A History of the County of Surrey: Volume 3. Originally published by Victoria County History, London, 1911.
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The manor of KINGSTON-UPONTHAMES was ancient demesne of the Crown in 1086, and remained in royal hands until, in 1200, it passed to the freemen of the town under the charter of King John. (fn. 1)
The name of BERWELL (Berewell, xiii–xvi cent.) first occurs in 1252, when Henry III granted to the Prior of Merton free warren here and elsewhere. (fn. 2) In 1290–1 the priory received lands here and in other places from Richard de la Sterte, Reginald Rote, the Prior of St. Mary's, Southwark, and others, (fn. 3) and Berwell was called a 'vill' in 1336. (fn. 4) In 1537–8, when brought to the Crown by the Dissolution it was called a 'manor,' though there were no returns from the perquisites of court. (fn. 5) It was granted in 1579 with the manor of Coombe Nevill to Thomas Vincent and his heirs; (fn. 6) he sold it in 1595 to Edward Carleton, (fn. 7) whose son, (fn. 8) Matthew Carleton, with Margaret his wife conveyed it in 1645 to Sir Dudley Carleton. (fn. 9) He is said to have obtained unlimited right of common in Surbiton and Claygate from the corporation in 1636, and in 1651 sold the manor to Richard Glid, senior, Richard Glid, junior, and William Wright. (fn. 10) Richard Glid and Elizabeth his wife sold it in 1663 (fn. 11) to James Davidson, who devised it to his son-in-law, Richard Edes, in 1695. (fn. 12) The manor again changed hands in 1699 when Richard Edes and Mary his wife sold it to William Letheuillier; (fn. 13) his daughter married William Task, (fn. 14) who sold it in 1771 to Charles Terry. (fn. 15) From him it was purchased in the following year by Joseph Sales, (fn. 16) the sale being completed in 1774. (fn. 17) The new owner retained it until 1788, (fn. 18) when he sold it to John Richardson, who in the following year conveyed it to Marcus Dixon the lord in 1799. (fn. 19) His daughters were in possession in 1804; (fn. 20) one daughter Elizabeth Morris, appears to have married Archibald Blair, and Maria a second was the wife of John Wales; both conveyed fourth parts of the manor to Robert Blair, who may have been a trustee. (fn. 21) When Brayley wrote it had been 'for about twenty-five years,' that is, since about 1818, in the hands of John Sykes of Kensington. (fn. 22) It is now the property of Baron Foley.
Certain lands held here by Cola in the time of the Confessor had passed into the hands of Ansgot the Interpreter by 1086, when they were assessed at 1½ hides, half the previous computation. (fn. 23) In 1164–5 the sheriff rendered account of £7 from Coombe, already considered a member of Kingston, (fn. 24) and the payment was repeated in the following year, when an additional 14s. was rendered from the pasture of the park there; (fn. 25) these payments were still made in 1173–4. (fn. 26) Before 1167–8 the fee was held by Robert Belet, who in that year was dispossessed by Henry II, (fn. 27) but the lands were restored in 1190–1, when Robert Belet paid £80 to the Exchequer for restoration to his inheritance. (fn. 28) At the beginning of the 13th century it was held by Michael Belet, and with his manor of Sheen came into the hands of the Crown. (fn. 29) In 1215 King John gave Coombe to Hugh de Nevill, (fn. 30) and it was already known as Coombe Nevill in 1260. (fn. 31) In the following year John Nevill bought an acre of land in Kingston from Peter the Goldsmith. (fn. 32) At the beginning of the 14th century the manor was held by William de Nevill, who died without male issue, his lands being divided between his daughter Nicholaa, wife of John de Hadresham, and Henry son of the second daughter Alice, who had married Richard le Weyte. (fn. 33)
The moiety of the manor held by Nicholaa and John descended to John de Hadresham who was the tenant in 1341. (fn. 34) William de Hadresham was in possession at his death in 1361, when the manor passed to John his infant son. (fn. 35) During his minority the 'manorhouse' was accidentally burnt, and in 1368–9 the custody was granted to John de Hadresham who was charged with the reconstruction. (fn. 36) John de Hadresham died in 1417, his heirs being his cousins, Alice Virly and Joan wife of John Silverton, daughters of Christina sister of his father William, and his own child yet unborn. (fn. 37) In 1418 the manor was conveyed by Alice widow of Richard Virly, Elizabeth widow of Edward Herveys, and John Silverton and Joan his wife to trustees, (fn. 38) who in 1423 completed the transfer to Merton Priory. (fn. 39)
