BHO

Bethnal Green: Protestant Nonconformity

Pages 228-240

A History of the County of Middlesex: Volume 11, Stepney, Bethnal Green. Originally published by Victoria County History, London, 1998.

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PROTESTANT NONCONFORMITY

The first dissenting congregation was either that of an Independent meeting house from 1669 (fn. 1) or one using the formerly Anglican St. George's chapel and associated with the dissenters' academy at Bishop's Hall. (fn. 2) Early ministers included Francis Bampfield, John Hodges, a Congregationalist, and Thomas Lye, a Presbyterian, all licensed in 1672. Bampfield (d. 1684), an ejected vicar, organized a SeventhDay Baptist chapel in his house in Bethnal Green in 1676. (fn. 3) Lye died at Bethnal Green in 1684 and Hodges was still a minister there in 1690. (fn. 4) In 1684 the officials of Bethnal Green were punished for refusing to reveal conventicles, of which there were 'great numbers in private houses'. (fn. 5) George Fox often stayed with a friend in Bethnal Green in 1685-6. (fn. 6) There was a meeting house on the western side of Bethnal Green, at which Thomas Brand was the preacher, in 1689. (fn. 7)

The Huguenot église de St. Jean, Spitalfields, had been established on the north side of St. John Street by 1687 and probably by 1682. It was opened by English nonconformists who allowed the Huguenots to use it outside regular service times. As the native congregation declined, it became a wholly French chapel, using the liturgy of the French Reformed Church. (fn. 8) Two French meeting houses in Bethnal Green were reported in 1711. (fn. 9)

The house of Nicholas Humfrey on the green was certified for Independent meetings in 1713 (fn. 10) although it is not clear whether it served the congregation of 1669. A meeting house was 'near finished' in 1724 (fn. 11) and a house in 'The Way leading from Castle Street to Virginia Row' was used as a meeting house in 1728. (fn. 12) There were meeting houses in 1732 (fn. 13) including, presumably, at least one for Independents and two for Huguenots, those in St. John Street and others from 1721 to c. 1740 at Swanfields in Slaughter (Sclater) Street, who may also have met in Cock Lane. The St. John Street chapel was rebuilt in 1765 and used regularly until 1821 and occasionally until 1827. (fn. 14) It was connected with the Sunday School Tract Society in the 1820s (fn. 15) and accommodated 450 in 1838. (fn. 16)

A Presbyterian meeting house, in 1795 on the green, (fn. 17) was recorded from 1711. Several dissenters 'under the denomination of Presbyterian' had a meeting house with a licensed teacher in 1778. It may have been Bethnal Green Independent chapel, (fn. 18) which was so described in the 1780s. (fn. 19)

John Wesley preached at Bonner's Hall, where he had stayed in 1754, in 1755-7 and in the parish church in 1775, 1785, and 1788. He also visited the 'French church in Spitalfields', (fn. 20) gave advice in 1772 to 'La Communauté Chrétienne', whose members became closely associated with the Methodists, (fn. 21) and mentioned his visit in 1777 to 'those of our society who lived in Bethnal Green' in terrible poverty. (fn. 22) Methodists were 'increasing daily' under enthusiastic preachers' in 1778 (fn. 23) and were 'very numerous' in the 1780s. (fn. 24) In 1810 they were said to be most prevalent among the 'lower class' with five meeting houses, each with resident licensed teachers besides preachers who visited the workhouse. (fn. 25) In 1811 three Methodist meeting houses were noted, one of which had been said in 1808 to be the principal London station of the Kilhamites or New Methodist Connexion. (fn. 26) No registration for worship since 1792 had been for Methodists and if the three meeting houses were registered earlier it was probably as Protestant or Independent. Middlesex chapel, certainly Methodist by 1811, was registered in 1797 as Independent.

The Christian Community, having discarded its French name, published its rules in 1800 and 1816. It preached outdoors in summer and hired rooms in winter, holding Sunday schools and meetings under leaders approved by the Methodists at City Road. Among Methodist chapels originating in these cottage meetings were Globe Road and Hart's Lane. In 1819 the Community broke with the Wesleyan City Circuit when its preachers refused to acknowledge the Circuit's exclusive control of Globe Road chapel. (fn. 27)

There were secessions and regroupings among all nonconformists in the later 18th and early 19th century. Of the 95 meeting places registered for worship (fn. 28) between 1792 and 1850, 9 were for Methodists, 9 for Baptists, 36 for Independents, 2 for Unitarians, 4 for Calvinists, 3 for Independent Calvinists, 1 each for the Christian Society, Universalists, Latter-day Saints, and Protestants of the Catholic Apostolic Church, 21 for 'Protestants', and 7 were not designated. Most meeting places were short lived and in private houses. A few were forerunners of the chapels whose histories are given below.

The largest denomination was Independent, whose meetings usually developed into Congregational chapels. Returns of worship made presumably by the Anglican incumbent in 1810 classified the French church, with 550 places, as Anglican and calculated that there were 1,650 places in six nonconformist chapels, although he was confused as to their denominations. (fn. 29) A survey of all accommodation for worship made by the London City Mission in 1838 (fn. 30) found that 6,610 (recte 6,910) places were for nonconformists. Of these 3,950 (57 per cent) belonged to 11 Independent chapels, of which 9 became Congregational (fn. 31) and 2 Baptist chapels. (fn. 32) Four Baptist chapels (fn. 33) had 1,100 places (16 per cent), 4 Methodist chapels (fn. 34) had 810, one Unitarian had 300, and St. John Street, for which no denomination was given, had 450. An unidentified missionary chapel accommodated 300.

Independents in 1851 (fn. 35) still had the largest proportion of the accommodation (7,762), although it had fallen to 52 per cent. Their attendances were by far the highest, 7,789 at 14 places of worship (fn. 36) amounting to 73 per cent of the nonconformist total of 10,642. Baptists had 21 per cent of the accommodation at their 6 places. (fn. 37) Methodists had increased to 17 per cent of the accommodation and 19 per cent (2,033) of the attendance at their 4 chapels. (fn. 38) There was one chapel for Unitarians and one for Lady Huntingdon's Connexion, (fn. 39) besides two 'mixed and undefined' chapels, presumably the Calvinistic (later Baptist) Hephzibah and Zehovah in Thorold Square, described as 'various Christian denominations'. (fn. 40) In 1858 the Anglican clergy of 12 Bethnal Green parishes listed as dissenting places of worship 7 for Independents, 4 for Baptists, 3 for Wesleyans, 2 for Primitive and one for Reforming Methodists, 2 rooms for Plymouth Brethren, one for 'Ranters' and 6 undescribed. Mormons from just outside St. John's parish were said to be active and there was some open-air preaching by dissenters but 'infidelity' was much more prevalent than dissent. (fn. 41)

In 1886 (fn. 42) a census confined to the larger chapels found a total accommodation of 11,000 and a combined morning and evening attendance of 9,885. Congregationalists provided less than 40 per cent (3,918) of the attendance at 4 chapels. (fn. 43) Baptists, with 42 per cent (4,157) attendances at 5 chapels, (fn. 44) had overtaken them mainly because of the dominance of Shoreditch tabernacle. Methodists had 18 per cent (1,806) of the attendance at 3 chapels. (fn. 45)

A much more comprehensive census in 1903 (fn. 46) gave a nonconformist attendance of 11,975, c. 9 per cent of the population. Baptists and Congregationalists each had c. 30 per cent of the attendance: 3,683 at 6 Baptist chapels and 4 missions, and 3,608 at 4 Congregationalist chapels and 4 missions. Methodists had 20 per cent (2,402) at 4 chapels and 2 missions. The Unitarians still had one chapel and others included Quakers, with 5 per cent, Salvation Army, and Brethren. Some 11 per cent attended 'other services', mostly undenominational missions.

The many small, short lived groups of the early 19th century gave way to fewer moderately sized chapels belonging mainly to the regular denominations. (fn. 47) In 1838 the largest chapel (Bethnal Green Congregational) held 800 and 15 of the 22 chapels held 100-400 each. In 1851 of the 23 chapels for which accommodation figures are available, 15 held 100-300 each but four had room for more than 600, of which one (Adelphi) held 950 and one (Bethnal Green Congregational) 1,200. Most chapels were run by local trustees, composed of weavers and other small craftsmen. Some had wealthier supporters like Robert Gammon, a coal merchant of Wilmot Square who was a trustee of Bethnal Green Congregational chapel and Abbey mission. Most wealthy patrons lived just outside the parish, like the silk merchants and manufacturers of Spitalfields and Hackney. The most notable was the silk manufacturer Jonathan Duthoit, who was behind most of the religious and educational activity in the Nichol district. Several large chapels were built in the 1860s and 1870s, especially in the more middle-class Victoria Park. The trustees of the 2,000-seat Victoria Park Congregational chapel (opened 1869) included two trimming manufacturers and John David Link, merchant, of Victoria Park Road; James Link, presumably a relative, gave it £5,000. By c. 1890 such people were migrating to Essex and the decline of weaving and growth of apathy led to the closure of the smaller chapels. As early as 1857 it was said that when a district became poor the dissenters could no longer maintain themselves. (fn. 48)

The emphasis shifted to missions, mostly funded from outside and often by supporters who had recently moved out. (fn. 49) The depravity and poverty of Bethnal Green had excited comment since the early 19th century and there had been missionary activity from the days of the Sunday School Tract movement and the Unitarian Domestic Mission, whose pioneering social work has been claimed as the precursor of the later settlement movement. The missionary movement received stimulus with the publication of the Bitter Cry of Outcast London in 1883. There was some concern about ritualism in Anglican churches (fn. 50) but most missionaries were not interested in dogma; missions were rarely confined to one denomination and there was co-operation between the churches on such questions as temperance, gambling, Sabbath breaking, and 'purity propaganda'. (fn. 51) More attention was given to secularism and political radicalism. In the 1850s the late London City Mission began open-air meetings as a challenge to the radicals in 'a noted wicked place', Club Row and Hare Street. (fn. 52) Bonner's Fields, once filled with 'infidel crowds', was by 1862 the venue of 'preachers of the gospel'. (fn. 53) Appeals for funds stressed that Christian principles should be inculcated to support order and the rights of property. (fn. 54)

Other missionaries sought the transformation of the slums and became increasingly involved in social work, (fn. 55) especially as public education largely superseded the ragged schools, so closely associated with missions, after 1870. Besides the missionary preacher there was a band of often female voluntary workers who visited the poor and who ran homes, Sunday schools, and hospitals. Among the earliest were women appointed in 1828 by the Sunday School Tract Society to collect money and distribute tracts but 'not to be considered members of the committee'. (fn. 56) Later deaconesses and sisterhoods were employed, by the Mildmay Mission, Bonner Methodist Home, and Shoreditch Baptist tabernacle.

In spite of the effort, most observers saw the smaller missions as failures, if measured by attendances at services. (fn. 57) Several established chapels reorganized themselves as missions, often directed, like the Union Congregational chapel from Islington or the Unitarian mission from Hampstead, from outside. (fn. 58) The most successful chapels were usually the largest, with a powerful preacher, a team of helpers, and many associated activities. Examples were the Baptists' Shoreditch tabernacle under William Cuff and Middlesex chapel, reorganized in 1888 as the Hackney Road branch of the Wesleyan Missionary society. (fn. 59)

The most flourishing chapels nonetheless declined during the 20th century. Of the 24 chapels and missions belonging to the main three denominations in 1903, some 9 had closed by 1914, another 7 by 1939, and 5 by 1960. Those which were rebuilt after bomb damage were on a much smaller scale. No compensating growth came from new denominations: although there were several short lived Salvation Army and some Jehovah's Witness halls, the groups were small. Most of the missions died out. The decline, attributed partly to Jewish immigration in the late 19th century, has probably been hastened by more recent non-Christian arrivals. The natives of Bethnal Green were always reluctant to attend services and the social attractions of the larger chapels finally failed to compete with commercial alternatives.

The following abbreviations are used: accn., accommodation; aft., afternoon; amalg., amalgamated; Bapt., Baptist; Cong., Congregationalist; evg., evening; Ind., Independent; mtg. ho., meeting house; Meth., Methodist; min., minister; Prim., Primitive; Prot., Protestant; reg., registered; undenom., undenominational; Utd. Ref., United Reformed; Wes., Wesleyan. Attendance figs. 1838 from Lond. City Mission Mag. iii. 53-4; figs. 1886 from Brit. Weekly, 19 Nov. 1886; figs. 1903 from Mudie-Smith, Rel. Life, 55-7.

CONGREGATIONALISTS.

