A History of the County of Lancaster: Volume 4. Originally published by Victoria County History, London, 1911.
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Before the Conquest MANCHESTER was one of the dependencies of the royal manor of Salford. (fn. 1) Its position in 1086 is not quite clear, but shortly after, as the head of the barony, (fn. 2) it came into the possession of the Grelley family. (fn. 3) Descending in the male line till 1311, it passed on the death of Thomas Grelley to his sister Joan and her husband John La Warre. (fn. 4) For over a century it continued in this family, but in 1426, on the death of Thomas, Lord La Warre, became by his dispositions the property of his nephew Sir Reginald West, son of Thomas's half-sister Joan la Warre by her husband Sir Thomas, third Lord West. (fn. 5) The manor and its dependencies were in 1579 sold for £3,000 by the heir of the Wests to John Lacy, citizen and clothworker of London; (fn. 6) and Lacy in 1596 sold them to Nicholas Mosley, Lord Mayor of London in 1599. (fn. 7)
The new lord of the manor was knighted in the same year and settled at Withington, acquiring this manor also and building the hall at Hough End. (fn. 8)
The manor descended regularly to his great grandson, Sir Edward Mosley, who, dying childless in 1665, bequeathed his manors to a cousin. (fn. 9) His widow, however, continued to hold Manchester till her death in 1680, (fn. 10) when, as the disposition made by Sir Edward had been set aside owing to litigation, and a division of the estates had been made, the manor went to a cousin Edward, who was succeeded in 1695 by his daughter Lady Bland. After her death in 1734 this manor passed to a second cousin, Sir Oswald Mosley, descendant of Sir Nicholas's younger brother, Anthony Mosley. (fn. 11) Sir Oswald was succeeded by his two sons, Oswald and John, and on the death of the latter in 1779 the manor went by bequest to a cousin, John Parker Mosley, created a baronet in 1781. Dying in 1798 he was followed by his grandson Sir Oswald, who in 1846 sold the lordship to the Corporation of Manchester for £200,000. (fn. 12) (Pedigree, p. 232.)
A grant of free warren in all Thomas Grelley's demesne lands of Manchester was made by the king in 1249. (fn. 13)
The date of the creation of the borough—if there was any formal grant—is not known; in 1282 there were nearly 150 burgesses in the town, which had a borough court. (fn. 14) A market every Saturday and an annual fair on the eve, feast, and morrow of St. Matthew had been granted by the king in 1227. (fn. 15) The borough perhaps arose about the same time, but the earliest charter extant is that of 1301, by which Thomas Grelley granted and confirmed to 'his burgesses of Manchester' certain privileges and liberties. The burgesses were to pay 12d. a year in lieu of all services, but no land in the town fields seems to have been attached to a burgage. From this it may perhaps be inferred that the townsmen were traders and artisans, as in modern times. Provision was made for the sale of a burgess's land, burgage and goods. (fn. 16) The heir, on succeeding, was to give the lord some arms as relief. The reeve was to be elected and removed by the burgesses; it was his duty to be a witness of all acquisitions of land within the vill. Certain pleas were to be heard in the borough court, called the portman mote or law mote; but charges of theft were reserved to the lord's court. Suit to the lord's mill was required, and pannage for swine in the lord's woods; (fn. 17) the swine were, however, excluded from the park of Blackley. The fines payable to the lord for various offences were limited by the charter, in most cases to small sums; an exception was the fine of 20s. for wounding on Sunday. (fn. 18)
Beyond this the town did not advance, no royal confirmation of its position as a borough being obtained. Hence in 1359, after a full inquiry, it was decided that Manchester was a market-town, but not a borough. (fn. 19) The duty or privilege of sending a representative to Parliament and the additional taxation imposed on boroughs were avoided. In one respect, perhaps, it declined in liberty, for its special portmote, once held four times a year under the lord's bailiff, had by the 16th century become amalgamated with the court leet. (fn. 20) It may, however, be urged that the court leet, instead of governing the ancient barony, had become nothing more than the borough court of the town of Manchester. (fn. 21)
The records of the court, extant from 1552, have been printed, (fn. 22) and afford a lively picture of the government and progress of the town. The courts were held twice a year; in October, when the officers were appointed for the twelve months, and at Easter. The number of the officers increased from time to time with the development of the town; new duties being found for them, and the increase of streets requiring more supervision. Those elected in 1552 were the borough-reeve, catchpoll, two constables, market-lookers for corn, for fish and flesh and for white meat; mise-layers and gatherers, sealers of leather, ale-conners, burleymen and scavengers for different portions of the town, affeerers and appraisers; fifty-nine in all. (fn. 23) A swineherd was appointed in 1567; (fn. 24) a beadle (fn. 25) for rogues appears in 1573, and in 1578 are found officers for wholesome bread, for fruit, for the conduit, for seeing the orders as to ales and weddings being executed, and for seeing that hats and caps were used on Sundays and holydays (fn. 26); but these special officers were not appointed every year.
