Townships: Barnacre-with-Bonds

Pages 315-320

A History of the County of Lancaster: Volume 7. Originally published by Victoria County History, London, 1912.

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In this section


Bernaker, 1450. Byrewath, 1292; Byrewayth, 1357. Grenolf, 1347. Howath, 1274; Hawath, 1276. Lingarth, 1276. Wedacre, Wedaker, 1276; Wodacre, 1292.

Bonds lies in the south-west of the township, occupying 960 acres out of the total area of 4,494½. (fn. 1) The name is applied especially to the hamlet by the bridge over the Wyre, carrying the high road from Preston to the north into the adjacent town of Garstang. The surface is in general level, but there is a small hill in the south, round which are Dimples to the east, Bowgrave and Howath south-east and Byrewath or Byerworth west. In the north end of Bonds are the remains of Greenhalgh Castle and the farm or hamlet of Lingart.

Barnacre, the main portion of the township, occupies higher ground to the north and east, over 600 ft. above sea level being attained, but the surface falls away somewhat at the eastern and northern boundaries, formed respectively by the Calder and Grizedale Brook. In the north-west corner, on level ground beside the Wyre, is Woodscre, formerly Wedacre; towards the eastern border are Eidsforth and Kelbrick, and in the south-east are Sullam Side and Stirzacre. On the high land at the north end are reservoirs of the Fylde Waterworks.

A detached part of Catterall was added to this township in 1887; at the same time a detached portion of Barnacre called the Banks was added to Cabus. (fn. 2) The population of the township, including Bowgrave and Calder Vale, was 1,117 in 1901.

The principal road is that already mentioned from Preston northwards; from it another branches off east and then north over the hilly portion of the township. The London and North-Western Company's main line to Scotland runs north through the western side, having a station named Garstang and Catterall nearly two miles by road from the town of Garstang. From the station a single-line railway branches off westward to Pilling and Knott End. The Preston and Lancaster Canal winds through Bonds and crosses the Wyre into Garstang by an aqueduct.

The Garstang Union Workhouse, built in 1876, is in Bonds.

The soil is clay; wheat is grown, but most of the land is in pasture. There was formerly a papermill on the Calder.

The enlarged township is governed by a parish council.

The Thirlmere water supply is conveyed through the township towards Manchester.

A square masonry well near Woodacre Hall is known as the Spa Well, and is believed to have healing qualities. (fn. 3)

The base stone of an ancient cross remains at Stirzacre, and the sites of four others are known. (fn. 4)


Though in some late documents a manor of BARNACRE is named, (fn. 5) the place was formerly no more than a hamlet in the manor of Garstang or Nether Wyresdale. (fn. 6) There were within it a number of smaller estates or manors which call for notice.

The principal of these is Woodacre or WEDACRE, once the residence of the Rigmaiden family. They were for three centuries lords of a moiety of Nether Wyresdale, and this moiety was spoken of as the manor of Wedacre. The origin of their title having been narrated above, (fn. 7) it remains to give an account of the descent. John de Rigmaiden and Isolda his wife, the first in possession, (fn. 8) had two sons, John and Marmaduke. John son of John de Rigmaiden in 1323 settled two plough-lands, &, in Wyresdale and Garstang upon his son Thomas and Joan his wife, together with a moiety of the manor of Wyresdale and rents in various townships. (fn. 9) John was still living in 1331, (fn. 10) but Thomas was dead in 1328, and his widow Joan afterwards married Robert de Culwen; she was still living in 1348. (fn. 11) Thomas left an infant son John, (fn. 12) who married Lettice, afterwards the wife of Richard de Molyneux of Great Crosby. (fn. 13) John de Rigmaiden died in 1355 (fn. 14); his heir was a daughter Joan, who died without issue in or before 1362. (fn. 15)

Wedacre was then claimed by Thomas de Rigmaiden, son of Marmaduke above named. (fn. 16) A settlement was made by him of this moiety of the manor of Wyresdale in 1366–71, the remainders being to John the son of Thomas, who was to marry Margaret daughter of Robert de Hornby, and in default of issue to Richard, William and Peter, brothers of John; to John son of William de Bradkirk and Agnes his wife, daughter of Thomas de Rigmaiden. (fn. 17) John de Rigmaiden afterwards married Elizabeth, (fn. 18) and dying at Wedacre in 1379 (fn. 19) before his father, left by her a son and heir named Thomas, who proved his age in 1397. (fn. 20) Thomas Rigmaiden held the moiety of Nether Wyresdale in 1431, (fn. 21) and appears to have left a son Nicholas, in possession in 1445. (fn. 22)

Nicholas Rigmaiden died in 1478 holding the manor of Wedacre of the king as of his duchy by fealty and a rent of 2s. 6d.; his son John having died, the heir was John's son Nicholas Rigmaiden, then thirty years of age. (fn. 23) This Nicholas died in or before 1496 (fn. 24); he seems to have married Margaret, one of the daughters and co-heirs of Robert Lawrence of Ashton and Carnforth, (fn. 25) and to have left a son John, (fn. 26) whose son and heir Thomas proved his age in 1514, (fn. 27) and died in 1520, leaving a son John, only five years old. (fn. 28) John Rigmaiden died in 1557 holding a moiety of the manor of Nether Wyresdale of the king and queen by knight's service and a rent of 2s. 6d. yearly. (fn. 29)

The heir was a namesake, grandson of the abovenamed Thomas's brother John, and thirty years of age. He recorded a pedigree in 1567, (fn. 30) and in 1585 was discharged from his office of master forester of Quernmore and Wyresdale on account of disorders there and destruction of the deer. (fn. 31) He died in 1587 holding the moiety of Nether Wyresdale as before, and leaving a son Walter, thirty years of age, (fn. 32) who was a lunatic. (fn. 33) He died between 1598 (fn. 34) and 1602, and in the latter year his representatives sold his estate to Sir Thomas Gerard, (fn. 35) who had inherited the other moiety of Nether Wyresdale.

