A History of the County of Oxford: Volume 1. Originally published by Victoria County History, London, 1939.
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IV. Early Iron Age
A new phase in the knowledge of the Iron Age in Britain was inaugurated by Mr. J. P. Bushe-Fox's publication of his excavations at Hengistbury Head, Dorset, twenty years ago. Several ceramic groups previously unknown or unrecognized were classified and placed in their correct chronological order. Subsequent discoveries, notably at All Cannings Cross, Wilts., at Peterborough, and at Park Brow, Sussex, facilitated the study of older material still further, and revealed how extensive had been the distribution of the earliest of these groups, Mr. Bushe-Fox's Class A. The knowledge thus gained led to the supersession of the continental terms Hallstatt and la Tène in this country and even of the special term Late Celtic which had been applied to material, largely late la Tène in date, recovered from sites like Aylesford, Hunsbury, and the Somerset lake villages.
Instead, it has been realized that the British Iron Age, owing its generation to a leaven of continental immigration, had spread over a large part of lowland Britain and that its earliest phase, most apparent in the area covered by Mr. Hawkes's Iron Age 'A', (fn. 1) is due to conservative immigrants from Gaul and the Low Countries, whose pottery carried on the traditions of the late Bronze Age and had been only slightly influenced by the Marnian culture of Gaul.
Among these 'A' settlers, however, local groups can be distinguished whose origins may lie at any point between the Low Countries and Brittany. Of these the group that is best represented at All Cannings Cross seems to have embraced the whole of the area between the south coast in Dorset and Berkshire. Beyond this recent excavations of the Oxford University Archaeological Society allow a separate group to be distinguished in the upper Thames Valley; its representatives, like their predecessors, were chiefly established on the gravel patches near the Thames and there the change is most clearly seen.
From Goring Gap northwards air-photography has revealed two new types of settlement sharply contrasted with the ring-ditches of the late Bronze Age. The first consists of dense groups of cylindrical pits, 4–6 ft. in diameter, and excavated 2–4 ft. into the gravel, often intersecting and sometimes traversed by ditches. Such agglomerations may have been true villages. The classical example is that explored by Stephen Stone at Standlake in 1857; another has been partially investigated at Cassington. Three groups have been detected from the air at Stanton Harcourt between Linch Hill and Beard Mill, and yet another between the Thame and the Dyke Hills at Dorchester.
In the second type of settlement a relatively small number of pits is scattered loosely within one or more inclosures, marked by ditches and more or less rectangular in outline, and approached and traversed by a track, itself also flanked by ditches. This type seems to constitute a homestead, with inclosures for cattle and possibly with cultivated fields protected from the cattle by ditches and palisades. The trackways recur in the villages, Roman in date, but Iron Age in type, explored by General Pitt-Rivers in Cranborne Chase.
Two settlements of this type have been explored by the Archaeological Society within the parish of Dorchester. The one at Mount Farm is a good example of its class. Occupation throughout the Iron Age and for long under Roman rule has produced a palimpsest of markings which only excavation on a large scale could decipher. Around some of the pits at Mount Farm were postholes that may have held posts supporting a conical roof, covered by daub of which fragments bearing imprint of wattle were found in the pits. (fn. 2) While some of these served as dwellings, others were used for storage. One examined at Stanton Harcourt by Stone in 1857 contained a quantity of parched corn, a discovery paralleled at several sites outside Oxfordshire, for example, at Hunsbury near Northampton, and Worlebury, Somerset.
The manner in which the loose gravel walls of these pits were kept vertical has puzzled modern excavators as much as it did Stone, since in only one did he find traces of a clay lining; one pit at Cassington had a thick clay lining in which large quartzite pebbles had been embedded.
At Mount Farm all the pits and sections of the inclosure ditches, in addition to large quantities of broken animal bones, yielded sherds of pottery that covered the whole of the local Iron Age. Other finds were scarce: a bone weaving-comb, a clay spindle-whorl, a clay sling-bullet, and poor flint instruments, usually scrapers that carry on a tradition of flint-working.
It is upon material from a site little more than ½ mile to the south-west and close to the Roman road from Dorchester to Alchester, together with that from an occupation-layer explored in 1934 at Long Wittenham, Berks., that our present knowledge of the earliest Iron Age 'A' pottery of the region is based. The Oxfordshire site was exposed in the gravel-pit belonging to Messrs. John Allen & Sons, and the finest pottery was discovered by workmen engaged in removing top-soil. An air-photograph taken by Major G. W. G. Allen showed that ditches exposed in the gravel-pit belonged to an inclosure similar to those at Mount Farm. Only partial exploration was possible, but this again produced sherds covering the whole period down to the Roman Conquest, overlain by a Romano-British occupation layer.
The two most characteristic forms of the early pottery from this site and of that exclusively found at Long Wittenham are, firstly, a carinated, black or chocolate burnished bowl, usually plain but sometimes, especially at Allen's Pit, decorated with incised chevrons. The more stylish examples have a circular depression or omphalos in their base (Fig. 12, upper row). These bowls have a general affinity with those of the All Cannings Cross and Peterborough groups, though the deep red haematite layer and the furrowing (Pl. XI c) typical of the former are almost entirely absent. The second type, found alike in coarse and relatively well finished, though always large, vessels, is a tall form with sharp shoulder and flat outspreading rim. It belongs to a continental family inspired by the bronze situla or bucket imported from the Illyrian culture of north-east Italy and the eastern Alps in the 5th century b.c., to become a favourite in the early la Tène culture of the Marne and the Aisne. On coarser forms of these two shapes, and upon other coarse pottery of slacker outline, finger-prints, the normal rude decoration of north-western Europe during the late Bronze Age, are used on the shoulder and just under the rim.
