A History of the County of Surrey: Volume 3. Originally published by Victoria County History, London, 1911.
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Horley, Horlie, and Horle (xiii cent.); Horlee (xiv cent.); Horle (xv cent.).
Horley is a village 5 miles south of Redhill. The parish, which is one of the largest in Surrey, is bounded on the north by Reigate, on the east by Nutfield, Burstow, and a detached portion of Horne, on the south by Worth in Sussex, and on the west by Charlwood and Leigh. It is of irregular form, with western extensions running into Charlwood and Leigh, but the greatest length from north to south is 6 miles, and the greatest breadth from east to west 4 miles. It contains 7,957 acres of land and 25 of water. It is a Wealden parish, on the clay, with strips of sand and alluvium which stretch along the course of the Mole and its tributaries. The various branches of the Mole, those which flow from the Surrey chalk range at first southward and then westward, that coming eastward from Charlwood, and those flowing northward from Crawley and Worth in Sussex, all come into Horley and unite in the parish, which is consequently much intersected by streams. There are numerous bridges.
The character of the parish has been changed by the opening, in 1841, of the Brighton Line, which runs through it, having a station at Horley, and another, also in Horley, for the use of the Gatwick race-meetings, though Gatwick is in Charlwood. Horley Village, or Horley Street, was a small place clustered round the church, east of the Brighton road and west of the Cuckfield road. East of it was an extensive common. This is now inclosed, and the station is on its site. Here a new village has grown up. Farther north, and stretching nearly all the way to Earlswood Common and Reigate parish, are frequent groups or rows of small houses and cottages. There is a Horley District Gas Company, established in 1886.
The road through part of Horley parish from Crawley to Reigate was the first turnpike road in Surrey, made by the Act 8 & 9 Will. III, cap. 15, but available then only for horses, posts being fixed in it to prevent its being subjected to the wear and tear of wheels. The road from Horley Common to Cuckfield was made a turnpike road by stat. 49 Geo. III, cap. 94, but there was an old road on this line. Probably a very old track had led from the Sussex coast in this direction, and some habitations had been made near the line of it. Thundersfield, for instance, though deep in the forest and the clay, had been accessible in Athelstan's time, if it is the Thundersfield where he held a Witan; (fn. 1) and there is stronger reason for supposing that it is the Dunresfelda of Alfred's will. It is half a mile from the road, just outside Horley parish. The Ordnance map records Roman pottery found west of the road in Horley parish. South of Horley Station, north of Holyland Farm, a British sepulchral urn, flint arrowheads, and bronze Roman coins were found when the line was being made in 1839–40; and a British gold coin has been found in Horley (fn. 2) and another in Horne not far away. (fn. 3) The implements and pottery indicate dwellers in the Weald, the coins possibly show that traffic passed through it. Of the old village, not many houses remain. On the outskirts of the parish, a mile to the north of the church, are one or two old cottages close to the blacksmith's forge, and close by is a picturesque old inn, with the sign of 'The Chequers,' parts of which are of the 16th century. Adjoining the churchyard is the picturesque Six Bells Inn, dating back to the 15th century or earlier, with its steep roof of Horsham slabs, half-timbered walls and fine brick chimney. Inside is to be seen a large beam, perhaps part of a screen, bearing a battlemented moulding. The quaintness of the building is enhanced by tile-hanging of diamond pattern covering the upper stories; and the same kind of tiling occurs upon the walls of a large old house on the opposite side of the road.
Heaverswood Common was inclosed by an Award of 21 September 1858, parts of Earlswood Common which extended into Horley by an Award of 15 July 1886. (fn. 4) Horley Common and Thundersfield Common have been inclosed since the first issue of the Ordnance Maps.
Christ Church, Salford, was built as a chapel of ease for the northern part of the parish in 1881, and enlarged in 1892.
There is a Baptist chapel built in 1881, a Primitive Methodist chapel, and a meeting-place of the Plymouth Brethren.
There is a Cottage Hospital for the district.
In the parish are the Reigate Borough Isolation Hospital, at White Bushes, built in 1900, and the Reigate District Isolation Hospital, built in 1885.
Duxhurst has been acquired by Lady Henry Somerset as a Home for Female Inebriates, and additional houses built for the same purpose.
Horley National Schools were established in 1834. In 1872 a School Board was formed, and the schools passed under it. In 1905 they were rebuilt by the county authority.
In 1876 a school was built at Salford, and enlarged in 1886.
In 1884 a girls' school was built in Albert Road, and in 1890 an infants' school was added.
In 1896 a National School was built at Sidlow Bridge.
HORLEY is not mentioned in Domesday, unless it be the nameless land then in Tandridge Hundred held by Chertsey Abbey. (fn. 5) Thundersfield on the borders of Horley and Horne was granted to Chertsey by Athelstan in 933, (fn. 6) and was confirmed to the abbey by Edgar in 967, (fn. 7) when the amount of land named—30 mansae—must have extended into Horley, (fn. 8) the earliest references to which show that it was in the possession of the abbey.