The manor was still in the hands of the priory (fn. 40) at the Dissolution, when it came to the Crown, and in 1539–40 was leased for twenty-one years to John Jenyns of the household. (fn. 41) In 1547 it was granted to Edward Duke of Somerset, (fn. 42) but escheated to the Crown on his execution, and was re-granted in 1552 to Willaim Cecil for twenty-one years. (fn. 43) On the accession of Queen Mary the reversion of the manor was granted to Anne widow of Edward Duke of Somerset for life, and in 1571 William Cecil, now Lord Burghley, obtained a further grant of the reversion, (fn. 44) and at the same time Anne, now the wife of Francis Newdigate, released the manor to him. (fn. 45) Burghley retained it until 1579, (fn. 46) when he quitclaimed to the queen, who forthwith granted it and the manor of Berwell to Thomas Vincent and his heirs. (fn. 47) In 1601 Thomas Vincent with Jane his wife and Francis his son conveyed his rights of free warren here to Edward Heron and another, (fn. 48) and in 1608 Sir Francis Vincent, kt., sold these rights and the manor itself to William Cockayne, (fn. 49) Lord Mayor of London, knighted in 1616. (fn. 50) Sir William was succeeded by his son Charles created Viscount Cullen in 1642. (fn. 51) He was a staunch Cavalier and raised a troop of horse for the king's service. He apparently refused to pay his church rate to the party in power in 1650, when an entry for 2d. occurs in the churchwardens' accounts as incurred 'in going to the Lord Cockayne for his rate money.' (fn. 52) He is said to have lost £50,000 by his loyalty, and was forced in 1651 to convey the manor of Coombe to Edward, Lord Montagu, and others, (fn. 53) apparently trustees for Elizabeth wife of Sir Daniel Harvey and daughter of Lord Montagu. (fn. 54) From Sir Daniel it descended to his son Sir Edward Harvey, who made various settlements of the manor in 1679. (fn. 55) His son Edward Harvey, Jacobite M.P. for Clitheroe in 1714, resided here. Rent from the manor appears as the property of Edward Southwell, senior and junior, in 1729 and 1761, (fn. 56) but the manor is said to have passed to Michael, cousin of Edward Harvey, junior, and to have been sold in about 1753 to the trustees of John Spencer, (fn. 57) who was created Viscount Spencer in 1761 and Earl Spencer in 1765. (fn. 58) His son George John, Earl Spencer, succeeded his father as lord of the manor in 1783 and was still holding in 1804. (fn. 59) The manor is not mentioned after this date, and has now ceased to exist. Coombe House belonged to the Earl of Liverpool, the statesman; and subsequently to the late Duke of Cambridge.
The most interesting fee in Kingston was perhaps that which was held in the time of the Confessor by Alured, who could seek what lord he pleased, and held land assessed at 3 hides. He was succeeded by a woman who, in the time of King William, placed herself and her land under the queen's protection. In 1086 the land was in the hands of Humfrey the Chamberlain; he had in his charge one villein to collect the queen's wool, and took from him 20s. as a relief when his father died. (fn. 60) This land seems to have been granted by Henry II to one Postel. (fn. 61) In 1164–5 the sheriff rendered account of 9s. from one hide of land in Coombe which Postel held, (fn. 62) and in the following year this was increased to 20s. (fn. 63) the normal rent, (fn. 64) being the money equivalent of the serjeanty. (fn. 65) Ralf Postel held this hide of the queen in 1203, in which year he granted it to Walkelin Rabus (fn. 66); later it came into the hands of Peter son of Baldwin, who bought land in Kingston of Gunnora widow of Matthew son of Godfrey in 1238. (fn. 67) This perhaps was the Peter Baldwin who, though retaining 40 acres in his hands, alienated the remaining 50 acres of the fee for annual rents amounting to 33s. 4d. Peter made a fine of 20s. a year for himself and these tenants, (fn. 68) so that each of the tenants answered to him for a third of the worth of his tenement a year and Peter was responsible to the Exchequer for the whole of the fine. (fn. 69) Peter was dead in 1279, when his son of the same name was a minor and in the wardship of the queen; she gave the custody to Adam de Richmond, who in turn sold it to Walter Pewtarer. (fn. 70) In 1292–3 Peter Baldwin held the lands by the old tenure of collecting the queen's wool; the land on his death in or about 1299 consisted of 60 acres in Coombe, where he had tenants bound to find him three men in the autumn. (fn. 71) He also had a capital messuage and lands in Kingston held of the men of Kingston, and land at Talworth. He was succeeded by his son Peter, a boy of eleven.