From the first the pottery of the upper Thames Valley exhibits an individuality that it never after lacks. The sharpness of the profile of the best carinated bowls and situla-shaped vessels precludes their derivation from an advanced stage of the All Cannings Cross wares, which can show nothing to compare with the coarse sharp-shouldered jar from Dorchester (Pl. X b). The upper Thames pottery must belong to settlers who arrived directly from the Continent no later than the group that introduced the Wessex culture, that is, probably somewhere in the 4th century b.c. As things are at present, it is with certain material discovered near the Fens (Peterborough) and in Surrey (Cobham) that the closest parallels can be drawn in England. This points rather towards the basins of the Scheldt and Sambre and the chalk area of Picardy and Artois as the most probable starting-point for immigrants who, arriving from a more easterly direction, moved up the Thames to the Oxford district.
The evidence of continuous occupation, both at Allen's Pit and at Mount Farm, comes out in a comparison of the later wares from both sites with those from a village partially explored at Radley, Berks. (fn. 3) How the process of degeneration sets in is shown in a slackening of the profiles of all forms. At the same time a straight-sided bucket-shaped form, perhaps a token of survival of the late Bronze Age population, makes its appearance; on vessels of this type and other A 2 forms a heavy, expanding rim with flat top becomes popular. On the other hand, finger-tip decoration passes out of fashion.
Other Oxfordshire sites have produced this early material. The Ashmolean Museum possesses, for example, a fragment of a fine, black, burnished, carinated bowl from a settlement-site exposed in gravel-digging at Calais Farm, Bampton, some forty years ago (Pl. XI a). On it may be seen a pair of parallel incised zigzag lines, enclosing a space filled with pittings containing traces of white. (fn. 4) Similar white-filled incisions form part of the decoration of the 'local' carinated bowl from a gravel-pit at Marston, across the River Cherwell just north-east of Oxford (Pl. XI d). This type of decoration is typical of All Cannings Cross, so that possibly the south-western influence that later becomes more noticeable in the upper Thames Valley had already begun to make itself felt in Iron Age 'A 2'.
The earliest phase is also represented in material from pits and graves examined by Rolleston at Yarnton in 1875–6. Here, again, the ceramic series persists unbroken into the Roman occupation, but again there is an individuality, especially in the ware of the coarser vessels which contain ground flint in the paste, due possibly to the survival of Bronze Age tradition.
Undeterred by the scantiness of finds Stephen Stone persisted at Standlake until a large area had been thoroughly planned. The model of the village that he made is instructive. In no other British village do the pits jostle one another so closely, suggesting a relatively large population settled there over a long period. As in the Cranborne Chase villages, long ditches traverse the pits, cutting through ones that had been abandoned and filled in at an earlier date. From Standlake come one or two objects besides pottery. An iron knife with curved blade in a bone handle (fn. 5) resembles others found at Glastonbury and in the Caburn Camp, near Lewes. A bronze openwork roundel with an attachmentloop (Fig. 13) is one of the rare metal objects of Celtic art from a settlementsite. The motive recalls an heraldic S with a boss covering the middle bar and cups for red enamel at the ends of the legs, which are also channelled for a similar purpose. The pottery represents a very late stage of 'A 2'; one of the pots from Mount Farm was similar in form. A few small sherds bear characteristic incised chevrons.
The sites hitherto described occupied positions on the gravel not far from the banks of the Thames. On the limestone uplands, even though allowances be made for lack of exploration, Iron Age settlement apparently began later. Certainly nothing assignable to 'A 1' has yet appeared there. Of the camps, which include Madmarston (Pl. IX b), Tadmarton, Ilbury, and Lyneham, only one has been explored, namely Chastleton, where Mr. E. T. Leeds made excavations in 1928–9 (Fig. 14). The results are in accord with those reached in other camps in southern England, namely, in revealing that no fortification is attributable to the primary 'A' phase of the local group. At Chastleton the hard limestone subsoil dictated variations from the familiar Iron Age practice. There is no ditch; the camp relies for its defence upon a strong rampart of rubble revetted by walls of polygonal limestone blocks. No rubbishpits were found within the area explored; instead, close to the rampart were hearths formed of limestone-slabs associated with rough paving. In one case two post-holes were found close to a hearth. A paved roadway led from the east gate into the interior of the camp. The finds, though poor, admirably illustrate the decadence of the Oxfordshire Iron Age 'A 2'. Carinated bowls of degenerate form are still present, but the sharp-shouldered situla-vessel of Dorchester and Long Wittenham is in process of being forgotten (Pl. XI b). Certain features already indicate influence from the Iron Age 'B' culture shortly to be noticed. Of other finds the most surprising was part of the handle of a jug in black bucchero such as was made in Etruria in the 6th and 5th centuries b.c. An undecorated weaving-comb is of a form met with in the 'B' area (Fig. 15).
