A History of the County of Surrey: Volume 3. Originally published by Victoria County History, London, 1911.
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SEND WITH RIPLEY
Send is a parish with two villages, Send lying about 3 miles and Ripley about 5 miles north-east of Guildford. It is bounded by Woking on the north-west, Pyrford to the north, Ockham to the north-east, West Horsley on the east, the two Clandons and Merrow on the south, and Worplesdon on the south-west. It measures 3½ miles from east to west, and about 4 miles north to south in the widest part. It contains 5,139 acres. Ripley and the north of the parish are on the sand and gravel of the Wey Valley, Send on a patch of Bagshot Sand; the southern part of the parish is on the London Clay. The River Wey skirts the western side of the parish, and in part bounds it. The road from London to Guildford runs through it, and the London and South-Western Railway line by Cobham to Guildford cuts the extreme south of the parish. There are brickfields on the London Clay. Ripley Green is a well-known open space in the parish.
The neighbourhood of Send has yielded several neolithic flints, some of which are in the Archaeological Society's Museum at Guildford. Salmon says that Roman coins were found there. (fn. 1) The site of Newark Priory is just within the border of the parish. It had evidently occupied another site, also possibly in the parish, but was rebuilt on a new site and called De Novo Loco, Newark, Newstead, or New Place. The foundation was anterior to the benefaction by Ruald de Calva and his wife Beatrice de Sandes, under Richard I, and the Winchester Registers (fn. 2) say that it was founded by a Bishop of Winchester. Bishop Godfrey de Lucy, who died in 1204, gave a grant of land to the house under the name of Aldbury. Andrew Bukerel, son of Andrew, citizen of London, mayor 1231–7, or the son of the mayor, gave a grant to the house De Novo Loco. (fn. 3) The site and remains of the Priory buildings have lately been placed under the protection of the Ancient Monuments Acts.
The parish was the scene of a nearly forgotten skirmish. On 14 June 1497 the Cornish rebels marching upon Kent from the west had reached Guildford, and had a skirmish with the outposts of the royal troops on the road from Guildford to London. The latter evidently fell back, for they had lost touch of the rebels on the 16th and were looking for them on the Guildford road again near Kingston when they were actually on the border of Kent. (fn. 4) Old maps mark the place where the road crosses the stream which joins the Wey near Send as St. Thomas's Waterings, a name which occurs in the London suburbs. It is now not used, but its occurrence here shows that it had no connexion with pilgrimages to St. Thomas's shrine.
By the Inclosure Act for Send and Ripley, passed in 1803, 600 acres of common and common fields were inclosed. (fn. 5)
Send Grove is the property of and occupied by the Misses Onslow. General Evelyn, a son of Sir John Evelyn of Wotton, resided at this house, and he laid out the grounds. On his death, in 1783, it was bought by Admiral Sir Francis Drake, second in command to Rodney in his victory of 1782 over De Grasse. Woodhill is the seat of the Dowager Countess of Wharncliffe.
The early history of SEND begins with the 10th century, when Athelstan sold lands which he held at Send to the Archbishop of Canterbury. (fn. 6) But at the time of Domesday the tenant in chief was Alured de Merlebergh, of whom Rainald held it. (fn. 7) There were two other sub-tenants, Walter and Hubert, whose holdings may be the origins of Papworth and Dedswell.
Alured's property in Send followed the descent of his Herefordshire estate at Ewyas Harold. (fn. 8) Robert de Tregoz married Sibyl daughter of Robert de Ewyas, (fn. 9) and about 1207 confirmed the endowment of Newark Priory in Send. (fn. 10) Robert de Tregoz his grandson was killed at Evesham in 1265. In 1290 his son John de Tregoz granted a knight's fee in Send to Newark, (fn. 11) and some ten years later he died seised of two knights' fees in Send, leaving two co-heirs, his daughter Sibyl wife of Otho de Grandison, and John son of another daughter, Clarissa wife of Roger De La Warr. (fn. 12)
In 1359 the Prior of Newark and Roger son of John De La Warr (fn. 13) are mentioned as being lords of Send, (fn. 14) so that probably Sibyl de Grandison had by that date released her rights. In 1398 John De La Warr son of Roger (fn. 15) died holding rents only in Send, (fn. 16) and since the Priors of Newark are the only lords mentioned between that date and the Dissolution it seems reasonable to suppose that the De La Warr family endowed the priory with any other property that they possessed.