Congregationalism in Bethnal Green traditionally dated from 1662 but more correctly 1669 when Ind. mtg. ho. 'lately fitted'. (fn. 60) Continuous line of mins. from Dan. Evans 1690 and registers from 1704. (fn. 61) Mins. inc. Hebrew scholar Dr. John Walker, c. 1755-70, (fn. 62) succeeded by asst. John Kello, 1771-1827. Chapel benefited from charity under wills of John Welch 1748 and John Dorsett 1762. (fn. 63) Mtg. ho., mentioned 1689 (fn. 64) and 1694, (fn. 65) probably dissenters' mtg. ho. on W. side of green 1766 (fn. 66) and Kello's chapel on W. side of Cambridge Rd. next Green Man, with accn. for 300 in 1810 (fn. 67) and by 1818 'decayed'. New chapel built and reg. 1819 at corner of Bath (later Birkbeck) St.; (fn. 68) accn. for 800 in 1838. Under Josiah Viney, 1843-57, members, called Calvinistic Inds., built larger chapel and schoolrooms between Bethnal Green Rd. and Pott St. 1849. (fn. 69) Bldg., called Bethnal Green chapel, of Kentish rag and Bath stone in Gothic style with spire by John Tarring, (fn. 70) seating 1,200 inc. 400 free in 1851. Attendance 1851: 557 a.m., 745 p.m.; (fn. 71) 1886: 323 a.m., 567 p.m.; 1903: 88 a.m., 205 p.m. Membership 150 in 1910, 70 in 1939. (fn. 72) Close 19th-cent. connexion with Lond. City Mission. (fn. 73) Chapel after bombing reopened with 200 sittings 1954. (fn. 74) Utd. Ref. Ch. from 1965. (fn. 75) Part of premises rented 1985 to Robt. Kemble Christian Institute, founded 1982 under will of Utd. Ref. Ch. min to promote radical Christian activities. (fn. 76)

Gibraltar chapel, Gibraltar Pl. off Bethnal Green Rd., dated by Congs. to 1792 (fn. 77) but possibly originated 1760. (fn. 78) Inds. reg. no. 1 Gibraltar Fields 1793 and chapel in Gibraltar Field 1798. (fn. 79) Simple rectangular bldg. in 1796. (fn. 80) Incorrectly listed as Meth., accommodated 200 in 1810 (fn. 81) and 600 in 1838; 264 free sittings 1851, when attendance 80 a.m., 130 p.m. (fn. 82) Rebuilt 1871 to seat 578 (fn. 83) but closed to Congs. c. 1877 although min. Jas. Brown lived there until death 1881. (fn. 84)

In late 18th cent. Inds. used various premises. No. 4 Green St. reg. 1792. (fn. 85) Min. Wm. Brittain reg. ho. in Castle Ct., Castle St., 1793 (fn. 86) and no. 2 'near the New Rd.' 1794; (fn. 87) Jas. Turner reg. hos. in Anchor St. (fn. 88) and Green St. 1795. (fn. 89) Ho. belonging to magistrate John Wilmot on N. side of Wilmot Sq. reg. 1795. (fn. 90)

Virginia chapel, Virginia Row. Built 1819 on site of no. 10 or no. 14. (fn. 91) First was home of min. Thos. Wheeler, reg. 1798 (fn. 92) and, when belonging to Ric. Saunders, City draper and min. of Mile End New Town, reg. by Prots. 1814; (fn. 93) second was shop also used as Sun. sch., reg. by Saunders 1815. (fn. 94) Accn. for 150 in 1838. Hen. Althans, Ind. min. by 1825, resigned to Jos. Massingham, sec. of Lond. City Mission, 1849. (fn. 95) Bldg. had 180 sittings inc. 72 free 1851, when attendance 80 a.m., 20 aft., 90 p.m. (fn. 96) Taken over by Wes. 1856-7. (fn. 97)

Hos. reg. by Inds. in early 19th cent. inc. ho. at Friar's Mount under min. Thos. Hemmans 1805 (fn. 98) and no. 95 Church St. and no. 120 Brick Lane 1806, (fn. 99) possibly identifiable with 'Meth.' Brick Lane mtg. ho. with accn. for c. 150 1810. (fn. 100) Jos. Phillips, who had founded Gibraltar chapel, reg. no. 67 Mount St., in possession of Lazarus Soc., 1808. (fn. 101) Other mtg. hos. were reg. at no. 99 Hare St. 1809 (fn. 102) and no. 5 Bethnal Green Rd. 1811. (fn. 103)

Ebenezer or Park chapel, built on site of Aldgate Ho. at NE corner of green 1811, (fn. 104) originated in Ind. Calvinists or Inds. under min. Robt. Langford who reg. no. 5 Norwell Pl., Bethnal Green Rd., 1808 (fn. 105) and John Shegog's ho. 1811. (fn. 106) Accn. for 650 in 1838 and had 560 sittings inc. 66 free 1851, when attendance 203 a.m., 299 p.m. with bible class of 20. (fn. 107) Reg. again when premises assigned to new trustees 1854 (fn. 108) but closed 1876. (fn. 109)

Tent Street off North St., chapel said to have been built for Inds. 1811. Accn. for 200 in 1838 and for 150 free in 1851, when attendance 20 a.m., 40 p.m. (fn. 110) Closed by 1867 when probably taken over by Prim. Meths. (fn. 111)

Abbey, later Essex Street, mission originated in Calvinists (fn. 112) under min. Geo. Evans, who reg. outho. of John Mandeno at no. 11 Hollybush Pl. as mtg. ho. and Sun. sch. 1812 (fn. 113) although congregation possibly existed by 1800. (fn. 114) Robt. Gammon built Sun. sch. and mission in his gdn. at no. 7 Wilmot Sq., reg. as Abbey Sun. sch., named after nearby Abbey Pl., 1828. (fn. 115) Listed as Ind. mtg. ho. accommodating 150 in 1838. Enlarged for 300 c. 1840. (fn. 116) Gammon, deacon at Wycliffe Ind. chapel in Mile End, built 2 rooms in gdn. of adjoining ho. after lease expired 1856 and was replaced by Geo. Kelsey 1865. Svces. by Lond. City Missionary from 1848 until departure because of lack of funds c. 1867. Renamed Essex (later Blythe) St. schs. and mission 1867 and another missionary briefly engaged but connexion with Mission severed when Sun. sch. cttee. tried to establish own chapel. Former missionary from Hackney held svces. until 1871, when svces. Bapt. (below). Cttee. asked Stamford Hill Cong. chap. to supervise schs. and mission 1873. Appointed former Lond. City Missioner, Jas. T. Bennett, min. of Old Zion chap., with which mission merged. (fn. 117) Sun. sch. work continued until amalg. with Abbey St. 1888. (fn. 118)

Inds. reg. no. 8 Vincent St. 1813, (fn. 119) no. 1 Albion St., Duke St., (fn. 120) no. 32 Bacon St. 1818, (fn. 121) and no. 39 Old Nichol St. 1820. (fn. 122)

Immanuel chapel, so called 1831, (fn. 123) on N. side of Hare St., (fn. 124) newly erected and reg. for Prots. 1820. (fn. 125) Accn. for 350 by 1838, when Cong., but apparently closed 1849. (fn. 126)

Zion chapel, on S. side of Old Bethnal Green Rd., built 1836 (fn. 127) and reg. 1837 (fn. 128) by Thos. Geo. Williams, Ind. min. of High St. Hoxton and later of Northampton Pl., Hackney Rd., who had reg. no. 6 Teale St. 1829. (fn. 129) Bldg. had 120 sittings inc. 80 free in 1838; also in 1851, when attendance 40 a.m., 100 p.m. and nos. had fallen after opening of 10 Anglican chs. (fn. 130) Closed 1865/9, when used by congregation later at Mansford St. (below). (fn. 131)

Inds. reg. no. 2 Clare St. near Cambridge Rd., (fn. 132) no. 2 Sebright Rd. (recte St.) off Hackney Rd., (fn. 133) no. 14 Green St., (fn. 134) and no. 14 East St., Twig Folly, (fn. 135) 1830, no. 5 Golden Pl., Bethnal Green Rd., (fn. 136) no. 5 North Side of the green, (fn. 137) and no. 6 South Pavement 1834, (fn. 138) and ho. in Pritchard's Rd. off Hackney Rd. 1835. (fn. 139)

Shalom chapel, in New Grove near the Oval, N. of Hackney Rd., built by Calvinistic Inds. or Congs. 1836. (fn. 140) Accn. for 350 in 1838 and for 300 inc. 50 free 1851, when average attendance 150 a.m., 200 p.m. (fn. 141) Cong. 1855 (fn. 142) and depicted as such c. 1873 (fn. 143) but Bapt. by 1865 and possibly by 1856. (fn. 144)

Zion chapel and ragged sch., Thomas St. (Passage), North St. built 1842 by T.G. Williams, founder of earlier Zion chapel (above). Bldg. had 100 free sittings in 1851, when attendance 16 a.m., 6 p.m., but was mainly Sun. sch. with 100 scholars a.m., 138 aft., 30 p.m. (fn. 145) Although sch. probably closed in 1860s, mission hall survived in 1894. (fn. 146)

Nichol Street mission originated in mission started by Jonathan Duthoit, a deacon in Union chap., Highbury, 1836. Duthoit opened and initially supported small chapel formed from 2 hos. in Short St. c 1843. (fn. 147) 'Tolerably large room' for Sun. sch. and svces. by lay preachers under Lond. City Mission. Accn. for 100-120 free, on sch. benches 1851, when attendance 15 a.m., 50 p.m. Mission, although unsectarian, regarded as station of Cong. Union chapel (fn. 148) and itself often called Union chapel. (fn. 149) Bldg. condemned 1860 and sch. and mission room built at NE. corner of Old Nichol St. and Nichol Row 1861. (fn. 150) Run by Union chapel alone after missionary killed by drunk; connexion with Lond. City Mission re-established 1871 (fn. 151) but bldgs. completed 1879 reg. for Congs. 1880. Accn. for 1,400 children and 550 adults 1913. (fn. 152) Vigorous ch. life inc. mothers' mtgs., young men's club, and free breakfasts for children in winter. (fn. 153) Attendance 1903: 20 a.m., 95 p.m. Attendance, mostly children, at Old Nichol St. schs., classified as Cong. mission, 55 a.m., 555 p.m. Twenty members at mission in 1939, (fn. 154) when closed as dangerous structure. (fn. 155)

Sydney Street chapel dated origins to group under Revd. Josiah Viney at schoolroom in Bonner St. 1844. Moved to Morpeth St. 1845 and Sydney St., Globe Town, 1850, (fn. 156) where chapel existed in 1831. (fn. 157) As Countess of Huntingdon's Connexion, occupied 'very poor bldg.' with 200 free sittings in 1851, when attendance 63 a.m., 128 p.m. Worshipers entirely 'working people' and inc. most of women at industrial home in Homerton, to which min. Ben. Woodyard was attached. (fn. 158) Chapel reg. for Inds. 1861 (fn. 159) and again when rebuilt for 370 in 1865. (fn. 160) By will proved 1880, Sam. Yates left £500 to be invested for min. (fn. 161) Attendance 1886: 162 a.m., 187 p.m. Closed 1901. (fn. 162)

Adelphi chapel between nos. 352 and 354 Hackney Rd., built 1845 by W. Woodhouse, min. of closed Adelphi Cong. chapel in Strand (Westm.), after reading of work of Abbey St. Sun. sch. (fn. 163) Accn. for 950 inc. 370 free in 1851, when attendance 850 a.m., 950 p.m. (fn. 164) Bldg. remodelled 1871 (fn. 165) with 'atrocious columns' in W. windows and thick Corinthian front columns, 'exhibiting the nonconformist tradition shattered by Victorian showiness'. (fn. 166) Attendance 1886: 271 a.m., 570 p.m.; 1903: 228 a.m., 446 p.m. Declined under homesick min. from Yorks. and closed 1909, when chapel became cinema. (fn. 167)

Gascoigne Place, off Crab Tree Row, schoolroom used as Ind. preaching station by British Mission by 1851. Free seating for 180 with standing for 250 in 1851, when attendance 45 p.m.; Sun. sch. a.m. and p.m. (fn. 168) Reg. for Inds. 1854 and described as mission ch. in 1870 but closed 1872. (fn. 169)

Albion grammar sch. in Oxford St., W. side of Cambridge Rd., reg. for Ind. worship 1853. (fn. 170)

Morpeth Street, Cong. chapel built 1857. (fn. 171)

Victoria Park Cong. ch. was reg. 1865 at iron ch. opened 1864 by group called Free Meths. formed 1862 at Peel Grove hall. (fn. 172) New bldg. at SW. junction of Approach and Bonner rds., of red brick with stone dressings in Lombardic style, seating 2,000, by W. F. Poulton 1869: campanile, iron gallery. (fn. 173) Highest Cong. attendance in Bethnal Green 1886, when 885 a.m., 953 p.m., and in 1903, when 412 a.m., 625 p.m. Vigorous ch. life inc. Sun. schs. at Victoria hall and Twig Folly, free concerts, and work among poor, missions, and ragged schs. (fn. 174) Labour leader Ben. Tillett (d. 1943), was librarian in 1880s. (fn. 175) Membership 397 in 1910, 309 in 1919, 190 in 1926, and 70 in 1939. (fn. 176) Bldg. damaged 1940 and closed 1953. Site acquired by neighbouring Parmiter's sch. (fn. 177)

Mansford Street chapel originated in group around Lond. City Missioner Jas. T. Bennett in Satchwell St. British sch. 1868. Met in vacated Old Zion chapel, listed as Durham (later Teesdale) St., 1869-80. (fn. 178) Leased site between Mansford and Blythe streets 1880, where chapel built and reg. 1881. (fn. 179) Divisions led to sale 1884 to Lond. Cong. Union, which supplied min. (R. Mackey), who left after 8 months with other seceders. Having no regular pastor, chapel dissolved 1886 although Sun. sch. continued until sale to Unitarians 1888. (fn. 180)

Victoria Hall, Approach Rd., built by Victoria Park Cong. ch. on site to S. acquired 1870, reg. 1877. (fn. 181) Bldg. in 'mixed Lombardic style', seating 900-1,000, by Woodman of Notting Hill; inc. 2 schoolrooms and libr. (fn. 182) Cong. mission in 1903, when attendance 100 a.m., 484 p.m. Damaged 1940 and closed 1953, site being sold to Parmiter's sch. (fn. 183)

Satchwell Street British sch. used for Ind. worship 1871. (fn. 184)

Victoria (Park) hall, so called 1895, had formerly been United Meth. Free chapel in Bonner Lane (St.). (fn. 185) Cong. mission in 1903, when attendance 23 a.m., 70 p.m.