Rigmaiden. Argent three stags' heads caboshed sable.

After this Wedacre for a time ceased to be a seat of the lords of Wyresdale and in itself became the residence of a family named Fyfe. (fn. 36) John Fyfe raised a company of men for the Parliament in the Civil War, (fn. 37) and was killed at the storming of Bolton by Prince Rupert in 1644. (fn. 38) He was succeeded by his brother William, (fn. 39) a physician, who recorded a pedigree in 1664–5. (fn. 40) On his death in 1671 the lord of the manor took up his residence there. It was sold with other of the Duke of Hamilton's estates in 1854, and became the property of William Thompson of Underley and Kendal, whose daughter and heir Amelia married the Earl of Bective, who in 1870 after her death became Marquess of Headfort and died in 1894. Their son Thomas Earl of Bective had died in 1893 and his daughter Olivia wife of Lord Henry Cavendish Bentinck succeeded to Wedacre, Greenhalgh and other estates. (fn. 41) Wedacre and the Barnacre estate, together with Greenhalgh and Lingart, were purchased from Lord Bective's representatives in 1899 by the late Thomas Henry Rushton. On his death in 1903 they descended to his son, the present owner, Mr. James L. Rushton of Barnacre Lodge. (fn. 42)

Wedacre occurs as a surname. (fn. 43) Of the other tenants there is little record. (fn. 44) Stirzacre is partly in Catterall. (fn. 45) Sandholme, Sullam and Eidsforth are other places in Barnacre occasionally mentioned.

Bonds does not appear to be an ancient name, but in this part of the township are several estates once of some note. HOWATH was a general name for the southern part, (fn. 46) which, like much of Barnacre, was regarded as pertaining to Catterall, (fn. 47) but the 'manor of Howath' was the estate of the Knights Hospitallers there. It was described as the mansion of St. John Baptist upon Howath with the chapel and lands, and about 1200 was given to the order by Robert son of Bernard lord of Catterall, together with other lands. (fn. 48) There appears to have been a small hospital there. (fn. 49) Roger de Wedacre was the tenant in 1302, when the prior complained that goods seized in distraint for a fine imposed at the prior's court had been rescued by Robert son of Simon de Garstang. (fn. 50) Afterwards it was acquired by Richard Shirebume of Stony hurst together with Siidd, (fn. 51) and descended with his estates till the 18th century. (fn. 52) The chapel of St. John there is not heard of later. The Hoghtons of Hoghton (fn. 53) had lands in Howath and Catterall held of the Hospitallers by 2s. 6d. rent. (fn. 54) William Baylton died in 1638 holding a messuage, &, in Catterall and Barnacre of the king as of the Hospital of St. John of Jerusalem. (fn. 55) His son William, then thirty years of age, was a Royalist, and in the Commonwealth period had to compound for his lands. (fn. 56)

Cockenand Abbey had land in Howath (fn. 57) and BYREWATH, (fn. 58) which latter place was held by Brockholes of Claughton. (fn. 59)

GREENHALGH, 2 oxgangs of land, was in 1347 held of the lord of Wyresdale by William Banastre by knight's service. (fn. 60) This land afterwards came into the possession of the first Earl of Derby, who in 1490 obtained the king's licence to fortify his manor-house there and to inclose a park. (fn. 61) Camden states that the earl was 'in fear of certain outlawed gentlemen of this shire, whose possessions King Henry VII had freely given unto him; for many an assault they gave him and other whiles in hostile manner made inroads into his lands, until the moderate carriage of the good and worthy man, and process of time, pacified these quarrels. (fn. 62) The castle then erected became famous in the Civil War, as already stated, and after being destroyed the ruin remained in the hands of the earls till about 1865, (fn. 63) when it was sold to Lord Kenlis, afterwards (1870) Earl of Bective. (fn. 64) As above stated, it is now the property of Mr. Rushton.

The ruins of the castle (fn. 65) stand on a slight eminence half a mile or more to the east of Garstang, and consist of the remains of a single tower 24 ft. square externally, constructed of rubble sandstone masonry, with angle quoins, the walls of which are 5 ft. thick. Whitaker, writing about 1822, states that the building had been a. rectangle nearly approaching a square, with a tower at each angle standing diagonally to each adjoining wall. The interval between the two towers was 14 yds. on one side and 16 yds. on the other.' (fn. 66) The elevation on which the castle stands is said to have been originally surrounded by a marshy swamp, the only natural connexion with firm land being on the north-east side, but the wet land has long been drained. (fn. 67) It would, however, add to the defensive position of the building, and was probably a contributing factor to the choice of site, helping, in addition, to supply the moat, traces of which are still visible. Apparently nothing has been done to preserve the castle since the siege of 1645, the action of time and weather, supplemented by the local practice of using the ruins as a stone quarry, having reduced it to its present condition.

The portion still standing is one of the western towers, the highest part of the walling of which, on the north-east and north-west sides, is about 25 ft. to 30 ft. in height. It shows internally marks of a wooden floor 10 ft. above the ground, and there was probably another floor above this; but the upper part of the walls is entirely gone and the building is open on the south side, the walls being only about 5 ft. above the ground. In the east angle is a passage-way 3 ft. 6 in. wide, which formerly led to the main building, and opposite in the west wall are three embrasures, one in the centre and one set diagonally at each angle, that on the west facing directly towards Garstang and commanding the bridge or ford across the Wyre. The interior of the tower, which measures 14 ft. 6 in. by 14 ft., is now strewn over with broken masonry, large portions of walling having fallen within the last forty years, (fn. 68) and the lower parts of the external angles and masonry bordering the window openings are broken away. On the north-east side are garderobes, and in the portion of the south-west wall which still remains part of an embrasure like that on the north-west. The top of the knoll occupied by the ruins forms a square of about 35 yds., the excavation of which would probably disclose the foundations of the castle.

