A History of the County of Lancaster: Volume 7. Originally published by Victoria County History, London, 1912.
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THE HUNDRED OF BLACKBURN
MITTON (PART OF) - AIGHTON, BAILEY AND CHAIGLEY
This composite township is bounded on the north and east by the Hodder, which separates it from Yorkshire, in which county is situated the greater part of the parish of Mitton. On the south the Ribble is the boundary. The dominant physical feature is Longridge Fell, projecting eastward into the township a little north of the centre. Its highest point, 1,149 ft., lies just within the border. From the ridge the ground falls rapidly to the north and east, and more gently to the south, many outlying spurs breaking the surface into hills and cloughs, the latter often watered by rapid brooks, formerly supplying motive power to numerous bobbin mills. Trees are abundant, and along the Hodder are many beautiful views.
Aighton and Bailey lie to the south of the Fell, to the east and west respectively, being parted by Dean Brook, while Chaigley or Chaigeley occupies the north-east slope. Stonyhurst, (fn. 1) which as the residence of the lords of the manor has for centuries been the dominant house in the township, lies near the centre of Aighton, with Winkley or Winckley to the southeast, in the corner formed by the confluence of Hodder and Ribble, and Woodfields to the north-east. Hurst Green, the principal hamlet, is about a mile southwest of Stonyhurst. Chilsey Green is to the north, under the Fell; near it are the Shireburne almshouses. Morton House lies to the east, while Crawshaw and Hudd Lee are near the western border. In Chaigley, Chadswell and Chapel House are central, the houses known as the hall and the manor lying to the east and Wedacre to the west.
The principal road is that from Longridge to Mitton and Clitheroe, through the southern part of the township. The portion of this road from Hurst Green to the lower Hodder bridge was made by McAdam in 1826, being one of the first attempts to apply his system. (fn. 2) The new Hodder bridge, of three arches, was built at the same time; the old one, still standing a few yards to the south, was provided by Sir Richard Shireburne in 1562. (fn. 3) There is no bridge across the Ribble, (fn. 4) but a ferry is maintained to Hacking on the south bank. The older road from Longridge is higher up, passing through Chilsey Green and Stonyhurst, but this is now little used. North of the Fell is another important road, from Chipping and Thornley to Clitheroe, crossing the Hodder by the higher bridge.
The area of the township is 6,300½ acres, (fn. 5) Aighton measuring 2,867 acres, Bailey 1,418½ and Chaigley 2,015. A detached part of Aighton called Lennox's Farm was in 1883 transferred to Dutton, within which township it lay. (fn. 6) In 1901 the population numbered 1,310.
Aighton was in 1066 in the hundred of Amounderness and apparently in the parish of Preston; its double transference to the hundred of Blackburn and to the parish of Mitton was no doubt a consequence of the early grants to the Lacy and Mitton families respectively, as narrated below.
To the ancient 'fifteenth' 38s. was contributed, when the hundred in all paid £37 1s. 7d., (fn. 7) and to the county lay a proportionate sum.
Tumuli at Winkley (fn. 8) are supposed to mark the scene of some ancient struggle for the passage of the river, but the chief historical event is the stay of Cromwell at Stonyhurst on two occasions in August 1648. (fn. 9) The Jacobite rising of 1715 caused some excitement. In Chaigley there are remains of a barracks in which soldiers were then stationed in order to quell the country. (fn. 10)
Apart from the Shireburnes the most distinguished native was Henry Holden, D.D., a Roman Catholic divine born in 1596 at Chaigley. He took part in the controversies of the time, and was himself suspected of Jansenism, unjustly as it appears. He lived abroad for the most part and became vicar-general of Paris. He died in 1662. (fn. 11)
In 1836, apart from agriculture, the industries were hand-loom weaving of cotton, wood-bobbin making, lime burning and stone quarrying. (fn. 12) At present little corn is grown, the land being mostly pasture; the areas are thus returned for Aighton, Bailey and Bowland with Leagram: arable land, 32 acres; permanent grass, 7,262½; woods and plantations, 641½. (fn. 13) Oxen seem to have been used as draught animals down to recent times. (fn. 14)
The deer park at Stonyhurst existed till 1855. (fn. 15) There are remains of a number of ancient crosses. (fn. 16) At Aighton there seems to have been a St. Michael's Well. (fn. 17) In Chaigley is St. Chad's Well.
In 1086 AIGHTON, assessed as one plough-land, was recorded among the king's manors in Amounderness which twenty years earlier had been held by Earl Tostig as appurtenant to Preston, and after him by Roger of Poitou. (fn. 18) Afterwards it belonged, for a time at least, to Warine Bussel, one of Roger's knights and ancestor of the lords of Penwortham. Again coming into the king's hands, it was in 1102 given by Henry I to Robert de Lacy, and from that time onward formed part of the great fee or honor of Clitheroe. (fn. 19)
Robert immediately bestowed Aighton, together with Great Mitton and other manors, upon Ralph le Rous, who was to hold them by the service of half a knight's fee. (fn. 20) This grant was between 1135 and 1141 confirmed by Ilbert de Lacy, who in his charter styled Ralph 'my brother.' Ralph was ancestor of the Mitton family, who retained possession for some 150 years, though there is little to record of their tenure. (fn. 21) In 1204 Stephen de Hamerton claimed a plough-land in Aighton against Hugh de Mitton, but released his right in 1208 on receiving 14 marks from Hugh. (fn. 22) Ralph son of Robert de Mitton in 1235 secured from Jordan de Wheatley the acknowledgement of his title to half an oxgang of land in Aighton, (fn. 23) and seven years later Ralph was holding the fourth part of a knight's fee in Aighton, &c., being part of the dower of the Countess of Lincoln. (fn. 24) He was party to various suits in 1246 respecting tenements in Aighton, (fn. 25) and his widow Margery was claiming dower in certain lands there as late as 1291. (fn. 26)
Before 1300 Aighton was either sold or reverted to the Earl of Lincoln as lord of Clitheroe, or else a mesne manor had been created in favour of Margaret de Holland, whose second husband Robert de Hephale held of the earl the eighth part of a knight's fee there. (fn. 27) Robert granted his manor of Aighton with various lands to Ralph son of Sir Ralph de Mitton for life. (fn. 28) It appears that Ralph de Mitton held some lordship in Aighton as early as 1276 (fn. 29); in 1284 he claimed a tenement there against Anabil widovv of Jordan de Mitton, (fn. 30) and was in 1292 called to warrant lands. (fn. 31) In 1304 Ralph gave his manor of Aighton, Bailey and Chaigley to Margery widow of Robert de Hephale and received it from her for life. (fn. 32) Margaret afterwards married Adam Banastre, who in 1311 was recorded as holding of the Earl of Lincoln a ploughland in Aighton by the service of the eighth part of a knight's fee and a rent of 9d. (fn. 33) In 1313–14 the lords of the place were Adam Banastre, Margaret then his wife, and Denise widow of Ralph de Mitton. (fn. 34)
John son of Richard son of Henry de Clitheroe in 1323–4 claimed common of turbary in Aighton against Margaret widow of Adam Banastre, (fn. 35) and similar claims were put forward by others against her in conjunction with (her son) John son of Robert de Hephale, Denise widow of Ralph de Mitton and Bernard son of Thomas de Gressingham. (fn. 36) After Margaret's death her manors were divided among her daughters—Alice wife of Robert de Shireburne, Agnes wife (1) of Henry de Lea and (2) of Robert de Horncliff, but apparently childless, Joan wife of Thomas (or Robert) de Arderne, who left a son Thomas, and Katherine wife of John de Harrington. (fn. 37) The heirs of Margaret Banastre held Aighton in 1346–55. (fn. 38)
Robert de Shireburne appears to have acquired as owner or tenant the shares of his sisters-in-law, so becoming lord of the whole manor. (fn. 39) There are, however, occasional traces of the other lordships, for a fourth part of the manor of Aighton was included in the Horncliff estate in 1331. (fn. 40) In July 1352, when John son of Hugh de Hacking claimed two messuages, &c., in Aighton against William de Yarrowdale, the defendant called the representatives of Margaret Banastre to warrant him—viz. Alice widow of Robert de Shireburne, John de Harrington the elder and his wife Katherine and Thomas de Arderne (son of Joan). (fn. 41) Of these John de Harrington of Farleton, in right of Katherine his wife, in 1359 had a rent of 60s. from tenements in Aighton held for life by John de Bailey, (fn. 42) and the Harrington interest in the manor continued to be recognized in the inquisitions of the family and their successors the Mounteagles until 1576, when Sir Richard Shireburne compounded with Lord Mounteagle for the 60s. free rent which had till then been paid. (fn. 43) In 1409 Thomas de Chamber son and heir of Elizabeth daughter and heir of Joan daughter and heir of Sir Thomas de Arderne released to John de Bailey and Robert de Towneley all his title in the fourth part of the manor of Aighton with lands, &c., formerly belonging to Sir Thomas. (fn. 44)
The Shireburne family had had the manor of Hambleton in Amounderness from the early part of the 13 th century. (fn. 45) Robert son of John de Shireburne occurs in 1292, (fn. 46) and later became seneschal of Clitheroe, being so described in the attestations of charters, (fn. 47) &c. In 1313 he was pardoned for his share in the execution or murder of Piers Gaveston, having been an adherent of the Earl of Lancaster, (fn. 48) and about 1326 he was made a knight. (fn. 49) He received from Margaret widow of Adam Banastre in 1329 her manor of Aighton, (fn. 50) and four years later, in conjunction with Alice his wife, granted a fourth part of the manor of Aighton, Bailey and Chaigley to their son Robert. (fn. 51) Sir Robert and Alice his wife were living in 1338, (fn. 52) but Alice was a widow in 1342 (fn. 53); she in 1353 granted to Sir John Tempest and Katherine his wife the crops growing on certain of her lands. (fn. 54)
Sir Robert appears to have been succeeded by his son Sir John de Shireburne, (fn. 55) who fought at Crecy and Calais (fn. 56); but another son, William, had half the manor of Aighton in 1349, (fn. 57) and in 1351 John Boteler and others were charged with abducting Ismania wife of William de Shireburne. (fn. 58) Sir John left two sons Robert and Richard; the former was in 1349 married to Emma daughter of Sir William de Plumpton, (fn. 59) but must have died shortly afterwards, for in 1351, on being betrothed to Alice, sister of Emma, Richard was described as son of Sir John de Shireburne and heir-apparent of Alice widow of Sir Robert de Shireburne. (fn. 60) Sir Richard de Shireburne in 1361 granted to Richard de Bailey and others the moiety of the manor of Aighton lately belonging to his uncle William. (fn. 61) He died in or before 1370, when his widow Alice claimed the custody of his son Richard. (fn. 62) Of this son nothing further is known, and his sisters Joan and Margaret succeeded, the latter becoming sole heiress. Margaret was by 1377 married to Richard son of John de Bailey, (fn. 63) and her son adopted Shireburne as his surname.