Pott Street premises of former Bethnal Green Chap. British sch. used as Cong. mission 1903, when attendance, mostly Sun. sch., 52 a.m., 150 p.m. Still in use 1914. (fn. 186)

Twig Folly mission, at N. junction of Bonner and Hartley streets, (fn. 187) housed mission and Sun. sch. associated with Victoria Park Cong. ch. c. 1910 to c. 1926. (fn. 188)

Baptists.

Under min. Geo. Gray, Bapts. reg. no. 5 St. John St. near Brick Lane 1809 (fn. 189) and others reg. no. 27 Club Row, at SW. corner of par., 1814; (fn. 190) Particular Bapts. reg. tenement at entrance of Pitt St., on S. side of Bethnal Green Rd. 1824. (fn. 191)

Squirries Street chapel built by dissenting group under W. Woodland and reg. for Prots. 1819, (fn. 192) after Wes. Circuit had dissolved Christian Community and claimed exclusive control over Globe Rd. chapel. Perhaps rebuilt 1823, (fn. 193) Bapt. by 1827. (fn. 194) Accn. for 250 in 1838 and 224 inc. 40 free in 1851, when attendance 40 aft., 200 evg. (fn. 195) Membership 70 in 1868, (fn. 196) when sch. started. (fn. 197) Reorganized as mission 1871 but apparently closed by 1883. (fn. 198)

Providence chapel, later Shoreditch Tabernacle, originated in group associated with ragged sch. in Shoreditch which worshipped nearby 1832 and chose 'Calvinistic' Jas. Smith (d. 1838), as min. 1833. (fn. 199) Moved to Providence hall, Worship St., 1833 and acquired site in Austin St. 1835 for new Providence chapel for Particular or Calvinistic Bapts. (fn. 200) New schoolroom for Sun. sch. 1844. Bldg. in simple classical style with pedimented front (fn. 201) seated 600 inc. 300 free 1838 and 1851, when attendance 148 a.m., 152 p.m. (fn. 202) Membership 130 in 1837, 200 in 1844, 320 in 1865, and 461 in 1875. (fn. 203) Seceders formed Union chapel in Cumberland St., Shoreditch, 1839, where joined by others 1855. Wm. Cuff, pastor from 1872 and unlike most of congregation not a Strict Bapt., established open-air mission, other mission halls, and schs. Adjoining property purchased 1860 and 1877, (fn. 204) where Shoreditch Tabernacle, in classical style and seating 2,000, built 1879; adjoining equally large Sun. sch. built 1890. Enormous cost, (fn. 205) despite fund raising by Chas. Spurgeon, who had preached at Providence chapel years before, incurred prolonged debt. (fn. 206) Cuff became president of Bapt. Union in 1910 and remained min. until 1917. Chapel had Bethnal Green's largest nonconf. attendance: 1886: 1,033 a.m., 1,468 p.m.; 1903: 546 a.m., 1,220 p.m. By c. 1900 early supporters had moved away and congregation exclusively workingclass. Social work increasingly important, aided by many lay workers (300 c. 1898) (fn. 207) and by deaconesses from 1918. Membership 941 in 1900, 336 by 1935. (fn. 208) Bldg. neglected by 1928, when sale narrowly averted, damaged by bombing 1944, and demolished 1960. New brick chapel in modern style, seating 250, opened 1963. (fn. 209) Run mainly by deaconess and visiting preachers, membership dropping to 61 in 1987-8, (fn. 210) but later fall in evg. attendance offset by higher attendance a.m., especially of Nigerians and Afro-Caribbeans.

Hephzibah chapel, later Marnham hall, no. 1 Darling Pl., at junction with Cambridge Rd. on S. boundary, reg. for Inds. 1836. (fn. 211) Accn. for 300 in 1838. Calvinistic or evangelical Bapt. in 1851, when bldg. seated 240 inc. 60 free and attendance 200 a.m., 240 p.m. (fn. 212) Membership 58 in 1858, when well attended, but apparently closed c. 1872. (fn. 213) Reopened as Bapt. mission, called Marnham hall, by E. Lond. tabernacle (Stepney) 1876. (fn. 214) Attendance 1903: 58 p.m. Used by Lond. City Mission 1904-18 and closed by 1938. (fn. 215)

Claremont Street, S. of Hackney Rd., chapel reg. for Inds. 1836. (fn. 216) Accn. for 280 in 1838. Bapt. by 1848 (fn. 217) and seated 250 inc. 150 free in 1851, when attendance 30 a.m., 45 p.m. (fn. 218) Poor attendance c. 1858. (fn. 219) Membership 30 in 1872. Closed by 1875. (fn. 220)

Wolverley Street Bapt. chapel accommodated 150 in 1838.

Bethel Bapt. chapel, Austin St., accommodated 100 in 1838, although not reg. until 1840. Passed to Latter-Day Saints 1843. (fn. 221) May have existed earlier as Bethel chapel, Meth. and accommodating 150 in 1810 (fn. 222) and belonging to Seventh-Day Bapts. 1851-4 when 1675 given as foundation, (fn. 223) probably claiming descent from Fras. Brampfield. (fn. 224) Was mainstream Bapt. chapel called Austin St., Virginia Row, 1862-76. Membership 60 in 1872. (fn. 225) Later became mission of Shoreditch tabernacle and attended in 1903 by 29 p.m.

Ann's Place, off Pritchard's Rd., infants' schoolroom reg. for Bapts. 1839. (fn. 226) New infants' and Sun. sch., presumably on same site, reg. 1840. (fn. 227) Attendance 1851: 70 p.m., all free sittings. (fn. 228) By 1871 dist. missionary held Sun. and Tues. evg. svces. at sch. (fn. 229) Bldg. enlarged to 200 seats 1881-2. (fn. 230) As Ames (sic) Pl. Bapt. mission, attendance, mostly children, 1903: 339 a.m., 159 p.m. Closed c. 1909. (fn. 231)

Pollard Row, N. of Bethnal Green Rd., room reg. for bapts. by Jesse Hobson of Stepney Coll., who also reg. Ann's Pl. (above), 1839. (fn. 232)

Williams Place, room reg. for Bapts. by another member of Stepney Coll. 1840. (fn. 233)

Trinity chapel and schs., Peel Grove, reg. but not yet so named by Bapts. 1848. (fn. 234) Many seceded when Tim. Appleford appointed min. 1850 and Trinity chapel said to belong to Particular Bapts. or Calvinists 1851. Bldg. seated 313 inc. 122 free in 1851, when attendance 40 a.m., 150 p.m. (fn. 235) Evangelical Bapt. 1851-8 (fn. 236) but used later by other groups. (fn. 237)

Zoar meeting, no. 1 Peel Terr., Old Ford Rd., reg. by particular Bapts., perhaps descended from original group, 1866-95. (fn. 238)

Morpeth Street, Bapt. chapel 1849-56. Min. from 1851 was Tim. Appleford, previously at Peel Grove. (fn. 239)

Hope chapel, between Norton and Type streets, reg. 1859 by Strict Calvinistic Bapts. on site leased 1854 by Bapts. who had begun preaching at Twig Folly 1851. (fn. 240) Membership 33 in 1855, 82 in 1868, and 120 in 1872 when bldg., originally seating 150, enlarged for 250. Attendance 1886: 122 a.m., 105 p.m.; 1903: 88 a.m., 90 p.m. Membership fell to 98 in 1910 and 43 in 1925. (fn. 241) Closed 1935/8. (fn. 242)

Hart's Lane, Bapt. chapel opened by one of dissident groups from Providence chapel 1854, probably in former Wes. chapel. Closed by 1863. (fn. 243)

The Oval, vacated Cong. Shalom chapel taken over by Bapts. from Squirries St. 1856 (fn. 244) and reg. 1872, (fn. 245) when membership 100. (fn. 246) Attendance 1886: 77 a.m., 86 p.m.; 1903: 23 a.m., 54 p.m. Closed 1908. (fn. 247) Later housed industrial mission (below) and Lithuanian Rom. Cath. ch. (above).

Union church, at corner of Grove and Esmond (later Roman) rds., taken over by congregation under Allan Curr, who preached at Peel Grove hall 1865. Gothic bldg. described by C.H. Spurgeon, who preached there, as more fit for mass ho. than a Bapt. chapel. Curr left within year to become Presbyterian min., selling bldg. to Lond. Bapt. Assoc. which appointed pastor 1867 and sold bldg. to Ch. of Eng. to become St. Barnabas ch.

Grove Road or Victoria Park chapel, replacing Union ch. on site to N., reg. for Particular Bapts. 1872. Bldg. of yellow brick with stone dressings in Italianate style, seating 800 and with large schoolroom in basement, (fn. 248) by Chas. Gray, Searle & Son 1869. Attendance 1886: 403 a.m., 433 p.m.; 1903: 284 a.m., 432 p.m. Membership 416 in 1890, 330 in 1910, 179 in 1925, 66 in 1955, and 43 in 1987, (fn. 249) but one of few chapels surviving 1988.

Zion chapel, Matilda Rd. off Old Bethnal Green Rd., 1866-80. (fn. 250)

Essex Street mission sch., off Bethnal Green Rd., used as Bapt. chapel on Sun. 1871. (fn. 251)

Preston Street, Victoria Park, off Green St., chapel seating 70 from 1872 to c. 1900/3. (fn. 252)

Bethnal Green Road chapel reg. 1882 (fn. 253) in new bldg. at W. end where 17th-cent. Glasshouse Memorial Bapt. ch. had moved 1881. (fn. 254) Belonged to General Bapt. Assoc. and General Bapt. Assembly and seated 850. Membership 288 in 1885. (fn. 255) Attendance 1886: 188 a.m., 242 p.m.; 1903: 16 a.m., 23 p.m. falling nos. attributed to Jewish immigration. Sec. of Lond. Bapt. Assoc. assumed pastorate, cancelled reg. 1905, and leased chapel as synagogue. Freehold sold to Jews 1927. (fn. 256)

Gibraltar Place, former Cong. Gibraltar chapel reopened as Bapt. mission seating 500 and connected with Shoreditch Tabernacle 1883. (fn. 257) Attendance 1903: 127 p.m. Apparently called Nichol St. from c. 1915 and closed 1920. (fn. 258)

Shacklewell Street sch., associated with Gibraltar chapel, used as Bapt. mission by Shoreditch Tabernacle before reg. as Shoreditch Tabernacle mission chapel 1906. Attendance 1903: 32 a.m., 163 p.m. Closed by 1925. (fn. 259)

Green Street, no. 222 reg. as mission hall 1901-76. (fn. 260)

Church Row, old town hall reg. 1911-25. (fn. 261)

Tent Street, mission hall reg. for strict and Particular Bapts. 1934-54. (fn. 262)

Methodists.

Middlesex chapel in Middlesex Terr. on SE. side of Hackney Rd. reg. for Inds. 1797 by min. John Jefferies, (fn. 263) who leased site 1798. Described as Wes. Meth. from 1811. (fn. 264) Accn. for 400 in 1838 but 'small and dilapidated' 1841 when new chapel founded on same site. Bldg., with galleries added 1847, (fn. 265) reg. 1854; (fn. 266) seated 820 inc. 200 free in 1851, when attendance 310 a.m., 504 p.m. (fn. 267) Attendance 1886: 232 a.m., 383 p.m.; 1903: 239 a.m., 471 p.m. Run as Shoreditch Meth. mission from 1888 and 'overflowing with energy' 1898. Large nos. at svces. enlivened by brass band. Also held cottage mtgs. and provided medical and legal advice. (fn. 268) Closed 1955. (fn. 269)

Hart's Lane, chapel on W. side off Bethnal Green Rd. built c. 1817 by Wes., who had reg. bldg. in Wilmot Sq. 1815. (fn. 270) Accn. for 160 in 1838 and seated 120 inc. 40 free in 1851, when attendance 29 a.m., (fn. 271) 55 p.m. Apparently passed to Bapts. by 1854.