Dower was assigned to Mabel widow of Peter Baldwin in 1302, (fn. 72) but no further mention of the family has been found. Part of the land came into possession of the chapel of St. Mary Magdalene, the warden paying 10s. for 'the serjeanty of Baldwin' in the 15th century. (fn. 73)
In the 13th century land here was held by Robert Burnell and afterwards by John de la Linde, (fn. 74) from whom it passed to the family of Dymoke, and was attached as a member to their manor of Wallington. (q.v.). (fn. 75) John Dymoke paid 40s. to the priory of Merton for his manor of Coombe Nevill in 1536. (fn. 76)
In the early 13th century Hugh de Coombe held half a knight's fee here of the honour of Clare. (fn. 77) The mesne lordship of this fee was in the hands of Roger de Vilers in 1227, when he exchanged the homage and services of Wymund de Raleg', the tenant, for lands in Somerset and Dorset. (fn. 78)
HARTINGTON (Erdinton, xii cent.; Hertindon, Hartyngdon, xiii cent.) is first mentioned in 1173 and 1173–4, when 70s. were paid into the Exchequer from lands there. (fn. 79) In 1206 Adam de Dearhurst and Maud his wife claimed half a hide of land here against the Prior of Merton, but the jurors declared that the prior had always held it, and that no ancestor of Maud had ever been tenant. (fn. 80) The prior was granted free warren here and elsewhere in 1252, and was returned as lord of the hamlet in 1374. (fn. 81) Merton retained the manor until the Dissolution, when it passed to the Crown. Valued at 30s. in 1536, (fn. 82) in 1539 it was granted for life to Ralph Annesley, the 'king's servant,' with lands at Sheen and Kew. (fn. 83)
In 1544 the reversion was granted to Richard Taverner who, three years later, bought the manor of Norbiton (q.v.). He and Margaret his wife conveyed the manor to Edward, Earl of Hertford, in 1546, (fn. 84) probably in trust for their younger son Peter, who inherited it on his father's death in 1575. (fn. 85) Peter Taverner and Frances his wife conveyed the manor in 1585 to John Evelyn and Elizabeth his wife, who, with George Evelyn, re-sold it in 1605 to George Cole. In 1623 presentment was made at the hundred court that he had not entertained the minister, churchwardens, and parishioners on Monday in Rogation week at the farm called Hartleton Farm as heretofore. (fn. 86) George Cole died in 1624, and was succeeded by another of the same name who, with Jane his wife, sold the manor in 1637 to Charles I (fn. 87) to be added to Richmond Park.
In the 14th century land here, as at Kingston, Norbiton, and Coombe, was held by Thomas de Ludlow and descended to the family of Dymoke. (fn. 88) Hartington has been identified with Hartington Coombe, (fn. 89) and in 1372 the land held there by Sir John Dymoke is called 'Hartyndencombe.' (fn. 90) In 1339 the men of 'Hertindonescombe' petitioned the king for a re-assessment of the fifteenth, as their vill had been lately burnt by certain malefactors, the goods and chattels there plundered and destroyed, and the inhabitants had for the most part withdrawn. (fn. 91) The ancient house known as Hertcomb or Hercomb Place stands 'at the right hand of the road at the entrance of Kingston from London,' (fn. 92) opposite the end of Coombe Lane. It is said to have once been in the hands of Archbishop Tillotson, (fn. 93) and in the middle of the 18th century was used as a boardingschool by Richard Woodeson, and later it became the workhouse for the parish till 1836. It now forms two houses. Kingston Lodge, opposite to it, was formerly occupied by Mr. George Meredith.
KINGSTON-CANBURY (Canonbury, xiv cent.) is not mentioned in 1086, but was held by Merton Priory at an early period. It probably represented the early endowment of the church, and followed the descent of the advowson (q.v.) until 1786, when George Harding sold the right of patronage, but retained the manor, which seems to have disappeared by the beginning of the 19th century. The name is preserved in the Canbury Gardens and Road.