John de Bailey, ancestor of the later Shireburne or Sherburne family, was seated at STONYHURST. This was the name of some land in Aighton granted before 1209 by Hugh son of Jordan de Mitton to Ellis son of Alexander de Winkley, (fn. 64) who obtained a confirmation from Hugh's son Robert. (fn. 65) The new owner probably took Stonyhurst for a surname, several of the family attesting local charters. About 1290 Henry de Wath and Margaret his wife granted to Walter son of Jordan de Bailey the land called the Stonyhurst which they had acquired from Thomas Loucoks of Stonyhurst (fn. 66); a fine of 1292 appears to be in confirmation of it. (fn. 67) John son of Walter de Bailey made in I 323 an exchange of lands in Aighton with William de Winkley, (fn. 68) and acquired other lands there in 1330 and later. (fn. 69) He in 1349 obtained a moiety of the manor from William de Shireburne, and this was settled upon him and his male issue in 1361. (fn. 70) John son of Walter de Bailey was still living in 1370 and 1 371, (fn. 71) being probably the John de Bailey the elder who attested a deed in the latter year. (fn. 72) He is said to have died in 1372. (fn. 73)
John son of John de Bailey appears in 1364 as making a feoffment of lands in Dutton received from John son of Walter de Bailey (fn. 74); he acquired lands in Aighton in 1367 (fn. 75) and 1376, (fn. 76) while in 1372 he obtained licence for an oratory at Stonyhurst. (fn. 77) At his death in 1391 John de Bailey held the Shireburne manor of Aighton, either as trustee for his grandson Richard or by purchase. One fourth part was said to be held of the Duke of Lancaster in chief, another fourth by knight's service, another of Sir Nicholas de Harrington by a rent of 60s. and the other of the heirs of Sir Thomas de Arderne by 63s. 4d. a year. (fn. 78)
Sir Nicholas de Harrington was the guardian of Richard de Bailey and Agnes his wife. (fn. 79) Mabel the widow of John in 1403 demised her dower lands in Aighton to Richard son and heir of Richard son and heir of John de Bailey. (fn. 80) In 1414 the same Richard held a fourth part of the manor of Sir Thomas de Arderne, 'rendering 4 marks a year to John de Bailey, which yearly rent, together with the reversion of the said fourth part, &c., the aforesaid John lately had of the gift and grant of William Mountford and Elizabeth his wife, daughter and heir of Joan daughter and heir of the said Sir Thomas.' (fn. 81) Richard was knight of the shire in 1420, (fn. 82) and died in 1441 holding the manor of Aighton of the king as Earl of Lincoln in socage; with manors and lands elsewhere, as in Hambleton, Poulton, Freckleton, Longton, Chorley and Bolton-le-Moors. (fn. 83) By his will he provided for the inclosing of St. Nicholas' chapel in Mitton Church, (fn. 84) to which Agnes his widow, who died in 1445, was also a benefactor. (fn. 85)
His son Richard, as appears from his monumental inscription, (fn. 86) had died a few days before him, so that the heir was a grandson named Robert, son of the younger Richard by his wife Alice Hamerton, (fn. 87) and only six years of age. Little is recorded of Robert's fifty years' tenure of the manor. (fn. 88) He died in 1492 holding Aighton of Sir Edward Stanley, successor of Harrington, by the rent of 60s.; also various other manors and lands. Provision had been made in 1489 for Thomas and Roger, younger sons, and in 1491 for Anne daughter of Sir Thomas Talbot, who was to marry Hugh grandson of Robert. The heir was Robert's son Sir Richard Shireburne, then thirty years of age. (fn. 89) He died in 1513 holding the manor as before, and leaving a son Hugh, thirty years of age, to inherit. (fn. 90) Hugh's son Thomas of full age succeeded in 1528, (fn. 91) but did not long continue, dying in 1535–6, (fn. 92) during his term of office as sheriff. (fn. 93)
Richard the son and heir of Thomas was said to be ten years old at his father's death. (fn. 94) He held the manor for nearly sixty years, and for most of the time was one of the leading men in the county. In 1544 he was made a knight during the invasion of Scotland in that year, Edinburgh being captured. (fn. 95) He was a member of the Parliaments of Mary's time, (fn. 96) but not later; nor was he ever sheriff. Religion probably kept him from these employments after 1559, for such as he was he favoured Roman Catholicism. (fn. 97) Towards the end of his life, about 1591, it was reported to the queen's ministers that Sir Richard and his family 'are recusants and do not go to church, or if they do, stop their ears with wool lest they should hear; that he kept a priest in Queen Mary's time; had one brought to confess his wife when ill; relieves Richard Startevant, who is conversant with Dr. Allen and other Jesuits and is suspected to be a Jesuit, and for that reason he put Roger Startevant out of the book for payment of this subsidy; that he says he could apprehend massing priests but will disturb no man for his conscience; that he threatens revenge, with death, against those that preferred the articles against him; that he has several times, from 1585 to 1588, laid upon the inhabitants of Lancashire too high taxes for soldiers, and kept the money in his hands and refuses to account for it; that he threatens to hang constables by martial law unless they collect the sums so taxed; that he retains sundry sums due to people on the end of the last lottery; that he threatened vengeance on Simon Haydock, who refused to sell him lands at Chorley, if he continued in his lieutenancy; that he has been guilty of incest and adultery; and has never lent the queen money by privy seal, though worth more than £1,000 a year.' (fn. 98) He was at one time a member of the Ecclesiastical Commission of the North, the object of which was to exterminate Roman Catholicism. (fn. 99) He was master forester of Bowland, a deputy-lieutenant of the county and the Earl of Derby's lieutenant of the Isle of Man. (fn. 100) He married Maud Bold, and had several children by her, as well as illegitimate offspring by various mistresses; one of these he married immediately after his wife's death in 1588. (fn. 101) Though involved in a great number of lawsuits (fn. 102) he prospered, adding much to the family wealth (fn. 103); he rebuilt the Shireburne aisle in Mitton Church, (fn. 104) and began a new hall at Stonyhurst, (fn. 105) which his son continued.
