A History of the County of Northampton: Volume 4. Originally published by Victoria County History, London, 1937.
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The ecclesiastical parish of Raunds, which contains about 4,460 acres, touches Huntingdonshire on its eastern and north-eastern sides. The soil is for the most part heavy and grows wheat, barley, roots, and seeds, but a great number of the inhabitants are employed in the boot-making industry, the population in 1931 being 3,683. There is a station on the Kettering and Cambridge branch of the L.M.S. railway about 1½ miles north-east of the large modern village of Raunds.
The village, which is famous for its church tower, one of the finest in Northamptonshire, is the headquarters of the district Society of Bellringers. The curfew is still rung on week-days from Michaelmas to Lady Day at 8 p.m., and as late as 1886 the Gleaning Bell was still rung, as a signal that gleaning might begin, if the gleaners agreed to pay for it. (fn. 1) An urban district council of twelve members was formed under the Local Government Order of 1897. In 1935 the parish of Stanwick (q.v.) was added to the urban district of Raunds and the number of councillors increased to fifteen.
A large 13th-century stone barn, which formerly stood near the church on the south side, was pulled down about 1850. It had a high-pitched roof and end gables with finials, and was seven bays in length, with buttresses of two stages and tall loop windows in the upper part of the walls. (fn. 2)
Thomas Walkington, the author of The Optick Glasse of Humours, which has been described as a forerunner of Burton's Anatomy of Melancholy, was presented to the vicarage in 1608. He died in 1621, some years before the birth of a writer on kindred subjects, William Drage, who was the son of a yeoman at Raunds, a great believer in astrology and a disciple of Dr. Primrose, the opponent of Harvey; his medical works obtained, in his own age, more than local fame. John Grimbald, the builder of Trinity College library at Cambridge and part of Clare College, was also born here. (fn. 3)
At the time of the Domesday Survey the king held 10½ hides in Higham Hundred; (fn. 4) and it appears from an inquest held in 1318 that this included one virgate in Raunds, 'containing forty acres and making half a hide'; this was of the ancient demesne of the Crown and 'never belonged to the fee of Peverel'. (fn. 5) It was then held of the king by the Earl of Lancaster of whom it was held by various tenants in villeinage; and it seems to have followed the descent of Lancaster's other land in the parish, ultimately becoming included in the duchy. A return of 1316 shows that half RAUNDS was held by the Earl of Lancaster and the remainder by the king since the death of the Earl of Gloucester; (fn. 6) and it will be seen that various manors were held of the duchy and of the honor of Gloucester.
On 28 November 1618 the customary tenants agreed with King James I for £1,640, to be paid in two moieties, to hold and enjoy their estates with liberty of inclosing and exchanging; their fines being fixed at one year's ancient rent. The reeve, who was chosen yearly to collect the rents, had 'certain doles of meadow and some leyes worth per annum £4', allowed to him by custom, and the inhabitants also collected and paid to him £1 5s. 9½d. (fn. 7) The Crown is still lord of the manor.
William Peverel held 7½ hides and ½ virgate of socland in Raunds in 1086 which followed the descent of Higham Ferrers (q.v.). (fn. 8) Of this land half a fee was held of Earl Ferrers in 1242 by Gilbert de Segrave and an eighth of a fee by Henry de Raunds, (fn. 9) who held a quarter of a fee here of the honor of Gloucester. (fn. 10) The whole of the Raunds's property passed in the 15th century to the Gage family, from whom it became known as GAGE'S MANOR. The earliest known member of the Raunds family is Herlewin, who accounted for 3 marks fine for the forest in 1176, (fn. 11) and occurs as late as 1205. (fn. 12) Henry de Raunds, already mentioned, seems to have been succeeded by Geoffrey, who acquired further land in the parish in 1248 from Simon de Nevill and Sara his wife. (fn. 13) Richard de Raunds held the fourth part of a fee in Raunds of the Earl of Lancaster in 1284, (fn. 14) but was succeeded before 1296 by Saer, (fn. 15) probably his son, who married before 1310 Joan widow of Richard Chamberlain of Cotes. (fn. 16) His heir was another Richard de Raunds, who held the property in 1346, (fn. 17) and was succeeded by Thomas de Raunds, whose daughter and heir Margaret married John Tawyer. (fn. 18) Their son John Tawyer died in 1475, leaving as his heir his daughter Margaret, the wife of John Gage, (fn. 19) whose son Henry Gage married Margaret, daughter and heir of Richard Boyville, and was succeeded by his son George. He died 2 June 1558, leaving a widow Cecily and several children; his heir was his son Henry, then aged 18½ years. (fn. 20) Cecily's sister, Margaret Wolstan, had married during the reign of Edward VI Thomas Burbanck, who on account of his marriage was deprived of his prebend in the time of Queen Mary. About the beginning of Elizabeth's reign he began 'a chargeable and tedious sewte continewing in lawe above seaven yeares' concerning it. During the last part of this period Robert Gage, Cecily's third son, acted for the Burbancks, for whom Henry in the meantime had provided out of his inheritance; and, when the case was at last decided in Burbanck's favour, he bought Gage's Manor from Henry for £440, and settled one moiety on himself and his wife Margaret and the other moiety on Cecily, with reversion of both to Robert. (fn. 21) Henry quitclaimed his interest to his brother in 1568, on condition that Robert should pay £60 towards the marriage portion of their sister Elizabeth. (fn. 22) Cecily died in 1577, and the Burbancks then leased to Robert their portion of the manor, together with property in Geddington and in Brixworth, from which £8 14s. 8d. was to be paid yearly towards the maintenance of a free grammar school in Great Blencow, Cumberland. (fn. 23) Thomas Burbanck died about 1581, and after the death of his widow, in 1590, William Fosbrook sued Robert Gage for the rent, Margaret having apparently made a will in his favour, which Gage declared to have been obtained by undue influence. Gage seems to have been successful, and the manor was held in 1608 either by him or his son and namesake. (fn. 24) It passed before 1622 to John the son of Henry Gage, who with' his wife Jane dealt with it in that year. (fn. 25) On 17 July 1624 John Gage obtained a grant of the office of Receiver of the honor of Higham Ferrers. (fn. 26) He died before 1651, and his son John (fn. 27) sold the manor in 1661 to Sir John Langham, bart. (fn. 28) It has passed in the Langham family to Sir H. C. A. Langham, bart., the present owner.