Pits opened at the crossing of the Chipping Norton-Shiptonunder-Wychwood with the Sarsden-Enstone road produced pottery of this period, but save this, two other pits examined at Chadlington and an occupation-floor discovered in 1935 under the bank of Grim's Ditch in Ditchley Park are the only other undoubted Iron Age sites that have been recorded on the uplands west of the Cherwell. Something similar appears to have been found near Rousham.
The later groups of the early Iron Age, most of which were known to archaeologists before the discovery of 'A', are now usually treated as belonging to one or other of two divisions, which are both geographical and chronological. The one, Iron Age 'B', is conceived as a culture spreading by immigration or contact, from south-western England under strong influence from the Armorican region of France. The other, Iron Age 'C', is the culture of the Belgic tribes that certainly gained a foothold in south-eastern England shortly before Caesar's invasion. Iron Age 'B' is generally supposed to have begun considerably earlier than 'C', but to have lasted almost as long as 'C', and to have had its expansion curbed by the Belgic culture.
As in 'A', so in the new cultures, local groups must be distinguished. This partition is particularly important in 'B'. A group that is certainly of continental, probably of Armorican origin, and may have left its home as a result of Caesar's conquest of Gaul (there is really no compelling evidence to date this group earlier), is known best from the excavations of Bulleid and Gray in the Somerset lake-villages at Glaston bury and Meare. The culture is characterized above all by its pottery decorated with incised curvilinear patterns, extensively used on the finer vases.
Along the southern fringe of the chalk downs from Wiltshire to Sussex and again over the limestone hills from Gloucestershire to Northamptonshire there spread groups tinged in varying degree by this presumptive Armorican influence, but they still remain predominantly Iron Age 'A'. Such a group exists in Oxfordshire, a local 'A' overlaid by elements derived from the western 'B'.
It is well represented at Cassington in two groups of pits, one east, the other west of the modern village. The bulk of the pottery from these—very little difference could be detected between the two sites in this respect—belonged to a single phase quite distinct from that defined at Long Wittenham and Dorchester. Examples of the forms are shown in Fig. 12, lower row. A saucepanshaped cooking-pot is a common form in the localized 'B' groups; closely related examples were found at Lydney, Glos. (fn. 6) A common type of rim on these and on more globular vessels is everted and is slightly bevelled on its inner face. The finer ware, in contrast to what is usual at Glastonbury, but like that of other local 'B' groups, is well burnished, and often glossy; a black finish still occurs, but some shade of buff is more usual. To give an idea of the sequence: while the bevelled rims just described were found in the upper layer of a ditch, the heavy flat rims that are typical of the local Iron Age 'A 2' occurred only at the bottom.
How local this mixed culture can be is indicated by the rarity of decoration. Two bowls from the east and west sites are decorated with a swag that is crude beside examples from Glastonbury. The nearest parallel is a small sherd from Warham Camp, near Wells, Norfolk, (fn. 7) found along with other sherds bearing Armorican decoration. The complete example (Pl. XI f) is relatively poor in finish, and was associated with pottery that ought to belong to an early stage in the Cassington series.
Other decorated pottery from Oxfordshire of this phase has a superior character without losing its local stamp. The Yarnton sherd is well known. (fn. 8) A fragment bearing similar decoration was found at Cassington. Another (Pl. XI e) was discovered in 1935 during building operations at Rose Hill, Iffley, which revealed floors and pits which otherwise contained exclusively Roman pottery. It belonged to a bowl of the globular form common at Hunsbury, Northants., a site that has produced much decorated 'B' pottery. (fn. 9) The dimple is typical of Glastonbury. Plain pottery of Cassington type occurs again at Yarnton and at both sites at Dorchester. Mount Farm yielded a black burnished pot (Pl. XI g), decorated with horizontal grooves in pairs near the rim and the base, and Allen's Pit a fragment of a shale vessel with a moulding like that on fragments from Hengistbury (fn. 10) and from Wookey Hole, Somerset (Wells Museum).
Burials. While knowledge of Early Iron Age settlements has sensibly advanced, discoveries of burials of the same period, outside the Belgic area, remain disappointingly few. Information about the rites employed by the various 'A' groups is particularly scanty. There is definite evidence, however, from Dorset, Middlesex, and Essex in favour of the view advanced by some archaeologists that the Late Bronze Age urn-fields sometimes continued in use, especially in the regions where good 'A' material is scarce and strong survival of the earlier folk may be suspected. A likely place for such survival in Oxfordshire is Standlake, where the bucket-urns as a group are highly degenerate and where there is an adjacent 'A' site. There are, however, no true 'A' forms among the pots from this urn-field, and it is upon the presence of these that proof of the use of other urn-fields by the 'A' folk is based. It is significant in this connexion that a pot of local 'A 2' type performing the function of a cinerary urn was found in a barrow at Rollright.