Sir Richard died 26 July 1594 holding the manors of Aighton, Wiswell, Dutton, Carleton, Hambleton, Longton, Bispham, Norcross and Whittingham; a moiety of the manor of Chorley, a fourth part of that of Bolton-le-Moors; the hundred, bailiwick and view of frankpledge of Leylandshire; with messuages, lands, &c., in Aighton, Chaigley and Bailey and some thirty other townships; fisheries in the Ribble, Hodder, Douglas and Wyre; also the manor of Wigglesworth and other estates in Yorkshire. (fn. 106) Richard his son was thirty-seven years of age on succeeding. (fn. 107) He was captain of the Isle of Man for fifteen years, (fn. 108) and in 1596 obtained from the Crown a lease of the barony of Bangor Sabell in Dalby there, which lease was renewed to his descendants. (fn. 109) Perhaps more compliant in religion than his father, (fn. 110) he acted as sheriff in 1613–14. (fn. 111) A pedigree was recorded about the same time. (fn. 112) He added to the family estates and died in 1628, leaving as heir his son Richard, thirty-seven years of age, the eldest son Henry having died before his father. (fn. 113)
Richard Shireburne, though lax in his religion at one time, (fn. 114) was prepared to suffer for it when he came into his inheritance, and in 1632 compounded for the two-thirds of the estates liable to sequestration for his recusancy by an annual payment of £48 13s. 4d. (fn. 115) He took the king's side in the Civil War, (fn. 116) and on his monument is described as 'an eminent sufferer for his loyal fidelity to King Charles I of ever-blessed memory.' (fn. 117) His estates were of course sequestered by the Parliament, and at last his sufferings broke his spirit, for there is evidence that he recovered possession by renouncing his religion. (fn. 118) He lived to see the Restoration, dying in 1667. (fn. 119) A pedigree was recorded in 1664. (fn. 120)
His son Richard, founder of the Shireburne Almshouses and other chanties, was under suspicion at the time of the Oates Plot. He, his wife Isabel and his sons Richard and Nicholas were indicted as recusants in 1678, (fn. 121) while Stonyhurst was denounced as the centre of 'a damnable Jesuit plot.' An account of it was published in 1679 by Robert Bolron, one of Lord Shaftesbury's agents, under the title of The Papists' Bloody Oath of Secrecy. He had been sent down to search the house, and 'in the chamber of the chaplain . . . he found a copy of the constitutions of the common fund for the Lancashire secular clergy, a charity still existing for the relief of infirm and decayed members. This document, written in Latin, dated 28 February 1675, and bearing the names of the members and officers,' was denounced as a plot 'for the destruction of his most sacred Majesty and the Protestant religion.' (fn. 122) At the Revolution Richard Shireburne was arrested as loyal to James II, and died in prison at Manchester in 1689. (fn. 123) His elder son Richard dying without issue in 1690 (fn. 124) was succeeded by the younger son Nicholas, who had been created a baronet in 1685–6. (fn. 125) A settlement of Aighton and other manors was made by him on succeeding. (fn. 126) Sir Nicholas remained faithful to the Stuarts and was accused of complicity in the alleged 'Lancashire Plot' of 1694. (fn. 127) He was probably too infirm to take part in the rising of 1715, and was not even charged as an accomplice, though in November, in readiness for the Jacobite incursion, a supper party at Stonyhurst spent the night in casting bullets and next morning took with them four of his coach horses, with guns and pistols. (fn. 128) He carried out his father's charitable designs by building almshouses and in other ways; but his plans for improving the hall were checked by the sudden death of his only son Richard Francis in 1702. (fn. 129) His other child Mary in 1709 married Thomas the eighth Duke of Norfolk. Sir Nicholas registered his estates as a 'Papist' in 1717, the annual value being set down as £1,150. (fn. 130) He died in the same year, (fn. 131) and his daughter recorded his character as 'a man of great humanity, sympathy and concern for the good of mankind . . . He particularly set his neighbourhood a-spinning of Jersey wool and provided a man to comb the wool and a woman who taught them to spin, whom he kept in his house and allotted several rooms he had in one of the courts of Stonyhurst for them to work in, and the neighbours came to spin accordingly . . . from April 1699 to August 1701. When they had all learnt he gave the nearest neighbour each a pound or half a pound of wool ready for spinning, and wheel, to set up for themselves; which did a vast deal of good to that north side of Ribble in Lancashire.' (fn. 132)
The Duchess of Norfolk occasionally resided at Stonyhurst in her husband's lifetime, and it became her home in her widowhood, 1732 to 1754. (fn. 133) She held the estates in fee simple and bequeathed them to the next-of-kin, the issue of her aunt Elizabeth, sister of Sir Nicholas, who had married William Weld of Lulworth in Dorset. Their grandson, Edward Weld, who died in 1761, became lord of Aighton, but did not reside there, (fn. 134) and his son Thomas (fn. 135) in 1794 gave the hall and 44 acres of land around it to the Jesuits of the Liège Academy, (fn. 136) the successor of St. Omers, founded in 1592; and they established the school there. Thomas Weld had been a pupil of the college while it was stationed at Bruges, 1762 to 1773, and had the satisfaction of seeing his old school beginning to prosper in the place he had given; he died suddenly at Stonyhurst 1 August 1810, having travelled thither to be present at the opening of new buildings. (fn. 137) His son Thomas Weld, left a widower, was ordained priest in 1821 and was appointed a cardinal in 1829. He sold considerable parts of the Aighton estates and died in 1837. (fn. 138) His trustees and heir sold the manor of Aighton to the college in 1841, subject to a rentcharge of £6 for the poor of Leagram. (fn. 139) The college also acquired various parts of the estates as they were sold.
In 1836 courts for Aighton and Chaigley were held by Cardinal Weld, (fn. 140) and the Aighton manor court continued to be held down to 1900 by the rector of Stonyhurst and the college trustees. (fn. 141)
Situated on the lower slope of Longridge Fell 'the turrets of princely STONYHURST' (fn. 142) rise amid a pleasantly wooded country. Of the house (fn. 143) that existed prior to the time of Sir Richard Shireburne no portion now remains except a few fragments, hereafter referred to, which have been preserved. There is enough evidence, however, in old prints and from other sources to give some idea of the mediaeval mansion, the principal part of which seems to have stood somewhere about the north-east corner of the present quadrangle. On this site there were standing well into the 19th century a number of quaint and ancient buildings (fn. 144) which when taken down revealed traces of a structure said to have been of late 14th or early 15th-century date. (fn. 145) The destruction of the buildings known as the old infirmary, or Sparrow's Hall, (fn. 146) on the north side of the quadrangle in 1856 brought to light what were thought to be traces of the chapel for which a licence was obtained in 1372, including some carved oak spandrels similar in style to those in the roof of Mitton Church, which date from the late years of the reign of Edward III, (fn. 147) and in a further demolition in the kitchen court in 1861 a portion of an old window with moulded oak mullions, said to have been of late 14th-century date, which had been hidden by an 18th-century structure put up in front of it, was discovered.
These fragments, though revealing very little as to the size or appearance of the mediaeval house, seem to indicate that a building of some importance occupied part of the present site some 200 years or more before the present building was begun by Sir Richard Shireburne. To these buildings, whatever they were like, Hugh Shireburne, the grandfather of the Elizabethan builder, seems to have made considerable additions about the year 1523, some portions of which, at the east end of the old south front, stood until 1807 and others till as late as 1861. The portion taken down in 1807 was entirely of wood and plaster, but had been refaced in the 18th century with stone and sash windows introduced. Standing to the south-east of the Elizabethan house, its north side fronted what is now the kitchen court, and the other fragments of the older house occurring on the north and north-east side of the present quadrangle suggest that the whole of the preElizabethan mansion occupied a site more or less covered to-day by the buildings, the quadrangle and the kitchen yard. The minstrels' gallery at the bottom of the great hall, now the boys' refectory, constructed in 1857 out of timber from Hugh Shireburne's buildings, bears the inscription in blackletter characters 'Quant je puis Hugo Sherburn Armig . me fieri fecit Ao. Dni. MCCCCCXXIII. Et sicut fuit sic fiat,' (fn. 148) and the external walling of Sparrow's Hall, already referred to, may have been Hugh Shireburne's work. Built into it were a number of carved stones which are supposed to have come from Whalley Abbey, but if this were so it would place the erection of the front after Hugh Shireburne's death in 1528. The most interesting of these stones were two corbel angels bearing shields with the emblems of the Passion and above them an inscription 'Sicut fuerit voluntas in coelo sic fiat Factum est hoc capellum anno . . .,' not, however, in its original situation, as the words were misplaced. (fn. 149) There were also five stones in this part of the building carved with devices, two of which were evidently the arms of the Lacys, the founders and patrons of Whalley Abbey, viz. a lion rampant, which was their family cognizance, and three garbs which they bore as Constables of Chester. (fn. 150)
The exact date when Sir Richard Shireburne commenced rebuilding the house is not known, though it is pretty certain that it was somewhere about the year 1590. In his will dated 1593 Sir Richard leaves to his eldest son 'all his iron to build with, that he may finish the buildings therewith now already begun, also his lead provided to cover his house now in building at Stonyhurst, so that he may cover the same as far as it will go, also all his building stone and wrought timber at Stonyhurst.' (fn. 151) At his death in the following year the walls of practically the whole of the Elizabethan part of the house were probably not far from completion, at any rate as far as the great drawing-room at the south-east corner, beginning from the gateway tower. The plaster chimney-piece in that room, which is now destroyed, bore the date 1596 together with the initials of Sir Richard and his son. 'If this room was ready for the plaster work in 1596 it looks as if the building had well progressed at Sir Richard's death in 1594,' (fn. 152) and there is the further evidence of a stone, now in the great hall, the original position of which is uncertain, but which was probably over the fireplace there when the room was first built, that another portion of the mansion was completed three years later. (fn. 153) The building of the new house may have started a few years before 1590, but the evidence of the masons' marks shows that a very large number of workmen were employed and the progress of the work would be therefore rapid. (fn. 154)
The new mansion as conceived, and as partly carried out, by Sir Richard Shireburne was to be built round a central quadrangle measuring about 81 ft. by 90 ft., the sides facing approximately south-west, north-east, south-east and north-west (fn. 155); but in the present description the south-west or entrance front, following the custom at Stonyhurst, is termed the west side, and the south-east or old garden front the south side. The design is one of considerable merit and of much regularity both in plan and elevation, and if completed would have been one of the finest examples of early Renaissance architecture in the country. As it is, the existing portions of Sir Richard's buildings, more especially the great entrance tower on the west front and the south and east sides of the quadrangle, are exceedingly good specimens of late 16th-century work, and merit far more attention than has yet been paid to them by writers on English domestic architecture.