In 1263 the Abbot of Chertsey acquired lands in Horley which he annexed to his manor of Horley; (fn. 9) John de Rutherwyk also, who was abbot from 1307 to 1346, obtained several tenements which he attached to his lordship. (fn. 10) He also reclaimed divers lands and tenements there formerly held in villeinage but occupied for a long time since by freeholders, being alienated from tenant to tenant by charter. The abbot, on behalf of the monastery, ordered these tenants to come into court and surrender their holdings; then, a fine having been paid, he gave them back to the tenants, to be held in future of the abbot himself for a fixed annual rent. (fn. 11)
The Abbot and convent of Chertsey continued to hold the manor until in 1537 the abbot surrendered his lands, including Horley, to the king. (fn. 12) Later in the same year Henry VIII granted this manor to Sir Nicholas Carew in tail male. (fn. 13) On the disgrace and death of Carew in 1538–9, his lands reverted to the Crown, and though the attainder was afterwards reversed his son Sir Francis Carew (fn. 14) did not inherit Horley. In July 1539 the king granted the manor to Sir Robert Southwell, (fn. 15) who alienated it in 1544 to Robert Bristowe. (fn. 16) The latter died in 1545, and his son and grandson succeeded to the property in turn. (fn. 17) Robert the grandson died a minor in 1563, his heirs being his aunts on his father's side, Joan Jordan, Margaret Woodman and Anne Taylor, and his cousin Thomas Twyner, son of Agnes, another aunt who had died before this date. (fn. 18) Each of these heirs received a fourth part of Horley. George Taylor and Anne conveyed their share to the Woodmans in 1564, (fn. 19) and when John Woodman, who survived his wife Margaret, died in 1587, he was therefore seised of a fourth of the manor in the right of his wife, and of another fourth in his own demesne as of fee. (fn. 20) Their son Richard alienated both parts to Matthew Carew in 1590, (fn. 21) and in the same year Henry Jordan, presumably the son of Joan and Thomas Jordan, conveyed the reversion of this fourth of the manor to Carew also. (fn. 22) In 1598 Carew obtained the remaining fourth from Thomas Yonge and Agnes, and the heirs of Agnes, (fn. 23) the latter being the daughter and heir of Thomas Twyner, who had died in 1582. (fn. 24) Carew, Doctor of Law and Master in Chancery, conveyed to James Cromer in 1600, (fn. 25) and two years later it passed from the latter to the Mayor and Commonalty of London as Governors of Christ's Hospital, (fn. 26) and they have remained lords of the manor till the present day.
An early 13th-century deed records that Robert son of Walter de Horley granted the mill at Horley to Alfred son of Robert for the rent of a silver mark, together with a meadow and plough-land close by, to be held for the rent of 16d. (fn. 27) Alice, daughter of 'Alfred of Horley Mill,' afterwards received a grant of the mill and lands. (fn. 28)
In 1309 William de Newdigate, by deed dated at Horley Mill, granted to Thomas atte Mulle, evidently the miller, a messuage, with garden, croft, &c., which Thomas and his heirs were to hold of Newdigate and his heirs for 200 years at the rent of 12d. (fn. 29) In 1317 William de Newdigate alienated to Chertsey Monastery the water-mill called Newdigate's Mill or Horley Mill, together with the 12d. rent due from Thomas atte Mulle. (fn. 30) It passed with the manor to Sir Robert Southwell after the Dissolution, (fn. 31) and was alienated by him to Robert Bristowe in 1541. (fn. 32) On the death of Bristowe's grandson Robert, John, half-brother to the latter, received the mill as his share of the inheritance which was divided up among co-heirs. (fn. 33) John Bristowe, in 1586, alienated to John Kerrell and Nicholas his son the mill and its appurtenances, which included land called Mill Eye, the mill-house, and all watercourses, ponds, ways and passages belonging to the mill and all its profits and commodities. (fn. 34)
In 1259 Roger de Stomnihole and Isabel his wife granted a messuage and a virgate of land in Horley to John de Bures. (fn. 35) The land was in that part of Horley adjacent to Hartswood, as a deed relating to the latter place refers to a wood of John de Bures close by, (fn. 36) and Stumblehole in Leigh, held of Banstead, is also near. Another 13th-century deed records a grant of land in Horley, made to William, son of Roger del Mahone by John de Bures. (fn. 37) It is probable that the family of de Bures held, for at least another century, land in Horley, afterwards known as the manor of BURES, or BEERES. In 1314 land called Burilond in Horley is mentioned. (fn. 38) In 1358 an extent for debt, taken on the lands of John son of John de Bures, states that he held in Horley a messuage with 3d. per annum beyond reprises, 80 acres of land worth 20s., 25 acres of wood worth 4s. 2d., and 1s. 7d. from rent of free tenants there. (fn. 39)
In 1487 John Holgrave, baron of the King's Exchequer, died seised of the manor of Bures in Horley which he devised to his son Thomas. (fn. 40) The latter died in 1505, and was succeeded in the lordship of the manor by Robert his son. (fn. 41) In 1544 the manor was held by Richard Broke and Elizabeth his wife in the right of Elizabeth, (fn. 42) daughter and heiress of Thomas or Robert Holgrave; (fn. 43) they conveyed it in that year to Richard Bray and his wife Joan. (fn. 44) In 1581 Sir John Bray, their son, granted the reversion of the manor, after the death of Joan his mother, to John Skinner of Reigate, who died in 1584, his nephew Richard Elyott of Albury being one of his heirs. (fn. 45) The latter was seised of the manor at his death in 1608; (fn. 46) his grandson Richard died unmarried in 1612. (fn. 47) Thomas Elyott, brother of the elder Richard, (fn. 48) held in 1613. (fn. 49) By deeds of 1617 and 1620 Thomas Elyott, Rachel Elyott widow of Richard, and her remaining children conveyed the manor to Sir William Garway. (fn. 50) In 1622 Garway sold to Nicholas Charrington 'the manor of Beres alias Buryes and that capital messuage and farm called Beres . . . all of which premises are, or lately were, in the tenure of Nicholas Charrington and his assigns or farmers.' (fn. 51) The manor has since remained in the Charrington family; Mr. E. S. Charrington holds it at present. (fn. 52)