In 1242 Gilbert de Segrave was holding half a fee in RAUNDS of the Earl of Ferrers, (fn. 29) but his connexion with it appears to have been temporary, (fn. 30) and it is probably the same half fee that was held of the Earl of Lancaster by Ella de Audley, the daughter of William Longespee and widow of James de Audley. (fn. 31) It descended to her son Hugh, whose son Sir James de Audley was the tenant in 1296. (fn. 32) Sir James married Eve, daughter and heir of Sir John Clavering and widow of his cousin Thomas Audley, by whom he had two sons: Sir Peter, who died childless in 1359, and Sir James, the hero of Poitiers, who died in 1369. His heir was his first cousin, Margaret, wife of Ralph Stafford and daughter and heir of Hugh de Audley (grandson of Ella) and Margaret de Clare. (fn. 33) The tenancy of the half fee having thus passed to the holders of the honor of Gloucester, the property came to be sometimes regarded as part of the honor. In 1428 it was held, as a quarter of a fee, by Thomas Bedell and Thomas Saier in equal portions, probably under a lease or demise for term of years, of Humphrey Stafford, (fn. 34) afterwards Duke of Buckingham. The manor, or more probably a portion of it, 'late belonging to the Earl of Wiltshire' was conveyed in 1593 by William Roper and William Perry to Robert Catlyn, (fn. 35) and was probably amalgamated with his other manor of Furnells (q.v.). Like other manors held of the honor of Gloucester in Raunds it was described at this time as Furnells, and about 1635 a list of freeholders in Raunds includes the Earl of Peterborough 'for parcel of the manor of Furnells, formerly of the Earl of Wiltshire'. (fn. 36) This may include the estate as well as other property of the Mordaunt family, originating in the 'manor of Raundes' acquired by Henry Grene from John, Duke of Lancaster before 1363. (fn. 37) This manor afterwards followed the descent of Lowick (q.v.) until 1686, (fn. 38) after which date its identity is lost.
Geoffrey, Bishop of Coutances, held 6 hides and 1½ virgates in Raunds in 1086. There were 20 acres of meadow, and a mill belonged to this manor, which had previously been held by Burred and seems to have included both Ringstead and Cotes or Cotton. Three socmen held land of the bishop: Robert, 1 hide; Geoffrey, 1 hide; and Algar, 1½ virgates. Another hide, together with half a virgate, was claimed by William. (fn. 39) After the bishop's fief had escheated to the Crown, most of the lands held of him in Cotes and Raunds ultimately became part of the honor of Gloucester. Early in the reign of Henry I Gilbert fitz Richard held 4 small virgates of the fee of Denford, and Robert the king's son had 2½ hides of the fee of Gloucester, in Raunds. (fn. 40)
Alice widow of Gilbert fitz Richard, with the consent of his children, Gilbert, Walter, Baldwin, and Rohaise, confirmed to the abbey of Thorney (co. Cambridge) 4 virgates in Raunds, held by Turgis, which Tovi had formerly granted them, with the consent of Agnes widow of Tovi, and all his heirs, (fn. 41) and she also confirmed to them the land and rent of 4s. granted them by Ralf the son of Niel, and Amice his wife. In 1253 Richard Earl of Gloucester confirmed the charter of his mother Alice granting them 1 hide and 12s. rent, which she had in Raunds of the gift of her son Hervey. (fn. 42)
Part of the land held by Richard de Raunds at the beginning of the reign of Edward I was held 'of the fee of the Abbot of Thorney', (fn. 43) which passed to the Crown at the Dissolution, and may perhaps be identified with the manor of BURYSTEAD in Raunds. This was held on a lease for the lives of William, Henry, and Edward Ekins in the 17th century; by 1649 only one life was in being, that of Edward Ekins, who was then 60, and the messuage had been sold in fee farm, after the determination of the lease, to John Dolben, afterwards Archbishop of York, (fn. 44) who came into possession after the Restoration, and the property was held by his descendants until 1802, when Sir William Dolben was lord of the manor. (fn. 45)
FURNELLS MANOR. In 1203 Hervey the son of Geoffrey sued Roger de Furneus for a knight's fee in Raunds and Ringstead as his right and inheritance, of which his grandfather, Hugh de St. Lo, had died seised in the time of Henry I. (fn. 46) As Hugh's surname shows that he came from the Norman home of the Mowbrays, it seems possible that he was the heir of that Geoffrey who held 1 hide of the Bishop of Coutances in 1086. (fn. 47) A Geoffrey de Furneus was living in 1130, (fn. 48) and another Geoffrey, the son of Alan de Furneus, succeeded his father in 1189. (fn. 49)
Thomas de Furneus held this fee in Raunds in 1242; (fn. 50) he married Eleanor, daughter and co-heir of William le Lord of Emberton (co. Buckingham), (fn. 51) and died before 1284, being succeeded by Roger de Furneus, presumably his son. (fn. 52) Roger granted 15 acres in the fields of Raunds to John the son of his sister Alice in exchange for a messuage in Raunds called Swyncroft and other lands there. (fn. 53) The heir of Roger de Furneus was another Thomas, who married Alice, sister and co-heir of Miles de Hastings; she was over 30 at the time of her brother's death in 1311, and had a son named William. (fn. 54) The manor in Raunds, however, seems to have passed into the possession of Eleanor de Trailly; (fn. 55) possibly she was a sister of Roger de Furneus and had obtained it as her marriage portion. 'The fee of Walter de Trailly', her husband, in Raunds, is mentioned during the lifetime of Roger de Furneus, (fn. 56) but on Walter's death in 1289 he had no fees in the county. (fn. 57) Eleanor held it in 1314, (fn. 58) and her descendants continued to hold it until 1398. (fn. 59) Reynold de Trailly died in 1402 without heirs (fn. 60) and the manor may have been acquired by Thomas Chamberleyn, who held twenty pounds' worth of land in Raunds in 1412. (fn. 61)
The Catlyn family, who held a manor called Furnells in Raunds in the 16th century, claimed descent from a daughter of Chamberleyn; she may perhaps be identified with Sara the wife of John Catlyn, whose great-greatgrandson Robert (fn. 62) died in 1588 seised of this manor, which he is said to have bought of John Parmenter; his heir was his son William, then aged 30. (fn. 63) In 1631 William Catlyn, with Helen his wife and their son Robert, conveyed the manor to Sir Robert Ducie and Anthony Biddulph, who sold it to Judith Edwards. (fn. 64) She settled it on her daughter Judith on her marriage to Roland Litton, who is mentioned about this time as a freeholder of Raunds, holding in right of his wife a parcel of the manor of Furnells and other lands late Catlyn's and previously Avenelles's. (fn. 65) In 1639 the Littons conveyed it to Dr. Thomas Winston, whose estates were afterwards vested in trustees by Act of Parliament and sold to Matthew Johnson. (fn. 66) The manor was acquired in 1675 by Sir William Langham, bart., (fn. 67) whose descendant, Sir Herbert Charles Arthur Langham, bart., is the present owner.