The building seems to have been begun at the entrance tower and continued along the west side of the quadrangle southwards, followed by the south and east wings as far as a point on the east side about opposite to where it began, no doubt there abutting against some of the older buildings already mentioned, others of which may have been demolished to make way for it. A considerable portion of the house (probably the whole of that built about seventy years before), however, was left standing to the east of the south wing, and the north side of the quadrangle was partly occupied, as has been already stated, by older buildings. No doubt Sir Richard originally intended them to make way for his completed quadrangular mansion, but for some unknown reason the building was never finished according to what is supposed to have been the original plan, and the whole of the north wing and the northern ends of the east and west wings remained unbuilt. The gate-house tower, therefore, stood detached on its north side for something like 250 years, and is so shown in all old drawings and prints of Stonyhurst.
The plan of the building here reproduced is taken from one dated 1694, (fn. 156) but whether this is a copy made in Sir Nicholas Shireburne's time of an older plan showing the building as originally projected, or whether it depicts a scheme of Sir Nicholas' own for completing the unfinished mansion, is uncertain. There is unfortunately no scale attached to the plan, and the dimensions of the actual building do not fit it exactly (fn. 157) in every respect; but generally speaking it is correct as far as the existing buildings are concerned, the positions of doors and windows being rightly shown. (fn. 158)
This plan, whatever its original date, is of great interest as showing the completed plan of the house as intended, at any rate, in the 17th century. In what is certainly the original part of the plan the great hall occupies the larger part of the east wing, with the dais at the south end flanked by large bay windows, and the south wing contained the long gallery. Between these two principal rooms, and forming a south-east projecting wing, was the great withdrawing-room, which had a large bay window facing the east. These rooms are all on the first floor, the bottom story following the early type and being cut up into a number of small rooms, the purpose of which can now only be conjectured. The great hall was approached directly from the courtyard by a wide stone staircase opposite the entrance gateway, and the entrance itself seems to have been originally approached by a rather steep incline by which carriages and horses entered the courtyard. (fn. 159)
The south end of the west wing seems to have been occupied by the chapel, which went up two stories, and in the angle between which and the narrow south wing was a picturesque projecting bay, with a small room on each floor and a circular stone staircase. A corresponding but smaller projection in the opposite angle carried up above the parapet seems to have contained a flue or ventilating shaft. The south or garden elevation was therefore very well broken up, and with the older buildings of Hugh Shireburne at its east end presented a very picturesque appearance. It is of course now hidden by the later school buildings which have been erected in front of it, and the whole of its eastern end destroyed. The kitchen and offices of the Elizabethan house would doubtless be located in the older buildings, the new mansion terminating at the north-east at the screens of the great hall or a little beyond.
The north wing as shown in the plan of 1694 was intended to be more than double the width of the south or long gallery wing, and is shown divided down its centre by a thick wall with five passage rooms on the first floor on the south side and a large central staircase with two rooms on each side on the north. This part of the plan has more the appearance of a late 17th-century design for the completion of the Elizabethan structure than of an original 16th-century project, though no positive conclusion can easily be arrived at.
After Sir Richard Shireburne's death his son continued and completed the building as far as it had then gone, the work apparently not being finished till about the year 1606. (fn. 160) It was thus, and remained till the 19th century, a 'half-house,' (fn. 161) the completion of the quadrangle on something like the plan originally intended only having been finally carried out in 1856. (fn. 162) The buildings as completed by Richard Shireburne the son remained as he had left them at his death in 1628 till nearly the close of the century, when Sir Nicholas Shireburne began the laying out of the grounds and that embellishment of the fabric which has given it some of its most characteristic features. The great avenue leading up to the west front, with the ponds or canals on either side, together with the gardens and summer-houses on the south, were in course of formation in 1696, and some buildings were erected on the north side of what is now the kitchen court in 1701. (fn. 163) Sir Nicholas, if not exactly a great builder, was lavish in his expenditure on the house and gardens, and he is said to have resolved to complete the mansion. The idea may have been abandoned soon after the death of his son in 1702. He did not, however, cease 'improving' the house, as in 1703–4 he paved the quadrangle and refashioned the staircase on its east side leading to the great hall in a grander manner. The steps were adorned with lions and figures of eagles and the doorway at the top with his helm and crest. (fn. 164) He also paved the great hall with white marble, put his escutcheon over the fireplace, and erected the doorway at the south side of the quadrangle at the bottom of the bay window. But perhaps the most notable piece of his work was the erection of the tall cupolas on the tops of the two staircase turrets, on the east side of the gateway tower. These were added in 1712. They are covered with domes of oak bricks and surmounted by lead eagles. (fn. 165) The gardens came right up to the house on the south side, and were in the then prevalent Dutch style, with yew hedges, flights of stone steps, labyrinths, fountains and lead statues. They were entered at the south-west corner of the building through a great iron gate, (fn. 166) the stone piers of which are now in front of the west entrance. The ponds on the west side were enlarged to their present dimensions in 1706, and 'in the centre of each a group of mythological figures formed fountains.' (fn. 167) The west entrance probably took its present form at this time, the steps being then introduced and the carriageway to the quadrangle done away with. The inner or middle arch, though replacing an older one in the same position with a smaller doorway on the left-hand side, bears evidence of later date, and is most likely Sir Nicholas's work. (fn. 168)
There were in Sir Nicholas's time, though it is not known when they were erected, large coach-houses to the north-west of the mansion, on the site of the present infirmary building. (fn. 169)
As left by Sir Nicholas Shireburne the house remained till its abandonment as a residence, the only structural alteration of importance being the facing in stone, already noted, of Hugh Shireburne's building by the Duchess of Norfolk during the time of her residence between 1732 and 1754. (fn. 170) After the duchess's death the house was abandoned, the new owners never caring to occupy it, and during the forty years between 1754 and 1794 it fell into such a state of disrepair that there were serious thoughts of taking it down altogether. (fn. 171) From this fate it was saved by Thomas Weld's action in handing over the building to the Jesuit refugees from Liège in 1794, and since that date the history of Stonyhurst is the history of the great public school which bears its name.
When the Jesuit Fathers arrived at Stonyhurst they found the building in parts roofless and the greater part of it uninhabitable. They immediately set about putting the house in repair, but in so doing, while preserving the building, wrought no little damage to the gardens, which had suffered less than the house itself in the lapse of years. Trees were felled, and the greater number of the lead statues melted down to provide the new roofs. (fn. 172) The house, too, suffered in some degree, the long gallery being divided into two stories.
The later history of the fabric resolves itself into a mere list of the various building operations carried out by the authorities of the College. In 1796 the great hall was turned into the refectory, in 1797 the old stables on the south-west of the house were converted into a church, and two years afterwards the building known as 'Shirk,' which still stands between the church and the south-east wing, was erected. (fn. 173) The west front was completed northward by the erection of a plain building, since removed, in 1800, and in 1809–10 the old playground front on the south side, a plain classic building, was set up, the old great drawing-room and Hugh Shireburne's building being demolished to make space for it. (fn. 174) A new church was built in 1832–5 on the site of that previously formed out of the stables, and the infirmary, on the site of the old coach-houses, was erected in 1842–4. In 1843–4 the present north end of the west front took the place of the building erected in 1800, and in 1856 the old pre-Shireburne buildings on the north side of the quadrangle were cleared away and the quadrangle completed on that side, Sir Nicholas Shireburne's carved staircase being removed at the same time. Many internal alterations were effected during the middle years of the century, a new domestic chapel (now part of the library) being opened in 1857 and the Sodality chapel (fn. 175) in 1859. New kitchens and offices were built in 1861–2. The present college buildings, replacing the old playground front, took shape between the years 1877 and 1889, the west wing being completed first in 1879, the east wing in 1881 and the middle block in 1883. The boys' chapel block was begun in 1884 and completed in 1888, and the Angels' chapel block, the final block of the new college buildings, in 1889. (fn. 176)
It remains to describe briefly those portions of the Elizabethan mansion which remain. Externally the west front and the elevations to the quadrangles are substantially unchanged, but the house inside has been necessarily very much altered to suit it to its present requirements. It is of three stories and built throughout of stone with ashlar facing, with mullioned and transomed windows, straight parapets and flat lead roofs. The quadrangle as now completed measures 79 ft. 6 in. from west to east and 91 ft. from north to south, the former dimensions being the width of the original building between its west and east wings. The present west front is about 195 ft. in length, with the central gateway tower and end wings each projecting 7 ft. 6 in. The length of wall between the gateway and the southwest wing is 51 ft. 6 in., but the modern northern end of the front is 2 ft. longer. The three projecting blocks each measure about 30 ft. on the face. The elevation, as already stated, is one of much merit, combining picturesqueness and dignity, the large wall spaces between the windows helping materially to set off the architectural features of the gateway tower. The tower is of four stories, divided by entablatures and with a round-headed archway flanked by coupled Doric columns on the ground floors, and a mullioned and transomed window of four lights on each of the floors above flanked by coupled columns of the Ionic, Corinthian and composite orders, the whole crowned by an embattled parapet. The detail is refined and ornament sparingly used; the columns are set well back from the angle and are fluted. On the ground floor stage there is a middle string linable with the impost moulding of the arch and with the hood moulds of the windows on either side, and the spandrels of the arch are occupied by circular medallions containing heads. There is no keystone to the arch, but over the cornice is set the escutcheon of Sir Nicholas Shireburne with helm, crest, mantling and motto, the arms being those of Shireburne quartering Bailey. The entrance to the quadrangle is by a passage-way 18 ft. 3 in. wide, with an inner or middle doorway, and doors on either side leading to the house. The inner archway to the quadrangle is flanked by octagonal staircase turrets rising above the lines of the parapet and crowned with the tall 17th-century cupolas erected by Sir Nicholas Shireburne. From whatever point of view the building is seen these cupolas now form its most distinctive feature, and though differing in style from the early work harmonize very well with it and materially help the composition by giving it height. The first-floor windows throughout both to the west and former south fronts and to the quadrangle, with the exception of those to the great hall, are tall openings divided by double transoms and of three or more lights, those of the ground and second floors being low and without transoms. All the windows have hood moulds.