Henry VIII granted the manor, called Send and Jury, to Sir Anthony Browne in 1544. (fn. 17) It remained in his family until 1674, when the impoverishment of the family necessitated its being vested in trustees with a view to sale. (fn. 18) Accordingly in 1711 (fn. 19) Francis Browne, fourth Viscount Montagu, conveyed it to Sir Richard Onslow, together with the manor of Ripley and the farms called 'Chapel Farm, Send Barnes, Jury Farm, Ride Farm, and Newark Priory.' (fn. 20) The manor has remained in the Onslow family, but Newark was sold to Lord King, ancestor of the Earl of Lovelace, in 1785.
There are traces of various tenants of land in Send during the 13th century. Ruald de Calva and Beatrice his wife, the benefactors of Newark, evidently held land in Send as well as the advowson of the church. (fn. 21) Their charter to the priory mentions a certain William Maubaunc as their heir. (fn. 22) Geoffry Maubaunc, John Dedeswell, and Simon Pypard are mentioned in the inquisition of John Tregoz as having formerly each held two-thirds of his two knights' fees. (fn. 23) In 1290 Ruald Maubaunc is mentioned, who left three daughters and co-heirs; Alice wife of Thomas de Send is known to have been his daughter, (fn. 24) while the others may possibly have been the wife of John de Dedswell, (fn. 25) and Dionisia wife of John le Blund, for in 1290 Robert de Lodenham held of John Tregoz, and John le Blund and John de Dendeswell are named as holders under him with Thomas de Sende. (fn. 26)
The earliest mention of the manor of RIPLEY (Rippelege, xiii cent.) seems to be in 1279, when the Prior of Newark claimed to have suit at his court of Ripley. (fn. 27) Henry III in 1220 granted to the Prior of Newark the right of holding an annual fair at the feast of St. Mary Magdalen. (fn. 28) In 1279 the prior also claimed the right of having a market in Ripley, which he had received by charter from Henry III, but it was of no value, as no one came to it. (fn. 29) This manor subsequently descended with Send (q.v.).
There was apparently a manor of NEWARK in Send, since in 1279 the prior claimed to have free warren in his 'manor of Newark.' (fn. 30) This manor probably consisted of the land immediately adjacent to the priory. It is not described as a manor at the Dissolution, and in the 18th century appears as the farm called Newark Priory, (fn. 31) which was purchased by Sir Richard Onslow and subsequently sold to Lord King (vide supra).
The remains of the church of Newark Priory stand in the midst of level fields almost wholly surrounded by streams, and belong entirely to the early years of the 13th century, though the plan shows evidence of an older building, set at a slightly different axis, represented by the quire and nave of the existing church. The plan is noteworthy in several respects. The quire, which seems to represent the presbytery and possibly also the quire of a simple 12th-century church, is flanked, as regards its two eastern bays, by the 13th-century transepts, but is separated from them by walls solid for some 10 ft. from the ground to take the stalls, above which pairs of arches open to the upper parts of the transepts, while its third or western bay forms the first bay of the nave, and has had a cross arch at the west, under which the pulpitum stood. The 13th-century enlargements were a threebay presbytery east of the quire, flanked by pairs of square-ended chapels en échelon, on the east of the transepts. A very unusual feature of these chapels, which were covered with barrel-vaults, is that they have separate side walls, a space being left between each pair of chapels. The aisles of the nave were probably 13th-century additions, but have quite disappeared except for a length of the wall of the south aisle, which having no foundations has unfortunately fallen over bodily quite recently.
The presbytery, which has lost its east wall, was of three bays, forming a continuation of the quire, which was also of three bays, both having been vaulted with quadripartite rib vaults springing from wall-shafts with Purbeck marble capitals. In each of the bays is a gap on either side left by the removal of the stonework of the lancet windows, which apparently were of three orders with splayed rear-arches, and had steeply sloping sills inside. Under the second or middle north window is a gap opening to the north chapel. In the third or western bay on both sides are the openings which were the upper quire entrances. In the middle bay of the south side a ragged hole represents the sedilia. At the west of the presbytery a cross arch marked the eastern limit of the quire; the first two bays had lofty pointed archways opening into the transepts, but only those on the south side are standing; between the bays are the toothings of buttresses which must have projected into the transepts. The third or westernmost bay, left standing on the south side, has a lower archway of equal width with the others, opening into the east end of the aisle. The dwarf wall closing its lower half is pierced below the west jamb of the arch by a pointed doorway. Over the archway are the remains of a lancet window which gave light to a clearstory above the aisle roof.