The juries of the courts leet were constantly occupied with the sanitary conditions of the town. (fn. 27) The water supply was regulated. (fn. 28) Offensive trades were checked. (fn. 29) The streets were kept clear, (fn. 30) householders being required to repair the pavements, and encroachments by steps, porches or horsing-stones forbidden. (fn. 31) The markets and traders needed constant supervision (fn. 32); regrators and forestallers were punished, (fn. 33) standards for weights and measures provided and enforced, (fn. 34) improper qualities of provisions and goods noticed. (fn. 35) The morals and amusements of the inhabitants received attention; (fn. 36) rules were made for alehouses, (fn. 37) for the residence of unmarried women in the town, (fn. 38) for limiting the expenses of wedding-feasts (fn. 39); for stocks, dungeon, pillory and cucking stools (fn. 40); also for the public waits, (fn. 41) the practice of archery, (fn. 42) and the games of tip-cat and football. (fn. 43) An endeavour was made to prevent fires by ordering the stock of fuel to be kept at a distance from the dwelling. (fn. 44) A special night watch was appointed for the winter. (fn. 45) Swine were no longer allowed to wander about the streets; nor were fierce dogs to go unmuzzled. (fn. 46) As time went on it became necessary to pay deputy constables to see to the watching of the streets, (fn. 47) and in the 18th century a voluntary association existed for police purposes. (fn. 48) More trifling matters occasionally amused the jury. (fn. 49)
Thus without any great inconvenience or difficulty the government of the town was provided for by the manorial system (fn. 50) until the great increase of the population in the latter half of the 18th century made changes necessary. In 1792 a Police Act (fn. 51) was obtained for the better lighting, watching, and cleansing of the town; a rate of 1s. 3d. in the pound upon the rent of houses met the expenses, and the authority was vested in commissioners, including the borough reeve and constables for the time being, the warden and fellows of the collegiate church, and all owners and occupiers of houses of £30 a year value who chose to qualify. (fn. 52) Salford was joined with Manchester in this Act, but the meetings for the two townships were held separately. A special Act for the township of Manchester was obtained in 1790 for the better administration of the poor relief. (fn. 53) These Acts were followed by others for improving the water supply, (fn. 54) the streets and bridges, (fn. 55) and the administration of justice. (fn. 56) A town hall in King Street was built in 1822–5. By the Reform Act of 1832 Manchester was made a parliamentary borough, (fn. 57) and six years later the charter making it a municipal borough was granted. (fn. 58) A coat of arms was allowed in 1842.
The new borough included the townships of Manchester, Hulme, Chorlton-upon-Medlock, Ardwick, Beswick, and Cheetham. After the purchase of Sir Oswald Mosley's rights as lord of the manor in 1846 the council was able to proceed unhampered in the improvement of the town, which became a city in 1853 (fn. 59) and a county borough in 1888. The boundaries have several times been enlarged, (fn. 60) with corresponding additions to the number of councillors, there being at present thirty wards with thirty-one aldermen and ninety-three councillors. (fn. 61) The mayor was entitled Lord Mayor in 1893. The area governed measures 19, 893 acres, nearly two-thirds that of the ancient parish.
The lord's mills had been secured to the grammar school by its founder in 1515, (fn. 62) and though the lord of the manor himself tried to break through the monopoly (fn. 63) it was maintained until 1758, when an Act of Parliament was passed allowing free corn milling. (fn. 64) The malt-grinding monopoly was retained, but the charge was limited to 1s. per load of six bushels; a sum which, owing to the rise in wages, eventually caused the privilege to be a loss to the school. (fn. 65) The tax upon grinding, though small, caused brewers to settle in Salford, Cheetham, and other adjacent townships outside the lordship of Manchester. (fn. 66)
The regulation of the markets and the profits of the tolls remained with the lord of the manor until the sale to the corporation. Though Sir Oswald Mosley built an exchange in 1729 with the design, in part, of providing better accommodation for traders, the markets continued in the open spaces accustomed until 1780, (fn. 67) when a determined effort was made by two merchants, Thomas Chadwick and Holland Ackers, to overthrow the lord's monopoly. They purchased Pool Court and Hyde Park, collections of poor and old cottages to the south-east of the exchange, and after clearing and preparing the ground, erected and opened a market there, which was at once utilized by the butchers. The lord of the manor, Sir John Parker Mosley, brought a suit, won it, and then compromised the matter with the projectors, as he desired to study the interests of the town. (fn. 68) The friction about the markets and other matters (fn. 69) which could only be dealt with satisfactorily by the inhabitants was the reason why Sir Oswald Mosley desired to sell his rights. (fn. 70) A Market Act obtained by the corporation in 1846 is considered to have abolished the old manorial markets, (fn. 71) though there have been attempts to enforce the ancient rights. In 1883 it was decided that the corporation must not charge tolls on goods sold, in addition to rent for stallage. (fn. 72) New market buildings have been erected, (fn. 73) a foreign animals wharf has been established at Old Trafford, and abattoirs in Water Street and other parts of the city.