The west wall of the south-west wing was originally unpierced its full height, and was sometimes known as the Blind Tower. The effect of this externally on the west elevation was unusual, but some time in the 18th century the present 14th-century pointed window, which was brought from the ruins of Bailey chapel in the neighbourhood, was inserted. The four upper windows above were inserted in modern times, the upper pair in 1888.
To the quadrangle the old elevations are somewhat similar in character to those already described. The removal of the curved steps on the east side has deprived the courtyard of one of its most distinctive features, but the view from the entrance towards the south-east corner, embracing the great bay of the hall and the smaller and more elegant one to the long gallery, is one of much picturesqueness. Both bays go up the full height of the house, but that to the long gallery appears to be of later date and probably belongs to the early years of the 17th century. It is very refined in detail, with pilasters at the angles, and is further distinguished from the rest of the buildings round the quadrangle by the still later pedimented doorway inserted by Sir Nicholas Shireburne and bearing his cypher. There are four built-up doorways on the south side of the quadrangle and a fifth, different in character and referred to later, in the south-west corner. The lead down pipes were set up by Sir Nicholas in 1694 and bear his cypher together with the eagle's and unicorn's head crests, and various shields of arms on the ears.
The location of the chief apartments has already been mentioned. The great hall was 60 ft. long by 27 ft. in breadth and 19 ft. 6 in. high. It was extended northwards in 1856–7 to its present length of 90 ft., but the other dimensions remain unaltered. It is lit by a range of mullioned windows with single transom on the west side towards the quadrangle and by a bay window 15 ft. 6 in. wide by 12 ft. 6 in. deep on either side of the dais at the south end. There were originally windows on the east side to the north of the fireplace, the mullions of which may be seen in the store rooms above the kitchens. The old fireplace opening, 11 ft. 6 in. wide, still remains in the east side, but is now used as an alcove, from which access is gained to the pantry. Above the segmental arch is the escutcheon of Sir Nicholas Shireburne carved in white marble, with helm, crest, mantling and motto, and bearing the date 1699. The minstrels' gallery at the north end has already been referred to as being constructed from timber taken from the demolished building of Hugh Shireburne. The royal arms of James I are now placed above it, and underneath is preserved an oak table on which, according to tradition, Cromwell slept on the occasion of his visit to Stonyhurst in 1648. The present white marble pavement replaced that of Sir Nicholas Shireburne in 1862. The heraldic stained glass which originally filled the windows, being much damaged, is said to have been removed in college times with a view to repair, and to have been put away and lost. (fn. 177) The bay windows are now filled with the coats of arms of past students.
The long gallery is 88 ft. long by 18 ft. wide and 19 ft. high, and was originally lit by windows on both sides. Those on the south are now blocked by the later college buildings, the room which is used as a picture gallery and museum being lit only from the quadrangle and the west end. At the east end the gallery originally opened into the great drawing-room, which occupied the destroyed south-east wing, and was an apartment 46 ft. long from north to south and 24 ft. 6 in. in width, with a large bay window to the south-east. A door on its north side communicated with the dais of the great hall. The chimney-piece is described as having been 'a large handsome structure in stucco with the arms of Shireburne and Bailey quarterly in the centre and the motto "Quant je puis," and on either side the same arms impaling Stourton on one side and Kighley on the other, the two wives of Richard Shireburne, Sir Richard's son and successor.' (fn. 178) The fireplace was dated 1596.
There remains the room in the south-west tower now known as the Bailey room, but probably originally the chapel. This room presents several interesting problems and shows architectural features different from those in any other part of the building. (fn. 179) As shown on the plan of 1694 the room measures 55 ft. in length from north to south, with a breadth at the north end of 21 ft. and 29 ft. at the south within the 'wing' proper. It was lit by a pointed window of five lights and late Perpendicular tracery at the south end, and by a smaller pointed window of three lights at the south end of the east wall. (fn. 180) The northern end of the room is lit by two of the ordinary squareheaded mullioned windows on the west front. There was a door at the north-east corner leading to the quadrangle, and another near the south end of the east wall leading to a small room 12 ft. by 9 ft. with a vice in its eastern side giving access to a smaller room above. Apart from the 'ecclesiastical' appearance of the two pointed windows, (fn. 181) the arrangement and peculiar features of the room certainly suggest that this was originally meant to be a chapel, though there are certain difficulties to be faced in accepting the conclusion, more especially Sir Richard's reason for constructing a chapel of such importance at this time. (fn. 182) The southern part of the room, that contained in the south-west wing proper, goes up two stories and was 34 ft. 6 in. in height. The northern end is of one story only 11 ft. high, the floor of the long gallery being continued over it to the west front. The two parts are divided by a lofty pointed arch, which still remains, though built up and partly hidden, which carried the south wall of the long gallery forward to the west. This arch is of two chamfered orders, dying into the wall at the springing, 3 ft. thick and 29 ft. 6 in. in height, the span being the full width of the north end of the room. The upper part of the arch, therefore, opened into the west end of the long gallery. Assuming this to have been the chapel, with the altar below the window at the south end, we have the somewhat unusual arrangement of part of the long gallery itself being used as a tribune or gallery for the family during service, while the servants would occupy the floor below, entering from the door in the courtyard. The arch shows no sign of there ever having been a screen, but the stones cease to be smoothly faced at a point 3 ft. from the floor of the long gallery, suggesting that there was originally a balcony or gallery front of some sort in that position. (fn. 183) The small room on the east side would be the sacristy, from which the vice gave access directly to the long gallery itself, and from there by a second doorway to the small chamber over. From the sacristy there was an opening 4 ft. long by 3 ft. high divided by mullions, which from the slant of its jambs seems to suggest it was so built as to afford a direct view of the altar. There is also an opening from the chamber above. To the north of the 'chapel,' and between it and the gateway tower, was a room 21 ft. 6 in. by 21 ft., which has been termed the 'priests' room,' but with what evidence to support it is not very apparent. The plan of 1694 does not show any communication between the two rooms. The 'chapel' is now divided into two rooms below the arch, the so-called 'sanctuary' now forming what is known as the Bailey room, and internally, except for the pointed windows, shows no architectural features of interest.
The formation of the boys' playground in front of the new college buildings on its south side has necessarily meant the loss of a large part of the 17th-century gardens. The playground itself, which measures 580 ft. by 300 ft., was lowered from the level of the garden terrace before the new buildings were begun. (fn. 184) Such parts of the old gardens as are left retain all the original charm of clipped yew hedges and well-ordered design. The two pavilions erected by Sir Nicholas Shireburne are exceedingly good examples of the garden architecture of the time. They are built of stone, and measure 17 ft. square outside with walls 2 ft. thick, and square-headed barred sash windows. The roofs form a graceful curve rising from a strongly-marked cornice, and are surmounted by gilded eagles in Portland stone. Of the leaden statues which formerly adorned the grounds only three remain, one of which, supposed to represent Regulus under torture by the Carthaginians, now occupies the centre of the 'Observatory' pond.
The school was a great institution, formed by a distinguished history of two centuries, when it settled here, and, speedily recovering from its temporary misadventures, has added to its fame continually. (fn. 185) New buildings have consequently been required, and have been added from time to time; the latest block, as above stated, was added piecemeal from 1877 to 1889. The library is richly stored, (fn. 186) its nucleus consisting of books brought over from Liège, which include a manuscript of St. John's Gospel found in St. Cuthbert's tomb in 1105, and not improbably transcribed by the saint himself (fn. 187); also a printed book of Hours, supposed to have belonged to Mary Queen of Scots. The tenth Lord Arundell of Wardour, an 'old boy,' in 1834 left his library to the college, (fn. 188) and Dr. John Vertue, Bishop of Portsmouth (d. 1900), gave it a collection of early printed books. The buildings contain a large collection of paintings, old prints, medals, stuffed animals and miscellaneous curiosities.
The Observatory, in the gardens, was begun in 1838; a telescope was mounted in 1845, and in the same year the series of meteorological observations was begun. An underground chamber for magnetic observations was added in 1866. In 1865 a new room had been built for the larger telescope then mounted, and the station acquired some fame through the solar observations of Fr. Stephen Perry, who had charge of the place from 1868 to 1889.