Occasional reference is found to a manor or farm called DUXHURST in Horley and Charlwood. (fn. 53) Peter de Duxhurst was one of those whose lands were reclaimed by the Abbot of Chertsey (fn. 54) on the grounds that they were held of the tenement which Gilbert atte Mathe had held of the abbot's predecessors in villeinage; the abbot granted them back to Duxhurst, to be held of the abbey. (fn. 55) In 1604 Sir John Holmden settled the manor to the use of himself and his heirs. (fn. 56) Giles Fraunces died seised of the manor or farm of Duxhurst and certain lands belonging in Horley and Charlwood in 1616. (fn. 57)
A survey of the manor, taken much later, mentions the site of the manor-house with courtyard, barn, stable, and garden and lands. (fn. 58) It was afterwards acquired with the manor of Horley, by the governors of Christ's Hospital. (fn. 59) It is now used as Lady Henry Somerset's Home for Female Inebriates.
The priory of Merton, which had certain lands and tenements in Horley from which rent and services were due, included a wood called LANGSHOTT among its possessions at an early date. (fn. 60) By a deed without date the prior granted Robert son of Walter of Horley 4 acres of land at Langshott to be held for the annual rent of 2s, (fn. 61) and Roger Salaman died in 1343 seised of land in Horley held of Merton. (fn. 62)
At the Dissolution the possessions of the priory included a farm called 'Landshott' in Horley and Horne. (fn. 63) John Cooper farmed it of the priory, by an indenture of 1525, by which it was leased to him for thirty years. (fn. 64) In 1538–9 the lands were granted by the king to Richard Gylmyn for thirty years. (fn. 65) In 1550 William Sakevyle conveyed to Thomas Yngles and Katherine and their heirs 'all those lands, meadows, pastures, woods, &c., called Langshott alias Landshott, and Pryers landes alias Pryern in Horley.' (fn. 66)
In 1669 the land was held as a 'manor' by Richard Evelyn and Elizabeth in the right of Elizabeth, (fn. 67) the daughter of George Minne. (fn. 68) It seems to have passed soon after to the family of Barnes; William Barnes of Horley married Sarah Bridges and she, after her husband's death, devised Langshott to her nephew Alexander Bridges, (fn. 69) who held in 1733, (fn. 70) and whose descendant in the fourth generation, John Henry Bridges, now holds the lands which are known as Langshott Manor.
At the end of the 13th century 40 acres of land in Horley, and a messuage there worth 13d. were held of Fulk de Archek, lord of Woodmansterne, by suit at the court of Woodmansterne. (fn. 71) It is possible that this land was part of what was afterwards known as the manor of KINNERSLEY in Horley. Fulk held his lands in the right of his wife, and they were afterwards inherited by her family, passing at length to John Skinner. (fn. 72) During this time no trace of the lands in Horley can be found, but in 1506 Agnes, a daughter and co-heir of John Skinner, then wife of Roger Leigh and formerly wife of Thomas Chaloner, held Woodmansterne together with the 'moiety of Kynworsley in Horley.' (fn. 73) In 1556 Henry Lechford and Clemency his wife held 80 acres of land in Horley called 'Kenersley' and Ladyland, in the right of Clemency daughter of Huchar, (fn. 74) who was Lechford's second wife. (fn. 75) They demised the land in 1556 to Richard Hever on a ten-year lease for a rent of £12 per annum. (fn. 76) In 1563 they conveyed the reversion of 'the manor of Kinnersley' from themselves and the heirs of Clemency to John Cowper; (fn. 77) in the following year Hever brought a suit against the latter for wrongfully entering on the premises. (fn. 78)
Cowper sold Kinnersley in 1566 to John More. (fn. 79) Edward More and Mary his wife conveyed to George and Jasper Holmden in 1584, (fn. 80) and they, with others, to Matthew Carew, Master in the Court of Chancery, in 1587. (fn. 81) The manor changed hands many times at the beginning of the 17th century. It passed successively from Carew to James Cromer, (fn. 82) William Southland, (fn. 83) George Huxley, (fn. 84) and finally, in 1606, to Sir William Mounson, (fn. 85) a distinguished admiral, who had served under Essex in the Cadiz expedition, and was at this time in command of the fleet in the narrow seas, a post which he held until 1615. In this year he fell under suspicion of being implicated in the murder of Overbury and was committed to the Tower in 1616. He was, however, released in the following year and made vice-admiral of the narrow seas, remaining in the navy until 1635, when he retired to Kinnersley and spent the last seven years of his life compiling naval tracts. (fn. 86) He died in 1642 seised of the manor of Kinnersley, which he held jointly with his son John, who died three years later. (fn. 87)