A manor called Furnells was held on lease from the Crown in 1649 for a rent of 18s. by John Ekins of Stanwick. (fn. 68) It continued in the possession of the Ekins family at least as late as 1721, when Thomas Ekins and Elizabeth his wife dealt with it by fine. (fn. 69) This seems to have been the site of the manor, without any manorial rights, and may be identified with the farm held by George Ekins in 1875.
Robert, who held one hide in Raunds of the Bishop of Coutances in 1086, (fn. 70) also held lands in Barton Segrave and Cranford, where his successor, in the time of Henry I, was Geoffrey de Clinton the chamberlain. (fn. 71) This freehold appears to have been held together with those lands as two fees until 1398. (fn. 72) In 1402 (fn. 73) these fees were held by Richard Cloun (at Barton (fn. 74) ), the heirs of John Fosbrooke (at Cranford (fn. 75) ), and the heirs of Sir John Trailly, this last portion being probably amalgamated with the Trailly manor.
COTES BIDUN. William, who claimed one hide and half a virgate from Geoffrey, Bishop of Coutances, in 1086, (fn. 76) was probably William, the bishop's sewer, whose representative John, son of Halenath de Bidun, held 1½ hides and 1½ virgates in COTES in the reign of Henry I. (fn. 77) John de Bidun was the founder of the abbey of Lavendon (co. Buckingham), and married Alice sister of William Mauduit, the chamberlain, of Hanslope. He died in 1180 or 1181, leaving a son and heir John, who died in 1184. The overlordship of the fee was granted by King John to William Briwerre, (fn. 78) by whose grand-daughter and co-heir it was carried to the Wakes of Liddell, passing from them by marriage to the Earls of Kent.
The younger John de Bidun had been married to Maud daughter of Thomas fitz Bernard; she was only 10 years old in 1185, and afterwards married John de Rochford. (fn. 79) She died in 1254 and the property was divided among the representatives of the five sisters of John de Bidun. (fn. 80) Amice, the eldest sister, had married Henry de Clinton, and left three daughters: Amabel, who had married Luke de Colum and died childless; Isabel, who had married Ralf fitz John of Merston and died before 1254, leaving a son Henry; and Agnes the wife of Warin de Brageham, who was still living in 1254. Amabel the second sister of John de Bidun married Miles de Beauchamp and died before 1254, leaving a son Miles. The third sister, Sara, married Richard de Beauchamp and had three daughters: Isabel, who was still living in 1254; Maud, who had died, leaving as her heir a daughter Sara, wife of Robert de Walton; and Philippa, whose heir was her son John de Croxton. Maud, the fourth sister, married Geoffrey the son of Geoffrey; her representative in 1254 was her grandson, Thomas the son of Robert. Ermingard, the youngest sister, who was still unmarried in 1185, married before 1201 Aldulf de Gatesden, of Gaddesden (Herts.), and was holding half a fee in Newton and Cotes in 1242. (fn. 81) She left two sons, John and Richard; the elder, John, had died before 1254, leaving a son John. (fn. 82)
John de Gatesden the younger married Hawise de Nevill, and died on St. Katharine's Day 1258, leaving as his heir his daughter Margaret. (fn. 83) She married Sir Ralph de Camoys and, secondly, Sir William Paynel; (fn. 84) but the John de Gatesden who seems to have acquired the whole of the Bidun manor in Cotes before 1284 (fn. 85) was presumably her cousin. In 1284 he is said to have held it of the Earl of Lancaster, and Newton Bromswold (in co-parcenary with Richard de Croxton) of the heirs of Baldwin Wake; but on his death in 1296 the jury found that the manor of Cotes was also held of John Wake. (fn. 86) The heir of John de Gatesden was his daughter Joan the wife of Richard Chamberleyn, who had livery of her land in January 1292. (fn. 87) In 1314 Richard and Joan settled Stan bridge (Beds.), one of the manors of Joan's inheritance, on their son John, upon his marriage to Joan the sister of John Morteyn of Tilsworth. (fn. 88) On Joan's death John Chamberleyn married a second wife Aubrey, and in 1324 made a settlement on his son Richard and Margaret Richard's wife. (fn. 89) Richard Chamberleyn was knighted before 1346; when, being a widower, he married Katharine de la Dale. (fn. 90) She died childless, and he married a third wife, Joan, by whom he had a son Richard, who died in 1396, seised of a third part of the manor called Chamberleyn's Place in Cotes. He left a widow, Margaret, who afterwards married Philip St. Clair, and died in 1408. Her son Richard Chamberleyn was her next heir, and the next heir also of his grandmother Joan, who died in 1410. (fn. 91) This Richard Chamberleyn was twice married; by his first wife, Elizabeth, he had a son Richard, who died childless in 1439, and by the second, Margaret, another son, William, who was heir to his half-brother. (fn. 92) The elder Richard, however, seems to have mortgaged the manor of Cotes to John Green, who granted it on 31 December 1432 to John Gryffon and William Aldwinkle. (fn. 93) William Lenton, kinsman and heir of William Aldwinkle, in 1471 released to Richard son of William Chamberleyn all his right in Cotes and Raunds. (fn. 94) Richard Chamberleyn married Sibyl daughter of Sir Richard Fowler, Chancellor of the Exchequer to King Edward IV, (fn. 95) and died in 1496 seised of the manor of Cotes called CHAMBERLEYN COTYS or MILNE COTYS, worth £6 and held of the Earl of Kent as the twentieth part of a knight's fee. He left four sons, Edward, William, Thomas, and John, and one daughter Anne. (fn. 95) Edward, his heir, sold the manor in 1530 to Robert Dormer, (fn. 96) from whom it was bought by Sir William Fitzwilliam of Milton. Sir William died on 9 August 1535, having bequeathed his property in Cotes, Ringstead, and Raunds to his second son Richard, (fn. 97) whose son John sold it in 1559 to John Pickering. (fn. 98) It subsequently followed the descent of the manor of Tichmarsh (q.v.) until 1629, when Sir John Pickering died seised, leaving as his heir his son Gilbert; (fn. 99) but its subsequent descent is obscure.