The gas, (fn. 74) water, (fn. 75) and electricity supplies are in the hands of the corporation, which also provides hydraulic power. The great scheme by which water is brought from Thirlmere, 96 miles distant, was tarted in 1890; the first instalment of 10,000,000 gallons daily was opened in 1894; the second in 1904, and three more, each of the same quantity, may be added as needed. (fn. 76)
Street improvements, begun a century before the charter, have made continual progress. The sewerage of the district has been attended to, and for sewage disposal there are works on the Irlam and Chat Moss estates producing 4, 000 tons of concentrated manure annually. The water-carried sewage is dealt with in bacterial beds at Davyhulme. Baths and washhouses have been provided, and the Monsall Fever Hospital in Newton. Two cemeteries, at Chorlton with Hardy and adjoining Philips Park, Newton, are managed by the corporation.
An elaborate and far-extending electric tramway system has been established. (fn. 77) The ship canal has received the support of the council from the beginning, and is now subsidized and partly controlled by it.
Libraries, (fn. 78) museums, (fn. 79) art gallery, (fn. 80) schools of art and technology (fn. 81) have been liberally provided; the education committee has secondary schools as well as elementary ones under its charge; and Victoria University has been actively encouraged. A school board was established in 1870. The local acts and byelaws to 1898 have been printed; they fill six volumes.
ALPORT, an ancient park of the lords of Manchester, (fn. 82) was in 1430–6 given by Sir Reginald West, Lord La Warre, to John Huntington, warden of the collegiate church, (fn. 83) and by the latter's trustees was after a long interval assigned to the support of a chantry priest. (fn. 84) On the confiscation of the college and chantry estates the Crown granted the land to Edward, Earl of Derby, (fn. 85) and it was sold in 1599 to the Mosleys. (fn. 86)
ANCOATS was considered a hamlet in 1320. (fn. 87) Robert Grelley about 1200 granted two oxgangs of his demesne to Ralph de Ancoats, to be held by a rent of 6s. 8d. yearly. (fn. 88) Afterwards it was divided; one half was held by the Byrons of Clayton, (fn. 89) and was sold to Oswald Mosley at the beginning of the 17th century, while the other half was held by the Traffords, (fn. 90) and sold about 1610 to a Kenyon. (fn. 91)
Anthony Mosley, father of the purchaser of Ancoats, was the younger brother of Sir Nicholas, and associated with him in the cloth business, looking after the Manchester trade when the other removed to London. He died in 1607, and is commemorated by a monumental brass in the cathedral. (fn. 92) Oswald, his son and heir, the first Mosley of Ancoats, died in 1630; he also has a brass in the cathedral. (fn. 93) His heir, his eldest son Nicholas, was still under age, but came into court in 1633 to do his suit and service to the lord of the manor. (fn. 94) He took the king's side during the Civil War, deserting Manchester for the time. His lands being thereupon sequestered by the Parliament he compounded in 1646 on a fine of £120, his estate in Ancoats, Clayden, and Beswick being of the clear annual value of £60; he had taken the National Covenant and the Negative oath. (fn. 95) He took a conspicuous part in the Manchester rejoicings at the Restoration, (fn. 96) but though an Episcopalian and a justice of the peace he did not join in the subsequent persecution of the Nonconformists. (fn. 97) He had three sons; from Nicholas, the youngest, the present Sir Oswald Mosley descends.
Sir Edward Mosley, who died in 1665, had directed that £7,000 should be invested in land for the benefit of his cousin Nicholas; but this had not been done in 1672, when Nicholas died, leaving his eldest son Oswald as heir. A division of Sir Edward's estates being agreed upon, Oswald received in lieu of the £7,000 the reversion of the manors of Rolleston and Manchester, and in 1695, on succeeding to the former on the death of Sir Edward's widow, he went to reside there, and died in 1726. (fn. 98) His son and heir, Oswald, was created a baronet in 1720, and in 1734, on the death of Lady Bland, succeeded to the lordship of Manchester. This involved him in many disputes. In 1693, acting for Lady Bland, he had claimed a duty of 2d. per pack on all goods called Manchester wares, but was defeated; and a later claim to set up a malt mill was defeated by the feoffees of the grammar school. (fn. 99) His eldest son Sir Oswald succeeded in 1751, and wished to sell the manor of Manchester, but was unable to do so owing to a settlement he had made. (fn. 100) On his death in 1757 the manor, with Ancoats, passed to his brother John, a clergyman of eccentric habits, who died unmarried in 1779, when the baronetcy expired. (fn. 101)
In accordance with the dispositions made by the last Sir Oswald the estates then went to a second cousin, John Parker Mosley, created a baronet in 1781. He was the youngest son of Nicholas Mosley, a woollen draper of Manchester, who was son of Nicholas Mosley, an apothecary in London, already mentioned as the youngest son of Nicholas Mosley of Ancoats. The new lord of Manchester, Ancoats, and Rolleston had been established as a hatter in Manchester, but a passion for cockfighting and other dissipations almost ruined him. Steadied by his danger he entered on a new course of life and prospered. He was about forty-seven when he succeeded to the estates, and was speedily involved in the disputes as to the markets already described, but established his right. In 1786 he was High Sheriff of Lancashire, and on this occasion was accompanied from his seat at Ancoats by an immense retinue of his friends and neighbours. After this, however, the house was deserted, its owner returning to Staffordshire; (fn. 102) and it was sold to George Murray.