Weaver Street, Sun. sch. 'lately erected' on boundary with Spitalfields reg. by unspecified group 1818. (fn. 272) Associated with Wes. Tract Soc., (fn. 273) it may have developed into Lion chapel in same street, reg. for Wes. 1824 (fn. 274) and apparently closed by 1838.

No. 4 Perseverance Terrace, Church St., reg. by 'Arminian Methodists late in connexion with Wesley' 1819. (fn. 275) Their min. Tim. Gibson reg. ho. in Spitalfields for 'Calvinistic Inds.' 1821. (fn. 276)

Globe Road, Mile End, Wes. chapel next to later rly. line opened 1819 and taken over by Dr. T.B. Stephenson of Children's Home as mission hall named after Gen. Gordon 1885. (fn. 277) Transferred to Bethnal Green by boundary changes 1900. Attendance 1903: 66 a.m., 118 p.m. Remained Meth. mission until sold to Salvation Army 1959. (fn. 278)

Cooper's Gardens, off Hackney Rd., chapel reg. for Prots. 1820 by group (fn. 279) which built Hare St. chapel (above, Congs.). Acquired and probably rebuilt by Prim. Meths. 1835 (fn. 280) but not listed 1838. (fn. 281) Seated 250 inc. 106 free in 1851, when attendance 180 a.m., 190 aft., 300 p.m.; 'crowded to excess' Sun. evgs., with simultaneous svce. in schoolroom. (fn. 282) New bldg. 1852, (fn. 283) reg. 1853. (fn. 284) 'Fairly attended' c. 1858. (fn. 285). Plot acquired at corner of Hackney Rd. and the Oval 1877, (fn. 286) where new Cooper's Gdns. Memorial ch. reg. 1879. (fn. 287) Attendance 1886: 85 a.m., 95 p.m.; 1903: 57 a.m., 61 p.m. Closed 1919. (fn. 288)

Collingwood Street Sun. sch., behind Shoreditch ch. and supposedly built 1821, may have originated in room in Castle Ct., reg. for Meths. under min. Thos. Crossley 1821. (fn. 289) Reg. by Prots. 1832 (fn. 290) and by Wes. 1838 but not listed 1838. (fn. 291) Wes. preaching 'now discontinued' in 1851 (fn. 292) but bldg., retained mainly as Sun. sch., used for Wes. svces. on weekday evgs. in 1871. (fn. 293)

Hare Street Sun. sch. (c. 1821), associated with Wes. Tract Soc., (fn. 294) accommodated 200 for Wes. worship 1838.

Hos. reg. by Wes. in early 19th cent. inc. ho. and wareho. at no. 6 Spicer St. 1824, (fn. 295) no. 11 Kittisford Pl., Hackney Rd., 1832, (fn. 296) and no. 36 Anchor St. 1845. (fn. 297) Ind. Meths. reg. chapel in King St. off Hackney Rd. 1835. (fn. 298) New Connexion had room in New York St. accommodating 50 in 1838. Prim. Meths. reg. room in Three Colts Lane off Cambridge Rd. 1855-95. (fn. 299)

Virginia Row chapel, formerly Ind., was listed as Wes. 1857-75. (fn. 300)

Peel Grove chapel built for Free Meths. 1862 (fn. 301) but members left to form Victoria Park Cong. chapel 1865. (fn. 302)

Bonner Lane (later St.), ground N. of Twig Folly British boys' sch. leased 1863 for United Meth. Free chapel, (fn. 303) which existed 1872 (fn. 304) and was probably 'Prim. Meth.' chapel attended by young Geo. Lansbury, where pastor vividly described torments of hell. (fn. 305) Had become Victoria hall by 1895 (fn. 306) and may have housed so-called Cripples' ch. in Bonner St., described as Wes. mission 1903, when attendance 46 p.m.

Victoria Park church was established by Bethnal Green Meth. Circuit, formed 1864 from Spitalfields, which rented Peel Grove hall for svces. 1865. Site at NE. junction of Approach and Bonner rds. acquired 1867, (fn. 307) where ch. opened and reg. for Wes. 1868. (fn. 308) Bldg. in classical style with pediment and massive Corinthian pillars, seating 1,000 and largest Meth. ch. in Bethnal Green. (fn. 309) Attendance 1886:479a.m., 532 p.m. Closely associated with adjacent Children's Home, whose founder Thos. Bowman Stephenson was its min. and from 1893 superintendent of Victoria Park circuit, which replaced Bethnal Green circuit. Ch. not listed 1903 and declined after Children's Home moved 1913. (fn. 310) Bldg. closed 1928, but reopened as Bethnal Green Central hall, serving East End Mission, 1929, with brutal concrete façade labelled 'the Church of the Happy Welcome' cloaking pediment. (fn. 311) Damaged 1941 and demolished, worshippers using former Twig Folly mission premises (below). (fn. 312) Plain brick chapel seating 150, with 4 classrooms for 442, opened on site 1959. (fn. 313)

Tent Street, off North (later Brady) St., mtgs. of Prim. Meths. c. 1867-77 (fn. 314) probably at former Ind. chapel later used as mission hall.

Twig Folly British sch., junction of Bonner and Hartley streets, used by Lond. City Mission from c. 1860 (fn. 315) and for unsectarian Sun. evg. svces. 1871. (fn. 316) Wes. mission 1903, when attendance 86 a.m., 298 p.m. Still Wes. (fn. 317) but apparently also used by Congs. 1914. (fn. 318) Served worshippers from bombed Victoria Park Meth. ch. 1942-59. (fn. 319)

Driffield Road, Prim. Meth. chapel on W. side reg. as in St. Mary Stratford (at Bow) 1878. Transferred to Bethnal Green by boundary changes 1900. (fn. 320) Extended 1935 (fn. 321) and closed c. 1951. (fn. 322)

No. 66 Ravenscroft Street, off Hackney Rd., reg. by Meth. Army 1883-95. (fn. 323)

Children's Home chapel, Bonner Rd., reg. for Wes. 1886. (fn. 324) Attendance, mostly children, 1903: 515 a.m., 445 p.m. Closed 1913. (fn. 325)

Unitarians.

Spicer Street, ho. on Spitalfields border reg. 1832 by Unitarians (fn. 326) who built Domestic Mission chapel and sch. in same street, reg. 1837. (fn. 327) Accn. for 300 in 1838. All sittings free and missionary acknowledged no 'peculiar dogmas'. Attendance 1851: 70-100 p.m. and 155 Sun. sch. a.m., 175 Sun. sch. aft. (fn. 328) Described by incumbent of St. Matthias as 'rather influential... liberally supported by wealthy individual from West End' 1857. (fn. 329) Primarily a Brit. sch. but Sun. evg. svces. still held 1871. (fn. 330) Mission apparently closed with schs. 1884, Unitarians moving to Mansford St. (fn. 331)

Mansford Street, former Cong. chapel bought by Lond. Dist. Unitarian Soc., reg. as mission 1889. (fn. 332) Attendance 1903: 39 a.m., 82 p.m. Membership 97 in 1906, when new bldgs. added in neighbouring Blythe St. for associated clubs; (fn. 333) extended 1911. (fn. 334) Average attendance 1947: 36. (fn. 335) Nos. fell when area redeveloped in 1960s. (fn. 336) Mission reconstructed as Chalice foundation 1985 and bldgs. restored by 1989 for community centre and activities inc. Church Action with Unemployment and Rathbone Soc. Chapel converted to Garrett centre and manse to small residential settlement. (fn. 337)

Cambridge hall, no. 365 Cambridge Rd., was Unitarian 1890. (fn. 338)

Brethern.

No. 22 Globe Street (later part of Globe rd.) reg. by Christian Brethren as Twig Folly mtg. 1859-76. (fn. 339)

Globe Road, bldg. reg. by Plymouth Brethren, who in 1858 had occupied 2 small rooms in St. Simon Zelotes par., 1861-76. (fn. 340)

Sclater Street, iron room behind G.E.R. station used by Brethren 1876-93. (fn. 341)

No. 117 Coventry Street, gospel hall used by Brethren 1893-c. 1905. (fn. 342) Attendance, mostly children, 1903: 81 p.m.

No. 55 Bethnal Green Road reg. by Brethren 1909-54. (fn. 343)

Christian Community. (fn. 344)

After severing its Meth. connexion c. 1819, community held open-air svces. in Bonner's Fields and, often with other groups, met in Cheapside (Lond.) and Shoreditch. Used mission room in Menotti St. 1872 (fn. 345) and opened Christian Community Memorial hall, commemorating centenary of reorganization, 1875. (fn. 346) Acquired site at junction of London (later Dunbridge) St. with Mapes St., bought by Ind. min. Wm. Tyler of Hanbury St. (Spitalfields) ch., 1878. (fn. 347) Bldg. in Gothic style, seating 700, used for religious mtgs., Sun. sch., men's club, and lectures and closely associated with Lond. City Mission. (fn. 348) Extended by free libr., inc. books given by royalty, 1881. Attendance 1903: 3 a.m., 79 p.m. Libr. closed 1934 and memorial hall 1949. Headquarters of Community moved to Good Shepherd mission, Three Colts Lane, and after 1973 to Romford (Essex). (fn. 349)

Salvation Army.

First headquarters in old wool store in Three Colts Lane, (fn. 350) although no. 198 Three Colts Lane reg. as barracks only 1893-5, (fn. 351) whereas first hall was under rly. arch in Bethnal Green Rd. by 1890. (fn. 352) No. 245 Brick Lane, barracks reg. 1890-5. (fn. 353) No. 45 Brady Lane, barracks reg. 1894-1900. (fn. 354) No. 86 Sclater St., barracks reg. c. 1898-1907; (fn. 355) attendance 1903: 6 a.m., 20 p.m. Tent St., barracks reg. c. 1898-1907; (fn. 356) attendance 1903: 14 a.m., 13 p.m. No. 1 Parmiter St., mission hall reg. 1898- 1903. (fn. 357) No. 374 Hackney Rd., Cambridge Heath outpost reg. c. 1898-1925; (fn. 358) attendance 1903: 11 a.m. 20 p.m. No. 343 Bethnal Green Rd., citadel and institute reg. 1908-33; reg. again as hall 1933-54. (fn. 359) No. 58 Russia Lane, ground floor room reg. as hall 1925-8; replaced by hall at no. 40 Tagg St. 1928-54. (fn. 360) Goodwill Centre in Warley St. and hostel in Roman Rd., near Bonner St., in use c. 1950. (fn. 361) Gordon hall, Globe Rd., acquired from Meths. (above) 1959; rebuilt and reg. as Sigsworth hall after local Army Worker Alice Sigsworth 1960. (fn. 362)

Society of Friends (Quakers).

Mission hall at junction of Barnet Grove and Ivimey St. reg. 1892. (fn. 363) Attendance, mostly children, 1903: 236 a.m., 398 p.m. Closed 1956. (fn. 364)

Presbytherians.

Presbyterian Jewish mission from Whitechapel Rd. moved to new built mission ho. at nos. 207-11 Cambridge Rd. 1913. (fn. 365) Closed c. 1946. (fn. 366)

Jehovah's Witnesses.

Kingdom Hall, no. 195 Roman Rd., reg. for International Bible Students Organisation 1942-54, presumably belonged to Jehovah's Witnesses. (fn. 367)

Kingdom Hall, no. 184 Grove Rd., where premises had been reg. 1972, built with accn. for 250 by Jehovah's Witnesses 1974. (fn. 368)

Undenominational Missions.