Another manor of COTES was held in 1620 by Sir Francis Harvey, together with the rectory of Raunds; he settled the property on his son Stephen on his marriage in that year with Mary daughter and heir apparent of Richard Murden. Sir Francis died at Northampton 2 August 1632, his heir being his grandson Francis the son of Stephen and Mary, (fn. 100) who died 30 September 1643, leaving as his heir his brother Richard, aged 19 on 8 January 1645. (fn. 101) Richard Harvey dealt with the manor of Cotes and rectory of Raunds by fine in 1647, (fn. 102) but its subsequent descent has not been traced.
In the early part of the reign of Henry I Frumbold of Denford held of the fee of Denford in Cotes and Knuston. (fn. 103) This holding seems to have passed to the Normanvill family who also held the eighth part of a fee in Raunds of the honor of Peverel. In 1226 Nicholas de Normanvill and Margery his wife granted one acre and half a rood of land in Raunds to Jolan de Chelveston, to hold of them and the heirs of Margery. (fn. 104) Nicholas was dead in 1231, when Margery his widow brought an action against Peter son of Peter de Irchester concerning land there. (fn. 105) Geoffrey de Normanvill is mentioned later as having been formerly in possession of the freehold in Raunds; (fn. 106) but Ralf the grandson of Nicholas and Margery had succeeded to it by 1284. (fn. 107) He was knighted before 20 November 1285, when he claimed Roger of Knuston and William his brother as his villeins and fugitives; but subsequently he confirmed a charter concerning them made by his grandparents to the Master and Brethren of St. Bartholomew's, Smithfield. (fn. 108) He, or his heir and namesake, held the fortieth part of a fee in WYLWEN-COTES of the honor of Gloucester at the death of Gilbert de Clare in 1314; (fn. 109) and the eighth part of a fee in Raunds, said to have been formerly in the possession of Geoffrey de Normanvill, was afterwards held by Sara the widow of Ralf's son Ralf; (fn. 110) but its descent after her death becomes obscure.
In 1395 two freeholds in Wilwencotes, representing 1/16 and 1/10 of a fee respectively, were said to be in the hands of Richard Chamberleyn, (fn. 111) but three years later it was stated that the fortieth part of a fee was held by John Wolf. (fn. 112) In 1413, however, Richard Chamberleyn died seised of two freeholds in Cotes held of the Earl of Stafford, as well as of 1/8 of a fee with a watermill (fn. 113) held of the same earl in Wilwencotes and the manor of Chamberleyn Cotes held of the Earl of Kent. (fn. 114) From this it would appear that both the Normanville holdings had passed to Richard Chamberleyn and were regarded as forming part of his other property in Cotes.
In the 12th century Richard fitz Gilbert (de Clare) held 1½ hides and a small virgate in Cotes of the fee of Denford. (fn. 115) This seems to be the origin of the manor of MIDDLE COTES, which was held of the honor of Clare down to 1428. (fn. 116) Its early history is obscure (fn. 117) and it first appears by that name in 1274. The Hundred Rolls (fn. 118) of that year contain references to the men of Henry de Abbotesle in Little Cotes; the fee of Geoffrey Berdefeld in Cotes; and the men of Henry le Scot (Scoticus) in Cotes—none of which names occurs here in other records. They also mention the men of Oliver Bydun and Simon de Cotes (fn. 119) in Middle Cotes. In 1314 a half fee in Middelcotes was held jointly by Maud daughter of Nicholas de Segrave and Richard 'Bydom' of the Earl of Gloucester. (fn. 120) This is referred to in 1373 as 'formerly of Maud daughter of Nicholas de Segrave', (fn. 121) and was held in 1386 and 1403, as a half fee, by Richard Chamberleyn with Wylwencotes. (fn. 122) In 1398, however, Sir Henry Green was holding it of Sir Thomas Green, (fn. 123) who presumably held of Chamberleyn, and in 1428 Sir Simon Felbrigge, who had married Ralf Green's widow, held half a fee in Middle Cotes, formerly of Green and Bidun. (fn. 124) After this date this fee was probably absorbed into the other property of the Greens and passed to the Earl of Peterborough.
The church of ST. MARY stands on high ground at the north end of the town and consists of chancel, 50 ft. by 21 ft. 6 in.; south chapel, 36 ft. by 20 ft.; clerestoried nave, 81 ft. 3 in. by 20 ft. 9 in.; north and south aisles; twostoried south porch; and west tower 17 ft. 3 in. square, with tall broach spire. The north aisle is 17 ft. 2 in. wide and the south aisle 19 ft. 2 in.; the width across nave and aisles being 63 ft. All these measurements are internal. There was formerly a two-storied sacristy on the north side of the chancel near the east end.