In the later stages of the Iron Age in the areas that did not fall under strong Belgic influence inhumation seems to have been the normal rite. Examples from Oxfordshire are not lacking. One lay crouched in the ditch at Standlake that produced the bronze looped ornament (supra, p. 254), and another, of an infant, was found in a small hole in the floor of a pit at Linch Hill, Stanton Harcourt. Again, at Yarnton in 1875–6 Rolleston records inhumations, some of which, indeed, were Early Bronze Age or Saxon, but one or two may have been of Iron Age date. The decorated sherd from Yarnton is said to have come from one of these graves, and a bronze torc with flat terminals (Fig. 16) (fn. 11) certainly accompanied one of the skeletons. Since the type is not claimed for the Bronze Age or for the Saxon period, it may go by default to the Iron Age; though no close parallel is known. (fn. 12) It has a solid shaft that expands into flat, oval terminals, set at right angles to the diameter of the ring and decorated with three sets of lines at right angles to one another. It is possibly a development of the late Bronze Age type figured by Evans. (fn. 13)
The Thames, so prolific in objects of the late Bronze Age, has yielded a few belonging to the period under review. The most striking is the bronze daggersheath (Pl. XII d—e) found in the Minster Ditch, opposite North Hinksey, at the same time as a number of Late Bronze Age objects. It is of la Tène I type, as indicated by its open chape, and can be paralleled by others from England, nearly all of which have been dredged from the Thames near London. (fn. 14) One from Barn Elms has engraved along its edge hatched, pointed ovals similar to those arranged in a star-pattern near the mouth of the Minster Ditch sheath. The sinuous motif on the other face of the latter is executed in a more elaborate manner on a sword-sheath from la Tène itself. (fn. 15) In this decoration may be seen a stratum earlier than the general run of British 'Late Celtic' art. This led Mr. Percy Manning, who acquired the sheath, to regard it as forming part of a hoard with the other objects found at the same time and place, but there exists ample evidence for an ancient trackway to Faringdon and the Berkshire Downs by way of Boars Hill, that crossed the Thames at North Hinksey in medieval times, (fn. 16) and Sir Arthur Evans adduces reasons for conjecturing that this route goes back to prehistoric times. (fn. 17)
An iron sword, with the fittings of its wooden sheath, was found in the Thames above Newbridge, Standlake. The chape is of the closed form in vogue during the later la Tène period. At Goring a bronze axle-cap was recovered from the Thames; (fn. 18) similar objects, enriched with late Celtic decoration, come also from the Thames, at Putney and Brentford. At Northmoor and at Dorchester iron spear-heads that seem to be of Iron Age type have been dredged up.
There is, in fact, repeated evidence for busy crossings of the river. Many of those who used the hill-top refuge on Wittenham Clumps must have lived on the Oxfordshire bank, in the village between the river and the Dyke Hills detected by Major Allen, and in the homesteads farther north. Among the prehistoric routes is one that runs north from Dorchester roughly along the line of the future Roman road as far as Shotover. Thence it appears to have followed the limestone ridge to cross the Ray on the way to Kirtlington, where it joined the Port Way, an ancient trackway that heads for Rainsborough Camp, Northants. On this route lie two sites where finds of Iron Age date have been made. From near Beckley comes a bone implement made by splitting the metatarsal of a sheep, sharpening it, and perforating the base for attachment to a shaft, an implement often found on Iron Age sites, as at Bampton and Yarnton, within the county, and at Grimthorpe, E. Riding, Yorks., with a burial equipped with la Tène II sword and shield. From Beckley, too, comes a dome-shaped stud (Fig. 17f) pierced with five circular holes, two of which retain their original red enamel, and an example of the rare 'involuted' brooch (Fig. 17 c), two more of which come from the well-known site at Middle Hill, near Wood Eaton, where many objects of Roman date have been found and where the only traces of buildings belong to the same period. Though for this reason objects of Celtic type and decoration found on this site might be survivals, they are rather too numerous to be thus explained, and, moreover, sherds of true Iron Age wares have recently been found on the hill. The prehistoric bronzes are, like most of the Roman, chance discoveries; they comprise pins, brooches, and fragments of bracelets, and even part of the blade of a bronze socketed axe. The brooches, one of involuted type like that from Beckley (a second with Hallstattian features (Pl. XII b) discovered later is here illustrated), two of la Tène I (as Pl. XII a), have been fully published by Miss M. V. Taylor and by Mr. G. C. Dunning. (fn. 19) A few additional remarks are alone necessary here. (fn. 20) A sixth brooch, which like most of the others is preserved in the Ashmolean Museum, closely resembles in its bow and springcoil a brooch recently found at Micklands Farm, Caversham (Fig. 17a), but has a disk-shaped foot. Both these, again, are related in the shape of their bow and their coils, but not in their decoration, to a type which is closely associated with the All Cannings Cross culture. On the other hand, a brooch with vesicular bow and with an axis inserted in the spring-coil (Fig. 17 b) has a distinctly south-easterly distribution in England. The pins are chiefly of a ring-headed type which is above all characteristic of 'B' and persists into the Roman period. A similar pin, however, was found at Hagbourne Hill, Berks., with both Late Bronze Age and la Tène objects. Three fragments of bracelets all represent types that are common in Gaulish, as opposed to the Belgic, districts of France in la Tène I. Other la Tène objects from Wood Eaton are a scabbardchape of late type (Fig. 17 e) and a stud with character-triskele ornament in relief (Fig. 17 g). (fn. 21)