The south transept is more complete than any other part, its three outer walls being almost intact excepting where they have been robbed of all the dressed stones. In the east wall were two pointed archways —now mere gaps—opening into the chapels; between them are the remains against the wall of a small stone altar 5 ft. long, and over this altar is a square recess 2 ft. 6 in. wide. Another archway at the north end of the west wall opened from the nave aisle.
In the south wall of the transept, near the southwest angle, is the doorway connected with the nightstair from the dorter. The transept is lighted by a range of three lancet windows on either side, and another lancet high up in the south gable end. This portion had a high-pitched wooden roof, now of course all gone.
Of the two chapels to the east of the transept very little remains. The northern one extended behind two bays of the presbytery, being divided into two by a cross arch supporting the buttress between the bays. Of this arch and the east wall only the toothings on the presbytery wall are left; the chapel had a semi-circular barrel-vault running from east to west, of which a few springing stones remain. Over it was a lean-to roof against the presbytery wall. On the transept wall are the marks of two such roofs, one steeper than the other, and evidently of different dates.
The southern chapel was only of one bay in depth; its south wall still stands with a few angle stones indicating the return of the east wall; in it are the remains of a piscina. There are also the springing stones of a pointed barrel vault springing from a grooved and hollow-chamfered string-course. Over this vault, but not central with it, was a gabled wood roof, the outline of which is to be seen on the transept wall, and the gap between the two chapels is very clearly shown, the east face of the transept wall retaining its external plinth, which must have returned round the outsides of the chapels.
On the south face of the transept and chapel wall is the mark of the barrel-vault of the passage to the cemetery, 12 ft. wide, part of the east wall of which remains: the gable line of the dorter range also shows on the transept wall, but except for this all traces of the priory buildings have disappeared.
The north transept has entirely gone, and the only part left on that side is the north chapel to the east of the transept; of this much of the three outer walls still stands, but they possess no details of note.
The only part of the nave still left is a length of the south aisle wall, and this has now fallen; the toothings where it came against the transept wall remain in place, but for a space of 24 ft. the wall is missing, the remaining portion running thence westward for 34 ft. On the transept wall are the marks of the lean-to roof of the aisle; it cuts across the north-west lancet window to the transept.
The dimensions of the church were: Presbytery, 43 ft. by 24 ft. 4 in.; quire, 40 ft. by 26 ft.; north and south transepts, 30 ft. deep by 25 ft. 4 in. wide; north-east chapel off the south transept and south-east chapel off the north transept, 26 ft. by 10 ft. 6 in., the other two chapels 12 ft. by 10 ft. 6 in.; nave length uncertain, width probably that of the quire, and south aisle 12 ft. wide.
In the south transept lies a heavy 14th-century cross slab of very rough work, being made of the intractable crystalline stone which occurs in isolated blocks in various parts of the county and elsewhere.
The so-called manor of PAPWORTH (Pappeworth, xiv cent.) may have been the holding of Walter or of Hubert in 1086. In 1271 Ruald de Calva granted the 'hamene of Papworth' to Newark Priory. (fn. 32) The priory granted it to the Westons of West Clandon, for in 1331 William de Weston had land in Send, (fn. 33) and in 1363 Margery widow of William de Weston died seised of a 'tenement called Papworth,' which she held of Newark. (fn. 34)
Papworth followed the descent of West Clandon Manor (q.v.) until the beginning of the 17th century, when Edmund Slyfield, lord of West Clandon, conveyed it to Henry Weston of Ockham. (fn. 35) The Westons held it until 1711, when John Weston sold it with Ockham to Sir Peter King. (fn. 36) Early in the 19th century Lord King, a descendant of Sir Peter, exchanged it with Lord Onslow for the manor of Wisley. (fn. 37)
The reputed manor of DEDSWELL (Dodswell, Dadswell, xvi cent.), possibly the other small holding of Domesday, received its name as land held of John de Tregoz by John de Dedeswell for the service of onethird of two knights' fees. (fn. 38) This service was in 1290 granted by John de Tregoz to the Prior of Newark. (fn. 39)
In 1351 Thomas de Weston of Albury married Joan daughter and heiress of John Dedswell of Send. (fn. 40) This Thomas was of a younger branch of the Westons of Send. At the death of William de Weston without issue in 1485 (fn. 41) Dedswell passed to his sister Margaret, who married first William Welles of Buxted in Sussex and second John Appesley. She died in 1512 leaving a son and heir John Welles. (fn. 42) In 1539 Thomas Welles son of John conveyed the manor to Sir Richard Weston of Sutton in Woking. (fn. 43) It remained with the Westons of Sutton until 1661, when John Weston conveyed it to Arthur Onslow. (fn. 44) The Onslow family has retained possession until the present day.