Ancoats Hall is described by Aikin in 1795 as 'a very ancient building of wood and plaster, but in some parts rebuilt in brick and stone.' It stood at the end of Ancoats Lane (now Great Ancoats Street) facing north-west, and at the back of the house the grounds sloped down to the banks of the River Medlock in a series of terraces, from which there was a lovely view over green well-wooded country. The house was of two stories with attics, and the front consisted of three gables with a square tower in the centre, constructed also of timber and plaster, and with a hipped roof. Aikin further remarks that it was the back part of the house that was chiefly rebuilt, but some rebuilding of the west wing had been done before the end of the 18th century. Britton, writing in 1807, speaks of Ancoats Hall as a venerable house, the oldest part of which consisted of timber and plaster, 'the first, disposed of various figures, forms a sort of skeleton, and the latter is employed to fill up the interstices. The upper stories overhang the ground floor, and the great windows project before the face of the building.' The house was built early in the 17th century by Oswald Mosley, (fn. 103) and it stood till the beginning of the last century, when it was taken down in or about 1827 by its then owner, Mr. George Murray, and the present structure erected. It is a rather interesting brick building of an early type of 19th-century Gothic, and since 1877 has been used as an art museum. In 1895 it became the head quarters of a university settlement, which was amalgamated with the museum in 1901. The hall now stands in squalid surroundings, and the gardens at the back, which existed for many years after the rebuilding of the house, have entirely disappeared.
The Mosley leases for 9,999 years were a peculiarity of the district. (fn. 104)
With Ancoats was connected the family of Oldham, (fn. 105) from which sprang Hugh Oldham, Bishop of Exeter, who as founder of the grammar school is justly considered one of Manchester's chief benefactors. He was educated at Oxford, graduating also at Cambridge, (fn. 106) and became chaplain to Margaret, Countess of Richmond, mother of Henry VII, receiving numerous dignities and benefices and being made Bishop of Exeter in 1504. He died on 15 June 1519, and was buried in the chantry chapel he had built for himself in Exeter Cathedral. (fn. 107) A pedigree was recorded in 1664, at which time one branch of the family had an estate in Crumpsall. (fn. 108)
Edmund Entwisle of Entwisle, who died in 1544, had some land in Ancoats. (fn. 109)
GARRETT was formerly the seat of a branch of the Trafford family, (fn. 110) and was sold in 1595 to Oswald Mosley, a younger brother of Sir Nicholas and Anthony. (fn. 111) His son Samuel sold it, but it can be traced in the records down to 1683. (fn. 112) Soon afterwards it was acquired by the Minshulls of Chorlton, and again sold in 1775. A curious story is told of the place. (fn. 113)
Garrett Hall stood on the north bank of the River Medlock close to where it is joined by Shooter's Brook. The house was a black and white timber mansion on a stone base, said to have been similar in style to Hulme Hall, and built on four sides of a quadrangle. The principal front faced south towards the Medlock, which here flowed in a series of curves through a large meadow, and is described as 'extremely picturesque with numerous gables and tall chimneys.' The house, whose position was originally one of defence at the junction of two streams, was surrounded by a park through which Shooter's Brook ran on the north side. It appears to have fallen into decay and to have been let in tenements before the end of the 18th century, but is said to have been standing entire in 1824. One wing was in existence forty years later, and a fragment of the house which could till recently be seen at the back of the north side of Granby Row was not demolished till May 1910. Long before the hall disappeared it was closed in by other buildings, and all traces of the park and original surroundings had long been lost. (fn. 114)
CLAYDEN appears to represent the four oxgangs of demesne land bestowed about 1160 on Wulfric de Manchester by Albert Grelley senior, at a rent of 5s. (fn. 115) In later times it was held by the same rent by a family surnamed Clayden, perhaps descendants of Wulfric. (fn. 116) A portion was owned by the Hopwoods of Hopwood, and derived from them the distinguishing name of Hopwood Clayden. (fn. 117) The district was sometimes considered as partly in Newton. (fn. 118) The name is perhaps preserved in Gleden Street, Holt Town.