Other Roman sites in Oxfordshire have also produced Celtic objects. A pin (Fig. 17 h) from Woodperry is of the rare ibex-headed type such as was found with a late Belgic burial at Sandy, Beds. (fn. 22) A striking example of Celtic art is the enamelled terret recently found in the villa at Watts Well, Ditchley (Pl. XII c). It is an elaborate specimen of the lipped type that belongs especially to the 'B' area and could hardly have been made after the conquest. An unusual feature is the extra mouldings in the form of quirks and small hatched bosses adjoining the curved triangular fields of enamel. This site also produced a ring-headed pin. Saxon graves, too, have contributed their quota. From Wheatley there is a ring-headed pin and from Filkins a brooch (Fig. 17 d) which was found with a la Tène blue glass bead and an ordinary Romano British brooch (see p. 364). The first-mentioned brooch belongs to a rare type that has been found on the Polden Hills, Somerset. (fn. 23)
Only one of the iron bars that have hitherto been generally regarded as the currency of the 'B' area has been found in Oxfordshire, at Lyneham Camp. Of coins proper the earlier types are scarce. (fn. 24) Imported Gaulish coins are confined to two specimens of the type attributed to the Morini of north-east Gaul. The first British issues are of the Remic type introduced through the second Belgic invasion. But Oxfordshire only comes properly into the numismatic picture with the uninscribed gold coins attributed to the Dobuni and particularly with those bearing the name bodvoc, a late member of the extensive Dobunian inscribed series, specimens of which, bearing the names Antedrigus and Vocorio-ad, have been found in the county. All the known examples come from west of the Cherwell and Thames. This distribution, and the fact that coins of Cunobeline and his predecessors of the Verulamian house, while plentiful in Buckinghamshire, occur but rarely in the Thames valley, and never farther west of it, led Sir John Evans to conclude that a tribal boundary ran along the Cherwell and Thames valley to Goring.
The distribution-map well illustrates what has been said about lines of communication. Noteworthy is the line of finds from Dorchester to Wood Eaton by way of Garsington, Cowley, and Shotover, along which those of Cunobeline appear to have circulated freely. Equally noteworthy is the line along the Icknield Way in country where no traces of Iron Age settlement have come as yet to light. The spread of Cunobeline's coins towards the Oxfordshire border, so well marked in Dr. Brooke's distribution-map, (fn. 25) coincides with the diffusion by way of the Akeman Street of the Belgic or 'C' cordoned pottery, such as has been found at Aston Clinton, Bucks., and at Blackthorn, near Bicester, just within Oxfordshire. Similar forms, certainly Roman in date, were found at Watts Wells, Ditchley, and at Alchester Belgic wares were still in use in the early years of Romano-British occupation, but the recent excavations of Mr. D. B. Harden in Blenheim Park (fn. 26) showed that an occupation layer containing pottery almost wholly Belgic in character was overlain by a section of the earthwork known as Grim's Dyke, which is itself considered by the excavator to precede Roman Akeman Street, and indeed the Roman occupation of the district. The very nature of Grim's Dyke—an intermittent earthwork blocking passages through woodland and enclosing a large area—recalls Belgic practice elsewhere. (fn. 27) The two Dorchester homestead-sites have also produced scraps of Belgic pottery associated with local Iron Age wares below the Roman level.
The general survival of the local 'B' population down to Roman times need not be doubted, however, even though Cunobeline's power may have succeeded in encroaching on the Dobunian group in the upper Thames Valley, and on the hitherto thinly populated oolitic upland. Nearly all the homesteads were occupied during the Roman period.
In the ensuing list references are restricted to the initial or more important mentions in literature, or to the Museum or collection in which objects are preserved. Fuller references to older bibliographies will be found in Archaeologia, lxxi, 227 ff., 'An Archaeological Survey of Oxfordshire', by Percy Manning and E. T. Leeds.
Asthall Leigh. Round barrows, at Leigh Hill Plain (Archaeologia, xxxvii, 433). Neolithic pottery, &c., near Asthall Barrow (Antiq. Journ. ii, 236, fig. 15). Flint arrow-head near the same (Manning MSS.). Silver coin of Cunobeline [A.M.].
Benson. Neolithic parallel ditches (Antiq. Journ. xiv, 414, pl. lvii). Flint axe and scrapers, near the allotments [A.M.]. Chipped flint axes, near Howbery Park, and at Turner's Court [A.M.]. Circular flint knife, &c., at Beggar's Bush Hill (Oxford Univ. Gazette, xliii, 987) and at Benson Lock [A.M.]. Bronze axe, at Crowmarsh Battle (J. K. Hedges, History of Wallingford, i, 148). Bronze sword, from the Thames (Proc. Soc. Antiq. xxiii, 160).