The Pleasington family or families frequently occur in the parish. (fn. 69) One of them was in the 16th and 17th centuries seated at DIMPLES, (fn. 70) and recorded a pedigree in 1613. (fn. 71) They were recusants and Royalists, (fn. 72) and in 1716 the estate was forfeited, John Pleasington being convicted of high treason. (fn. 73) His uncle John Pleasington was a priest, residing chiefly at Puddington Hall in Cheshire. In the excitement created by the Oates Plot private malice caused him to be denounced and arrested. It was difficult to procure evidence against him, but three former members of his flock who had become Protestants swore to his having said mass and otherwise exercised his office. He was thereupon condemned and executed at Chester 19 July 1679. (fn. 74) The cause of his beatification was allowed to be introduced at Rome in l886. (fn. 75)

LINGART, Lingard, or Lingarth is another estate of which some particulars are on record. It belonged in part to the abbey of Cockersand, (fn. 76) and gave a surname to the family holding it. (fn. 77) A branch of the Faringtons succeeded (fn. 78); a pedigree was recorded in 1567. (fn. 79)

Few other references to the township occur. (fn. 80) An inclosure award was made in 1772. (fn. 81)

In 1689 the Presbyterians had a licensed meetingplace in Barnacre and the Quakers one in Wedacre. (fn. 82) These do not seem to have resulted in permanent buildings. In 1828, however, a meeting-house for the Society of Friends was built in Bonds, near Calder Bridge, and it continues to be used. (fn. 83)

The Roman Catholic church of St. Mary and St. Michael was built in 1858 in Bonds, near Garstang Bridge, to replace the older chapel in Garstang. (fn. 84)