The walling is of rubble masonry throughout with ashlar parapets and low-pitched leaded roofs. The parapets of the nave and chancel are surmounted by a low embattled moulding and are continued along the gables; those of the aisles are plain, and the porch is battlemented. The roofs of the south aisle and chapel are continuous.
The existing fabric is in the main of 13th-century date, but has developed (fn. 125) from an aisleless 12th-century building, apparently cruciform in plan, the nave of which probably ended in a line with the first pier (from the west) of the south arcade. The chancel arch occupied the same position as now, with a short chancel to the east, and transepts adjoining it on the west side. Of this 12th-century structure nothing remains except some portion of the south wall above the present arcade, in which, over the second arch from the west, are four voussoirs belonging to a round-headed window; the rest of the wall is covered with plaster, but is probably of the same period, and the square masonry plinths of the piers of both arcades appear to be portions of the 12th-century walls through which the later arches were cut. Evidence of a north transept is wanting, the whole of the arcade on that side having been reconstructed, but on the south side the fourth pier from the west, which consists of a straight piece of wall with a halfcolumn or respond supporting the arch on either side, indicates the position of the west wall of the transept, the east wall of which was in line with the chancel arch. About 1230 the tower and spire were built clear of the west end of the 12th-century fabric, with responds for the arcades of a new nave to be erected subsequently, but before this was proceeded with the chancel was rebuilt on an extended plan, with a chapel on the south side. This work was begun about 1240, the south wall of the chapel (St. Peter's) being probably set out first in line with the end wall of the transept, and with a view to continuing it westward. The south arcade of the chancel appears to have been begun from the east end with a similar intention, and the remains of early buttresses below the plinth of the existing south wall (both of the chapel and at the east end of the nave aisle) suggest the beginning of a wall, the buttresses and window spacing of which were abandoned for a new plan. It seems fairly clear that the arcade was not taken beyond the chancel arch, but for the time being was finished with a half-arch against its south abutment, west of which the old arch to the south transept was retained, though the transept itself by this time had been merged into the incompleted aisle. All this work, which included the chancel on its present plan with the existing great east window and buttresses, was completed about 1260, and it was only about 1300 that the south arcade of the nave was proceeded with. The presence of 13th-century work in the porch, however, makes it possible that the south aisle had been completed westward before this time. The building of the south arcade was begun at the west end with a wide arch from the tower respond to the first pier, covering the space between the tower and the old west wall of the nave, which was now taken down. Between this and the portion of wall which marked the opening to the transept, the space was treated as three equal bays, a short piece of the wall being retained with a respond on its west side: the old transept arch, however, was taken down and a new chancel arch was made, and a fifth pier, octagonal in section like those farther west, was inserted, with a half-arch corresponding to that on the opposite side of the abutment, which was now rebuilt. All this work, including the existing south aisle walls, appears to have been completed in the early part of the 14th century, the south chapel walls being remodelled rather later. (fn. 126)
The erection of the north aisle in the 14th century was a simpler matter. The north transept being taken down the new aisle was set out without regard to its position, the arcade being planned in five more or less equal bays from a new respond—probably corresponding to the east respond of the old transept arch—to the 13thcentury respond next the tower, while the aisle wall was set out in seven bays, incorporating a 13th-century doorway removed from the old north wall. This work probably followed that on the south side at no very great interval, and the outer walls may even have been in progress together, but the south arcade, with its hesitating and irregular construction, is the beginning of the work which the north arcade probably concluded.
About 1400 the nave was new roofed and a clerestory added, followed shortly by the heightening of the chancel walls with clerestory windows on the south side. The 15th century also saw the rebuilding of the porch in its present form, with upper room, the introduction of a vault in the lower stage of the tower, and the insertion of new windows in the side walls of the chancel, and in the south chapel and aisle.
In comparatively modern times (fn. 127) the original lowpitched roofs of the aisles were altered to lean-to roofs by raising the outer covering of the portion next the nave, but without disturbing the interior framing, and in 1826 the top of the spire was rebuilt following injury in a storm. (fn. 128) In 1860 the chapel of St. Peter was thrown open to the church, having previously served as the village school. In 1874 the nave was restored by Sir Gilbert Scott, a west gallery being removed and the tower arch exposed: the restoration of the chancel followed in 1878. (fn. 129)
Though much altered in the 15th century, the chancel is in the main of the period 1240–60. The great east window is somewhat advanced in design. It is of six trefoiled lights with simple geometrical tracery, shafted jambs and master mullion dividing the lights into two groups, each group with a sub-head filled with three quatrefoiled circles, and a large octofoiled circle above forming a centre-piece: the window was reconstructed in 1900, and its soffit cusping restored. (fn. 130) The buttresses facing east are gabled, but the others slope back at two levels. On the south side the chancel projects about 14 ft. beyond the chapel and is lighted by a tall four-centred 15th-century window of three lights with two embattled transoms and vertical tracery. The north wall is divided externally into three bays by buttresses, the two western bays being occupied by 15thcentury windows of three cinquefoiled lights and double transoms, resembling those on the south side but differing in detail. The eastern bay was formerly covered by a two-story 15th-century sacristry, the four-centred doorway of which is now blocked by a buttress: the upper room had a window opening into the church. A keel-shaped string runs round the chancel inside at silllevel, and in the usual position in the south wall, below the window, is a plain moulded piscina, the bowl of which is mutilated. Two feet farther west is a second piscina with trefoiled head and fluted bowl, and immediately west of this again a single trefoil-headed sedile with crocketed canopy. In the north wall, between the windows, is a large rectangular aumbry with modern door, breaking the string, and below the westernmost window a small rectangular low-side opening, probably 14th century, now blocked. (fn. 131) There is another aumbry in the east wall south of the altar, now covered by panelling.