Anne, daughter and heir of John Mounson, married Sir Francis Throckmorton; they, with Ann Mounson, widow, conveyed the manor in 1667 to Arthur Kettleby and George Petty, (fn. 88) from whom it passed, in 1675, to Benjamin Bonwick, (fn. 89) whose son Benjamin, according to Manning, left two daughters and co-heirs. (fn. 90) In 1740 Charles Mason and Sarah his wife conveyed a moiety of the manor to Richard Ireland; (fn. 91) he obtained the other moiety from Samuel Duplock and Mary his wife in 1765. (fn. 92) At his death in 1780 the manor passed by will to his niece Ann Jones, (fn. 93) whose son Arthur held in 1797, (fn. 94) when he sold to Robert Piper, (fn. 95) and the latter's family held it as late as 1829. (fn. 96) During the next ten years it passed through the hands of Gibson, Fosket and Clark. (fn. 97) John Clark held until after 1845. It became the property, before 1855, of J. C. Sherrard, who held until after 1874. It passed soon after to the Brocklehurst family, and is at present held by Mr. Edward Brocklehurst. (fn. 98)
From the 16th century onwards the right of free fishery at Horley is mentioned as appurtenant to Kinnersley. (fn. 99)
In 1263 Mary daughter of William de Dammartin received a grant of a water-mill and a carucate of land in Horley to be held of Roger de Loges and his heirs for the annual rent of a pair of gold spurs, or 6d. and foreign service. (fn. 100) It was probably part of the lands afterwards known as the manor of LODGE in Horley; a water-mill was included among the appurtenances of this manor in the 16th century. (fn. 101) A tenement called Labbokland, which Roger son of Roger atte Logge had quitclaimed to the Abbot of Chertsey in 1324, (fn. 102) was also held with the manor about 1590. (fn. 103) Evidently this family, who held the manor of Lodge in Burstow (q.v.) in the 14th century, gave their name to their lands in Horley also. These latter lands they may have held of the Abbot of Chertsey, while their under-tenants held of them as mesne lords. In the 15th century Lodge in Horley was held of the lord of the manor of Lodge in Burstow, (fn. 104) while in the next century it was held of Sir Robert Southwell, (fn. 105) to whom the manor of Horley had been granted at the dissolution of Chertsey Monastery. Probably the mesne lordship lapsed before the Dissolution, as the de Burstows of Horley, who are known to have held the manor of Lodge in that place in the 15th century and afterwards, held at an earlier date a considerable amount of land there direct of the abbot, who was lord of Horley Manor. In 1336, for instance, William de Burstow held land called Spiresland of the abbot, and died leaving a son John. (fn. 106) In 1339 John de Burstow made an exchange of lands with the abbot by which the former received lands called Mutheslond, Blakemores and Joyneres, to be held of the abbot for a rent of 7s. 5d. (fn. 107) In 1417 Robert de Burstow is referred to as holding a messuage called Muthesland. (fn. 108)
In 1471 John Bury died seised of the manor of 'Loge' in Horley, held, as has been said, of John Codyngton, then lord of the manor of Lodge in Burstow, and of 50 acres of land called Blakemores and Joyneres and a toft and 20 acres called Speryslond held of the Abbot of Chertsey. (fn. 109) He had been enfeoffed of the manor to the use of himself and his heirs, in 1458, by Robert de Burstow of Horley, Viscount Beaumont and Sir Ralph Boteley, the two latter being probably trustees. (fn. 110) He left two daughters and co-heirs, Elizabeth and Alice. (fn. 111) Possibly Elizabeth married Robert Cornwaleys, as, according to Manning, courts were held in 1501 by Robert Cornwaleys and Elizabeth his wife, and in 1510 by Elizabeth, when a widow, for the manor of Burstow Lodge. (fn. 112) This may be Lodge in Horley, which was sometimes called Burstow Lodge, from the chief holding being in Burstow. Robert and Elizabeth certainly held other land in Horley in the right of Elizabeth, (fn. 113) while there is no trace of them in Burstow. In 1526 the manor, again called Burstow Lodge but evidently in Horley, was held by John Mounteney and Agnes in the right of Agnes, (fn. 114) possibly the heiress of Elizabeth Cornwaleys. It seems to have passed back to the family of Burstow or Bristowe soon after, as, in 1546, Robert Bristowe died seised of it. (fn. 115) On the death of his grandson, in 1563, this manor was divided, as was that of Horley (q.v.) among four co-heirs. (fn. 116) The part belonging to the Jordans descended with the main manor of Horley (q.v.), and doubtless became united with it. John Woodman and Margaret conveyed their quarter to John Cowper in 1564, (fn. 117) from whom it passed, three years later, to Peter Bonwick. (fn. 118) Henry Bonwick, his son, held a fourth in 1607. (fn. 119) In 1574 Thomas Francke and Anna widow of George Taylor conveyed a fourth part of Lodge to John Woodman, (fn. 120) but the latter, on his death in 1587, was seised of no part of this manor. (fn. 121) This part must have passed previously to John Kerrell, who presumably had also obtained the quarter belonging to Agnes daughter and heir of Thomas Twyner, (fn. 122) as in 1618 John Kerrell and Henry Bonwick held the 'manor of Lodge.' (fn. 123)
According to Manning Bonwick afterwards obtained the whole manor, and died in 1663, leaving it to his cousin John Shove, who died in 1700 having devised to his son Henry Shove. (fn. 124) The latter died in 1752 seised of 'the manor or reputed manor of Lodge in Horley,' which he bequeathed to his wife for life with remainder to his godson John Shove, eldest son of John Shove, and his heirs. (fn. 125) The latter conveyed in 1769 to John Yeoman, whose grandson in 1791 sold to William Bryant; the property then passed successively to Henry Byne,—Spiller and—Adams who held in 1804. (fn. 126) After that date it frequently changed hands; it was at one time owned by the Rev. H. des Voeux, who sold to George Birch before 1845, and his family held until after 1878. (fn. 127)
The family of atte Holyland, who were seised of lands in Nutfield (q.v.), also held land in Horley in the 14th century. (fn. 128) In the early 17th century and until 1760 land called Holylands in Horley was the property of the Needler family, (fn. 129) the last of whom, Henry Needler, was a musician of some renown. (fn. 130) The name Holyland is still preserved in Horley.