  • 1. 4,969 acres, including 96 of inland water; Census Rep. 1901.
  • 2. Loc. Govt. Bd. Order 20097. At the same time some adjustments were made in the boundary between this township and Garstang.
  • 3. Hewitson, Our Country Churches, 487.
  • 4. Lancs, and Ches. Antiq. Soc. xx, 200–1, 207; the sites are Brunahill, Grizedale, Ringing Hill and Whittingham's.
  • 5. In 1776 in a recovery of the Earl of Derby's estate in the district; Pal. of Lanc. Plea R. 623, m. 1a.
  • 6. William Banastre of Bretherton in 1362 granted to Adam de Meols of North Meols all his lands in the hamlet of Barnacre in the vill of Garstang; Towneley MS. OO, no. 1570. This may have been the oxgang of land in Garstang settled on Richard Banastre of Bretherton in 1304, with remainders to Isolda daughter of Richard Ulf of Wyresdale, &c.; Final Conc. (Rec. Soc. Lancs. and Ches.), i, 204.
  • 7. See the account of Nether Wyresdale.
  • 8. These have been frequently named. Isolda had a daughter Nichola, who is described as her heir, and who married Roger de Brockholes of Claughton. It does not appear what Isolda's name was or her estate, and, as the later Rigmaidens descended from her, she must have been twice married. John de Rigmaiden and Isolda his wife were defendants in 1292; Assize R. 408, m. 66. In 1303 they made a claim against Hugh de Akovere concerning waste; De Banco R. 148, m. 31. They appear again in 1304; Assize R. 419, m. 9. In the same year Gilbert de Lindsay complained that John de Rigmaiden, John his son and Robert de Pleasington had cut trees in his several woods, viz. Chapelneld in the park of Arkestanheved, &c. John replied that he and his wife held a wood in common with Gilbert; Coram Rege R. 176, m. 46 d. Robert de Leyburn and Isolda his wife in 1311 claimed against Ingram de Gynes and Christiana his wife certain services demanded for a tenement in Garstang by Gilbert de Lindsay and Isolda widow of John de Rigmaiden; De Banco R. 185, m. 57. Ten years later the Abbot of Leicester demanded common of pasture in Garstang, of which he alleged he had been disseised by Isolda widow of John de Rigmaiden and others; ibid. 238, m. 111 d.
  • 9. Final Conc, ii, 51, 55. In each case one-third was said to be held of the king as of his honour of Lancaster and the rest of the lords of the fee. This probably refers to the subdivisions of the Brus moiety, John then holding one share immediately and the rest as tenant of Thweng and (probably) Fauconberg. See also Cal. Pat. 1321–4, pp. 281, 284.
  • 10. He was defendant to claims by the Abbot of Leicester in 1325; De Banco R. 257, m. 123 d., 134 d. About the same time Christiana daughter of William de Lindsay and widow of Ingram de Gynes claimed a messuage in Garstang against him, alleging that Isolda de Rigmaiden had intruded after the death of Christiana de Howath; ibid. 258, m. 453. John de Rigmaiden, Joan hia wife and others were in 1328 charged with an assault by Richard son of Alan de Catterall; ibid. 273, m. 45 d. John de Rigmaiden, Joan his wife and John and Roger his sons, Thomas son of Marmaduke de Rigmaiden, Robert de Culwen and Joan his wife, William de Heaton and Anilla his wife, were defendants in 1330; Assize R. 1400, m. 235. John son of John de Rigmaiden the elder was again defendant in 1331; De Banco R. 287, m. 25. Joan widow of John de Rigmaiden was a plaintiff in 1334 respecting her dower in forty-two messuages, mill, &, in Garstang; ibid. 297, m. 230 d.; 300, m. 204 d.
  • 11. In 1328 William de Thweng claimed six messuages, lands, the fourth part of a mill, &, in Garstang, against John de Hornby and Joan widow of Thomas son of John de Rigmaiden; also four messuages, &, against Thomas son of Marmaduke de Rigmaiden, &c.; ibid. 275, m. 33 d. The fine of 1323 concerning the moiety of the manor was adduced in 1334, when John son of John and Thomas de Rigmaiden both being dead, Joan the widow (then wife of Robert de Culwen) claimed to benefit; another John son of John de Rigmaiden was one of the defendants; Coram Rege R. 297, m. 127. Joan was wife of Robert de Culwen in 1331; De Banco R. 287, m. 25. She was again a widow in 1348; ibid. 355, m. 124 d. A family named Croft appears in Garstang about this time. Isabel (or Isolda) widow of William de Croft claimed warranty from Ingram de Gynes and Christiana his wife in 1291–2; ibid. 91, m. 129 d.; 92, m. 146 d. William de Thweng in 1332 recovered land against John son of William de Croft; ibid. 292, m. 537 d.
  • 12. John son of Thomas de Rigmaiden appeared in some of the pleadings of 1334; ibid. 297, m. 230 d. He was called to warrant by John de Lingart in 1336, but was under age; ibid. 305, m. 339. He was again called to warrant in 1348; ibid. 355, m. 124 d. In the account of Nether Wyresdale it has been shown that he held a moiety of the manor in 1346. In 1350–1 the Abbot of Cockersand claimed against him 60 acres of moor and pasture in virtue of 4 oxgangs of land granted by William de Lancaster to his abbey and the church of St. Helen of Garstang, but he answered that he was jointly seised with John de Coupland; Assize R. 1444, m. 2 d.; 431, m. 1. He again appears in 1352, being described as the great-grandson of John de Rigmaiden, whose wife was Isolda; Duchy of Lanc. Assize R. 1, m. 5 d.
  • 13. Final Conc, ii, 181. Lettice widow of John de Rigmaiden died in 1387 holding in dower the third part of the manor of Wedacre of the duke in chief by knight's service and 10d. a year for castle ward. The heir was Thomas son and heir of John de Rigmaiden (of the other line, as will be seen), then tvrelve years old and in ward to the duke; Lancs. Inq. p.m. (Chet. Soc), i, 26. The custody of that third part was granted to Joan widow of Thomas de Rigmaiden (he was grandfather of this heir) at a rent of 20 marks; ibid.; Dep. Keeper's Rep. xl, App. 526.