The arches of the chancel arcade are of two chamfered orders springing from circular piers with moulded capitals and bases, and at the east end from a moulded corbel. (fn. 132) The 14th-century chancel arch, which as already stated divides the western bay into two half arches, is of two moulded orders on moulded responds with capitals and high bases, and the south abutment forms a large buttress of two stages: towards the nave each hollow moulding of the arch is enriched with ballflower ornament, and there is a hood-mould on each side. There is evidence of the later insertion of a tympanum with rood-group above. (fn. 133) The heightened south wall of the chancel is pierced by four square-headed clerestory windows of two cinquefoiled lights, but on the north the wall is solid. The roof and parapets are modern.
The lower part of a 14th-century oak rood-screen remains below the chancel arch, with solid tracery panels and moulded rail: (fn. 134) the screen crossed the south aisle, and the lower steps of the stairway to the loft remain, uncased, in the sill of the window in the outer lateral wall.
The chapel of St. Peter still retains some of its 13thcentury walling and a good south doorway of that period of two chamfered orders, the outer on shafts with foliated capitals and moulded bases. The north jamb of an original window remains at the east end, and in the south wall, between the later windows, are the jambs of another window (fn. 135) now blocked and covered by a buttress. The inserted windows are of three lights, that at the east end with segmental head, double transoms, and vertical tracery, both tiers of lights being cinquefoiled: the two windows in the south wall east of the doorway are four-centred, (fn. 136) with simple tracery and without transoms, and farther west is a tall squareheaded two-light window without tracery or hoodmould. (fn. 137) In the east wall, south of the former altar, is an elaborate piscina with trefoiled head, crocketed label and finial, and bowl with twelve flutings. The east end of the chapel is now partitioned off as a vestry: the organ in the western part. The roof is modern.
The south arcade of the nave consists of five and a half bays with arches of two chamfered orders without hood-moulds on octagonal piers with moulded capitals and bases. Reference has already been made to the compound pier between the first and second full bays from the east, the core of which belongs to the 12thcentury fabric, and to the 13th-century west respond which, like that of the north arcade, is half-round in section. The capitals of the piers vary considerably in detail and in the three western arches the voussoirs are alternately of ironstone and freestone: elsewhere freestone alone is used.
The more regularly spaced north arcade has octagonal piers and arches similar in type to those opposite but with hood-moulds, and the piers are less in diameter (fn. 138) with capitals all of one pattern: the eastern respond follows the section of the piers.
The 13th-century south doorway is of two chamfered orders, the outer on shafts with moulded capitals and bases and the inner continued down the jambs below moulded imposts. The large three-light west window of the south aisle is a modern reconstruction, (fn. 139) but may reproduce one of 15th-century date: in the south wall are four two-centred three-light windows of this period with tracery of a different type. The porch (10 ft. 4 in. by 11 ft. 3 in.) has a 13th-century outer doorway of three chamfered orders on triple shafts with moulded capitals and bases: it was refaced and altered when the chamber was added in the 15th century, and has diagonal angle buttresses and four-centred sidewindows of two trefoiled lights, and a similar window over the doorway lighting the chamber. The 13thcentury porch was vaulted, but only the angle-shafts and the lines of the wall-ribs remain: the shafts have moulded capitals and bases, and behind those at the north end is a line of dog-tooth ornament. The 15thcentury oak ceiling has moulded beams, and access to the chamber is by a stairway in the thickness of the west wall, entered from the aisle by a four-centred doorway. The embattled parapet was renewed in 1900. On the south-west buttress is a scratch dial.
The 13th-century north doorway is of two chamfered orders, the outer on shafts with moulded capitals and bases, the capitals, like those to the south doorway, having plain bells: the label has headstops. Except for the doorway, the north aisle is of the 14th century, with a large inserted four-light window at the west having restored vertical tracery. The other windows are all of three cinquefoiled lights with excellent geometrical tracery, (fn. 140) and there is a moulded string at sill level breaking round the two-stage buttresses. At the east end of the aisle in the usual position (fn. 141) is a piscina recess with mutilated fluted bowl.
The nave and south aisle retain their late-14th- or early-15th-century low-pitched oak roofs, with moulded principals, curved struts, and wall-pieces resting on octagonal wooden shafts with moulded capitals and bases, supported by corbels; the traceried spandrels are considerably restored. The roof of the north aisle is of the same period but plainer, the wall-shafts being omitted.
The beautiful west tower is of four stages, with moulded plinth, coupled buttresses set well back from the angles, and shallow porch covering the west doorway, as at Higham Ferrers. On the north and south sides the short bottom stage is quite plain and the two middle stages are arcaded, but the west front is more elaborately treated. The bell-chamber windows are the same on all four sides and the tower terminates with a corbel table of notch-heads from which the spire rises. The vice is in the south-west angle.
The west porch has a richly moulded outer arch on triple nook-shafts with moulded capitals and bases, the outer order dying out into square jambs and the hoodmould terminating in notch-heads. On each side, between the porch and the corner buttresses, is a moulded wall arch of two orders, the outer being twocentred and the inner of trefoil form ornamented with dog-tooth, springing from foliated corbels. The inner doorway is of four moulded orders and label, the outer order carried on plain corbels and the others on triple shafts with moulded capitals and bases. The porch is shallower than that at Higham Ferrers and its narrow (fn. 142) pointed barrel vault is quite plain: there is a stone bench on each side.
Above the porch is an arcade of four arches, the two middle ones of two chamfered orders and the outer with trefoiled inner order, all on shafts with foliated capitals and moulded bases. The middle arches form a west window of two lancet lights, and below the outer ones are moulded and cusped quatrefoil openings lighting the landings at either end of a gallery or passage in the thickness of the wall. The end spandrels of the arcade are occupied by sculptured figures playing musical instruments, that to the south very much weathered, the other representing a lute-player. The middle spandrels have heads within small sunk quatrefoil panels. Internally the west window is of great beauty: it is in reality two windows, with inner and outer openings divided by the wall passage, (fn. 143) the inner plane of tracery (which originally was visible from the nave, below the tower arch) being treated with an elaboration of detail in marked contrast to the outer lancets. The arches are of two hollow-chamfered orders on shafts with foliated capitals and moulded bases, the inner order being of trefoil form and richly ornamented with foliage in the hollow. The hood-mould forms a kind of single trefoil arch thrown over the two lights, but also following the curve of each, the spandrel or space thus formed being filled with a moulded quatrefoiled circle. The lower part of the window, to a height of 5 ft. 10 in., is now blocked by the wall supporting the floor over the 15thcentury vault, and only the upper part can be seen from within the tower. (fn. 144)
In the third stage facing west is a beautiful two-light window of two chamfered orders on triple jamb-shafts with moulded capitals and bases, and a square head with trefoiled lintel. The window is set under a tall gable, or pediment, with a half-gable on either side, which form a series of diagonal moulded ribs across the face of the tower between the buttresses, the intervening wall spaces having sunk quatrefoil panels. The wall is reduced in thickness above the diagonal ribs, which thus perform the same function as a simple set-off in work of a plainer nature.