In 1334 Alleyn de Warewyk and Emma his wife granted to the priory of Reigate the reversion of an estate consisting of a messuage, a mill, 155 acres of land, 9 acres of meadow and 9 acres of wood in Horley and Burstow. (fn. 131) At the time of the Dissolution the estate appears still to have been called by the name Allen of Warwick, the tenant being Thomas Michell. (fn. 132)
The church of ST. BARTHOLOMEW stands at the end of a narrow lane leading off the main road to Brighton, and close to the River Mole. The churchyard, which is narrow on the north side, where its boundary is partly composed of the actual wall of the old Six Bells Inn (the windows of which look into the churchyard in a very unconventional fashion), has been considerably extended towards the south and east of late years. It is bordered by tall elms to the south, and there are public paths, stone flagged, through it, the whole bearing a well-tended appearance. In the more ancient parts are numerous quaint wooden 'bedheads,' one with a most elaborate scrolled top, some large old railed tombs and many ancient headstones, one of which, with stone posts and a slab between, is a curious example of local taste, being evidently derived from the wooden 'bed-head.' Most of these are of 17th and 18th-century dates. At the western end of the churchyard are two fine yew trees.
Although there is no mention of a church in Domesday there is practical certainty of the existence of one on this site by the middle of the 12th century, but it was probably of timber, like the existing tower at the end of the north aisle; at any rate no stones bearing the tooling of that period are observable, but, owing to the walls being plastered externally in the older parts, this must not be taken as conclusive evidence. The construction of the walls being masked, it can only be assumed that they are built of local sandstone rubble in the old parts, as in the new, the original dressings being of Reigate stone, and those in the new parts of Bath stone. The timber tower, where it rises from the aisle roof, is covered with oak shingles and crowned by a slender shingled spire set well within the walls. The modern west porch is of stone with a half timber gable, and it, together with the rest of the church, is roofed with tiles, but Horsham slabs remained upon the roofs down to the restoration of 1881–2, when they were most unfortunately removed. The church was enlarged in 1901 (Sir A. Blomfield), and this extension, which took the form of a wide south aisle, organ chamber and vestry, more than equal in area to the old nave, has necessarily entirely altered its appearance. Until 1901 the plan consisted of a nave about 61 ft. long by 19 ft. at its eastern end, and 20 ft. 7 in. throughout the greater part of its length; chancel about 31 ft. long by 18 ft. wide, a transept on the south of the nave at its eastern end about 17 ft. by 14 ft., and a large north aisle and chapel under a parallel gabled roof, 70 ft. long by 18 ft. 8 in. wide, having a small but lofty north porch, 7 ft. 8 in. by 7 ft. 3 in. In the west end of the aisle was, and is, the timber tower, inclosing a space about 15 ft. square. Of this structure, the spacious north aisle contained the earliest work, and it has therefore been somewhat hastily assumed that it formed the nave and chancel of the original church, and that the coeval arcade on its southern side opened into a narrow south aisle, which subsequently gave place to a wide nave and chancel, tacked on to what thus became an ordinary aisle. (fn. 133) There is no evidence worth considering to support this far-fetched theory of plan development, and it may be taken for certain that the north aisle always has been an aisle, its chapel or chancel forming the chantry of the Salaman family, by whom it was probably built; and that it was added in the ordinary way to a church of 12th or 13th-century date, possibly then of timber construction, which afterwards was either rebuilt in stone, or entirely altered in the 15th century. Practically all the old features of the nave and chancel were of one or more dates between 1400 and 1500, while the transept had lost its old windows with the exception of one that has been preserved as the east window of the modern organ chamber—a two-light 15th-century opening. It should be recorded that two of the large three-light windows now in the south wall of the modern south aisle originally stood in the same relative positions in the south wall of the nave. They differ slightly in design, and the character of the tracery in the heads is somewhat unusual. The west window of the nave has modern tracery, the opening in Cracklow's view showing a wooden frame, while the doorway below, now within the porch, is ancient and has a plain four-centred arch. The buttresses and the west window of the south aisle are of course modern. The east window of the chancel is of three lights, and appears to have been entirely renewed in Bath stone in 1881–2, and the original plain design (c. 1500) was not strictly reproduced. The window in the north wall, of two lights with tracery, has been more or less renewed, but upon the old lines, and its design is somewhat unusual and earlier than the other (c. 1390). On the opposite side the evidence has been obliterated by restoration and subsequent enlargements, but prior to these works there were two two-light windows and a small priest's door between then; the windows, if one may judge by the solitary restored specimen now remaining, being of plainer and later character than that in the north wall. The existing piscina is modern.