The reputed manor of JURY in Send is mentioned among the lands lately belonging to Newark Priory which were granted to Sir Anthony Browne at the Dissolution. (fn. 45) Probably it represents the grant of a messuage with 100 acres of land made to the Prior and convent of Newark in 1331 by William Diry, (fn. 46) whose name was apparently attached to the holding, and became corrupted into Jury in process of time. This tenement descended with the manor of Send.
The Domesday Survey of Send (q.v.) mentions a mill, which in the 13th century appeared as a watermill in the possession of Thomas and Alice de Send. (fn. 47) This mill, which they granted to the priory, was Newark Mill. The grant to Sir Anthony Browne (q.v.) mentions a mill in Ripley which may refer to the same. There was another mill on one of the smaller holdings.
The church of ST. MARY THE VIRGIN, SEND, is a small building consisting of a chancel 17 ft. 6 in. by 24 ft. 9 in. and an aisleless nave 38 ft. 3 in. by 31 ft. 2 in. with a west tower 10 ft. by 9 ft. 3 in., and a south porch.
The chancel seems to have been built about the year 1240, and is the oldest part of the church. The whole nave was rebuilt late in the 14th century, being unusually wide for its length, and the tower was added somewhat later. The south porch, which is of timber, was probably added late in the 15th century, and the church was restored in 1847.
The east window of the chancel was inserted apparently in old jambs in 1819. It has three cinquefoiled lights and tracery of a curious semi-gothic character in a two-centred head. The north wall of the chancel has two original lancets, the easternmost one having chamfered and rebated jambs and the other plain rebated jambs.
In the south wall are two lancets of 13th-century date like those in the opposite wall, the easternmost one in this case having unchamfered jambs, while all have external shafts. At the west end of this wall is a small coeval low side window.
Near the east end of the north wall of the chancel is a plain projecting corbel, which was probably intended to support a figure. Opposite this in the south wall is a piscina with stop-chamfered jambs and pointed head. The basin was circular, but the projecting portion has been lopped off. Between the first and second windows of the south wall is a small 13th-century priest's doorway which has chamfered jambs of sandstone, and a four-centred head. The ashlar elsewhere, except in some of the lower quoins, is of chalk. There is no chancel arch; but that one originally existed is proved by the remains of squints on either side at the western angles of the chancel.
The north wall of the nave contains three windows, the easternmost being one of two plain lights with a square head set low in the wall. The head, sill, and mullion are chamfered, but the jambs are rebated as well as if to receive a shutter. The other two windows have each three trefoiled lights under a square head with a moulded label. They have both been restored in places. The windows of the south wall of the nave are similar to those of the north just described, except that the small south-east window is of one light only. The south doorway has plain chamfered jambs and a pointed four-centred head, and the porch retains its original moulded wall plates and uprights, but the lower parts have been replaced by plastered brickwork. The cusped barge-board at the south gable end is original. The tower arch is of two continuous chamfered orders, and in the north wall of the tower is a small doorway with a four-centred head which leads to the stair turret.
In the west wall of the tower is a plain doorway, much repaired, with two continuous hollow-chamfered orders and a moulded label. Above it is a 15th-century window partly restored, having three cinquefoiled lights under a fourcentred head with a moulded label. The tower is of three stages with angle buttresses and a modern embattled parapet. In each face of the top stage is a window with a modern outer order and four-centred head of two wide trefoiled lights, the tracery of which is masked by modern louvres. The second stage has a single cinquefoiled light on the north and south, the former having a two-centred head and the latter one of ogee shape.
The walls throughout are of flint rubble, a few pieces of 13th-century detail being built into those of the nave; some of the heavy Horsham slabs remain on the lower parts of the nave roof, but elsewhere red tiles are used. The nave roof has old tie-beams and embattled wall plates, and is plastered between the rafters; and the tie-beam at the west end of the chancel is supported on curved brackets.
The chancel screen has been rebuilt, most of the upper portion being modern, but the traceried heads to all the lights and part of the moulded cornice are of 13th-century date. There are no mullions now, but modern carved pendants take their place, the holes where the original mullions tenoned into the middle rail being filled up; below the rail is plain solid panelling. The moulded posts at each end of the screen show the marks of former parclose screens returning westwards.