In addition to the college buildings proper, which include the Jesuit community house, there are a school for junior boys at Hodder House, some distance away, and a seminary called St. Mary's Hall, devoted to philosophical studies of members of the Society of Jesus. (fn. 189)
The following is a list of the rectors, who have since 1841 been lords of the manor also: 1794, Marmaduke Stone; 1808, Nicholas Sewall; 1813, John Weld (son of the donor of the site); 1816, N. Sewall (2); 1817, Charles Plowden; 1819, Joseph Tristram; 1827, Richard Norris; 1832, Richard Parker; 1836, James Brownbill; 1839, Francis Daniel; 1841, Andrew Barrow; 1845, R. Norris (2); 1846, Henry Walmesley; 1847, Richard Sumner; 1848, Francis Clough; 1861, Joseph Johnson; 1868, Charles Henry; 1869, Edward Purbrick; 1879, William Eyre; 1885, Reginald Colley; 1891, Herman Walmesley; 1898, Joseph Browne; 1906, Pedro Gordon; 1907, William Bodkin. (fn. 190)
WINKLEY was part of the Hospitallers' estate in Aighton and Bailey, which was treated as part of their manor of Stidd. (fn. 191) There appear to have been several families surnamed Winkley. Adam son of Alexander de Winkley gave lands in Aighton to the Knights of St. John, (fn. 192) and Robert de Manneby, prior of the order in England, gave to Adam son of Richard de Winkley all the land they had of the gift of Adam de Winkley and others, (fn. 193) and the remainder of their land in Winkley they gave to Robert son of John de Winkley; each of the grantees was bound to render 2s. a year and the third part of their chattels at death. (fn. 194) These estates appear to have been consolidated later, a rent of 4s. being paid.
The descent can be traced only with uncertainty. In 1246 Ralph son of Robert de Mitton sued John de Winkley and his son Robert for 10 acres in Aighton which they had had from Simon de Greenhurst, (fn. 195) and a Richard de Winkley complained that a roadway had been interfered with by Richard de Daniscoles, Osbsrt his son and others. (fn. 196) Robert de Winkley was living in 1278, holding land in Aighton which was claimed by Ralph de Mitton, (fn. 197) and possibly it was the same Robert who appears in 1292. (fn. 198) Richard son of Robert de Winkley and Amery widow of William de Winkley were concerned in other pleas of the same year (fn. 199); but Robert was dead in 1294, when his widow Cecily and his sons Adam, Richard and Henry were accused of having disseised Nicholas son of William of messuages, land and rent in Aighton. Nicholas, a minor, alleged that his father was Robert's eldest son, but it was found that the plaintiff was born out of wedlock. (fn. 200)
Adam de Winkley was in 1318 pardoned for his adhesion to Thomas Earl of Lancaster. (fn. 201) John de Winkley in 1321 granted all his manor of Pleasington and his lands in Aighton to Adam his son and heir on marriage with Maud daughter of Gilbert de Scarisbrick. (fn. 202) Two years later Adam son of John de Winkley and Maud his wife exchanged a messuage, &c., in Winkley with John son of Walter de Bailey. (fn. 203) In 1332 Adam headed the subsidy list in Aighton. (fn. 204) John son of Adam de Winkley gave land at Stonyhurst to John de Bailey for life in 1352, (fn. 205) and in 1354, in conjunction with his son Adam, he had to defend his title to land in Aighton claimed by his brother or half-brother Adam, son of Adam de Winkley the elder by Margery, then deceased. (fn. 206) Isabel widow of John in 1371 granted her son Adam the third part of lands and mill in Aighton. (fn. 207)
Adam de Winkley seems to have been a minor in 1371 but of full age in 1373. (fn. 208) As Adam son of John son of Adam de Winkley he was party to an exchange of lands in 1376. (fn. 209) He may have been the same Adam whose widow Margery in 1436 released her lands in Aighton to John the son and heir of Adam. (fn. 210) In the next year John Winkley granted lands to his son Thomas, who married Margaret daughter of Henry Holden of Bowland. (fn. 211) John died in or before 1443, (fn. 212) and in 1447 Thomas his son and heir made a feoffment of all his lands and the reversion of those held by his mother Joan. (fn. 213) Thomas Winkley was still living in 1479, when he allowed Richard Catterall to make an attachment (perhaps for a mill stream) over his land to the water of Ribble near its junction with the Hodder (fn. 214); but his son and heir Geoffrey had in 1463 married Isabel daughter of Alice and Alexander Nowel, (fn. 215) and was living some time later, when he demised land called Horrockfields. (fn. 216)
Next appears Roger Winkley, with Margaret his wife, in 1508. (fn. 217) He lived on till 1556, when by his will he left his ' capital or manor house called Winkley Hall' to his then wife Jane for her life. (fn. 218) His son Anthony had in 1546 demised Woodfields in Aighton to his brother Roger. (fn. 219) Anthony died in 1566 seised of the capital messuage called Winkley Hall in Aighton and 30 acres of land, held of the queen as of the late monastery of St. John of Jerusalem in England by a rent of 4s. for all services; also half an oxgang of land and a messuage called Woodfields, held of Sir Richard Shireburne by the fortieth part of a knight's fee and ½d. rent and by 12d. rent respectively. Nicholas Winkley the son and heir was forty years of age. (fn. 220) A pedigree was recorded in 1613, (fn. 221) but the main line of the family was extinct by 1664. (fn. 222) Roger Winkley, son of Thomas son of Nicholas, seems to have succeeded to the estates before 1615, when Toby Archbishop of York gave him licence to construct a pew in Mitton Church adjoining the old quire of Richard Shireburne. (fn. 223) William Winkley of Winkley, occurring 1641 to 1652, appears to have been the last of the name in possession. (fn. 224)
Winkley was held in 1696 by Sarah widow of Thomas Lacy, and she sold it to Sir Nicholas Shireburne. (fn. 225) It descended like Stonyhurst until 1828, when Thomas Weld sold it to James Wilkinson. Farms called Jumbles and Boat-house, parts perhaps of the original Winkley, had become included in the Walmsley of Dunkenhalgh estate and were in 1827 sold by George Petre to the same James Wilkinson. His daughter married a Macdonnell, and her son James in 1879 sold the estate to Mr. William Walmsley Simpson, the present owner. (fn. 226)
Winkley Hall, now a farm-house, stands in a low situation on the right bank of the Hodder immediately above its junction with the Ribble, but is a house of no architectural interest, having been entirely modernized and altered from its original appearance. It is a two-story stone building with thick walls facing east to the river, but its only ancient features are two windows of 17th-century date at the back, of five and three lights respectively with transoms and hood moulds, and a low one of the same date in the northern end gable.
CRAWSHAW in Aighton was part of the estate of the Clitheroes of Bailey. (fn. 227) It was in the 17th century tenanted by Richard Holden, younger brother of John Holden of Chaigley, probably the recusant of that name who had his lands sequestered by the Commonwealth; on his death in 1652 the trustees for his infant children desired a discharge. (fn. 228) The place comes into note through an outrage illustrative of those days. A priest was beheaded at Chapel House Farm in Chaigley whilst in the act of saying mass there. The head was thrown over the fence into an adjoining field and Mrs. Holden of Crawshaw gathered it into her apron and took it into her house, and secured also the objects in the chapel at the time— missal, altar cloth, vestments, candles, &c.—and they have been preserved as relics by the family. (fn. 229)
Morton, an early place-name, seems to have been in Aighton. (fn. 230) A local family used Aighton itself as a surname. (fn. 231) The Reads were long connected with this part of the township. (fn. 232)
CHAIGLEY was originally included in the manor of Aighton, the lords of the latter holding it. (fn. 233) Thus in 1347 Roger son of John de Mitton claimed five messuages, &c., in Chaigley against Sir John de Harrington, Katherine his wife, Sir Thomas deArderne, Agnes widow of Sir Robert de Horncliff, Robert son of Robert de Shireburne, Robert de Morley and Hugh de Bradford. It appeared that Margaret Banastre was formerly in possession and that her four daughters had succeeded, viz. Katherine, Alice, Agnes and Joan; also that one Thomas Talbot had held a moiety of the property in dispute, but had died. The estate included rents of two pairs of white gloves and two barbed arrows. (fn. 234)
