £6 15s. was deposited on its account in the Wigan Savings Bank. This has been allowed to accumulate, the fund now being over £43. To the trustees of the Abram charities 6s. 6d. a year is paid. Lord Gerard pays 10s. to the incumbent for a sermon on St. John's Day for Catherine Wallis's charity.
  • 105. In 1706 the poor's fund amounted to £18 10s., and £80 more was added by later benefactors; the capital was invested in the workhouse at Newton, and in 1828 £6 to £7 was paid out of the township rates as interest. This was laid out by the overseer in the purchase of linen. On the sale of the workhouse in 1856 £99 10s. was paid to the official trustees, and the interest, £2 17s. 4d., is distributed with the Haydock Clothing Endowment—a capital of £327 11s. 8d. subscribed in 1863, principally by Mr. William John Legh and the Messrs. Evans. Blankets, flannel, and linsey are given.