London City Mission, undenom. Prot. mission founded 1835 and often closely associated with existing chs. Each dist. had missioner, usually drawn from lower classes, supervised by min. or prominent layman. Work inc. preaching and holding svces., Sun. and ragged schs., visiting, clubs, medical assistance, and soup kitchens. Four dists. in Bethnal Green by 1838: Cambridge Rd., North St., Quaker St., and Wilmot Sq. (fn. 369) One of first probably Wilmot Sq., associated with Abbey Sun. sch. and Robt. Gammon, supervisor 1847. (fn. 370) Cambridge Rd. originated in Christian Instruction Soc., established with 20 visitors and Lond. City Missioner 1838; links with Bethnal Green Cong. chapel, where mtgs. held and whose min. was supervisor. (fn. 371)

Appeal launched to support 42 missionaries in Spitalfields and Bethnal Green W. of Cambridge Rd. 1843. (fn. 372) Bethnal Green had 15 missionaries, mostly in crowded W. and S. but inc. Globe Lane and Twig Folly, E. of Cambridge Rd. 1846. (fn. 373) Eleven missionaries in 1850; little progress over 8 years reported 1852. (fn. 374) Thirteen missionaries, one each supported by Suffolk Auxiliary, Clifton Ladies' Assoc., and Jonathan Duthoit, 1854. Other contributions made by brewers Truman, Hanbury, Buxton & Co., by min. of Bethnal Green Cong. chapel, and by other silk manufacturers. (fn. 375) E. Counties Rly. provided premises rent free. (fn. 376) Still 13 missionaries 1875 and 2 more 1876 after appeal, little money being raised locally. (fn. 377) Missionaries at Shaftesbury and Marnham halls until First World War and probably beyond. (fn. 378) One, associated with V. of St. Jas. the Less, still working 1950. (fn. 379)

Mtg. places, usually short lived, inc. Brick Lane from 1848, (fn. 380) where at no. 160 attendance 1903 was 23 p.m., Anchor St. ragged sch. 1849- 72, (fn. 381) no. 1 Castle St. c. 1855-c. 1862, (fn. 382) Cudworth ragged sch. 1859-72 with svces. for adults 3 times a week c. 1870, (fn. 383) and Twig Folly British sch. c. 1860-c. 1871. (fn. 384) Schoolroom and mission station in George St., W. of Cambridge Rd., opened by missioner of Punderson's Gdns. dist. c. 1863, where weekly evg. cottage mtgs. had average attendance 1865 of 60-70. (fn. 385) Probably identifiable with Albion sch., at no. 7 George St., bldg. owned by Lond. City Mission superintendent (Josiah Goodman), which housed svces. 1871. (fn. 386) Mission had ho. at no. 26 Blythe St. (fn. 387) and opened station in former shop in Gibraltar Walk 1872. (fn. 388) Other stations at former Cong. and Meth. chapel in Tent St. 1880-92 (fn. 389) and in Columbia Rd. 1882-95. (fn. 390) Lond. City Mission's Shaftesbury hall, built in Gosset St. 1885 although reg. only 1930, survived until 1950s. (fn. 391) Attendance 1903: 15 a.m., 67 p.m. Other mission halls reg. at no. 224 Hackney Rd. 1892, (fn. 392) in Old Bethnal Green Rd. c. 1893-1898, (fn. 393) and at Marnham hall in Darling Row 1904-18, where Mission held Sun. evg. svces. (fn. 394)

Mildmay Mission, similarly evangelistic, (fn. 395) came to Bethnal Green when founder Revd. Wm. Pennefather offered help of deaconesses to V. of St. Phil. during cholera outbreak 1866. From ho. in Friar's Mount they opened invalid kitchen and offered 1d. dinners, (fn. 396) moving to larger premises in Little Bacon St. 1871 for mtgs. and classes. (fn. 397) Former police station in Church St. (W. end of Bethnal Green Rd. opposite Turville St.), acquired 1884 (fn. 398) and converted into mission ho. and men's lodging ho., with accn. for deaconesses and soup kitchen. Replaced by mission halls in Cross St. and Sweetapple Sq. by 1903, where attendances 84 p.m. and 72 p.m.

Other activities inc. lads' institute, mothers' mtgs., sewing classes for factory girls, and mission to Jews. (fn. 399) Medical mission opened 1874 and gospel svces. held weekly at hosp. opened in Turville Street 1877. (fn. 400)

Bethnal Green Medical Mission was opened as Home of Industry (fn. 401) in Commercial St. 1866 by Annie Macpherson (d. 1904), who moved it to purpose-built home designed by Geo. Baines at no. 29 Bethnal Green Rd. 1887. (fn. 402) Activities inc. distributing bibles, medical assistance, working among women, training missionaries, and running large Sun. sch., (fn. 403) where attendance, mostly children, 1903 was 530 p.m. Emigration of many children to Canada disrupted by war and finally discontinued 1925. After home in Bethnal Green Rd. closed 1916, (fn. 404) work carried on from training home in Hackney until site acquired at no. 305 Cambridge Rd. 1925. Medical work, started under Miss Macpherson's doctor nephew 1901, increasingly important and led to renaming 1926. Reg. as undenom. mission 1930. New bldg. opened on same site 1955 (fn. 405) and survived 1990.

Other Missions.

Trinity chapel, Peel Grove, reg. for Bapts. 1848 (fn. 406) but part of bldg. let to 'socialists' and rest to Particular Bapts. and Sun. sch. 1851. (fn. 407) New sch. chapel reg. by members of Ch. of Eng. (fn. 408) and Sun. evg. svces. introduced 1859. Bldg. also used by young men's association, by Bible and book soc. based on Soc. for the Diffusion of Pure Literature among the People, and for evg. classes and Sun. lectures. (fn. 409) Run in 1860s by temperance movement, (fn. 410) which let it to Wes., Congs., and Bapts. (fn. 411) As Anglican mission, called St. Thos. mission ho. in 1870s. (fn. 412) Connected with Ragged School Union, as Ashley mission hall, from 1880. (fn. 413) Attendance, mostly children, 1903: 57 a.m., 48 p.m. Survived as lecture hall until destroyed in Second World War. (fn. 414)

Good Shepherd sch. and mission (fn. 415) in large workshop, probably nos. 75 and 76 railway arches near North St., opened by Sun. sch. teachers from closed St. And. and reg. for nonconfs. 1855. (fn. 416) Mission moved three times before new bldg. erected in Mapes St. 1866. After bldg. destroyed by extensions to G.E.R., cottages in Wilmot St. temp. housed Good Shepherd British sch., Sun. sch., and Sun. evg. mission svces. 1871. (fn. 417) Permanent sch. and mission opened at corner of Three Colts La. and Wilmot St. 1871. Amalg. with Abbey St. sch. under Ragged Sch. Union (later Shaftesbury Soc.) 1894 but still used for mission svces. (fn. 418) Attendance 1903: 73 a.m., 265 p.m. Amalg. with King Edward Institute 1933, (fn. 419) premises enlarged 1934, and reg. as King Edw. Institute and Good Shepherd mission by 'Christians' 1939. (fn. 420) In 1990 still non-denominational mission belonging to Shaftesbury Soc., offering Sun. svces., Sun. sch., bible study and youth clubs founded 1980 in association with evangelical Anglican ch. of St. Helen, Bishopsgate (Lond.). (fn. 421) Also housed Christian Community 1949-74 (fn. 422) and from 1983 Pentecostal Bibleway ch. founded in Weavers' Field sch. and housed in former St. Jas. the Gt. ch. 1979-83. (fn. 423)

Abbey Street British (fn. 424) and Sun. schs. used for Lond. City Mission mtgs. 1881. (fn. 425) Sold to Ragged Sch. Union 1891 (fn. 426) and used by missionary for svces., bible classes, and associated activities 1892. (fn. 427) Amalg. with Good Shepherd mission 1894. (fn. 428)

King Edward Mission and Institute, founded as ragged sch. and mission by Dr. Tyler in King Edward St., Spitalfields, 1845, used hall at corner of Tent St. and North (Brady) St. 1909-34. Site housed successively from 1811 Congs., Prim. Meths., gospel mission (1878-9), Lond. City Mission, Salvation Army, and after 1934, when King Edw. mission merged with Good Shepherd mission, Particular Bapts. (fn. 429)

Zehovah (or Jehovah) in Thorold Sq. N. of Bethnal Green Rd. built 1844. Lower part of bldg. used for sch. and worship by 'various Christian denominations' 1851, when 48 free sittings; attendance 22 aft., 20 evg. Census return signed by agent for Christian Soc. of Operative Silkweavers. (fn. 430) Bldg. disappeared in redevelopment 1872 and new chapel built at no. 204 Bethnal Green Rd. on site leased to pastor by 1874, when congregation 42. (fn. 431) Sun. sch. built at no. 203 Bethnal Green Rd. 1879, (fn. 432) where chapel and schoolrooms survived 1899. (fn. 433) Christian Industrial Mission occupied former Bapt. Shalom chap. in the Oval 1909-11. (fn. 434)

London Open Air Gospel Mission and Free Gospel Ch., which preached at markets and factories, reg. no. 7 St. Jude's St. 1853. (fn. 435)

Unsectarian gospel mission in large workshop at no. 43 Old Castle St. opened by Wm. Jarvis 1867. Adjoining ho. acquired and 'commodious' hall for religious and other mtgs. on Sun. and most evgs. built 1869. Apparently unsuccessful appeal claimed that closure would leave c. 40,000 adults without ch. or chapel accn. 1871. (fn. 436)

Bible Defence Association reg. no. 304 Hackney Rd. as Amicable hall 1869-95. (fn. 437)

Unsectarian gospel mission hall reg. at no. 69 Green St. 1876-95. (fn. 438)

The Hon. Mr. Ashley's mission operated from no. 31 Gloucester St., Cambridge Heath, in 1871. (fn. 439)

Mission hall existed at corner of Squirries St. and South (Florida) St. c. 1871-2. (fn. 440)

Christian Mission met in Hart's Lane, probably in former Wes. and Bapt. chapel, 1872 (fn. 441) and reg. people's halls at no. 121 Brick Lane and under rly. at E. end of Bethnal Green Rd. 1876-95. (fn. 442)

People's Gospel Mission reg. no. 244 Hackney Rd. 1887-95. (fn. 443)

Mission hall erected in Hart's Lane 1885. (fn. 444)

Young Men's Christian Mission reg. former Unitarian no. 365 Cambridge Rd. as Emmanuel hall 1891-5. (fn. 445) Y.M.C.A. reg. Cambridge club, no. 128 Cambridge Rd. 1899-1906 and no. 17 Victoria Park Sq. 1905-25. (fn. 446)

Parmiter St. mission existed 1892-7. (fn. 447)

League of Charity mission ho., nos. 31 and 33 Church St., existed 1902-14. (fn. 448)

Lighthouse Mission, unsectarian, reg. at no. 13 Winchester St. 1929. (fn. 449)

Christian Tulipeans reg. Tulip hall, no. 20 Victoria Park Sq., 1940-1. (fn. 450)