  • 14. a The writ of diem cl. extr. after his death was issued 20 July 1355; Dtp. Keeper's Rep. xxxii, App. 334.
  • 15. Joan was in possession in 1355 as daughter and heir of John de Rigmaiden, she and John de Coupland contributing to the aid for half a knight's fee in Garstang with its members; Feud. Aids, iii, 90.
  • 16. In 1362, Joan having died without issue, Thomas de Rigmaiden claimed from the Earl of Lancaster (John of Gaunt) a moiety of the manor of Wyresdale, &, in accordance with the fine of 1323; De Banco R. 411, m. 246 d. Thomas ton of Marmaduke eon of (the first) John de Rigmaiden and Isolda was plaintiff in 1372 respecting a further part of his inheritance; De Banco R: 444, m. 351; 447, m. 322, 346 (where the pedigree is set out fully). Marmaduke was living in 1313 (Assize R. 424, m. 2), but died in or before 13 21, when Isolda widow of John de Rigmaiden, calling him her son, acknowledged the receipt of money due from him; Towneley MS. C 8, 13 (Chet. Lib.), R. 46. His widow probably was the Anilla who as wife of William son of William de Heaton is frequently joined in the pleadings with Thomas son of Marmaduke, e.g. De Banco R. 257, m. 134 d. (1325). In 1338 Thomas gave William and Anilla a release of all actions concerning his inheritance in Garstang and Ellel; Towneley, op. cit. R. 51. Ten years later, however, Thomas son of Marmaduke de Rigmaiden was plaintiff against William de Heaton; De Banco R. 356, m. 369d. The same Thomas made a claim against John son of Thomas de Rigmaiden (i.e. of the elder line) in 1352; Duchy of Lanc. Assize R. 2, m. 1.
  • 17. Final Conc, ii, 181. In 1372 Thomas de Rigmaiden claimed compensation for waste from Adam the Calfherd in a messuage and land demised to him for ten years. The jury found that Adam had thrown down a kitchen and a chamber (each worth 40d.) and had cut down and sold four ash trees worth 10d. each, but acquitted him of the farther charges; De Banco R. 448, m. 56 d. The writ of diem cl. extr. after the death of Thomas de Rigmaiden was issued on 1 Feb. 1383–4; Dep. Keeper's Rep. xxxii, App. 356. Dower was in March assigned to his widow Joan and the custody of the heir—his grandson Thomas (son of John son of Thomas)—was granted to her at a rent of £13 13s. 4d.; Lancs. Inq. p.m. (Chet. Soc), i, 12; Dep. Keeper's Rep. xxxii, App. 357; xl, App. 522.
  • 18. On this marriage his father granted them lands called 'Yngtonthintill' in thr vill of Garstang; Lancs. Inq. p.m. 1, 12.
  • 19. Ibid.
  • 20. Ibid, i, 67.
  • 21. Feud. Aids, iii, 95; he held a moiety of the manor of Garstang by the fourth part of a knight's fee. The writ of diem cl. extr. after his death was issued 18 Aug. 1440; Dep. Keeper's Rep. xxxiii, App. 39. He was found to hold the eighth part of the manor of Garstang by knight's service and the rent of 1½d.; Harl. MS. 2085, fol. 446b. There may be some confusion between contemporaries of the same name, so that the descent outlined in the text is only probable.
  • 22. In 1438 a settlement of six messuages, &, in Garstang and Cockerham was made by Nicholas Rigmaiden and Eleanor hit wife; Final Conc, iii, 103. In 1440 the escheator was ordered to deliver to Nicholas, son and heir of Thomas Rigmaiden, the eighth part of the manor of Gaistang which Thomas had held in fee, as also other lands, &, which he had held conjointly with Alice his wife; Dep. Keeper's Rep. xxxiii, App. 39. In 1445–6 Nicholas Rigmaiden was said to hold in Garstang a plough-land and a half for the fourth part of a knight's fee; the relief was 251. which the escheator had received; Duchy of Lanc. Knights' Fees, bdle. 2, no. 20.
  • 23. Lancs. Inq. p.m. (Chet. Soc), ii, 106. The 2s. 6d. was for castle ward (note 13). Some other Rigmaidens occur in the pleadings contemporary with Nicholas; Pal. of Lanc. Plea R. 3, m. 13 (John); 6, m. 2b (Thomas); 10, m. 3 (John and Gilbert his brother). In 1444 William Rigmaiden, 'esquire,' claimed an account of their receiverships against Nicholas Rigmaiden of Wedacre, 'gentleman,' and Richard son of Gilbert Barton of Barton; ibid. 6, m. 7. In the recorded pedigree the descent is traced through a William who was a younger son of the Thomas who died in 1384; see the fine of 1371. John Rigmaiden, 'esquire,' occurs in 1462, together with many others of his family and neighbourhood, charged with assault; Pal. of Lanc. Writs Proton, file 2 Edw. IV.
  • 24. Towneley MS. CC (Chet. Lib.), no. 641; writ of diem cl. extr. He held a moiety of the manor of Wyresdale in Garstang by the fourth part of a knight's fee; Harl. MS. 2085, fol. 449.
  • 25. Margaret Lawrence married a Rigmaiden, but his Christian name is not stated in Pal. of Lanc. Plea R. 163, m. 20. Margaret Rigmaiden died in 1516 holding forty messuages, &, in Garstang of the inheritance of Thomas Rigmaiden, being parcel of the manor of Wedacre, which manor was held of the king as of his duchy by the fourth part of a knight's fee and 2s. 6d. rent; Duchy of Lanc. Inq. p.m. iv, no. 73. It is here stated that Margaret was mother of John father of Thomas, but her husband's name is not given.
  • 26. John the son and heir of Nicholas Rigmaiden in 1489 was married or contracted to Katherine daughter of Sir John Pennington of Muncaster; Hist. MSS. Com. Rep. x, App. 228. The writ of diem cl. extr. after John's death was issued 14 Feb. 1504–5; Dep. Keeper's Rep. xl, App. 544. The wardship and marriage of Thomas son and heir of John Rigmaiden were soon afterwards granted to John Lawrence; Dep. Keeper's Rep. xl, App. 544.
  • 27. Duchy of Lanc. Inq. p.m. iv, no. 52; it was stated that Thomas was born at Wedacre 10 June 1493.