The origin of the name Gaythorn is obscure. The place seems to have been owned formerly by the Chethams. (fn. 121)
COLLYHURST was part of the waste. (fn. 122) The townsmen had various rights of pasturage there, (fn. 123) and when the Mosleys acquired the lordship took care to assert them, Rowland Mosley, the son of Sir Nicholas, compounding the disputes by a payment of £10 a year to the poor of Manchester, (fn. 124) payment being made till a century ago. (fn. 125) Francis Mosley, a younger son of Anthony of Ancoats, was settled on an estate at Collyhurst, (fn. 126) which descended on his death in 1662 to his granddaughter Anne, daughter of his son Nicholas, who died in 1659. (fn. 127) Both Nicholas and his father had had their estates sequestered for their fidelity to Charles I. (fn. 128) The heiress carried the estate in marriage to Robert Lever of Alkrington. (fn. 129)
Various districts of Manchester are named in the rentals of 1322 and 1473, some of which are now forgotten, e.g. Ashley, Choo, Clements Croft, Dancroft, Hobcroft, Kyperfield, and Riding Brook. (fn. 130)
Many of the neighbouring gentry held burgages and lands in the township of Manchester, (fn. 131) and there were also a number of the townsmen who acquired wealth and distinction. Some of them are noticed in the accounts of estates they acquired elsewhere; (fn. 132) of the rest may here be named Barlow, (fn. 133) Beck, (fn. 134) Beswick, (fn. 135) Bibby, (fn. 136) Bowker, (fn. 137) Boterind, (fn. 138) Gee, (fn. 139) Goodyear, (fn. 140) Hunt, (fn. 141) Laboray, (fn. 142) Pendleton, (fn. 143) with several note worthy offshoots; (fn. 144) Radcliffe (fn. 145) —several families, including those of the Conduit (fn. 146) and of the Pool; (fn. 147) Tetlow, (fn. 148) Tipping, (fn. 149) and Willott. (fn. 150) In some other cases the inquisitions have been preserved. (fn. 151) The only freeholders returned in 1600 were John Marler, Richard Haughton, Lawrence Langley, and William Barlow. (fn. 152) A pedigree of 'Ridge of Manchester' was recorded in 1665. (fn. 153)
The local surname was in use in the 13th and 14th centuries, but no connected history can be given of the family or families using it. (fn. 154)
The parish church has been described already and its history related. No other church for the Established worship was erected in the township till the beginning of the 18th century. In 1708 an Act was obtained for building a new church; (fn. 155) this was erected on a portion of Acres Field, and the Act provided for the continuance of the fair on part of the ground, while allowing the remainder of the land to be built upon. The rector's income was to be derived from pew-rents, and though baptisms, marriages, and burials were allowed, the fees and the registration pertained to the old church. (fn. 156) The Bishop of Chester was to appoint the incumbent; the patronage is now enjoyed by the Bishop of Manchester as his successor. (fn. 157) It was called St. Ann's, in compliment to the reigning monarch and to Ann, Lady Bland, lady of the manor, who resided at Hulme Hall, and took an active part in the work. (fn. 158) The building was begun in May, 1709, and consecrated on 12 July 1712. A district was assigned to it in 1839. (fn. 159) St. Ann's is a good type of the classic town church of its day, rectangular in plan with an apsidal east end and a west tower. It is built of red sandstone which has weathered so badly that the exterior has had to be almost wholly refaced in recent years. (fn. 160) Externally the building is of two stories with two tiers of large round-headed windows on each side having moulded sills, architraves, and keystones, but without impost mouldings, the upper windows lighting the galleries, and the wall being divided at half its height by a shallow entablature supported by very flat coupled Corinthian pilasters. In the upper stage the pilasters are without capitals and support a cornice only, above which is a square parapet formerly with balusters and ornamented with urns and vases, but now quite plain. There are entrances at the west end of the nave facing north and south, with pediments supported by coupled Corinthian columns, and the apse has fluted pilasters of the same order its full height with an entablature of good proportions the frieze of which is enriched with carved ornament. The tower is of three stages, the upper having a round-headed louvred belfry window flanked by coupled pilasters on each side. Below is a clock. The tower now terminates in a cornice and balustraded parapet, but originally had a curious cupola of three stages surmounted by a vane. This was removed in 1777, as it appeared to be in danger of falling, and was replaced by a steeple, which, however, stood only for a short time, the tower on its removal assuming its present appearance. Externally the general architectural effect is one of extreme flatness, hardly relieved by the apse and porches. (fn. 161) The interior preserves its galleries, but the original square columns have been made circular, and a general restoration in 1837 and subsequent improvements have made the interior one of much dignity. There is a good oak pulpit with inlaid panels and simple detail. The font was the gift of Francis Lathom of London, 1711. There is one bell, which bears the inscription, 'I to the church the living call, and to the grave do summon all. A. R., 1769.'