Footnotes

  • 1. Below, this section (Congs.).
  • 2. Guildhall MS. 9537/20, p. 12; below, educ. (private schs.).
  • 3. A.C. Underwood, Hist. Eng. Bapts. (1947), 114.
  • 4. Calamy Revised, 26, 270, 332; Cal. S.P. Dom. 1672, 676.
  • 5. Cal. Mdx. Sess. Bks. vii. 59 sqq.
  • 6. Jnl. of Geo. Fox, ed. N. Penney (1911), ii. 419, 434.
  • 7. Cal. Mdx. Sess. Bks. viii. 100.
  • 8. Proc. Huguenot Soc. of Lond. viii. 23-4; E. Lond. Papers, xiii(2), 76; C L.R.O., Box 43, MS. 22; W. Morgan, Survey of Lond. and Westm. (1682).
  • 9. C.J. xvi. 542.
  • 10. Cal. Mdx. Sess. Bks. x. 148.
  • 11. Lambeth Pal. Libr., MS. 2712, ff. 182-3.
  • 12. M.L.R. 1728/2/140.
  • 13. Co. of Par. Clerks, New Remarks of Lond. (1732), 195.
  • 14. Procs. Huguenot Soc. of Lond. viii. 23, 53; Reg. of ch. of St. Jean Spitalfields (Hug. Soc. xxxix), pp. xi-xiv; E. Lond. Papers, xiii(2), 76, 86-7.
  • 15. G.L.R.O., Acc. 2330/86/1.
  • 16. Lond. City Mission Mag. iii. 53-4.
  • 17. Lysons, Environs, ii. 37.
  • 18. C.J. xi. 542; W. Maitland, Hist. Lond. (1739), 516-17; ibid (1756), i. 1189-90; ibid (1775), i. 1189-90; Lambeth Pal. Libr., Fulham Papers, Lowth S, ff. 386-9. No Ind. chapel listed for Bethnal Green although continuous hist. of chapel testified by reg.: below, Congs.
  • 19. Guildhall MS. 9557, ff. 42.
  • 20. John Wesley's Jnl. ed. N. Curnock (1938), iv. 101, 126, 187, 193; vi. 83; vii. 126, 420.
  • 21. E.C. Rayner, Story of the Christian Community, 1685- 1909 (1909) (T.H.L.H.L. 226.3).
  • 22. Wesley's Jnl. vi. 136.
  • 23. Lambeth Pal. Libr., Fulham Papers, Lowth 5, ff. 386-9.
  • 24. Guildhall MS. 9557, f. 42.
  • 25. Lambeth Pal. Libr., Fulham Papers, Randolph 11/21.
  • 26. Lysons, Environs, Suppl. 101; W. Wilson, Hist. Dissenting Chs. in Lond. (1808), ii. 561.
  • 27. Rayner, Christian Community.
  • 28. P.R.O., RG 31/3; Guildhall MSS. 9580/1-9.
  • 29. Lambeth Pal. Libr., Fulham Papers, Randolph 13, ff. 125-6.
  • 30. Lond. City Mission Mag. iii. 53-4.
  • 31. i.e. Bethnal Green, Gibraltar, Virginia, Ebenezer, Tent St., Abbey, Hare St., Zion, and Shalom.
  • 32. i.e. Hephzibah and Claremont St.
  • 33. i.e. Squirries St., Providence, Wolverley St., and Bethel.
  • 34. i.e. Middlesex, Hart's La., Hare St. schoolroom (all Wes.), and New York St. (New Connexion).
  • 35. Census, Religious Worship, 1851 [1690], H.C. p. 7 (1852-3), lxxxix. Figs, for a.m.,. aft., and evg. are amalgamated and inc. people who may have attended more than one svce. There is a discrepancy between the figs. in the printed summary (above) and those in the returns.
  • 36. Returns exist for 7 Ind. chapels (Tent St., Zion, Shalom, Thomas St., Short St., Adelphi, Gascoigne Pl.), 3 Cong. (Bethnal Green, Gibraltar, and Virginia), and 1 Cong. Ind. (Ebenezer).
  • 37. Returns exist for Squirries St., Providence, Claremont, and Ann's Pl. (all Bapt.), and Trinity (Particular Bapt.).
  • 38. Returns for Mdx., Hart's La., and Collingwood St. (Wes.) and Cooper's Gdns. (Prim. Meths.).
  • 39. Sydney St.
  • 40. Below, undenom. missions.
  • 41. Lambeth Pal. Libr., Fulham Papers, Tait 440/6-18.
  • 42. British Weekly, 12 Nov. 1886.
  • 43. Bethnal Green, Sydney St., Adelphi, and Victoria Park.
  • 44. Shoreditch tabernacle, Hope, Shalom, Grove Rd., and Bethnal Green Rd.
  • 45. Mdx., Cooper's Gdns. Memorial, and Victoria Pk.
  • 46. Mudie-Smith, Rel. Life, 55-8.
  • 47. Para. based on lists of individual chs. below and on H. McLeod, Class and Religion in the late Victorian City (1974), 106.
  • 48. Rep. Cttee. on Worship in Metropolis, p. 12.
  • 49. Trans. Cong. Hist. Soc. xx. 33.
  • 50. Lond. City Mission Mag. xv. 165; xvii. 49, 66; xlii. 94.
  • 51. H. W. Harris and M. Bryant, The Churches and Lond. [1914], 79.
  • 52. Lond. City Mission Mag. xxvi. 24-5.
  • 53. Ibid. xxvii. 45, 48.
  • 54. Ibid. xli. 2.
  • 55. K. S. Inglis, Churches and the Working Classes in Victorian Eng. (1963), 63-100.
  • 56. G.L.R.O., Acc. 2330/86/1.
  • 57. Booth, Life and Lab. iii(1), 37; iii(2), 72-3, 80-1, 85; Mudie-Smith, Rel. Life, 31, 33.
  • 58. Booth, Life and Lab. iii(2), 80.
  • 59. McLeod, Class and Religion, 106, 117; K. Heasman, Evangelicals in Action (1962), 30, 54.
  • 60. Orig. Recs. of Early Nonconf. ed. G. L. Turner, i. 89. Para. based on J. Avery, 'Bethnal Green Cong. Ch., Brief Hist.' (c. 1910) (T.H.L.H.L. TS. pamphlet 226.4).
  • 61. Bethnal Green Ind. Chap. Reg. of Bapts. 1704-55, transcribed by J. Capewell (1979) (T.H.L.H.L. pamphlet 226.4).
  • 62. Lysons, Environs. Suppl. (1811), 101; T.H.L.H.L., TH/8230/1.
  • 63. Endowed Chars. Lond. (1897), 8, 65.
  • 64. Cal. Mdx. Sess. Bks. viii. 100.
  • 65. C.L.R.O., Box 43, MS. 22.
  • 66. T.H.L.H.L., TH/2330-4
  • 67. Lambeth Pal. Libr., Fulham Papers, Randolph 13, ff. 125-6.
  • 68. P.R.O., C 54/9752, mm. 21-24; ibid. RG 31/3/1133; Guildhall MS. 9580/5; Robinson and Chesshyre, The Green, 28-9; T.H.L.H.L., R.B. Schnebbelie, View of hos. facing lower part of Bethnal Green, 1819.
  • 69. P.R.O., C 54/13855, mm. 52-66.
  • 70. Cong. Year Bk. (1850), 194, 197.
  • 71. P.R.O., HO 129/21/2/1/8.
  • 72. Cong. Year Bk. (1910, 1919, 1926, 1939).
  • 73. Below.
  • 74. Cong. Year Bk. (1960); E.L.A. 2 Mar. 1962 (T.H.L.H.L. Cuttings file 226.4).
  • 75. G.R.O. Worship Reg. no. 70027.
  • 76. Inf. from Praxis; above, social.
  • 77. Cong. Year Bk. (1875).
  • 78. G.F. Vale and S. Snaith, Bygone Bethnal Green (1948), 45.
  • 79. P.R.O., RG 31/3/343, 457; Guildhall MS. 9580/1, pp. 51, 170.
  • 80. B.M. Crace Colln. Portf. xxxiii, no. 60. Date in Cat. of Crace Colln. ed. J. G. Crace (1878).
  • 81. Lambeth Pal. Libr., Fulham Papers, Randolph 13, ff. 125-6.
  • 82. P.R.O., HO 129/21/1/1/9.
  • 83. Boro. of Hackney Dir. (1872).
  • 84. P.O. Dir Lond.. (1876, 1879); Cong. Year Bk. (1875-9, 1895).
  • 85. P.R.O., RG 31/3/321; Guildhall MS. 9580/1, p. 29.
  • 86. P.R.O., RG 31/3/344; Guildhall MS. 9580/1, p. 53.
  • 87. P.R.O., RG 31/3/352; Guildhall MS. 9580/1, p. 61.
  • 88. P.R.O., RG 31/3/371; Guildhall MS. 9580/1, p. 83.
  • 89. P.R.O., RG 31/3/384; Guildhall MS. 9580/1, p. 96.
  • 90. P.R.O., RG 31/3/385; Guildhall MS. 9580/1, p. 96.
  • 91. G.L.R.O., MR/PLT 5064.
  • 92. P.R.O., RG 31/3/448; Guildhall MS. 9580/1, p. 160.
  • 93. P.R.O., RG 31/3/875; Guildhall MS. 9580/4; G. Morgan, Hist. 50 years work of Abbey St. Sun. Schs. (1890) (T.H.L.H.L. 226.4), 5.
  • 94. P.R.O., RG 31/3/921; Guildhall MS. 9580/4; Morgan, op. cit. 5.
  • 95. Morgan, op. cit. 4, 6-7.
  • 96. P.R.O., HO 129/21/1/1/10.
  • 97. Cong. Year Bk. (1855-6, 1860); P.O. Dir. Lond. (1857); below, Meths.
  • 98. P.R.O., RG 31/3/609; Guildhall MS. 9580/2, p. 44.
  • 99. P.R.O., RG 31/3/649, 653; Guildhall MS. 9580/3. John Gibbons appears in both regs.
  • 100. Lambeth Pal. Libr., Fulham Papers, Randolph 13, ff. 125-6.
  • 101. P.R.O., RG 31/3/692; Guildhall MS. 9580/3.
  • 102. P.R.O., RG 31/3/719; Guildhall MS. 9580/3.
  • 103. P.R.O., RG 31/3/773; Guildhall MS. 9580/3.
  • 104. Guildhall MS. 9580/3; P.R.O., C 54/9753, mm. 36-39; Cruchley's New Plan (1826).
  • 105. P.R.O., RG 31/3/678; Guildhall MS. 9580/3.
  • 106. P.R.O., RG 31/3/789. In 1817 John Shegog lived at no. 1 Spittal St., off Spicer St. in Mile End New Town, which he reg. for 'Christian believers': Guildhall MS. 9580/4.
  • 107. P.R.O., HO 129/21/2/1/7.
  • 108. G.R.O. Worship Reg. no. 1638; P.R.O., C 54/14548, mm. 56-9.
  • 109. Letter from United Ref. Ch. Hist. Soc. (T.H.L.H.L. Cuttings file 226.4); Cong. Year Bk. (1875, 1880).
  • 110. P.R.O., HO 129/21/2/1/9. No record of reg.
  • 111. Below, Meths.
  • 112. Para. based on Morgan, Abbey St. Sun. Schs. 75-86.
  • 113. P.R.O., RG 31/3/828; Guildhall MS. 9580/4.
  • 114. Chapel in Bethnal Green Rd.: G.L.R.O., MR/PLT 5024.
  • 115. P.R.O., RG 31/3/1605. Sch. fronting rd. called successively Mary's Row, John's Pl., Essex St., Blythe St.
  • 116. P.R.O., C 54/12505, mm. 56-8.
  • 117. Below, Mansford St. Cong. chapel.
  • 118. Below, educ. (pub. schs., Abbey St.). Abbey St. Sun. sch. was separate, geographically and institutionally, from Abbey Sun. sch.
  • 119. P.R.O., RG 31/3/861; Guildhall MS. 9580/4.
  • 120. P.R.O., RG 31/3/1082; Guildhall MS. 9580/4.
  • 121. P.R.O., RG 31/3/1102; Guildhall MS. 9580/5. John Gibbons was assoc. with this reg.
  • 122. P.R.O., RG 31/3/1200; Guildhall MS. 9580/5.
  • 123. Ibid. 62, G.L.R.O. THCS 62.
  • 124. Ibid. THCS 446.
  • 125. P.R.O., RG 31/3/1181; Guildhall MS. 9580/5.
  • 126. Cong. Year Bk. (1848, 1849).
  • 127. P.R.O., HO 129/21/2/1/10; Cassell's Map of Lond. and Suburbs (c. 1861-2); T.H.L.H.L., TH/1565.
  • 128. P.R.O., RG 31/3/1933; Guildhall MS. 9580/7, p. 253.
  • 129. P.R.O., RG 31/3/1648; Guildhall MS 9580/6, p. 260.
  • 130. P.R.O., HO 129/21/2/1/10.
  • 131. Cong. Year Bk. (1865, 1870); A. Mearns, Guide to Cong. Chs. of Lond. (1882), 5.
  • 132. P.R.O., RG 31/3/1661; Guildhall MS. 9580/6, p. 272.
  • 133. P.R.O., RG 31/3/1685; Guildhall MS. 9580/6, p. 305.
  • 134. P.R.O., RG 31/3/1686; Guildhall MS. 9580/6, p. 306.
  • 135. P.R.O., RG 31/3/1687; Guildhall MS. 9580/6, p. 307.
  • 136. P.R.O., RG 31/3/1827; Guildhall MS. 9580/7, p. 139.
  • 137. P.R.O., RG 31/3/1828; Guildhall MS. 9580/7, p. 140.
  • 138. P.R.O., RG 31/3/1834; Guildhall MS. 9580/7, p. 146.
  • 139. P.R.O., RG 31/3/1873; Guildhall MS. 9580/7, p. 185.
  • 140. P.R.O., C 54/13106, mm. 30-34; RG 31/3/1897; Guildhall MS. 9580/7, p. 214.
  • 141. P.R.O., HO 129/21/1/1/6.
  • 142. Cong. Year Bk. (1855-6).
  • 143. O.S. Map 1/2,500, Lond. XXVII (1873 edn.).