  • 28. Ibid, v, no. 65. His will is recited, from which it appears that he had an uncle James, brothers John and Richard, a sister Katherine and daughters Isabel, Margaret and Eleanor. There is also recited a demise by the feoffees of his father John (1503) made in 1506 in favour of Joan wife of Thomas. The manor of Wedacre and lands, &, in Barnacre, Garstang and elsewhere were stated to be held of the king as of his duchy by the moiety of a knight's fee. The will is printed by Fishwick, Garstang (Chet. Soc.), 215. The custody of the manors was granted to John Porte; Duchy of Lanc. Misc. Bks. xxii, 57. As mentioned in a previous note there was a minor Rigmaiden family in the township. In 1521 there died a Nicholas Rigmaiden holding two messuages, land, &, in Barnacre and Wyresdale of the king as duke by the twentieth part of a knight's fee. He left a son and heir John, aged six; Duchy of Lanc. Inq. p.m. v, no. 37. Again John (son of John) Rigmaiden of New Hall in Barnacre was about 1556 called upon to answer John Rigmaiden (of Wedacre) respecting his title to Bradley House, &c.; Fishwick, op. cit. 217. A settlement of New Hall, dovecote, water-mill, &, in Barnacre and Winmarleigh was made by John Rigmaiden in 1563; Pal. of Lanc. Feet of F. bdle. 25, m. 63.
  • 29. Duchy of Lanc. Inq. p.m. x, no. 11. The estate was a moiety of the manor of Nether Wyresdale in Garstang, with eighty messuages, three water-mills, half a water-mill at Sandholme, land, &c. John Rigmaiden was master forester of Wyresdale; Ducatus Lanc. (Rec. Com.), i, 303.
  • 30. Visit, of 1567 (Chet. Soc), 54. The descent is given as Thomas (1520) -bro. John -s. John -s. John (1567).
  • 31. Duchy of Lanc. Special Com. 381. John Calvert of Cockerham succeeded him. Details were given of the deer killed in the forest since the beginning of the queen's reign.
  • 32. Duchy of Lanc. Inq. p.m. xiv, no. 87. In 1573 he had made a settlement on his son Walter on marrying Anns daughter of Edward Tyldesley. Margaret North, sister of John Rigmaiden, is named. An abstract of his will is printed in Fishwick, op. cit. 218. He was one of those summoned in 1568 to be made an example of, because of his known opposition to Elizabeth's regulation of religion. He answered that he had attended his parish church and heard divine service, but he had not received the communion; he had entertained some of the deprived clergy, but was not aware he was offending; Gibson, Lydiate Hall, 206, from S. P. Dom. Eliz. xxxvi, no. 10. He was soon afterwards found among those who refused to attend church, and was reported to have harboured a priest named 'Little Richard'; ibid. 216, 226, 229, 231, 239, quoting from reports in the State Papers. In 1592 the sheriff was called upon to account for £254 of the goods of John Rigmaiden seized for his recusancy; Exch. L.T.R. Recusant R. 34 Eliz.
  • 33. Duchy of Lanc. Inq. p.m. xiv, no. 5. The inquiry as to his condition was made immediately after the father's death. Like his father Walter Rigmaiden was a recusant and fined therefor; his fines were not excused by his lunacy; Misc. (Cath. Rec. Soc.), iv, 170.
  • 34. Fishwick, op. cit. 219.
  • 35. See the account of Nether Wyresdale.
  • 36. Fishwick, op. cit. 220–2. The Fyfes held by lease, as appears below.
  • 37. War in Lancs. (Chet. Soc), 42.
  • 38. Ibid. 50. John Fyfe appears to have left some children; Royalist Comp. Papers (Rec. Soc. Lancs, and dies.), iii, 304.
  • 39. William Fyfe of Wedacre in 1651 held the demesne with mill and kiln by lease from Lord Kilmorey. Great damage had been done by the incursion of the Scots in 1648. 'Old Mrs. Fyfe,' the mother of Captain John Fyfe, had paid £200 a year under the lease, the fines and perquisites of Wyrcsdale Court being included. Mrs. Fyfe, 'a staunch Parliamentarian,' had lost two sons and a son-in-law in the service, at Bolton, but had been put out by Ewan Wall, clerk to the Sequestration Committee at Preston; ibid, i, 162–5; Cal. Com. for Comp. ii, 1284.
  • 40. Dugdale, Visit. (Chet. Soc), 114. See also the account of Hackinsall and Preesall. There is an anecdote of Dr. Fyfe in Fishwick, op. cit. 220; Lancs, and Ches. Antiq. Notes, i, 63.
  • 41. Hewitson, Northward, 68. The Countess of Bective, mother of the heiress, used to live at Barnacre.
  • 42. a Information of Mr. Rushton.
  • 43. Roger de Wedacre has been named in preceding notes. In 1276 he claimed two messuages, land, &c., against William de Lindsay; De Banco R. 14, m. 50 d. He also occurs in 1292; Assize R. 408, m. 4d. 38. Robert de Wedacre was plaintiff in 1246; Assize R. 404, m. 10 d. William de Wedacre was plaintiff in 1276; De Banco R. 15, m. 45; 17, m. 128 d. For an early pedigree see De Banco R. 321, m. 294. Sec also notes 47, &c., below.
  • 44. John Hudson of Barnacre, a 'delinquent' who had been 'in arms against the Parliament,' compounded for his leasehold tenement in 1649; Royalist Comp. Papers, iii, 306.
  • 45. See the account of Catterall.
  • 46. Howath bridge over the Wyre' shows that Howath extended over all Bonds, though the name is now applied to the south-east corner. Halecath or Holcath seems to have embraced both Howath and Stirzacre; Lancs. Inq. and Extents, i, 3.
  • 47. Stirzacre in Catterall has already occurred.
  • 48. Dods. MSS. liii, fol. 93b.; Dugdale, Mon. vi, 806; Kuerden MSS. v, fol. 82. The bounds began at the bridge of Howath, followed the Wyre as far as the bridge over the Wyre towards St. Helen's, and so to the dyke near the donor's house in Catterall; thence to the road from Preston, crossing it and going along the road towards Slireshagh as far as land formerly Sparling's, and thence to the Wyre. Howath is named in the list of Hospitallers' lands in 1292; Plac. de Quo Warr. (Rec. Com.), 375.