On the north and south sides the arcades of the second stage consist of four arches, and that of the third stage of five, all of two chamfered orders, on triple shafts with moulded bases, the capitals in the lower arcade being foliated and in the upper moulded. There are other variations in detail. On the north side the arches of the lower arcade are subdivided, with carved corbels supporting the inner arches and with a head in the spandrels thus formed. The spandrels of the arcades are variously treated: on the north the three middle ones have heads set in quatrefoil panels, our Lord in the centre, the two ends being occupied by figures playing pipe and tabor (east) and viol (west), the latter holding the bow in the left hand. On the south there is a figure playing a harp in the eastern spandrel, but the others have cusped trefoils only.
In the upper arcade there are no shafts at the angles and the middle arch is pierced with a square-headed two-light window with moulded mullion and trefoiled lintel. Except for a single trefoil side, on the south the spandrels are plain. The third stage arcade occurs also on the east face of the tower, where the lower part is now below the roof and seen from the nave above the tower arch.
The bell-chamber stage is the same on all four sides: it has an arcade of two wide and two narrow (end) arches of a single chamfered order and hood-mould, on shafts with moulded capitals and bases. Set within the two wider arches are coupled lancet windows of two chamfered orders with solid spandrels and shafts with moulded capitals and bases.
The tower arch is of three chamfered orders with hood-mould, on half-round responds with two attached shafts on each side, all with moulded capitals and bases. Above it is the table of the high-pitched 13th-century roof, and within it, filling the space above the springing, an inserted low segmental arch covering the 15th-century vault, the ribs of which meet in a circular eye-hole. Upon the surface of the lower arch are the remains of a painted clock dial, recording twenty-four hours, supported by kneeling angels, behind which are smaller figures of the donor and his wife, John and Sarah Catlin. (fn. 145) The floor of the tower is three steps below the level of the nave.
The spire has low broaches, plain angles, and two sets of gabled openings on the cardinal faces, with a single set on the alternate faces ranging with the upper tier: all the openings are of two lights with forked mullions. The total height of tower and spire is 180 ft.
The once ample furniture of screens has been cut up and shifted so recklessly that it is no longer possible to assign all the fragments to their proper places. (fn. 146) In Bridges's day the east end of both aisles was 'parted off by a screen', that in the south aisle having 'paintings in eight different squares with inscriptions underneath relating to the history of Joseph'. (fn. 147) These screens appear to have been in existence till early in the 19th century, and the cornice on which the story of Joseph (fn. 148) was painted survived till 1837, but was then apparently under the chancel arcade, where parts of the screens, much restored, have been set up below the two eastern arches. That under the easternmost arch is of 15th-century date and has six traceried openings and moulded cornice which still retains traces of colour. (fn. 149) The other is a century older, with four traceried openings divided by shafts, (fn. 150) and above it, in place of a cornice, a length of 13th-century oak trefoil 'arcading', which for years lay in the porch chamber. (fn. 151) A late-14th-century screen, removed from the westernmost arch when the present organ was erected, now stands between the south chapel and the south aisle of the nave, the whole of the lower part and the doorway being new. (fn. 152) Tracery and cresting from other 14th-century screen work is now made up into a reredos at the east end of the north aisle, and a portion of a screen dated 1701, formerly in the tower arch under the organ gallery, is preserved in the vestry.
The wooden pulpit (fn. 155) and seating are modern, but in the chancel are ten old bench-ends. The 17th-century communion table (fn. 156) is still in use and the altar rails are of the same period. The altar of the chapel at the east end of the north aisle has front and ends of carved 17thcentury panelling from elsewhere, a recent gift to the church. (fn. 157)
During the restoration of 1874 a fine series of wallpaintings was uncovered over the north arcade, in the north aisle, and over the chancel arch. Above the chancel arch are white blank spaces (fn. 158) where the upper part of the rood and the figures of Mary and John stood against a red ground. The lower part of the rood and figures extended downwards on to the area of the now demolished tympanum. The background is powdered with circles containing the sacred monogram and that of the Virgin, and on the south side is a group of albed angels, each holding an instrument of the Passion: the corresponding group on the north side is obliterated.
The other paintings bear no relation to the architectural divisions of the building, three subjects filling the space over the north arcade from the first (west) to the middle of the fifth bay. Over the two western arches is a strongly drawn representation of the Seven Deadly Sins, or Pride and her six daughters, in which a richlyclad female in crown and robes of state and sceptre in each hand, stands over the jaws of hell (between the springing of the arches). From her body issue six winged beasts, or demons, (fn. 159) three on either side, each vomiting a figure symbolizing one of the sins and each attended by a familiar spirit. On the left of the picture is a figure of Death thrusting a long tilting spear into the heart of Pride. Above the second pier is St. Christopher, (fn. 160) and east of this, from the middle of the third to the middle of the easternmost arch, is a representation of the Three Living and the Three Dead: (fn. 161) the colours are faded and some of the outlines lost, but the groups are drawn with vigour. Over the north doorway is a nearly obliterated St. George and the Dragon, and the legend of St. Katharine formerly covered the walls at the west end of the aisle. The latter, originally in monochrome outline only, was painted over in colours, probably as late as the 16th century: the pictures, though much defaced, have been identified. (fn. 162)
Under the easternmost arch of the chancel arcade is the table tomb of John Wales, vicar (d. 1496), the longer sides each with four trefoiled panels enclosing blank (fn. 163) shields suspended from roses, and the east end against the wall. The top is quite plain, and at the west end are two panels with shields differing in shape. Along the verge on the north and west sides is the inscription: hic jacet dns iohes wales (fn. 164) quondam vicarie eclesie: cvivs a[nima]e ppicietur deus 1496 ob die ia 2.3.