  • 144. Below, Bapts.
  • 145. P.R.O., RG 31/3/2139; HO 129/21/3/1/5; Guildhall MS. 9580/8, p. 149. Below, educ. (pub. schs., North St. ragged schs.).
  • 146. O.S. Map 1/500, Lond. VII. 58 (1894 edn.).
  • 147. Para. based on Nichol St. Mission, 'The Nichol' 1836- 1936 (1936) (T.H.L.H.L. pamphlet 226.4). Short St. ran between Half and Old Nichol sts., with chapel at NE. corner: G.L.R.O., O/102/3; Ragged Sch. Union Mag. (1858).
  • 148. P.R.O., HO 129/21/1/1/8; V.C.H. Mdx. viii. 104.
  • 149. G.R.O. Worship Reg. nos. 10299, 25122.
  • 150. P.R.O., C 54/16175, mm. 11-19; below, educ. ) pub. schs., Nichol St. Ragged sch.).
  • 151. Lond. City Mission Mag. xxxvi. 139.
  • 152. J. Reeves, Recollections of a Sch. Attendence Officer (1913), 47.
  • 153. G.R.O. Worship Reg. no. 25122; Illus. Lond. News, 17 Apr. 1886, 405; Union Chapel, Story of 100 Years, 1799-1899 (1899), 48-54.
  • 154. Cong. Year Bk. (1939).
  • 155. Samuel, E. End Underworld, 286-7 and n.
  • 156. Mearns, Guide to Cong. Chs. 5, no. 15.
  • 157. G.L.R.O., THCS/62.
  • 158. P.R.O., HO 129/21/2/1/14.
  • 159. G.R.O. Worship Reg. no. 11402.
  • 160. Ibid. no. 16915; Boro. of Hackney Dir. (1872).
  • 161. Endowed Chars. Lond. (1897), 68
  • 162. Letter from United Ref. Ch. Hist. Soc. 1977 (T.H.L.H.L. Cuttings file 226.4).
  • 163. Morgan, Abbey St. Sun. Schs.; Mearns, Guide to Cong. Chs. 20, no. 101; P.R.O., RG 31/3/2260; Guildhall MS. 9580/8, p. 270.
  • 164. P.R.O., HO 129/21/1/1/5.
  • 165. Boro. of Hackney Dir. (1872).
  • 166. Pevsner, Lond. ii. 70.
  • 167. McLeod, Class and Religion, 107; G.L.R.O., AR/BA/4/206, no. 5; above, social.
  • 168. P.R.O., HO 129/21/1/1/7; Stanford, Map of Lond. (1862-5).
  • 169. G.R.O. Worship Reg. no. 5917; Cong. Year Bk. (1856, 1870); below, educ. (pub. schs., Gascoigne Pl.).
  • 170. G.R.O. Worship Reg. no. 1074; Ret. of Chs., Chapels, Bldgs. Reg. for Worship, H.C. 401, no. 1074 (1882), 1.
  • 171. Builder, 6 June 1857, 329.
  • 172. Mearns, Guide to Cong. Chs. 42, no. 227; G.R.O. Worship Reg. no. 16706.
  • 173. P.R.O., C 54/18116, mm. 33-9; Cong. Year Bk. (1868), 337; (1869), 316-7; The Times, 14 Apr. 1869, 5a.
  • 174. Harris and Bryant, Chs. and Lond. 169, 331 sqq.
  • 175. J. Schneer, Ben. Tillett. Portrait of a Labour Leader (1982), 24.
  • 176. Cong. Year Bk. (1910, 1919, 1926, 1939).
  • 177. M. J. Fletcher, Hist Parmiter's Foundation (1971), 39; letter from United Ref. Ch. Hist. Soc. 1977 (T.H.L.H.L. Cuttings file 226.4).
  • 178. Mearns, Guide to Cong. Chs. 5; Cong. Year Bks. (1875, 1880, 1886); Morgan, Abbey St. Sun. Schs. 83-5.
  • 179. P.R.O., C 54/20642, mm. 8-12.
  • 180. Morgan, op. cit. 86; below, Unitarians.
  • 181. P.R.O., C 54/17287, m. 32; G.R.O. Worship Reg. no. 23580.
  • 182. Builder, 12 May 1877, 489.
  • 183. Fletcher, Parmiter's Foundation, 39.
  • 184. P.R.O., ED 3/11, no. 264.
  • 185. O.S. Map 1/500, Lond. VII. 39 (1895 edn.).
  • 186. Harris and Bryant, Chs. and Lond. 382; below, educ. (pub. schs., Bethnal Green chapel British).
  • 187. O.S. Map 1/500, Lond. VII. 39 (1895, 1938 edns.).
  • 188. Cong. Year Bk. (1910, 1919, 1926); Harris and Bryant, Chs. and Lond. 382.
  • 189. Guildhall MS. 9580/3.
  • 190. Ibid. 4; P.R.O., RG 31/3/895.
  • 191. P.R.O., RG 31/3/1410; Guildhall MS. 9580/5.
  • 192. E.C. Rayner, Story of the Christian Community, 1685- 1909 (T.H.L.H.L. 226.3); P.R.O., RG 31/3/1145; Guildhall MS. 9580/5.
  • 193. P.R.O., HO 129/21/2/1/13.
  • 194. W.T. Whitley, Bapts. of Lond. (1928) 157; Bapt. Manual (1850); Cassell's Map of Lond. (c. 1861-2).
  • 195. P.R.O., HO 129/21/2/1/13.
  • 196. Bapt. Handbk. (1868).
  • 197. P.R.O., ED 3/11, no. 449.
  • 198. Whitley, Bapts. of Lond. 157; Boro. of Hackney Dir. (1872).
  • 199. Para. based on D.V. Evans, 'More light, more power' (1985) (T.H.L.H.L. pamphlet 226.2).
  • 200. P.R.O., C 54/11454, mm. 7-11.
  • 201. Illus. in T.H.L.H.L. Cuttings File 226.2.
  • 202. P.R.O., HO 129/21/1/1/13.
  • 203. Bapt. Handbk. (1865, 1875).
  • 204. P.R.O., C 54/15580, mm. 2-9; C 54/18378, mm. 8-10; Endowed Chars. Lond. (1897), 65-6.
  • 205. G.R.O. Worship Reg. no. 24834; Bapt. Handbk. (1877), 441; (1890), 367.
  • 206. Shoreditch Tabernacle (1945) (T.H.L.H.L. pamphlet 226.2).
  • 207. Booth, Life and Lab. iii (2), 81.
  • 208. Bapt. Handbk. (1900, 1935).
  • 209. G.R.O. Worship Reg. no. 69359.
  • 210. Bapt. Handbk. (1987-8).
  • 211. P.R.O., RG 31/3/1898; Guildhall MS. 9580/7, p. 215; G.L.R.O., THCS 447 (1836): as Mile End Corner N., chapel.
  • 212. P.R.O., HO 129/21/2/1/12; Bapt. Manual (1854); Cassell's Map of Lond. (c. 1861-2).
  • 213. Bapt. Manual (1858); Whitley, Bapts. of Lond. 184, 196; Guildhall MS. 9561, no. 27.
  • 214. Whitley, Bapts. of Lond. 218.
  • 215. Below, Lond. City Mission; Harris and Bryant, Chs. and Lond. 381; O.S. Maps 1/500, Lond. VII, 58 (1894, 1913, 1938 eans).
  • 216. P.R.O., RG 31/3/1881; Guildhall MS. 9580/7, p. 195.
  • 217. Bapt. Handbk. (1865). Whitley, Bapts. of Lond. 206, claims chapel founded in 1847 but there is no reg.
  • 218. P.R.O., HO 129/21/1/1/12.
  • 219. Guildhall MS. 9561 no. 29.
  • 220. Bapt. Handbk. (1872, 1875).
  • 221. Guildhall MS. 9580/8, pp. 57, 179.
  • 222. Lambeth Pal. Libr., Fulham Papers, Randolph 13, ff. 125-6.
  • 223. Bapt. Manual (1851-4).
  • 224. Above, prot. nonconf. (intro.).
  • 225. Whitley, Bapts. of London 191 Bapt. Handbk. (1865, 1872, 1875).
  • 226. P.R.O., RG 31/3/2037; Guildhall MS. 9580/8, p. 46.
  • 227. P.R.O., RG 31/3/2080; Guildhall MS. 9580/8, p. 90.
  • 228. P.R.O., HO 129/21/1/1/11.
  • 229. Ibid. ED 3/11, no. 152.
  • 230. Bapt. Handbk. (1885); below, educ. (pub. schs., Ann's Pl.).
  • 231. Whitley, Bapts. of Lond. 228, 267; Bapt. Handbk. (1909, 1910).
  • 232. P.R.O., RG 31/3/2039.
  • 233. Ibid. RG 31/3/2053; Guildhall MS. 9580/8, p. 63.
  • 234. Stanford, Map of Lond. (1862-5); P.R.O., RG 31/3/2291; Guildhall MS. 9580/8, p. 300.
  • 235. P.R.O., HO 129/21/2/1/11.
  • 236. Whitley, Bapts. of Lond. 176; Bapt. Manual (1854, 1857, 1858).
  • 237. Below, undenom. missions.
  • 238. G.R.O. Worship Reg. no. 17453.
  • 239. Whitley, Bapts. of Lond. 173.
  • 240. G.R.O. Worship Reg. no. 8716; P.R.O., C 54/15102, mm. 14-18; Whitley, Bapt. of Lond. 180.
  • 241. Whitley, Bapts. of Lond. 268; Bapt. Manual (1858); Bapt. Handbk. (1868, 1872, 1910, 1925); G.L.R.O., MBW 1621, no. 23.
  • 242. Bapt. Handbk. (1935, 1944-6); Bethnal Green M.B. Official Guide. [1930, 1938].
  • 243. Whitley, Bapts. of Lond. 165, 181; Bapt. Manual (1854, 1862-3).
  • 244. Whitley, Bapts. of Lond. 185-6. Listed from 1862: Bapt. Handbk. (1862).
  • 245. G.R.O. Worship Reg. no. 21048.
  • 246. Bapt. Handbk. (1872).
  • 247. Whitley, Bapts. of Lond. 185-6.
  • 248. Ibid. 267; E. Lond. Observer, 18 Dec. 1869 (T.H.L.H.L. Cuttings file 226.2); Bapt. Handbk. (1870), 228-9; G.R.O. Worship Reg. no. 20687; C.C.C. files, St. Barnabas.
  • 249. Bapt. Handbk. (1890, 1910, 1925, 1955, 1987-8).
  • 250. Whitley, Bapts. of Lond. 199.
  • 251. P.R.O., ED 3/11, no. 193; above, Congs. (Abbey St.)
  • 252. Bapt. Handbk. (1885, 1890, 1900, 1910).
  • 253. G.R.O. Worship reg. no. 26096.
  • 254. D. Monkcom and R. Whitfield, Three Hund. Yrs. of Bapt. Witness 1680-1980. Glasshouse Mem. Ch. (T.H.L.H.L. 226.2).
  • 255. Bapt. Handbk. (1885).
  • 256. Monkcom and Whitfield, op. cit.; G.R.O. Worship Reg. no. 26096.
  • 257. Whitley, Bapts. of Lond. 229; Evans, 'More light, more power'; Bapt. Handbk. (1885).
  • 258. Bapt. Handbk. (1900, 1910, 1912, 1915, 1920, 1921).
  • 259. Whitley, Bapts. of Lond. 229; G.R.O., Worship Reg. no. 41877.
  • 260. G.R.O. Worship Reg. no. 38453.
  • 261. Ibid. no. 44782.
  • 262. Ibid. no. 55381.
  • 263. P.R.O., RG 31/3/420; Guildhall MS. 9580/1, p. 133; Home Counties Mag. xi. 293-8.
  • 264. P.R.O., C 54/9292, mm. 6-12; G.L.R.O., Acc. 2330/57/1.
  • 265. G.L.R.O., Acc. 2330/57/1.
  • 266. G.R.O. Worship Reg. no. 3399.
  • 267. P.R.O., HO 129/21/1/1/3.
  • 268. G.L.R.O., Acc. 2330/57/1; N/M/23/1-12; Booth, Life and Lab. iii(2), 80.
  • 269. G.R.O. Worship Reg. no. 3399; G.L.R.O., N/M/23/7.
  • 270. P.R.O., RG 31/3/942; Guildhall MS. 9580/4.
  • 271. P.R.O., HO 129/21/2/1/6; G.L.R.O., THCS 447, 521; below, Christian Community.
  • 272. Guildhall MS. 9580/5. Weaver St. Sun. sch. was assoc. with Wes. by 1821: G.L.R.O., Acc. 2330/86/1.
  • 273. G.L.R.O., Acc. 2330/86/1.
  • 274. P.R.O., RG 31/3/1417; Guildhall MS. 9580/5.
  • 275. P.R.O., RG 31/3/1128; Guildhall MS. 9580/5.
  • 276. Guildhall MS. 9580/5.
  • 277. H.M. Twixt Aldgate Pump and Poplar: Story of Fifty Years' Adventure in E. Lond. (1935), 72; G.R.O. Worship Reg. no. 29288.
  • 278. B. Guy, Gordon Hall (1985) (T.H.L.H.L. 226.3 pamphlet); G.R.O. Worship Reg. no. 29288; P.O. Dir. Lond. (1950, 1960).
  • 279. P.R.O., RG 31/3/1183; Guildhall MS. 9580/5.
  • 280. P.R.O., C 54/13037, mm. 26-32.
  • 281. Lond. City Mission Mag. iii. 53-4.
  • 282. P.R.O., HO 129/21/1/1/4.
  • 283. G.L.R.O., MBO/DS/H12 (surveyors' rets. 1852).
  • 284. G.R.O. Worship Reg. no. 1358.
  • 285. Guildhall MS. 9561 no. 32.
  • 286. P.R.O., C 54/18007, mm. 11-14.
  • 287. G.R.O. Worship Reg. no. 24783; G.L.R.O., MBW 1676, no. 26.
  • 288. P.O. Dir Lond. (1919-20).
  • 289. P.R.O., HO 129/21/1/(blank); ibid. RG 31/3/1257; Guildhall MS. 9580/5. Castle Ct. lay between Old Castle St. and Collingwood St.: O.S. Map 1/2,500, Lond. XXVII (1873 edn.).
  • 290. P.R.O., RG 31/3/1756; Guildhall MS. 9580/7, p. 66.