  • 49. a Lands situated by the Brock, between Hecham and Duuenshaw, were granted to St. John and the hospital of Howath by Matthew son of Adam; Add. MS. 32107, no. 2998. The brethren of St. John the Baptist of Howath, with the consent and advice of the brethren of St. John of Jerusalem, made a gift to Hawise wife of Robert son of Bernard; Dods. MSS. liii, fol. 89b.
  • 50. De Banco R. 143, m. 176. Hugh de Wedacre and William his brother had been tenants in 1274–6; De Banco R. 6, m. 8; 13, m. 17.
  • 51. See the account of Stidd in Dutton. A rental of 1613 shows that a court was held and that the Hospitallers' lands in Claughton, Bilsborrow and other adjacent townships were subject to it; Kuerden MSS. ii, fol. 132.
  • 52. Howath occurs in Richard Shireburne's lands in 1628; Duchy of Lanc. Inq. p.m. xxvi, no. 4; also among the Duchess of Norfolk's possessions in 1737; Pal. of Lanc. Plea R. 544, m. 13.
  • 53. Richard de Wedacre about 1280 granted to Adam son of Sir Adam de Hoghton and his heirs all his land in Howath in Catterall inherited from his father; a rent of 3s. was to be paid to the Hospital of Jerusalem; Dods. MSS. cxlii, fol. 61, no. 54. Richard son of Adam de Hoghton gave all his land in Howath, with part of the mill, to Richard de Bury and William his brother, for the donor's life; the remainder was to his son Richard de Hoghton; in default to Edmund, Richard and Adam, sons of William son of Adam de Graystock; ibid. fol. 68b. In 1351–2 Adamde Hoghton obtained releases from William brother of Richard de Bury and from Edmund son of William de Graystock; Add. MS. 32106, no. 725, fol. 286, 319b.
  • 54. Lancs. Inq. p.m. (Chet. Soc), ii, 146, 127. The same estate occurs in later Hoghton inquisitions. In 1559 it was said to be held of the queen as of her duchy in socage; Duchy of Lanc. Inq. p.m. xi, no. 2.
  • 55. Towneley MS. C 8, 13 (Chet. Lib.), 54. He had compounded for refusing knighthood in 1631; Misc. (Rec. Soc. Lancs, and Ches.), i, 222.
  • 56. Royalist Comp. Papers, i, 155–7. His 'delinquency' was that he had refused to take the covenant, he living within a mile of Greenhalgh Castle, then one of the king's garrisons. He took it in May 1646. The same or a later William Baylton was a benefactor.
  • 57. Adam de Wedacre gave the canons half an acre in Howath on the field called the Lawe, the south head abutting on the great moor of Catterall, with easements of the vill of Catterall; Cockerstand Chartul. (Chet. Soc), i, 276, 286.
  • 58. Byrewath was held, in part at least, of the church of Garstang, and Henry de Casterton (son of Gilbert) released all right in it to Cockersand; ibid, i, 277.
  • 59. Robert de Byrewath released to Roger de Brockholes and Christiana his wife certain land, probably in Byrewath; Add. MS. 32105, fol. 8b; 32106, no.1105. In 1268 Adam de Brockholes held the Cockersand parcel, paying 3s. 6d. a year and half a mark at death; Chartul. loc. cit. In 1290 Adam was stated to have held an oxgang of land in Byrewath in Garstang of Walter de Londe by 12d. yearly; Lancs. Inq. and Extents, i, 274. This estate descended in the line of Brockholes of Claughton, and Roger de Brockholes was in 1347 found to hold an oxgang of land in Byrewath of the king (in right of William de Coucy) as of the manor of Wyresdale, by knight's service; Inq. p.m. 20 Edw. III (2nd nos.), no. 63. In 1496 Roger Brockholes died holding messuages and land in Garstang of the king as of his duchy by knight's service; and Byrewath, part at least of this tenement, was in the occupation of Robert Ambrose; Duchy of Lanc. Inq. p.m. iii, no. 73, 77. The place was leased to Thurstan Tyldesley in 1541; Add. MS. 32105, fol. 208b. Walter de Byrewath in 1292 claimed a tenement in Garstang against John de Rigmaiden, but was non-suited; Assize R. 408, m. 37 d. Particulars as to the later descent of Byrewath will be found in Fishwick, op. cit. 235–6. The capital messuage called Byrewath was in 1582 demised by Sir Gilbert Gerard to Edward Horsfall and Ellen his wife for forty years; Towneley MS. C 8, 13 (Chet. Lib.), G 49. Byrewath was sold in 1784 by William Fitzherbert Brockholes to the Jackson family; Mr. Jonathan Jackson of Brooklands, Garstang, was the owner in 1879. He also had Dimples, Howath and Stirzacre, but these (except Dimples House) were told in 1902 and later; information of Mr. F, Jackson.
  • 60. Inq. p.m. 20 Edw. III (2nd nos.), no. 63.
  • 61. Towneley MS. CC (Chet. Lib.), no. 580; free warren was allowed. Nothing is known of an earlier castle in foe neighbourhood, but in 1343 a robbery was reported at Castelhow near Garstang; Assize R. 430, m. 14. The Derby rental of 1522 records 76s. 8d. as received from various tenants of land in Greenhalgh, Barnacre and Ellel, which lately belonged to Nicholas Rigmaiden.' The game rental shows 40s. received from Howath, but claimed by the farmer as his fee as parker of Greenhalgh. In 1556 the Earl of Derby granted to Sir Richard Shireburne the custody of Greenhalgh Castle and park, profits, &, as Thurstan Tyldesley had held the same; Shireburne Abstract Bk. at Leagram.
  • 62. Brit. (ed. Gibson), 753.
  • 63. The castle is named in fines and recoveries of the Derby estates down to 1776; Pal. of Lanc. Plea R. 623, m. 1a. It was probably confiscated under the Commonwealth, being in 1656 in possession of Gilbert Mabbott and Martha his wife; Pal. of Lanc. Feet of F. bdle. 158, m. 51. Mabbott purchased several parts of the estates of James Earl of Derby in the neighbourhood; Royalist Comp. Papers, ii, 237–8. The castle had been regained by the Earl of Derby in 1667; Pal. of Lanc. Feet of F. bdle. 179, m. 28 (William Fyfe v. Charles Earl of Derby and Dorothy Helen his wife).
  • 64. Hewitson, Northward, 55.
  • 65. The site is described in V.C.H. Lancs. ii, 550.
  • 66. Rkhmondshire, ii, 456, where an illustration is given.
  • 67. Palatine Note-bk. iv, 130.