The transeptal chapel with gabled roof, on the south of the nave, known as the Bastwick Chapel (possibly the original Lady Chapel), removed in 1901, seems to have had features of late date, but perhaps incorporated 13th-century stonework in its walls. It opened to the nave, not by an arch, but by a timber framing of a beam and posts. The nave wall at its junction with this transept was thickened out, so as to form a projection of about 2 ft. on the inside, perhaps to contain a newel-stair in connexion with the rood-loft; no trace of this now remains. The modern south aisle has been built with an arcade of four arches on octagonal piers, in general conformity with the 15th-century period.
The chief interest of the church centres in its beautiful north aisle, which presents a very valuable and regularly designed example of early 14th-century work. Most unfortunately, its elaborate and graceful window tracery, which was in Reigate stone and in excellent preservation, was almost entirely renewed in 1881–2 in Bath stone, when the ancient corbels, carved as human heads, that formed the termination to the hood-mouldings on the outside, were destroyed, and their places taken by square blocks, not even carved to imitate the destroyed heads. From drawings of the old work that have been preserved, (fn. 134) it is some consolation to observe that the ancient design of the tracery was closely copied, while the internal arches and jambs were suffered to remain in the original stone. It has been supposed that the aisle and its chapel were the work of John de Rutherwyk, 'the very prudent and very useful lord and venerated Abbot,' as he is styled in the deed of 1313, when the Abbot and convent of Chertsey, the patrons of the church, obtained licence to appropriate this church and that of Epsom. But this seems somewhat unlikely on various grounds, partly from the great dissimilarity in style between the work here and that in the chancel of Great Bookham Church, which is actually proved to have been reconstructed by this great church-builder in the year 1341. (fn. 135) More probably the aisle was erected by the Salaman family as their burying-place, and the chancel or chapel at its eastern end as the chapel of St. Katherine. It is quite possible, of course, that Chertsey Abbey cooperated in the work. The exact date is about the year 1315, but possibly it occupied some years in building. The east window, for example, bears a somewhat later stamp than the arcade to the nave. It is of three somewhat lofty lights, having ogee trefoiled heads, and is a thin edition of the west window of the tower at Cranleigh. In the apex of the head of both windows are three cusped vesicashaped figures, and beneath these at Horley are six irregular flamboyant piercings, the whole tracery plane being recessed, within a moulded arch and jambs, and a hood-moulding with returned ends inclosing the head. (fn. 136) In the north wall are four windows, much shorter and of quite different tracery, two on either side of the porch, which is about in the centre of the wall; and in the west wall, within the space inclosed by the wooden tower, is another window of the same design, but loftier. These windows are of two ogee trefoiled lights, over which is a spherical triangle inclosing a trefoil with 'split' or 'curled' cusps, and straight bars radiating to the angles of the triangle. The hood-moulding of these windows prior to 1881 used to terminate in the carved heads above mentioned. The tracery belongs to a type usually called 'flowing,' but its peculiar interest lies in its partaking also of a local form, called 'Kentish.' (fn. 137) The internal treatment of the splays is also unusual, as instead of running out to a plain angle, they are finished by a plain semi-octagonal member, which receives the rear-arch of the head, a very effective treatment.
The north porch, also of c. 1315, has a plain outer door with simply chamfered head and jambs, and in its side walls are small lancets with pointed heads, which in another situation might have been assigned to an earlier date. These have very flat splays on the inside, and below them are stone seats, apparently coeval. The inner doorway is peculiar in many of its details, and fortunately has not been touched in the restoration. Its arch has a springing line about 8 in. below the level of the top of the capitals, and as the outer order of mouldings is continuous, this leads to slight distortion. The shafts to the inner order are reduced to mere bead-mouldings, 1 in. in diameter, but they have complete and delicately moulded capitals and tiny bases very minutely worked. The arch mouldings are very good, and the wide hood-moulding terminated in carved heads now defaced, while there is a characteristic stop to the wave-moulding on the outer order of the jamb. The inner arch and jambs are chamfered.