The plate comprises twenty-five pieces, eight belonging to the 17th century, fourteen to the 18th, and three to the 19th. The earliest is a complete set consisting of two chalices, two cover patens, two credence patens, a large flagon, and an almsdish of 1697, all with the mark of John Bathe. The flagon is inscribed, 'Ex dono Johannis Sandiford,' the cover patens, 'S. Ann's Church, Manchester,' and the almsdish, 'St. Ann's Manchester.' The other pieces are without inscription. The 18th-century plate comprises a tankard of 1701, inscribed 'St. Ann's Ch. M.'; a plate and two tankards of 1716, all inscribed, 'Given to St. Ann's Church by Mr. Edward Mosley, son of Oswald Mosley, Esq., of Ancoats in the parish of Manchester 1714'; (fn. 162) a small cup and cover paten of 1743; and a set formerly belonging to St. Mary's Church, consisting of two chalices, two cover patens, a credence paten, two flagons, and an almsdish, of 1756. The almsdish is inscribed 'The gift of Catherine Fisher widow, 1756,' and the credence paten has the following inscription: 'Dei gloriae et honori populi commodo et saluti ecclesia Sanctae Mariae pro lege lata A.D. 1753. Suscepta Festo Sancti Michaelis A.D. 1756 consecrata. Quo die hoc argenteum cum duobus calicibus lagenis et patinis ad eucharistiis perpetuo celebrandum guardiani et Socij Col. Christi in Mancr. jure patronatus gaudentes dederunt.'
The next church was built under an Act (fn. 165) obtained in 1753 by the warden and fellows of the collegiate church, after the old political animosities had decayed. It stood upon their land called the Parsonage Croft, lying between Deansgate and the Irwell, and was called St. Mary's. It was consecrated in 1756, and the incumbents, styled rectors, were presented by the warden and fellows. It was a plain classic building, with a spire 186 ft. high, which in its time was greatly admired. (fn. 166) There was a graveyard round the building. This church was pulled down in 1890, and the site is now an open grass-covered square. (fn. 167) The district, assigned in 1839, (fn. 168) has been annexed to St. Ann's.
St. Paul's, a plain brick edifice with a stone tower, was built on the eastern border of the town at the corner of Turner Street and Tib Street in 1765; (fn. 169) it was in 1878 replaced by the present St. Paul's, New Cross. (fn. 170) St. John's (the Evangelist) was built in 1769 in the Gothic of the time by Edward Byrom of Kersal, whose Manchester residence was close by; a graveyard is attached to it. (fn. 171) The tower was finished in May, 1770, and contains a ring of eight bells by Lester and Pack of London, 1768–9. St. James's, behind the Infirmary, was consecrated in 1787; in 1816 its congregation was 'the most numerous of any of the Established churches,' except the old church. This church also had a burial ground. (fn. 172) St. Michael's, Angel Street, on the way to Collyhurst, is a plain brick building, with burial ground attached, consecrated in 1787; the church was consecrated two years later. (fn. 173) St. Clement's, Lever Street, has now disappeared; it was opened in 1793 by licence. (fn. 174) St. Peter's, begun in 1788, consecrated in 1794, and demolished in 1907, was a small classic building, near the present town hall. (fn. 175) The patronage of all these churches, except, of course, St. Clement's, is vested in the dean and canons of Manchester.
St. George's Church, formerly distinguished as 'in the Fields,' stood upon part of the site of Oldham Road Station. It was a brick building, opened speculatively in 1798, but not succeeding was transferred to Lady Huntingdon's Connexion; it was restored to the establishment and consecrated in 1818. (fn. 176) In 1877 it was rebuilt in Oldham Road. The Bishop of Manchester has the patronage.