Caversham. Flint picks, from R. Thames [G. W. Smith coll.]. Neolithic pottery (Proc. Preh. Soc. E. Anglia, vi, 33). Chipped and polished flint axes [Treacher coll. and R.M.]. Flint dagger [R.M.]. Flint implements (Joseph Stevens, What are Skin-scrapers?, p. 9). Flint arrow-heads [G. W. Smith coll. and A.M.]. Flint chisel, from Emmer Green [G. W. Smith coll.]. Flint perforated hammer [ibid.]. Bronze flanged axe from Caversham Lock (Proc. Soc. Antiq. vi, 458). Bronze looped spear-head [Canterbury Museum]. Bronze Age urn and sherds [G. W. Smith coll. and R.M.]. Pottery, flint scraper, and piece of bronze, from pit-dwelling at Kidmore End [R.M.]. Stone axes, at Toker's Green and Tanner's Farm [R.M. and Kidmore End School]. Pile-dwellings (?), flint axes, &c., at Clapper's Island, 1882 (J.B.A.A. xxxix, 344, figs. 1–2; R.M.). La Tène I fibula, at Mickland's Farm (supra, p. 259) [R.M.].
Chadlington. Flint implements, near Partridge Covert (Manning MSS.). Round barrows on Chadlington Down (V.C.H. Oxon. ii, 345). Bronze Age urn and Iron Age pit-dwellings (Antiq. Journ. xv, 31). See also Churchill.
Chastleton. Stone circles(?) [not Cornwell] (O. G. S. Crawford, The Long Barrows of the Cotswolds, 175). Flint arrow-heads and broken stone axe, near Chastleton Camp. Iron Age camp, pottery, &c. (Antiq. Journ. xi, 382).
Dorchester. Flint knife, arrow-head, &c. (A.S.I., 2nd ed., 247, 332, 384, fig. 318a; Journ. Ethn. Soc. ii, 413; Proc. Soc. Antiq. (Ser. 2), v, 222; A.M. and P-R.M.; J. Phillips, 480). Hammerhead of hornblende-gneiss [A.M.]. Bronze implements, buckler, chape, &c. (A.B.I., passim; Archaeologia, xxvii, 298, pl. xxii). Sherds of Bronze Age pottery (at Allen's Pit, 1936) [A.M.]. Human pelvis transfixed by a broken spear-head, at Queenford [A.M.]. Gold, silver, and bronze British coins (A.B.C., passim; for other references see Archaeologia, lxxi, 240). Penannular bronze fibula [A.M.]. Italo-Greek vase (Rolleston MSS.; Times, 23 Sept. 1895). Iron Age settlements, pits, pottery, &c., at Allen's Pit and Mount Farm (Antiq. Journ. xv, 30 ff.).
Enstone. Round barrows (V.C.H. Oxon. ii, 346; J. Jordan, A Parochial History of Enstone, 1857, 22, 28). Ruined dolmen, 'Hoar Stone' (for references see Archaeologia, lxxi, 242). Celtic enamelled terret, in Watts Well Roman villa (supra, p. 260).
Ewelme. Flint axes, arrow-heads, scrapers, at Painter's Pit, Rumbold's Pit, Ewelme Downs and Ewelme Park [A.M. and P-R.M. 5]. Neolithic pottery (B.M. Quarterly, x, 77). Urns (?) and hammer-stones, at Rumbold's Pit (Proc. Soc. Antiq. xxii, 71).
Eynsham. Polished stone axes (A.S.I., 2nd ed., 101). Polished stone axe, at Eynsham Park (penes Eynsham Hall). Bronze palstaves at Freeland (A.B.I. 79). Burial with handled beaker (Ant. Journ. xv, 280, pl. xxxix). Group of ring-ditches and tumulus, at Southfield Barn (Major G. W. G. Allen, aerial photo; Antiquity, vii, 293, pl. iv). Bronze buckler, from R. Thames at Swinford Bridge (Proc. Soc. Antiq. xxxi, 150; A. W. Kemble, Horae Ferales, 167, pl. xi. 3).
Islip. Quartzite mace-head [A.M.]. Gold-plated, bronze, and tin coins, Celtic fibulae and pins, at Middle Hill, nr. Wood Eaton (B.B.O.J. iv, 43, and Trans. North Oxfordshire Arch. Soc. 1853–5, p. 14, and 1917, p. 91; see also Archaeologia, lxxi, 246). Pottery on South Hill, near Wood Eaton, 1936 [A.M.].
Little Rollright. Megalithic circle, 'Rollrich Stones', standing stones and barrows (for literature, see Archaeologia, lxxi, 248, T. Ravenhill, The Rollright Stones, and O. G. S. Crawford, The Long Barrows of the Cotswolds, 176 ff.). Vase [Br.M., 1873, 19 Dec., No. 185].
Mapledurham. Flint implements (J. Stevens, What are Skin-scrapers?, p. 9). From R. Thames, flint pick, chipped flint axes, flint arrow-heads, &c., polished axe, quartzite mace-head, and bronze socketed axe (R.M. Cat. 15; H. J. E. Peake, Berkshire, 217). Bone knife (Peake, ibid. 217).
Mongewell. Flint implements, near Forest Row (G. W. Smith coll.; Archaeologia, lxii, pl. xxxviii, 2–3). Flint arrow-heads and scrapers (Manning MSS.; Oxford Univ. Gazette, xliii, 984, xlviii, 483). Neolithic bowls and unpatinated polished axe, from R. Thames (Archaeologia, lxii. 341, pl. xxviii, 2–3; G. W. Smith coll. and Br.M.).