On the south side of the chancel is a floor-slab with the brass figures of John Tawyer (1470) and Margaret his wife, with the symbols of the evangelists in the corners, a group of four daughters, shield, (fn. 165) and inscription. (fn. 166) Near it is a slab with a precisely similar female figure, (fn. 167) arms as before, a group of four sons, and symbols of St. Matthew and St. Luke, but without inscription. (fn. 168) On the north side of the chancel is a floor-slab with the indent of a large floriated cross and inscription, both of which were missing in Bridges' day. (fn. 169)
In the south chapel is a blue floor-slab with inscription (fn. 170) to Robert Gage (d. Feb. 1616), and in the north aisle a mural monument with brass inscription to William Gage, of Magilligam, Ireland (d. 1632), with shield of six quarterings. (fn. 171) On the east wall of the chancel is a brass tablet in memory of William Holmes, vicar (d. 1653).
A brass chandelier in the nave was given in 1762 by William Brooks. Two 13th-century coffin-lids with floriated crosses are preserved in the church, one at the east end of each aisle. (fn. 172)
Amongst the relics in the south chapel are eight pieces of town armour, c. 1630, parts of three incomplete suits, consisting of two breastplates, one back plate, three taces, and two pikemen's pots. The breastplates are ornamented with a raised pattern and rivetheads: the pots are damaged. (fn. 173) There is also the large hexagonal tester of an 18th-century pulpit, and various fragments of stone and woodwork, including cusping from the east window, four bosses from the roofs, pieces of wall-plate, and a roof corbel dated 1697.
There are eight bells. The first and second are by Taylor of Loughborough 1897, the fourth by Henry Penn of Peterborough 1723, the third, fifth, and sixth by Thomas Eayre of Kettering 1732, the seventh by Warner 1878, and the tenor by Taylor 1898. (fn. 174)
The plate consists of a silver cup of 1697, a breadholder of 1865, a chalice of 1870, two patens, one of 1871 the other without marks, and a glass flagon with silver mountings 1865. (fn. 175) Two pewter flagons stamped with the name of Robert Ekins, churchwarden in 1612, are now used at the font; another pewter flagon and two alms dishes are among the relics in the vestry. There is also a pewter basin. (fn. 176)
The registers before 1812 are as follows: (i) baptisms 1581–1661, marriages 1581–1657, burials 1583– 1660; (ii) baptisms and burials 1662–1701, marriages 1663–99; (iii) baptisms 1699–1779, marriages 1700– 73, burials 1699–1778; (iv) baptisms and burials 1779–1812; (v) marriages 1774–1812.
In the churchyard to the south-east of the porch is the socket and small piece of the shaft of a late 14thcentury cross, on two square steps. The upper step is ornamented with a band of quatrefoil panels enclosing crosses of varying shapes, while the square shaft has pilaster bands at each angle and emblems of the evangelists on the sides. (fn. 177)
The right of presentation to the church of Raunds was apparently attached to the manor belonging to William Peverel. In 1237 William Earl of Ferrers brought an action of darrein presentment concerning Raunds and Higham against the Prior of Lenton and Abbot of 'Torinton', and it was found that King Richard had last presented, and that King John had afterwards given the manors and advowsons to William de Ferrers, Earl of Derby. (fn. 178) The advowson of Raunds remained attached to the manor until 4 March 1355, when the king licensed Henry Duke of Lancaster to alienate it in mortmain to the Master, Warden, and chaplains of the Hospital of the Annunciation of the Virgin in Leicester, founded by his father, Henry Earl of Lancaster. (fn. 179) The grantees received a licence to appropriate the church and a further licence to retain the gift in free alms was granted when the hospital was erected into a collegiate church. (fn. 180) At the Dissolution the right of presentation came to the Crown, which retained it until 1874, when it was acquired by exchange by the Bishop of Peterborough. (fn. 181)
By his will dated 7 February 1722 John Blaise gave 5 a. 1 r. of arable land, and 2 r. lying in Ringstead Short Meadow, to the vicar for the poor. Upon the inclosure of the parish an allotment of 18 acres was awarded in lieu of the arable land. The land in Ringstead Short Meadow is let in allotments and produces 10s. 4d. yearly and the 18 acres, which is pasture land, is let on a yearly tenancy for £10 14s. 6d. The income is distributed in coal.
An allotment of about 10 acres was set out on the inclosure of the parish for the repair of the church. The property consists of 9 acres called Keyston Road Field let at £4 10s. per annum and 1 r. 16 p. let in allotments and producing 17s. yearly. The income is applied to the fabric fund of the church.
In or about 1720 Robert Nicholls surrendered a cottage in the Middle End or Rotten Row in Raunds to the vicar in trust for the poor. The property was sold in 1880 and the proceeds amounting to £180 invested, producing £4 11s. yearly in dividends. The charity is now administered by the vicar, a trustee appointed by him, and one trustee appointed by the parish council of Raunds. The income is applied partly in coal to the poor and partly in donations to the Northampton General Hospital.
By his will proved in P.R. 24 May 1856 the Rev. James Tyley gave a sum of money for the benefit of the deserving poor at the discretion of the vicar and churchwardens. The dividends, amounting to £2 13s. 4d. yearly, are distributed in coal at Christmas to about thirty recipients.
The charity of William Mackenzie, founded by will proved at Peterborough 28 September 1917, is administered by a body of four trustees in accordance with the provisions of a Scheme of the Charity Commissioners dated 20 May 1921. The income, amounting to £12 13s. 2d., is distributed equally at Christmas amongst about twenty-five aged poor.