The principal family was that of Holden, (fn. 235) and their estate was regarded as a manor. Amabel widow of Jordan de Mitton granted lands in Aighton to her daughter Cecily, the rent being a pair of white gloves and the bounds extending to Longridge on the west. (fn. 236) John son of Jordan de Mitton confirmed to the said Cecily his sister the lands of his mother's gift, they being described as in Chaigley in Aighton. (fn. 237) Cecily married Henry de Holden, (fn. 238) but the descent cannot be clearly traced. The above Roger de Mitton in 1347 claimed various messuages and lands in Aighton against Henry de Blackburn, Mary his wife, Ralph de Holden and John his son. (fn. 239) In 1365 the feoffees granted certain lands to Ralph de Holden and Maud his daughter, with remainder to John his son, (fn. 240) while John soon afterwards released to his father and sister lands in Bailey near the Daniscoles. (fn. 241)
Elizabeth daughter of John de Holden and heir of her brother, another John, occurs in 1379 and as widow in 1393; she afterwards married a Richard de Holden, by whom she had sons John, Henry and Geoffrey and three daughters, settlements being made in 1405 and 1420. (fn. 242) Richard Holden of Witton in 1445 released to John Holden all right to lands in Aighton, Bailey and Chaigley formerly owned by Ralph de Holden and Maud his daughter. (fn. 243) John Holden the elder (fn. 244) occurs in various deeds from 1468 to 1491; in the latter year he set apart lands for the use of Elizabeth daughter of Lawrence Asshaw, who was to marry Thomas son and heir of John Holden the younger. (fn. 245)
Thomas's heir in 1514 was his brother John, rector of St. Mary's, Cricklade, who granted lands to his brother and heir Ralph husband of Elizabeth daughter of Richard Hancock. (fn. 246) Ralph in 1522–3 made a settlement on his son John's marriage with Alice daughter of Thomas Grimshaw, (fn. 247) and Ralph and his son John occur again as late as 1557, when they granted an annuity of 20s. to Henry and William, other sons of Ralph. (fn. 248) John Holden succeeded soon afterwards, selling land in Aighton and Bailey to Sir Richard Shireburne in 1560 (fn. 249) and in the next year arranging for the marriage of his son Richard. (fn. 250)
Richard Holden, Jane his then wife and Richard his son and heir in 1596 agreed to the levying of a fine of certain lands in Aighton, Bailey and Chaigley (fn. 251); Richard Holden was a freeholder in 1600. (fn. 252) John Holden of Chaigley, son and heir of Richard and Isabel his wife, in 1623 sold Clough House alias Grubbe Hall in Grindleton to Richard Shireburne of Stonyhurst. (fn. 253) John died in 1637 holding a capital messuage in Chaigley and other lands, &c., of the heirs of Amabel de Mitton in socage by the rent of a pair of white gloves. Mary his daughter and heir was fifteen years of age. (fn. 254) She married Thomas Brockholes of Claughton, and Chaigley was sold to Richard Shireburne in 1655. (fn. 255) From that time it descended like Stonyhurst till about 1840, when it was sold to William Winstanley. It has descended to his grandson, Mr. William Alfred Winstanley, who is called lord of the manor of Chaigley. (fn. 256)
BAILEY also was properly a member of Aighton, as appears from charters already quoted, but it had greater independence than Chaigley and was accounted a manor. It gave a name to one or more families, probably descendants of the Mittons, (fn. 259) including that which, as has been seen, took Shireburne as a surname. It is not possible to trace the minor families. (fn. 260)
Henry de Clayton (fn. 261) acquired land in Bailey in 1284 from Adam de Edieles and Christiana his wife; it was to be held by the render of a clove gillyflower yearly to Christiana or her heirs. (fn. 262) He then exchanged it for a messuage, land and the moiety of a water-mill held by William de Winkley and Amery his wife. (fn. 263) Henry was in 1290 summoned to warrant the tenant of certain land in which dower was claimed by Alice widow of John de Bailey. (fn. 264) Philip de Clayton in 1338 made a settlement of a messuage and land in Bailey and Dutton; the remainder was to his son Robert, who had married Isabel. (fn. 265) Isabel, as widow of Robert, was plaintiff in 1345. (fn. 266)
The Knights Hospitallers had, as already noted, (fn. 267) an estate in this part of the township. About 1300 it was acquired by Robert de Clitheroe, one of the king's clerks and rector of Wigan 1303–34. (fn. 268) Sir Adam de Clitheroe, apparently in consequence of some dispute, carried off a large quantity of cattle, provisions, furnishings and books from the manorhouse of Bailey in 1332. (fn. 269) When in 1330 Robert desired to give his 'manor of Bailey' to Cockersand Abbey it was found that the said manor was held of the Prior of St. John in England by the service of 18d. yearly; the prior held it in perpetual alms of the Lady Isabel, queen of England, as of the honor of Clitheroe, she holding of the king by knight's service. The yearly value was £6 13s. 4d. (fn. 270) This benefaction was not carried through, the chantry being founded instead. Robert, who had many disputes concerning his lands, (fn. 271) in 1334 gave his manor of Bailey to Henry de Clitheroe. (fn. 272)
In 1350 the feoffee of Henry de Clitheroe granted to Edmund the son of Henry and his wife Eleanor daughter of Sir Nicholas Boteler certain lands in Bailey, with remainders to Hugh son of Sir Adam de Clitheroe, Nicholas son of Sir Roger de Clitheroe and Richard son of Thomas de Knowle. (fn. 273) The next in possession, about 1378, was Nicholas de Clitheroe (fn. 274); he was son of Edmund. (fn. 275) He occurs down to 1430, (fn. 276) and was succeeded by a son Robert, (fn. 277) who in 1443 was summoned to answer Robert Shireburne and Alice his wife, widow of Sir William Hoghton, as to a bond dated 1432 for the marriage of Richard his son and heir to Margaret Hoghton, daughter of Alice. Richard had by inheritance lands in Cumberhalgh and Preston, formerly John de Singleton's. (fn. 278) Richard son of Robert Clitheroe and Alice his wife made a feoffment in 1459–60. (fn. 279)
Thomas Clitheroe was in possession in 1468 when he presented to Bailey Chapel; in 1474 he in conjunction with Elizabeth his wife received from feoffees the manor of Bailey. (fn. 280) He made a settlement of his estates in 1504–5, (fn. 281) and was within two years succeeded by his son Robert, who then granted Bailey Hall to his mother Ellen. (fn. 282) Ralph son of Richard Clitheroe was in possession by 1544 (fn. 283); he died in August 1556 holding Crawshaw, Welshman's Croft in Bailey, &c., of Sir Richard Shireburne by a rent of 5s. 1d.; also lands in Goosnargh and Whittingham. His heirs were his father's three sisters or their representatives, viz. Isabel wife of John Halstead, aged seventy, aunt; Joan daughter of John Blakeden, thirty, cousin; and George son of Mary Franks, thirty, cousin. (fn. 284) Ralph had, however, just before his death sold all his lands to Sir Richard Shireburne, (fn. 285) who appears to have made arrangements with members of the family and others. (fn. 286)
This manor descended with Stonyhurst until 1831, when it was sold by Cardinal Weld to Joseph Fenton. (fn. 287) It has since descended with Dutton. No courts are held.
A family named Ash had for several centuries an estate in Bailey and Aighton. (fn. 288) Ralph de Bailey granted land in Bailey to Robert son of John de Ash, to be held by 6d. rent, (fn. 289) and Ralph de Mitton made another grant to Robert de Ash and Henry his son at 2s. rent. (fn. 290) These rents were still payable in the 17th century, but there is not material available to show the descent completely. (fn. 291) Hugh Ash died in 1554 seised of messuages and lands in Dutton, Ribchester, Aighton and Bailey, those in the lastnamed township being held of the king and queen as of their manor of Clitheroe. George, the son and heir, was only a year old. (fn. 292) Edward Ash of Clough Bank died in 1609 holding lands in Aighton and Bailey of Richard Shireburne by rents of 2s. and 6d. respectively; his heir, his son Robert, was fifty-eight years old. (fn. 293)
A younger branch of the Shireburnes was designated 'of Bailey.' Richard Shireburne of Bailey Hall— probably lessee—was a younger son of the Hugh Shireburne of Stonyhurst who died in 1528; he died about 1580. (fn. 294) A descendant, also named Richard, was outlawed for high treason in 1715, having taken part in the Jacobite rising. (fn. 295) Sir Edward Sherburne, the poet (1618–1702), is usually supposed to have been of the Bailey line. (fn. 296)
An early place-name was Greengore in the northern half of Bailey. (fn. 297) In 1314 Thomas del Greengore confirmed to Adam his son certain land in Bailey, excepting the Greengore. (fn. 298) John son of Thomas de Greengore in 1364 released land in Claughton to Ralph de Holden; while in 1388 Adam de Greengore, brother and heir of John, confirmed to John son of John son of Ralph de Holden the land called Greengore in Bailey. (fn. 299)
The freeholders recorded in 1600, in addition to Shireburne, Winkley and Holden, were Richard Goodshaw, Thomas Loud, Robert Read and John Tomlinson of Aighton; also Richard Aighton of Chaigley. (fn. 300) Some of these have already been named.