St. Matthew's, Campfield, (fn. 177) and St. Andrew's, Ancoats, (fn. 178) were built in 1825 and 1831 respectively, out of the Parliamentary grant for church building; the dean and canons of Manchester are patrons. They also present to All Souls', Ancoats, consecrated in 1840. (fn. 179) In this year another church in Ancoats was consecrated—St. Jude's, built in 1821 by the 'Tent Methodists,' (fn. 180) and sold by them in 1835; (fn. 181) it was rebuilt in 1866. St. Simon and St. Jude's in Granby Row was consecrated in 1842; the Bishop of Manchester was patron of this church, (fn. 182) and is still of St. Thomas's, Red Bank, 1844. (fn. 183) The other modern churches are:—St. Barnabas, near Oldham Road, consecrated 1844; (fn. 184) St. Philip's, Ancoats, 1850; (fn. 185) St. Oswald's, Collyhurst, 1855; (fn. 186) St. John, the Evangelist's Miles, Platting, 1855— twenty-five years ago famous for a Ritualistic controversy, the incumbent, the Rev. Sidney Faithorne Green, ultimately losing his benefice; (fn. 187) patron Sir A. P. Heywood; St. Catherine's, Collyhurst Road, 1859; (fn. 188) St. Peter's, Oldham Road, 1860; (fn. 189) the Albert Memorial Church, Collyhurst, 1864; (fn. 190) St. James the Less, near Great Ancoats, 1870; (fn. 191) St. Martin's Ancoats, 1873; (fn. 192) St. James's, on the site of Collyhurst Old Hall, 1874, (fn. 193) patron the representative of the Rev. C. N. Keeling, first rector, who died in 1907; and St. Saviour's, not yet consecrated, patron the Crown and Bishop of Manchester alternately. Where not otherwise stated the patronage is in the hands of various bodies of trustees. The incumbents are all styled rectors. St. Philip's and the Albert Memorial have mission halls.
From the Revolution down to the end of the 18th century, a non-juring congregation—the True British Catholic Church—existed in Manchester. Dr. Thomas Deacon, who died in 1753, was one of its bishops, (fn. 194) and Mr. Kenrick Price, a tea dealer, who died in Liverpool in 1790, was the last. (fn. 195)
Methodism was early introduced into the town. Wesley was able to preach here in 1733, the Rev. John Clayton, afterwards an opponent, having been one of the early 'Methodists' of Oxford. (fn. 196) Methodism in the ordinary sense began to take root about 1747, a room near Blackfriars Bridge being used for meetings; Wesley preached at the market cross. A chapel was built in Birchin Lane at the back of High Street about 1750, (fn. 197) but was abandoned for the larger chapel in Oldham Street, built in 1780. (fn. 198) The Conference was held in Manchester in 1765, and sixteen times since. (fn. 199) A second chapel was built in Great Bridgewater Street in 1800, (fn. 200) and a third in Swan Street, Shude Hill, in 1808. The New Connexion built a chapel in High Street, (fn. 201) but afterwards were content with a smaller one in Oldham Street, opened in 1807. The Primitive Methodists built one in Jersey Street in 1824. (fn. 202) Others were built as the town developed, but some have been abandoned, owing to the displacement of population, and the following are those now in use:—Wesleyan Methodists: Five churches for their Manchester and Salford Mission, established in 1888, and three others in Collyhurst, &c., in the ordinary circuits, with a Welsh church, St. David's, in Collyhurst; (fn. 203) Primitive Methodists: Three, in Ancoats and Collyhurst; United Free Methodists: Four, in the Ancoats and Collyhurst districts; Independent Methodists: One, in Hanover Street.
The Baptists have long been established in the city. (fn. 204) The Particular or Calvinistic Baptist chapel in Coldhouse, Shude Hill, was built about 1740 and remained in use till 1890 or later. (fn. 205) Another, in Rochdale Road, was first built in 1789; (fn. 206) it was famous for the preaching of William Gadsby, minister there for 38 years, who died in 1844. It was rebuilt in 1908. There is another Baptist church at Queen's Park, Collyhurst.
The Congregationalists are known to have had a meeting place in Coldhouse in 1756, or perhaps earlier. (fn. 207) The introduction of Unitarian doctrine at Cross Street Chapel is believed to have had much to do with the formation of this separate assembly, which was Trinitarian. In 1762 a new building was erected in Hunter's Croft, Cannon Street; (fn. 208) it was soon enlarged, and in 1828 practically rebuilt. By 1856 the congregation had been dispersed in the suburbs, and in 1860 the building was sold, the church in Chorlton Road, Old Trafford, having taken its place. In 1807 a new church had branched off from Cannon Street, though not without friction, and opened a place of worship in Grosvenor Street, near the Infirmary. (fn. 209) An earlier secession from Cannon Street, in consequence of a dispute with the minister, led to the formation of a church in Mosley Street in 1788. (fn. 210) It was at Mosley Street Chapel that the Lancashire Union of Independent Churches was formed in 1806. This building was abandoned in 1848, being replaced by that in Cavendish Street, Chorlton upon Medlock; Dr. Robert Halley, the historian of Lancashire Puritanism, was minister at that time. Grosvenor Street Church is still in use, and there are five others, at Knott Mill, and between Ancoats and Collyhurst. There is also at Collyhurst a Welsh Congregational church.
The Quakers have existed in Manchester since the time of George Fox, who visited the town in 1647, and again in 1657; on the latter occasion the 'rude people' from the country threw at him 'coals, clods, stones and water,' but he remarks that 'the Lord hath since raised up a people to stand for His name and truth in that town.' (fn. 213) Their first meeting-house was in Jackson's Row; it was rebuilt in 1732, but quitted in 1795 for a new one in Mount Street; this was rebuilt in 1830. (fn. 214) It has a library containing early Quaker books.