North Stoke. Chipped and polished flint axes (Manning MSS.; A.M. and P-R.M.). Flint arrowheads, near Tickledown (Manning MSS.). Bronze palstave [A.M.]. British uninscribed coin (W. R. Davies Sale Cat., 1893, lot 22; A.M.). Bronze Age ring-ditch barrows, one with burials and cremation (Major G. W. G. Allen, air-photo; see p. 246).
Oxford: Christ Church Meadow, syenite axe [A.M.]. Quartzite hammer-axe (Journ. Anthr. Inst. iii, 104). High Street, imperfect diorite axe [P-R.M.]. Banbury Road, diorite axe (Archaeologia Oxoniensis, 5). Iffley Road, polished flint axe [A.M.]. New Iffley, flint cores, flakes, &c. [P-R.M.]. From R. Thames, at Osney, flint blade [P-R.M.]. At Folly Bridge, diorite axehammer [A.M.]. Near N. Hinksey, flint flake [A.M.]. In Hinksey Stream, polished stone axe [P-R.M.]. Bardwell Road, flint flakes [A.M.]. Manor Road, perforated axe of antler [A.M.]. Oxford, bronze palstave (A.B.I. 95). High Street, bronze axe (Archaeologia Oxoniensis, 111). Burgesses Meadow, bronze hoard, 1830 (Proc. Soc. Antiq. xxvii, 147, fig.). Leopold Street, 1881, hoard, palstaves, and socketed axe (ibid. 149, fig. 2). R. Thames, bronze socketed axe [A.M.]. R. Cherwell, bronze miniature axe, and sword, 1863 (A.B.I. 286–7, fig. 349). Minster Ditch, opp. N. Hinksey, socketed axe, looped lance-head, chisel (supra, Pl. VII, 3b), and broken spear [A.M.]. Southmoor Road and Kingston Road, 1881, contracted burials (Archaeologia Oxoniensis, 52). Polstead Road, 1888, burials with beakers and flint arrowhead [A.M.]. Summertown, 1875, burials; beakers and flint arrow-head (Rolleston MSS.; A.M.). Park Crescent, 1864, burials and food-vessel [A.M.]. New Iffley, cinerary urn, 1912 [A.M.]. Manor Road, perforated antler axe [A.M.]. St. Ebbe's, bone spindle-whorl and antler implement, and High Street, clay loom-weight [A.M.]. R. Thames, opp. N. Hinksey, decorated bronze Celtic dagger-sheath, iron spear-head, &c., 1895 (Archaeologia, liv, 497, figs.). Walton Street, trenches and pits with stone (?) implements (A. Clark, Wood's City of Oxford, i, 348).
Oxfordshire. Flint flakes (Journ. Anthr. Inst. xiii, 137). Bronzed flanged axe [Br.M., 1866, 24 July, No. 38]. Bronze palstave [Br.M., 1875, 1 April, no. 14]. British gold and silver coins, near Oxford (A.B.C. 61, 434, pl. b 6, 104; suppl. 438). Gold coins of Cunobeline (ibid. 303–4, pl. ix, 12–13, 368; suppl. 558). Gold coins of Dubnovellaunus and Addedomaros (W. R. Davies Sale Cat., 1893, lot 30). Bronze statuettes and figurines [Br. M., 1883, 8 Feb., nos. 11–13].
Sandford-on-Thames. Portion of polished stone axe [A.M.]. Bronze dagger and spear-head, from Sandford Lock, c. 1845 (Proc. Soc. Antiq. xi, 8). Bronze sword and two rapiers, from R. Thames (A.B.I. 248, 284; H. Peake, Berkshire, 218).
Sarsden. Round barrows—'The Squire's Clump' and W. of Skew Wood (V.C.H. Oxon. ii, 346). Flint arrow-heads, scrapers, and piece of discoidal knife, at Sarsgrove Wood (J. Evans, A.S.I. 390; A.M.). Flint arrow-heads [B.M.].
Shipton-on-Cherwell. Long barrow, 'langan hlaew' (H. E. Salter, Cartulary of Eynsham, i, 23; Corpus Christi College, Oxford, old map; G. B. Grundy, Saxon Oxfordshire (Oxf. Rec. Soc. 58, 62). Bronze cauldron (Archaeologia, lxxx, 1, pl. 1).
Spelsbury. Flint arrow-heads and implements, near Ditchley (Journ. Ethn. Soc., n.s., i, 4; Journ. Anthr. Inst. v, 30; A.M. and P-R.M.). Round barrows, at Spelsbury Downs Farm (Rolleston MSS.). Standing stones at Taston, and 'Hawk Stone' at Dean (O. G. S. Crawford, The Long Barrows of the Cotswolds, 215 and 213).
Standlake. Polished stone axe (A.S.I., 2nd ed., 125). Bronze looped lance-head [A.M.]. Ringditches, cinerary urns, food-vessel, spiral bronze ring, flint arrow-head; contracted burials, on Standlake Down, 1857 (Proc. Soc. Antiq. (Ser. 1), iv, 71, 100, 213, 215, 217–19; Archaeologia, xxxvii, 363, pls. viii-ix; see also ibid. lxxi, 256). Pit-dwellings, iron knife, implements of bone and antler, bronze ornament, 1857 (Proc. Soc. Antiq. (Ser. 1), iv, 70, 92–100, 215–17). Gold coin of Boduoc, 1849 (A.B.C. 135).