In 1568 there was a dispute as to Hill House in Chaigley between John Loud and Joan his wife on the one part and William Loud, &c., on the other. (fn. 301) Sir Richard Shireburne in 1546 purchased a messuage and land in Aighton from James Loud and Isabel his wife. (fn. 302) Thomas Loud in 1632 compounded for his recusancy by an annual payment of £2. (fn. 303) William son and heir of James Loud held land in 1691. (fn. 304)
Thomas Johnson alias Tomlinson held land in Bailey in 1546, with remainder to Richard Tomlinson. (fn. 305) John Tomlinson died in 1624 holding land in Chaigley, with common of pasture in Bailey, of Richard Shireburne as of his manor of Aighton; Thurstan his son and heir was fifty years of age. (fn. 306) John Tomlinson, apparently another son, died in 1633 holding land in Chaigley and Clitheroe of the king; his brother Thurstan was heir. (fn. 307)
Richard 'Haghton' and Alice his wife procured a messuage called Armetridding, &c., in Chaigley from Sir Richard Shireburne and Maud his wife in 1546, apparently in exchange for a tenement in Aighton. (fn. 308) A settlement of four messuages, dovecote, lands, &c., was in 1548 made by Richard and Alice Haghton, the remainders being to sons John and Roger, and to heirs male of John father of Richard Haghton. (fn. 309)
Hugh de Hacking in 1311 acquired a messuage and land in Aighton from Thomas de Broadhurst and Agnes his wife. (fn. 310) This was probably the estate of Henry de Shuttleworth and Agnes his wife in 1366. (fn. 311) Broadhurst and other lands in Aighton were in 1644 held by Nicholas Grimshaw of Clayton. (fn. 312)
Thomas Bradley of Thornley in 1564 held messuages, &c., in Chaigley partly of the queen and partly of someone unknown. (fn. 313) Roger brother of Richard Bradley of Bailey (deceased) in 1653 petitioned for the restoration of a moiety of the estate, which had been sequestered for the recusancy of Elizabeth, Richard's widow; she was then dead. Roger himself was 'conformable' to the Parliament, 'ever a dutiful and constant good Churchman,' and had two sons in the army. (fn. 314)
Mary Dewhurst alias Osbaldeston died in 1638 holding a messuage, &c., in Bailey of the king as of the honor of Clitheroe; Robert her son and heir was thirty years of age. (fn. 315) Robert Dewhurst as a 'delinquent' had his lands sequestered by the Parliament, and in 1654 his son James petitioned for restoration. (fn. 316)
A few particulars about non-resident holders are found in the inquisitions. (fn. 317)
A considerable number of landowners contributed to the subsidy of 1524, the principal being Hugh Shireburne. The others were: Robert Ash, the wife of Thomas Clitheroe, Thomas Gooday, John Halghton, Ralph Holden, Thomas Lenox, Robert Waddington and Roger Winckley. (fn. 318) The names in the 1543 subsidy list are: Richard Shireburne, Robert Shireburne, Robert Waddington, Ralph Holden, John Gooday, the widow of John Halghton, Anthony Winckley, John Hayhurst and Thomas Johnson. (fn. 319) In 1597 the following contributed for their lands: Richard Shireburne (self and wife), Richard Holden, John Shireburne (for wife), Richard Haughton, John Tomlinson, Bartholomew Gooday, Robert Read, Thomas Lowde, Henry Heyhurst. (fn. 320) In 1626 Richard Shireburne, Roger Winckley, Richard Haighton, Thurstan Tomlinson, Richard Holden, Richard Crombleholme (for wife), Bartholomew Gooday, Richard Read, John Whitaker and Henry Hayhurst; the wife of Richard Shireburne and a large number of others paid as noncommunicants. (fn. 321)
In the Commonwealth time Anne Watson, a recusant, had had her estates sequestered, but was dead in 1654. (fn. 322) The hearth tax return of 1666 shows that at Aighton there were eighty-two hearths liable, of which Stonyhurst had twenty-three, the house of Anne Winckley widow had five, that of James Loud five, and four houses had three. At Bailey there were thirty-eight hearths, Mrs. Elizabeth Rishton's house having five. At Chaigley there were forty-two hearths, but only two dwellings had as many as three. (fn. 323) In addition to Sir Nicholas Shireburne a number of 'Papists' registered estates in 1717. (fn. 324) The land tax return of 1787 shows that Thomas Weld held nearly all the land; the Earl of Derby had a part of Chaigley. (fn. 325)
A chapel of St. John the Baptist was built in Bailey by Robert de Clitheroe, and he obtained the royal licence to grant it with the endowment he provided to Cockersand Abbey; the canons were to provide two chaplains. (fn. 326) This intention does not seem to have been carried into effect, for in 1338 Henry de Clitheroe obtained a fresh licence from the king authorizing him to alienate two messuages, 40 acres of land, &c., in Ribchester and Dutton for the endowment of a chaplain who should celebrate daily for the souls of Robert de Clitheroe and others. (fn. 327) In 1548 it was found that the incumbent 'celebrated there accordingly and did minister the Blessed Sacrament to the inhabitants adjoining at such times as the curates of the parish church cannot repair to them for the floods.' (fn. 328) Most of the chaplains' names are known, as follows (fn. 329):—
|1334||William de Preston|
|oc. 1338||Thomas (fn. 330)|
|oc. 1403–21||Richard Bradley|
|oc. 1421–62||William Bradley (fn. 331)|
|oc. 1498||William Barker|
|oc. 1500–17||Lawrence Towneley (fn. 332)|
|1517||Robert Taylor (fn. 333)|
In 1535 the income was returned as £3 10s. 1d. (fn. 334) The endowment was confiscated on the general suppression of chantries, the lands being sold in 1549 to William Eggleston and others, (fn. 335) and no attempt was made, so far as appears, to maintain service in the chapel. The building gradually fell into ruin, and the last remains of it were destroyed in 1830. (fn. 336) The east window had been removed to Stonyhurst and placed in its present position there, in a room then used as a chapel. (fn. 337) The Priest's House, or Merrick's Hall, now standing in Bailey, is thought to have been the chantry priest's residence. It contains some wood carving: 'Robertus Taylor cantorista hanc fabricam fieri fecit A. D[omi]ni M.D.xxiii.' (fn. 338)
In Chaigley there was a chantry of St. Chad, but nothing definite is known of its history. It is stated to have been by the roadside opposite a farm now called Chapel House. (fn. 339) The Chapel-stead in Chaigley is named in a deed of 1378–9. (fn. 340) Richard Shireburne of Stonyhurst in 1600 was seised of 'the late dissolved chantry of St. Chad in Chaigley and the chantry lands lying in the manors of Aighton, Bailey and Chaigley,' and complained that Roger Nowell and Richard Holden had obtained certain deeds respecting the same, which he ought to have. (fn. 341)
For the Church of England St. John the Evangelist's was built in 1838, near Hurst Green, but within Bailey; a burial-ground is attached. A district was assigned to it in 1870. (fn. 342) It is in the diocese of Ripon. The vicars are presented by the vicars of Mitton.
The Congregationalists have a small endowed school-chapel at Walker Fold in Chaigley, founded in 1792. Over the doorway is the inscription: 'Chaidgley Charity School, Established by Miss Ellin Haighton And endowed by Miss Ann Haighton, only daughter of Mr. Richd. Haighton, all of London. The ground bought of Mr. Richd. Haighton of Chaidgley, 1792.' (fn. 343)
From the account of the Shireburne family it may be gathered that the practice of the rites of the Roman Catholic religion was maintained in the district with more or less regularity during the whole period of the penal laws. (fn. 344) Henry Long, a secular priest educated at Rome, (fn. 345) the chaplain at the hall from 1666 to 1679, was drawn into a controversy with the vicar of Mitton, who had a dispute concerning his revenues with Richard Shireburne, 'the sacrilegious popish patron' of Mitton, as the vicar styled him. (fn. 346) The secular clergy were succeeded by Jesuits about 1700, (fn. 347) but from 1741 to 1752 the Duchess of Norfolk had a Carmelite for chaplain. (fn. 348) On the establishment of the college in 1794 a larger chapel in the house became necessary. In 1797 part of the old stabling was fitted up for public use, and this was replaced in 1835 by the present church of St. Peter adjoining the college. It is a pleasing example of the early Gothic revival, the architect being J. J. Scoles. (fn. 349) It has in course of time become richly decorated, a tasteful high altar having been given in 1893. The sacristy contains a number of valuable relics, including the cap and seal of B. Thomas More, monstrances and other church furniture; also rich vestments, including a chasuble and cope, part of a gift by Henry VII to Westminster Abbey, and a more ancient chasuble of English make called the Lucca vestment. (fn. 350) Mass is also said once a week at St. Joseph's Schools, Hurst Green.
The principal endowment (fn. 351) is that of £80 a year for the Shireburne almshouses. (fn. 352) In addition about £10 a year is distributed to the poor from the gift of Richard Pickering, (fn. 353) and other sums from those of John Richmond (fn. 354) and James Standford. (fn. 355) The schools at Chaigley and Hurst Green have endowments.
SHIREBURNE ALMSHOUSES.—Above Stonyhurst, at the east end of Longridge Fell, at a height of 800 ft. above sea level, stand the Shireburne Almshouses, a picturesque stone building now neglected (fn. 356) and in the first stages of decay, erected in the early years of the 18th century by Sir Nicholas Shireburne. The plan is an adaptation of that of the usual courtyard type employed in such institutions combined with the E-shaped house plan, the wings projecting only 28 ft. in front of the main block. (fn. 357) The 'courtyard' in reality forms a terrace 69ft. 6 in. by 28 ft., raised about 8 ft. above the ground, and approached by a semicircular flight of sixteen steps, 47 ft. 6 in. in diameter, forming a most effective architectural feature. The design of the whole building is thoughtful and refined, and has an instinctive fitness and charm, emphasized perhaps by its present forsaken condition. It is a good example of simple Renaissance work, in which full advantage has been taken of the nature of the site on the slope of the hillside. The walls are of wrought stone with ashlar dressings and plain architraves to all the windows, and the roofs are covered with stone slates with overhanging eaves. The end wings are 19 ft. in width, the whole of the south front being about 107 ft. 6 in. in length, which is increased by high stone walls and gates connecting a small stone outbuilding on each side with the main structure. The building is of one story, except in the projecting centre, which rises above the roofs on either side and is surmounted by a pedimented gable with stone vase ornaments. In the pediment are the arms of Shireburne with crest and supporters, and below in large letters the words 'Shireburn Almshouses,' and over the middle entrance is a large blank stucco panel, evidently added later, on which probably there was a painted inscription which has completely disappeared. The tenements of the inmates are arranged in ten small double rooms in the middle and side wings, five on each side of the 'chapel,' with the names of the different townships over the doors. (fn. 358) From the terrace, which is inclosed by a stone balustrade with turned balusters, there is a fine view to the south over the Ribble Valley.