The original Nonconformist chapel is that in Cross Street, which was built for Henry Newcome in 1693–4. (fn. 215) This celebrated divine had been chaplain of the Collegiate Church for a few years during the Commonwealth, but on the Restoration was not admitted to a fellowship. He then ministered in private as well as he could during the period of proscription from 1662 to 1687. He died the year after the chapel was opened, and was buried there. (fn. 216)
The site of the chapel had been known as Plungeon's meadow, from the owner's name. (fn. 217) The place was damaged by the mob in 1715, but was restored with the aid of a grant from Parliament. It was enlarged and rebuilt in 1737. There is a small graveyard.
The following is a list of the ministers of this chapel, some of whom were of more than local eminence (fn. 218) :—
Henry Newcome, M.A., 1687–95
John Chorlton, 1687–1705
James Coningham, M.A., 1700–12
Eliezer Birch, 1710–17
Joseph Mottershead, 1717–71
Joshua Jones, 1725–40
John Seddon, M.A., 1741–69
Robert Gore, 1770–79
Ralph Harrison, 1771–1810
Thomas Barnes, D.D., 1780–1810
John Grundy, 1811–24
John Gooch Robberds, 1811–54
John Hugh Worthington, 1825–7
William Gaskell, M.A., 1828–54
James Panton Ham, 1855–59
James Drummond, D.D., 1860–69
Samuel Alfred Steinthal, 1871–93
William Hamilton Drummond, B.A., 1889–93
Edwin Pinder Barrow, M.A., 1893
It was under the joint pastorate of Mottershead and Seddon that the teaching changed from Trinitarian to Unitarian. A secession in 1789 led to the formation of a second Unitarian congregation in Mosley Street, which in 1837 moved to Chorlton upon Medlock. (fn. 219) Sunday schools are now maintained in Lower Mosley Street, and there is also a church in Collyhurst. The Academy for training Nonconformist ministers, originally founded at Warrington, was re-established at Manchester in 1786; it was transferred to York in 1803, and afterwards to Chorlton upon Medlock, London, and Oxford, where, as Manchester College, it is still flourishing. (fn. 220)
The Swedenborgians had a temple called, as usual, New Jerusalem, built in 1793 in Peter Street. (fn. 221) It was sold before 1890, and churches built at Moss Side, Broughton, and Pendleton.
The Bible Christians had Christ Church, built in 1823 in Every Street, and known as the Round Chapel. It came into the possession of the Salvation Army. (fn. 222)
The Welsh Calvinistic Methodists formerly had a chapel in Cooper Street, built in 1824. (fn. 223)
The adherents of the ancient faith appear to have disappeared very quickly after the Reformation, and by the end of Elizabeth's reign there were probably few known in the whole parish except the Barlows of Barlow. (fn. 224) In 1651 Richard Martinscroft, 'a poor old man, over sixty years of age,' is found to have had two-thirds of his estate 'sequestered for his recusancy only': he had a large house in Manchester, divided into three dwellings, but lived two or three miles away. (fn. 225) The list of 'Papists' supplied to Bishop Gastrell about 1717 records only thirteen in Manchester and three in Salford, (fn. 226) but a later list, 1767, gives the number as 373, principally in Manchester, Salford, and Stretford. (fn. 227) What attempts were made to provide priests in the first century of the proscription is unknown, but soon after the Restoration one Thomas Weedon had charge of a large district including most of the Salford and Macclesfield Hundreds, and appears to have resided chiefly at Manchester, where he died in 1719. (fn. 228) Mass, it is related, was said in secret near the present Blackfriars Bridge, in a room which was used as a warehouse during the week. (fn. 229) About 1760 rooms were secured off Church Street in the passage on that account known as Roman Entry. Some fifteen years later a house containing a large room to be used as a church was built in Rook Street. (fn. 230) It was known as St. Chad's, and is now represented by St. Chad's, Cheetham Hill Road, erected in 1847. St. Mary's in Mulberry Street was built in 1794, (fn. 231) and rebuilt in 1835; the roof fell in soon afterwards, but the church remained in use until 1847, when the present one, on the same confined site, was erected, being dedicated in 1848. To these have been added St. Augustine's, 1820; (fn. 232) St. Patrick's, 1832; (fn. 233) St. Anne's, Ancoats, 1847–8; St. Michael's, 1859; and St. Alban's, Ancoats. St. William's, Angel Meadow, 1864, is a chapel of ease to St. Chad's; and the Polish mission of St. Casimir, 1904, to St. Patrick's. The Sisters of Charity have a night refuge in Ancoats.
The Jews had a synagogue, a humble room off Long Millgate, a century ago; about 1826 they built one in Halliwell Street, which has now disappeared. (fn. 234)