  • 291. P.R.O., RG 31/3/2000; Guildhall MS. 9580/8, p. 9; Lond. City Mission Mag. iii. 53-4.
  • 292. P.R.O., HO 129/21/1/(blank).
  • 293. Ibid. ED 3/11, no. 260.
  • 294. G.L.R.O., Acc. 2330/86/1; below, educ. (pub. schs., Hare St.)
  • 295. P.R.O., RG 31/3/1402; Guildhall MS. 9580/5.
  • 296. P.R.O., RG 31/3/1776; Guildhall MS. 9580/7, p. 86.
  • 297. P.R.O., RG 31/3/2218; Guildhall MS. 9580/8, p. 228.
  • 298. P.R.O., RG 31/3/1858; Guildhall MS. 9580/7, p. 170.
  • 299. G.R.O. Worship Reg. no. 6539.
  • 300. P.O. Dir Lond.. (1856, 1857, 1875, 1876); above, Congs.
  • 301. Builder, 13 Dec. 1862, 900.
  • 302. Above, Congs.
  • 303. P.R.O., C 54/16128, mm. 22-25.
  • 304. Boro. of Hackney Dir. (1872); O.S. Map 1/2,500, Lond. XXVIII (1873 edn.).
  • 305. R. Postgate, Life of Geo. Lansbury (1951), 8.
  • 306. O.S. Map 1/500, Lond. VII. 39 (1895 edn.); above, Congs.
  • 307. E.L.A. 21 June 1968 (T.H.L.H.L. Cuttings file 226.3).
  • 308. G.R.O. Worship Reg. no. 18460.
  • 309. Unidentified cuttings (T.H.L.H.L. Cuttings file 226.3).
  • 310. A.A. Jacka, Story of Children's Home, 1869-1969 (1969), 9, 11, 18; Twixt Aldgate Pump and Poplar, 127.
  • 311. Meth. Recorder (1929) and other cuttings (T.H.L.H.L. Cuttings file 226.3).
  • 312. E.L.A. 21 June 1968 (T.H.L.H.L. Cuttings file 226.3); R.G. Burnett, These my brethren. Story of Lond. E. End Mission (1946), 20.
  • 313. Meth. Ch. Dept. for Chapel Affairs, Statistical Returns (1972-3), 7; G.R.O. Worship Reg. no. 67551.
  • 314. P.O. Dir Lond.. (1867-77); T.H.L.H.L., TH/7514.
  • 315. Lond. City Mission Mag. xli. 9.
  • 316. P.R.O., ED 3/11, no. 211.
  • 317. Harris and Bryant, Chs. and Lond. 382.
  • 318. Above, Congs.
  • 319. G.R.O. Worship Reg. no. 60050.
  • 320. Ibid. no. 24345.
  • 321. G.L.R.O., AR/BA/4/606, no. 3.
  • 322. O.S. Map 1/2,500, TQ 3683 (1950 edn.); P.O. Dir Lond.. (1947, 1952).
  • 323. G.R.O. Worship reg. no. 27038.
  • 324. Ibid. no. 29275.
  • 325. Ibid. no. 43681.
  • 326. P.R.O., RG 31/3/1769; Guildhall MS. 9580/7, p. 79.
  • 327. P.R.O., RG 31/3/1936; Guildhall MS. 9580/7, p. 257.
  • 328. P.R.O., HO 129/21/4/1/4.
  • 329. Rep. Cttee. on Worship in Metropolis, p. 44.
  • 330. P.R.O., ED 3/11, no. 267.
  • 331. Mansford St. Ch. and Mission, Ann. Rep. (1912) (T.H.L.H.L. 226.13); below, educ. (pub. schs., Abbey St.).
  • 332. Mansford St. Ch. and Mission, Ann. Rep. (1912); G.R.O. Worship Reg. no. 31623.
  • 333. Mansford St. Ch. and Mission, Cal. and Monthly Messenger (1906) (T.H.L.H.L. 226.13).
  • 334. G.L.R.O., AR/BA/4/221, no. 5.
  • 335. Mansford St. Ch. and Mission, Ann. Rep. (1947) (T.H.L.H.L. 226.13).
  • 336. Mansford St. Unitarian Ch. Newsletter, 1964-82 (T.H.L.H.L. 226.13).
  • 337. Hackney Gaz. 6 Sept. 1985; 22 Mar. 1986 (T.H.L.H.L. 226.13); inf. from M. Bracey, Chalice Foundation.
  • 338. P.O. Dir Lond. (1890).
  • 339. G.R.O. Worship Reg. no. 8803.
  • 340. Lambeth Pal. Libr., Fulham Papers, Tait 440/18; G.R.O. Worship reg. no. 11725.
  • 341. P.O. Dir Lond.. (1876-93).
  • 342. Ibid. (1893-1905).
  • 343. G.R.O. Worship Reg. nos. 43926, 45292.
  • 344. Para. based on Rayner, Story of Christian Community. For early hist., above.
  • 345. Boro. of Hackney Dir. (1872).
  • 346. G.R.O. Worship Reg. no. 22608; G.L.R.O., MBW 1643, no. 23.
  • 347. P.R.O., C 54/8164.
  • 348. Lond. City Mission Mag. lii. 43, 52.
  • 349. The Star, Mar./Apr. 1969 (T.H.L.H.L. Cuttings file 226.3); Christian Community, Ann. Rep. (1973) (T.H.L.H.L. 226.3); Christian Community. Abridged Hist. and Handbk. (n.d.) (T.H.L.H.L. 226.3 pamphlet).
  • 350. V. Leff and G. H. Blunden, Story of Tower Hamlets (1967), 65.
  • 351. G.R.O. Worship Reg. no. 33915.
  • 352. Leff and Blunden, op. cit. 65; P.O. Dir. Lond.. (1890).
  • 353. G.R.O. Worship Reg. no. 32198.
  • 354. Ibid. no. 34609.
  • 355. Ibid. no. 37102; Booth, Life and Lab. iii(2), 109.
  • 356. Booth, op. cit. 107; G.R.O. Worship Reg. no. 38078.
  • 357. G.R.O. Worship Reg. no. 36639.
  • 358. Ibid. no. 38792; Booth, op. cit. 109.
  • 359. G.R.O. Worship Reg. nos. 43078, 54759.
  • 360. Ibid. nos. 49655, 51278.
  • 361. Bethnal Green M.B. Official Guide [1950], 78-9.
  • 362. G.R.O. Worship Reg. no. 68033; B. Guy, Gordon Hall (1985) (T.H.L.H.L. 226.3 pamphlet); inf. from Tower Hamlets L.B. (1986).
  • 363. G.R.O. Worship Reg. no. 33436.
  • 364. P.O. Dir. Lond. (1956, 1957).
  • 365. G.R.O. Worship Reg. nos. 23435, 45912; G.L.R.O., AR/BA/4/252, no. 5.
  • 366. P.O. Dir. Lond. (1945, 1947).
  • 367. G.R.O. Worship Reg. no. 60024.
  • 368. Ibid. no. 72894; E.L.A. 7 June 1974 (T.H.L.H.L. Cuttings file 226.13); P.O. Dir. Lond. (1980).
  • 369. Lond. City Mission Mag. iii. 173.
  • 370. Ibid. xii. pp. xvi-xvii; Ragged Sch. Mag. vi. 95; above, Congs.
  • 371. Lond. City Mission Mag. iii. 173; iv. 176.
  • 372. Ibid. viii. 165-6.
  • 373. Ibid. xi. 33; xii. pp. xvi-xvii.
  • 374. Ibid. xv. 165; xvii. 49.
  • 375. Ibid. xix. 86.
  • 376. i.e. ho. in Anchor St.: ibid. xv. 167.
  • 377. Ibid. xli. 2-3.
  • 378. Ibid. lxxiv. 85-6; lxxviii. 10-13. 20th-cent. mags. less useful than earlier edns.
  • 379. Lond. City Mission Mag. cv. 3.
  • 380. Ibid. xiii. 57; xiv. 89; Booth, Life and Lab. iii(2), 108.
  • 381. Below, educ. (pub. schs., Anchor ragged).
  • 382. Lond. City Mission Mag. xxvii. 63-4.
  • 383. Ibid. xxvii. 59-60; P.R.O., ED 7/80; below, educ. (pub. schs., Cudworth ragged).
  • 384. P.R.O., ED 3/11, no. 211; Lond. City Mission Mag. xli. 9.
  • 385. Lond. City Mission Mag. xxx. 208, 213.
  • 386. Ibid. xlvi. 207; P.R.O., ED 3/11, no. 182; above, Congs.
  • 387. Boro. of Hackney Dir. (1872).
  • 388. Lond. City Mission Mag. xxxviii. 174; xl. 159.
  • 389. P.O. Dir. Lond. (1880-93).
  • 390. G.R.O. Worship Reg. no. 26636.
  • 391. Ibid. no. 52386; G.L.R.O., MBW 1739 no. 27; P.O. Dir. Lond. (1890-1955); Samuel, E. End Underworld, 296 n; Lond. City Mission Mag. lxxiv. 85-6.
  • 392. G.R.O. Worship Reg. no. 33335; Booth, Life and Lab. iii(2), 109; G.L.R.O., CL/LOC/2/10. Not listed 1903 although reg. not cancelled until 1906.
  • 393. Lond. City Mission Mag. lxiii. 71; Old O.S. Map Lond. 51 (1893).
  • 394. Lond. City Mission Mag. lxxviii. 13; P.O. Dir. Lond. (1904-19). For hall before 1903, see Bapts. (Hephzibah chapel).
  • 395. Based on H. J. Cooke, Mildmay, Story of First Deaconess Institution (1892), 94-110; V.C.H. Mdx. viii. 115-16.
  • 396. K. J. Heasman, 'Influence of Evangelicals upon Voluntary Charitable Institutions in second half of 19th cent.' (Lond. Univ. Ph. D. thesis, 1959), 680.
  • 397. Samuel, E. End Underworld, 287 n; G.L.R.O., MR/UP 953.
  • 398. G.L.R.O., MBW 1730 no. 27; O.S. Map 1/2,500, Lond. XXVII (1873 edn).
  • 399. Cooke, Mildmay, 175-8.
  • 400. Ibid. 158-62; L.C.C. Opening of Boundary St. Area (1900), map of area before rebldg.
  • 401. Para. based on A Clean Thing out of an Unclean. Short Hist. Bethnal Green Medical Mission 1866-1966 (pamphlet).
  • 402. P.O. Dir. Lond. (1887); Builder, 20 Aug. 1887, 287; 17 Dec. 1887, 838.
  • 403. Booth, Life and Lab. iii(2), 73.
  • 404. P.O. Dir. Lond. (1916-17).
  • 405. G.R.O. Worship Reg. nos. 52368, 65172.
  • 406. P.R.O., RG 31/3/2291; above, Bapts.
  • 407. Ibid. HO 129/21/2/1/11.
  • 408. G.R.O. Worship Reg. no. 8739.
  • 409. Illus. Lond. News, 16 Apr. 1859, 385; below, educ. (pub. schs., Trinity).
  • 410. Morgan, Abbey. St. Sun. Schs. 22.
  • 411. Above.
  • 412. O.S. Map 1/2,500, Lond. XXVIII (1873 edn.); P.O. Dir. Lond. (1875-6).
  • 413. P.O. Dir. Lond. (1880 et seq.); Harris and Bryant, Churches and Lond. 382.
  • 414. P.O. Dir. Lond. (1932, 1939, 1945); O.S. Map 1/500, Lond. VII. 38 (1938); O.S. Map 1/2,500, 51/3583 (1950 edn.).
  • 415. Based on Good Shepherd Mission (1988) (T.H.L.H.L. Cuttings file 226.13).
  • 416. G.R.O. Worship Reg. no. 6453.
  • 417. P.R.O., ED 3/11, no. 183; ED 4/30.
  • 418. Ragged Sch. and Mission Union, In His Name (1894), 95.
  • 419. King Edw. Institution, 100th Ann. Rep. (1944-5) (T.H.L.H.L. pamphlet 226.13).
  • 420. G.R.O. Worship Reg. no. 58975.
  • 421. Inf. from administrator, Good Shepherd Mission.
  • 422. Above.
  • 423. Inf. from pastor, Bibleway ch.
  • 424. Below, educ.
  • 425. Lond. City Mission Mag. xlvi. 206, 208. (pub. schs., Abbey Str.).
  • 426. P.R.O., ED 21/345.
  • 427. Abbey St. Sun. and Ragged Schs. Mission and Institute, 52nd Ann. Rep. (1892) (T.H.L.H.L. pamphlet 226.1).
  • 428. Above.
  • 429. Above; King Edw. Institution. 100th Ann. Rep. (1944- 5) (T.H.L.H.L. pamphlet 226.13); P.O. Dir. Lond. (1878 and later edns.).
  • 430. P.R.O., HO 129/21/3/1/10.
  • 431. Ibid. C 54/17662, mm. 1-6; G.L.R.O., A/FWA/C/B2/1; above, building 1837-75.
  • 432. G.L.R.O., MBW 1684, no. 26.
  • 433. P.O. Dir. Lond. (1899).
  • 434. Ibid. (1908-12).
  • 435. G.R.O. Worship Reg. no. 957; K. Heasman, Evangelicals in Action (1962), 32.
  • 436. Ragged Sch. Union Mag. (1869), 96, 150-2; P.R.O., ED 3/11, no. 262; The Times, 22 Dec. 1871, 10c.
  • 437. G.R.O. Worship Reg. no. 19340.
  • 438. Ibid. no. 23033.
  • 439. G.L.R.O., A/FWA/C/B2/1.
  • 440. Ibid.; Old O.S. Map Lond. 51 (1872).
  • 441. Boro. of Hackney Dir. (1872).
  • 442. G.R.O. Worship Reg. no. 22627-8.
  • 443. Ibid. no. 30536.
  • 444. Builder, 26 Dec. 1885, 920.
  • 445. G.R.O, Worship Reg. no. 32653; above, Unitarians.
  • 446. G.R.O. Worship Reg. nos. 37329, 41358.
  • 447. Ibid. no. 33083; Booth, Life and Lab. iii(1), 71.
  • 448. Samuel, E. End Underworld, 290 n; P.O. Dir. Lond. (1903).
  • 449. G.R.O. Worship Reg. no. 52011.
  • 450. Ibid. nos. 59107, 59168.