A stone on the north wall of the chancel has a brass attached to it which bears the following black-letter inscription: 'Here lyeth Laurence Slyffeld gent' & Alys he wyfe which Laure[nce] decessid ye XIII day of Nov[em]br' ao d[omin]i Mo Vo XXI ō whŵ soule Jhū have m'ci.' Above are the figures of the man and his wife, and below are three boys.
Above this brass is another with inscription: 'Pray for the Soule of S' Thomas Marteyn late Vycar of Sende the which decessed the XXIX day of September the yere of our lord Ml Vc XXXIII on whos soule Jhū have m'ci.'
The oldest piece of plate is a paten of the Britannia standard, but the date-letter is worn away. It is inscribed 1845. There is also a cup of 1844, a flagon of the same date, and a plate or almsdish which is not silver.
There are six books of registers, the first, which is of parchment, containing in the beginning entries of births from 1633 to 1659 copied from an old book. Following this are baptisms from 1666 to 1683, marriages from 1654 to 1700 with a gap between 1659 and 1666, and burials from 1653 to 1700 with a gap as in the marriages. The second book contains baptisms, marriages, and burials all from 1700 to 1762, 1754, and 1764 respectively. The third book contains marriages from 1754 to 1769; the fourth baptisms and burials from 1792 to 1812; the fifth has marriages from 1762 to 1791; and the sixth continues them from 1792 to 1812.
The church of ST. MARY THE VIRGIN, RIPLEY, consists of a chancel, nave, south aisle, and north porch; and was rebuilt in 1845–6, except the chancel, which dates from about 1160 and was intended to have a stone vault of two bays, the vaulting shafts of which yet remain, although it is not certain whether the vault was ever completed. The east window is an insertion of c. 1230 and is too high to have co-existed with any stone vault; the vault must therefore have been removed by this time if it was ever completed at all. The window consists of three lancets separated by wide rebated and chamfered mullions, all under one two-centred rear arch; the two jambs inside have a deeply undercut roll with a somewhat formless base, and stopped out below the springing. The two north windows are original, and have round heads with shallow rebated outer jambs, and wide inner splays with engaged shafts at the angles, which have scalloped capitals with grooved and chamfered abaci. The two south windows are contemporary with the east window; the first is restored outside, but has an inner edge roll like that of the east window; the other has plain angles. West of the latter is a 15th or 16th-century priest's doorway, now opening from the modern vestry. The vaulting shafts divide the chan cel into two bays; the middle pilaster is a foot wide and projects about seven inches, and has an engaged half-round shaft on its face, flanked by detached round shafts 5 in. in diameter, and similar detached shafts stand in the angles at the east and west ends of the chancel; they all have good moulded bases with projecting spurs at the corners of the square sub-bases; the capitals are richly scalloped and have hollow chamfered square abaci. The richest detail of the whole chancel is the elaborately carved string-course running round the chancel below the windows; it is large and half-round in section, ornamented with interlacing spiral bands filled in with diamond-shaped leaves; the string is carried round the vaulting shafts and finishes against the chancel arch. The eastern angles of the chancel have shallow clasping buttresses, and there are shallow buttresses behind the intermediate shafts; the two side walls are about 2 ft. 8 in. thick and the east wall about 3 ft., the walling is flint mixed with conglomerate with chalk dressings, and all the dressings inside are of chalk.
The chancel arch and the nave generally are modern, excepting perhaps the rear arch of the north doorway which appears to be of the 13th century; it is of chalk and has a pointed edge roll with deep hollows on either side of it and another small roll on the outermost edge. Three lancet windows pierce the north wall, the doorway with a pointed head coming between the second and third. An arcade of four bays divides the nave from the aisle; it has round pillars and pointed arches of 13th-century character. The east wall of the aisle is pierced by a traceried circular window, and the south wall has four windows each of three lights under traceried heads. At the west end of the nave is a pointed doorway below an organ gallery, and on the west wall is a bellcot in which hangs a small modern bell.
The advowson of the church of Send was granted to the Prior of Newark by Ruald de Calva. (fn. 48) It remained with the priory until the Dissolution, (fn. 49) when it was granted with the manor (q.v.) to Sir Anthony Browne. It has followed the descent of the manor from that time.
The chapel at Ripley was granted to Newark Priory by Ruald de Calva. (fn. 50) Its advowson descended with the manor of Send after the Dissolution, when theNewark possessions were granted to Sir Anthony Browne.
The chapel was included as a chantry chapel at the time of the Commissions of Edward VI, and a revenue of £6 was confiscated as a chantry foundation. The building survived and was made the church of an ecclesiastical parish in 1878.