The arcade of this aisle is of four slender arches, on peculiarly graceful hexagonal columns with responds of semi-octagon plan. The arches, like that of the doorway, are struck from a line well below the level of the capitals, and are of two chamfered orders with well-moulded capitals and bases, the latter, like the capitals, taking a hexagonal form, but brought out to the square in a plinth course by means of bold wave-like stops, similar to those in the doorway. At the east end of this arcade is a tombarch with pointed segmental head, between the respond and the east wall of the aisle. It is chamfered in the same manner as the aisle windows, and adjoining it in the aisle wall are the remains of an image niche.
At the west end of the north aisle, within the walls and the last bay of the arcade, is the remarkably massive wooden tower, standing upon great balks of oak, which rest upon huge squared blocks, braced together by arches of timber, above which is some elaborate oak framework. A date in the 15th century has been assigned to this tower, but there seems no reason for doubting that it is coeval with the aisle, i.e. about 1315. This supposition is strengthened by the general resemblance of the work to the timber tower of Rogate Church, Sussex, which is unquestionably of early 14th-century date.
The roofs of the north aisle, nave, and chancel, are in the main composed of the ancient timbers, of great size and strength, the aisle roof being probably coeval with the walls, and the others perhaps of 15th-century date. A beautiful and very perfect roof of c. 1315 remains over the porch, formed of rafters and collars with curved braces, which make a complete pointed arch.
Before 1881–2 there existed the lower part of a parclose screen, which inclosed the eastern end of the north aisle, in which is the fine Salaman tomb. This screen, which was of 15th-century date, had a return end to the respond of the arcade, and showed 'traces of its original colouring of red and green.' (fn. 138) Also there were a good number of the old seats, 'disguised by the addition of a top-gallant bulwark to keep out draughts and curiosity, and facilitate a quiet snooze. One lofty pew with carved upper panels' bore the date 1654, and the initials I F, which may indicate one of the Fenner family, who were people of some importance in the parish. (fn. 139) No relic remains of these old pews to which so much old parish history clung: pitch pine seats have taken their place. Galleries, which were comparatively modern, have been swept away, and are hardly to be regretted, especially one, 'handsomely painted to resemble mahogany.' 'The communion table, rails, and a wainscot against the east wall,' described as 'neat,' which were 'given in 1710 by the Governors of Christ's Hospital, the patrons of the living and lay rectors,' have also been removed from the church, together with a late 17th-century screen on the east side of the timber tower.
Remains of a simple pattern in red-brown, painted on the east respond of the arcades, still exist, but other traces of mural paintings uncovered in the chancel were not preserved. The north doorway shows signs of having been painted in black and other colours. Some rare fragments of painted glass in the trefoil figure of the tracery of the north aisle windows, after a temporary disappearance, consequent upon the restoration of 1881–2, have been recovered, and are now to be seen in their old places. They have a design of three fleurs de lis in rich flash-ruby glass, radiating from a circle in which is framed a golden leopard's head, the arms of the Salaman family. The pattern in the spandrels was in black and white, with a ribbon of light yellow beads inclosing a geometrical tracery pattern. (fn. 140) These seem to have disappeared, but there are other fragments such as roses, flaming suns, &c., in the west window of the aisle.
The font, of Sussex marble, small and square in form, on a circular stem and plinth, may be of 13th-century date, but it has lost its angle shafts, and has been otherwise mutilated.
The monuments are of exceptional interest, the earliest being a very finely carved and well-preserved stone effigy of a knight of the Salaman family, which lies beneath the arch at the east end of the north aisle. It used to lie upon the pavement, but has been very properly set upon a stone base. 'It is upon a table slightly ridged en dos d'âne, forming doubtless the lid of the coffin or tomb, and is recumbent in the usual manner, the head resting on a cushion, with a lion at the feet.' (fn. 141) The figure, which is life-size, is in Reigate stone, in a free and unconventional attitude.
'The shield, of an intermediate size between the small heater-shape and the long one almost covering the body, is incurved and emblazoned with a double-headed eagle displayed, charged on the breast with a leopard's head.' The arms are those of the Salaman family, who held land in the parish, but which member of that family is represented is uncertain—probably the father of Roger Salaman, who died 1343–4, seised of the manor of Imworth next Kingston, and of land in Horley held of the Prior of Merton. (fn. 142) His Christian name is unknown. The date of the effigy is about that of the aisle—c. 1315. (fn. 143)
The fine brass of a lady beneath an elegant canopy, which formerly lay in the north aisle, afterwards in the floor of the chancel, and which has lately been embedded, with its slab, in a vertical position in the north wall of the chancel, is also in all probability a memorial of another member of the Salaman family, its date being about a century later than the stone effigy, viz. c. 1415. The inscription at the foot does not belong to it. Her hands are conjoined in prayer, and she wears the horned head-dress looped up in an unusual manner at the back, with pads or inclosures for the hair projecting considerably on either side. On her neck is a collar of S S. (fn. 144) The canopy is of a single cusped arch, from which rises a crocketed pediment, surmounted by a finial, and the whole supported by long shafts ending in pinnacles.