Stanton Harcourt. 'The Devil's Quoits' and barrow (O. G. S. Crawford, The Long Barrows of the Cotswolds, 212). Bronze palstaves (A.B.I. 88, fig. 75). Pit-dwellings (Proc. Soc. Antiq. (Ser. 1), iv, 215; Manning MSS.). Collared cinerary urn at Cowling's Piece, 1874 (B.A.P. ii, 115, pl. lxvi, 61). Ring-ditches (Major G. W. G. Allen, air-photos). Peterborough ware, barbed flint arrow-head, beakers, and Iron Age pits with pottery, at Linch Hill (Antiq. Journ. xi, 59, fig.; and supra, pp. 242 and 252).
Steeple Barton. Whist-low, N. of Barton Abbey (Ordnance Survey). 'Hoar Stone' (O. G. S. Crawford, The Long Barrows of the Cotswolds, 212; W. Wing, Antiquities of Steeple Aston, 2). Flint arrow-heads and implements (Mr. W. Lloyd James).
Tadmarton. Barrows, near Tadmarton Camp (V.C.H. Oxon. ii, 347). Tadmarton Camp (ibid. ii, 316, fig.). Burials and coins, at Blackland near Madmarston Camp (A. Beesley, History of Banbury, 18–19, 607).
Thame. Flint axe, near Bate's Leys (H. Lupton, History of Thame, 8). Gold coins of Andocomius and Boduoc (see also under Witney) (A.B.C., suppl. 487 and 533; E. K. Burstal Sale, 1912, lots 10 and 19).
Wychwood. Standing stones (Archaeologia, xxxvii, 430). Long and round barrows (see Archaeologia, lxxi, 261). Flint (?) axe (North Oxfordshire Arch. Soc. Reports, 1857, p. 4). Antler haft, pottery, and human remains, at Cockshoot Hill (A.B.I. 160). Flint arrow-heads, &c., at Potter's Hill (Manning MSS.).
Yarnton. Contracted burials, beakers, food-vessel, bronze torque, awl, flint scraper, &c. (see Archaeologia, lxxi, 262). Fragments of cinerary urns, 1872 [A.M.]. Ring-ditches and Iron Age pits, with pottery, &c. (Archaeologia, lxxi, 262; Mrs. B. Stapleton, Three Oxfordshire Parishes (Oxf. Hist. Soc. xxiv), 364).
Objects from the River Thames Recorded under Berkshire Parishes
Reading. Bronze palstave (V.C.H. Berks. i, 195). Bronze palstave [R.M.]. Two bronze palstaves (Wilts. Arch. Mag. xxx, 81). Bronze looped spear-head (V.C.H. Berks. i, pl. opp. 184, fig. 1). Bronze spear-head (ibid., fig. 6). Bronze spear-head (Martin coll.). Bronze spear-head (H. Peake, Berkshire, 220). Bronze socketed axe [R.M.]. Bronze looped and socketed axe (V.C.H. Berks. i, pl. opp. 182, fig. 6). Bronze rapier [R.M. Cat. 52]. Bronze socketed knife (V.C.H. Berks. i, 195). Bronze sickle (ibid. 195). Bronze sword (ibid., i, pl. opp. 186).
Sutton Courtenay. Bronze palstave (H. Peake, Berkshire, 235). Two bronze spear-heads, 1885 (ibid. 235). Two bronze spear-heads, 1890 (ibid. 235). Hilt of bronze sword (ibid. 235). Bronze looped and socketed axe (Gent. Mag. (1826), ii. 259 = Archaeologia, lxxi, 264).
Tilehurst. Numerous flint picks, near Roebuck Inn [G. W. Smith coll.]. Six polished flint axes, bronze flanged axe and palstave, opp. Roebuck Inn [G. W. Smith coll.]. Bronze knife (V.C.H. Berks. i, 195; Arch. lxxi, 264). Two spear-heads, opp. Roebuck Inn [G. W. Smith coll.]. Part of hilt of bronze sword, socketed bronze dagger, and socketed axe (ibid.).
Wallingford. Stone net-sinker or mace-head [R.M.]. Bronze riveted dagger, c. 1862 (Archaeologia, lxxi, 264). Bronze spear-head (Proc. Soc. Antiq. (Ser. 2), iv, 280). Bronze looped and socketed axe and two socketed knives (not spear-heads) (ibid. (Ser. 1), iv, 303). Bronze socketed axe [R.M.]. Bronze sword (J. K. Hedges, History of Wallingford, i, 148). Hoard of bronze implements (A.B.I. 128, 167, 206, 219, 457, figs. 150, 193, 269). Iron spear-head, prehistoric (?) [G. W. Smith coll.].
[The following contractions are used in references throughout the article: B.B.O.J. = Berks., Bucks., and Oxon. Archaeological Journal; J.B.A.A. = Journal of the British Archaeological Association; J.R.S. = Journal of Roman Studies; (N.) O. Arch. Soc. = (North) Oxfordshire Archaeological Society; O.A. and H.S. = Oxford Architectural and Historical Society; O.H.S. = Oxford Historical Society; O.R.S. = Oxfordshire Record Society; O.U.A.S. = Oxford University Archaeological Society; P.S.A. = Proceedings of the Society of Antiquaries.]