  • 68. –6 Mr. A. Hewitson, op. cit. 55, describes the state of the castle as he found it on three successive visits, in 1871, 1898 and 1900. Nearly the whole of the south-eastern side of the tower and about two-thirds of the wall on the south-western side disappeared between 1871 and 1898.
  • 69. See the accounts of Nateby, &c.; Final Conc, ii, 110; iii, 29. John de Pleasington had a tenement in Garstang in 1354; Dep. Keeper's Rep. xxxii, App. 332. John son of Richard son of Robert de Pleasington was a minor in 1355; Duchy of Lanc. Assize R. 5, m. 27.
  • 70. An account of the family, with pedigree, will be found in Fishwick, op. cit. 230–3. William Pleasington of Dimples was living in 1475; Dunkenhalgh D. The Pleasingtons named in the will of Thomas Rigmaiden (1521) are supposed to have been of Dimples; Fishwick, op. cit. 215–16. Robert son of William Pleasington inherited Dimples from his father and was in possession before 1592; ibid. 231. Robert was a freeholder in 1600; Misc. (Rec. Soc. Lancs, and Ches.), i, 232. Twothirds of his estate was sequestered for recusancy in 1607; Cal. S. P. Dom. 1603–10, p. 383. He was living in 1613 (pedigree), when his son William was thirty-eight years old. William Pleasington died in 1621 holding the capital messuage called Dimples in the manor of Nether Wyresdale and township of Garstang of Gilbert Lord Gerard by the hundredth part of a knight's fee. He had lands in Catterall, Eccleston, Goosnargh and Whittingham. The heir was his son Robert, twenty-two years of age; Lancs. Inq. p.m. (Rec. Soc. Lancs, and Ches.), ii, 240.
  • 71. Visit. (Chet. Soc), 75.
  • 72. Robert Pleasington's estate called Dimples Farm was confiscated and sold by the Parliament in 1652; Index of Royalists (Index Soc), 43. Ralph Longworth had purchased it in 1653; Cal. Com. for Comp. iv, 3134. In the following year Robert Pleasington, who is described as 'of Kirkland in Garstang,' desired to contract on the recusants' Act for two-thirds of his sequestered estate; ibid.
  • 73. Fishwick, op. cit. 232, where the subsequent history of Dimples is thus traced: 1719, William Greenhalgh of Myerscough; 1736, by will to Edward Styth of Great Eccleston, who took the name of Greenhalgh and d. 1769 -s. James, d. 1799 -s. Edward, who sold to Henry Fielding-s. Henry Barrow Fielding in 1852 sold to Jonatha. Jackson, one of the founders of the Quakers' meetinghouse near Dimples. It remains in his family (see note 56).
  • 74. Challoner, Missionary Priests, no. 201. He was 'indicted of high treason for having taken orders in the Church of Rome and remaining in this kingdom contrary to the statute of 27 Elizabeth.' His last speech is given.
  • 75. Pollen, Acts of Martyrs, 382.
  • 76. Walter de Fauconberg (about 1280) granted to the abbey the service of Walter de Lingart for his whole tenement in Garstang, his rent being half a mark; Cockersand Chartul. i, 60. The rent of 6s. 8d. was in 1451 paid by the heir of John Lingart and in 1501 by Henry Farington; ibid, iii, 1272, &c.
  • 77. Walter de Lingart was living in 1276; De Banco R. 15, m. 41. John son of John de Lingart made complaint of waste by Ellen widow of John de Lingart in 1306; ibid. 160, m. 289. Probably the same John, a minor, made a release to the Abbot of Cockersand in 1313; Kuerden MSS. iv, G 4. William de Thweng in 1332 claimed land in Garstang against John de Lingart, Isolda his wife and others; De Banco R. 290, m. 273 d. In 1347 John de Lingart held 2 oxgangs of land of the lord of Nether Wyresdale (the Coucy moiety) by knight's service; Inq. p.m. 20 Edw. Ill (2nd nos.), no. 63. The feoffees in 1356 gave a messuage, &, in Garstang to Robert son of John de Lingart and Christiana his wife; Kuerden, loc. cit. Five years later the same Robert granted a messuage to Richard his brother and Roger de Cockerham; ibid. John son of Robert de Lingart and Ellen his wife made a feoffment in 1416; ibid. Edmund son of John Lingart in 1421 became bound to the Abbot of Cockersand; ibid. In the same year John son of Robert de Lingart made a feoffment of his estate in Garstang and Little Eccleston; Brockholes D.
  • 78. Alice (or Cecily) wife of Henry Farington was in possession in 1461; ibid. In 1537–8 the Abbot of Cockersand made a grant of the wardship of Henry son and heir of Nicholas Farington deceased; Kuerden MSS. iv, W51. Thomas son of Henry Farington died in or about 1592, bequeathing to Richard Whittingham of Goosnargh his brother; ibid, and G4. From other deeds here preserved it appears that there ensued a division between Whittingham and John Farington of York (brother of Henry), and that both portions were in 1601 sold to James Anderton of Clayton. It is named in his inquisition, 1630; Duchy of Lanc, Inq. p.m. xxvii, no. 56. The tenure is not stated. Richard Whittingham of Lingart, 'Papist,' was a freeholder in 1600; Misc. (Rec. Soc. Lancs, and Ches.), i, 232. In 1653 complaint was made that Lingart had been sequestered by the Parliament as James Anderton's, whereas it really belonged to John Preston; Cal. Com. for Comp. iii, 1903. Richard Ackers of Claughton, as a 'Papist,' registered his estate in 1717; it consisted of a house called Lingart and 36 acres at Barnacre; Estcourt and Payne, Engl. Catk. Nonjurors, 141.
  • 79. Visit. (Chet. Soc), 48.
  • 80. John Mercer of Barnacre had had two-thirds of his estates sequestered for recusancy only under the Commonwealth and in 1653 desired to contract for it; Cal. Com. for Comp. v, 3186.
  • 81. Lancs, and Ches. Rec. (Rec. Soc. Lancs, and Ches.), i, 55.
  • 82. Hist. MSS. Com. Rep. xiv, App. it, 232, 230. That of the Quakers still existed in 1717; Gastrell, Notitia Cestr. (Chet. Soc), ii, 408.
  • 83. Hewitson, Our Country Churches, 518. An account of the Jackson family is given.
  • 84. Fishwick, op. cit. 121; Hewitson, op. cit. 487.