On the south wall of the chancel is now fixed a small brass figure of a man, the inscription being lost. He is in the civilian costume of the end of the 15th century, and has a long furred dress, girdled at the waist. The inscription wrongly attached to the other brass has been also mistakenly associated with this. It runs:— 'Of yo' charite pray for the soule of JohŘ ffenner late wyf of Jořn ffenner gent' which Johan deceased the ij day of Juley in the yere of our Lord m'v'xvj on whose soule Jřu have mercy. amen.'
On a small stone let into one of the buttresses of the modern south aisle is the following in capital letters:—
'Here lyeth Alyce theldest daughter of . . . . Gilmyn gent: late wife of Thomas Taylor of Horly the yovnger. Bvried the 18 day of Janvary: 1615: and Thomas the sonne of her and of Thomas Taylor above writen her husband buried the 1 day of Febrya: 1615.'
On a stone of the north wall of the chancel inside is the curious inscription on a sunken panel with a moulded border to William Brown, 1613, 'pastor' of Horley 50 years, and his two wives, Magdalen, 1604, and Margaret, 1611. Below is a table of his descendants.
There is a small cross upon the east jamb of the north door, and several others more rudely scratched. Also on the same jamb is a very curious little unfinished carving, 5½ in. high, of the design of a traceried window, coeval with the doorway on which it has been cut.
In the inventory of the commissioners of Edward VI there were: 'In the steple iiij belles and iiij hand belles.' Now there are eight, dated 1812 and 1839, by Thomas Mears of London, with the exception of the fifth, which is inscribed, 'Henry and John Shove gave the original 3d Bell 1673 James P Brazier John Newnham Church Wardens.'
The church plate is not of much interest. It comprises a silver cup, paten and flagon, of 1714, each bearing the letters IHS and the inscription 'Sam Billingsley, vicar. Jno Humphrey, James Wood, Church Wardens. Jno Charington, Tho. Beadle, overseers. Anno Domini 1714.'
The registers date from 1578. More interesting are the churchwardens' accounts, from 1507 to 1702, now at the British Museum. (fn. 145) There are, however, disappointingly few references to the church fabric, and these chiefly consist of repairs to the glazing and leadwork, a 'lok,' and 'yerns' (irons). One entry has: 'The su' of the Rynggs a pon the crose, is liij,' and another, 'Of the sylū' that is a pon the crose, ijs j d —iiij pessis of a whope' [? hoop]. These probably refer to a processional cross.
Later entries (1604 and 1934) contain interesting memoranda as to the appropriation of the seats, showing that they went with the estates and farms in the parish, and 'the repaire of the church and steeple' (1669), which cost £40 13s. 4d., a further repair (1686) costing £6 14s. 1d. In 1632 'John Ansty is chosen by consent of ye minister & Parishoners, to see yt ye younge men & boyes behauve themselves decently in ye church in time of Diuine service & Sermon, and he is to have for his paines ij s .' There are several records as to apprentices; and some of the earlier entries refer to the parish cow and to the 'stock,' or common funds of parochial gilds, which was to be placed in the treasure chest.
In 1190 Pope Clement III granted permission to the Abbot and convent of Chertsey to retain in their own hands the parish churches of Horley, Epsom, Bookham, &c., reserving the benefices thereof to their own use 'provided that they elect vicars thereto.' (fn. 146) This permission was recited in a licence for the appropriation of the churches of Horley and Epsom made to Chertsey Abbey by the Bishop of Winchester and confirmed by the Crown in 1313, (fn. 147) the concession being due to the decrease in the revenues of the monastery incidental to floods, to pestilence among the cattle, and to other misfortunes from which the Chertsey lands had lately suffered. (fn. 148) Confirmation was also made by the Archbishop of Canterbury, and the abbot was inducted into the churches on St. Dunstan's Day, 1313, by the Archdeacon of Surrey. (fn. 149) The church of Horley, surrendered with the manor in 1537, (fn. 150) was granted with it (q.v.) to Sir Nicholas Carew, and has since followed the same descent, the present patrons and lay rectors being the governors of Christ's Hospital.
In 1316 the abbot purchased of Michael le Waps a certain messuage with garden, curtilage, and a croft of arable land which he assigned as a manse for the vicar of Horley. (fn. 151) Thomas Cowper of Horley, in his will, proved in March 1499, desired to be buried 'in the church of the Blessed Mary at Horley in the chapel of St. Katherine'; he bequeathed to the high altar 20d., to each of the four lights in the same church 4d., and for two torches 13s. 4d. (fn. 152) The early churchwardens' accounts of Horley contained frequent memoranda of sums received for St. Katherine's and St. Nicholas' lights in the church; in 1518, for instance, 47s. was received for St. Katherine's light, kept by two of the married women of the parish, and 34s. 8½d. for St. Nicholas' light, kept by two men. (fn. 153) A will of 1534 records bequests to the lights of the Holy Cross and of the Blessed Mary in the church. (fn. 154)
Smith's Charity is distributed as in other Surrey parishes.