KINGSTON-UPON-THAMES alias MILBORNE is a 'manor' occasionally mentioned. It appears to have belonged to Sir Thomas Milborne, who at his death in 1492 was said to hold a toft, 100 acres of land, 20 acres of meadow, a weir, a water-mill, 10s. rent, and five gardens in Kingston of the king as of his borough there. (fn. 94) Sir Thomas left his lands here to his daughter Cecily until marriage, and in 1533 she, as Cecily Sympson, widow, conveyed rights of free fishing to Christopher More and others. (fn. 95) Henry Milborne was in possession of the weir in 1503, when he paid 6d. from it to the lamps of the church; (fn. 96) he died without issue in 1519, leaving a widow Margaret, afterwards the wife of Roger Yorke, serjeant-atlaw. (fn. 97) In 1538 she conveyed to Edward Marvyn and Robert Tederley two parts of this 'manor' and those of Esher-Watevill, and Hetchesham, (fn. 98) which she held apparently under settlement. Later the manor came into the hands of the corporation, who ordered a court baron to be held for it in 1583, (fn. 99) and must have exercised other manorial rights, for in 1684 'several tenants of the manor of Milborne complain that Richard Lee and John Gunner (being tenants of the manor) have since 25 March last cut ten loads of turf on the common of the manor, also two others have carried away three loads without licence of the lords of the manor.' (fn. 100)
NORBITON HALL was reputed a manor from the 16th century. It seems to have been granted by Maurice de Creon to Robert Burnell in 1271–2. (fn. 101) In 1503 Master Anthony Forde paid a rent of 4d. to the lamps of Kingston Church for a tenement in Norbiton which had belonged to William Long; (fn. 102) the churchwarden received 2s. 4½d., in 1504 'for wast of torches at ye derge and ij massys yt was made for ye beryeng of anthony forde.' (fn. 103) Erasmus Forde, probably his son, was well known in the town and signed the protest respecting mortuaries made in 1509. (fn. 104) He complained in 1532 that 'a taker of timber and board for Hampton Court "like an Hemprour enters into my ground bordered about with elms, the chief pleasure of all my house," and without his master's sanction "has dug up by the roots thirty-five of my purest and fairest elms." ' (fn. 105) Erasmus was followed by Edmund Forde, who with Joan his wife in 1547 sold the 'manor' of Norbiton Hall to Richard Taverner, (fn. 106) the well-known editor of Taverner's Bible. (fn. 107) Richard Taverner died in 1575; by his will he bequeathed two-thirds of his lands equally to his sons Peter and Edmund, (fn. 108) but Norbiton Hall descended to his eldest son Richard, who, with Eleanor his wife, conveyed it to George Evelyn in 1584, (fn. 109) the sale being completed in 1588. (fn. 110) George Evelyn died seised of it in 1603. In 1605 John and George Evelyn and their wives resold it to Sir Anthony Benn; (fn. 111) he died in 1618 in possession of a messuage with appurtenances called 'Popes' and land belonging, containing 20 acres at Norbiton, all held of the bailiffs of Kingston. (fn. 112) Probably the messuage called 'Popes' was not Norbiton Hall, for Sir Anthony's son and heir Charles Benn was but eight years old at his father's death, and Lady Benn had a house in Kingston, which in 1626 had been taken for the French Ambassador. (fn. 113) Norbiton Hall was certainly in the hands of Roger Wood on his death in 1623, when it was described as a 'manor, grange, and capital messuage.' (fn. 114) This Roger Wood, son of one Roger Wood late of Islington, was succeeded by Robert his son, an infant two years old. (fn. 115) Robert Wood was returned a knight of the shire for Surrey in 1654, but 'divers well-affected persons' alleged to the Council that he was illegally chosen, 'a derider of the people of God, a profane swearer, and of bad life, an enemy to his Highness and the army and had sided with the Cavaliers.' (fn. 116) A counter-petition declared that he had been one of the militia commissioners in 1651, had sent a man and horse to Worcester, and so far from opposing godly ministers 'improved his power to countenance them.' (fn. 117) His land was inherited by his daughter Ann, wife of Sir John Rous; they were in possession in 1662, but it was in the hands of the Reeves family in the following year. (fn. 118) They retained it until 1744, when it was sold to one Greenly; it was sold again in 1788 to a Mr. Twopenny, who disposed of it soon afterwards to William Farren the actor. (fn. 119) The house, which must have been rebuilt about this time, (fn. 120) remained in his hands until 1794, when he sold it to a Mr. Lintall; he resold it in 1799 to General Gabriel Johnson. (fn. 121) Early in the 19th-century it appears to have come into the hands of Mrs. Dennis, who gave it to her daughter the wife of C. N. Pallmer, M.P. for Surrey in 1828, and a West Indian merchant. (fn. 122) Mr. Pallmer sold it in 1829 to the Dowager Countess of Liverpool, who resided here with Mr. R. H. Jenkinson, nephew of the first Earl of Liverpool. (fn. 123) It is now occupied by the White Rose Laundry. The handsome grounds set with cedars, and the arms of the Evelyns on the lodge still remain.
It is not always easy to disentangle the history of this house from that of another, equally called Norbiton Hall, though also, and more correctly, known as Norbiton Place. Both houses, Norbiton Hall and Norbiton Place, were comparatively modern. A house called Norbiton Place was sold by one Nichols to Sir John Phillips, who died in 1764. (fn. 124) His son Richard was raised to the peerage as Baron Milford in 1776 and sold the house to a Mr. Sherer, a London wine merchant. (fn. 125) He sold some of the property to Mrs. Dennis, (fn. 126) the owner of Norbiton Hall, who gave it to her son-in-law Hugh Ingoldsby Massey. (fn. 127) Mrs. Massey afterwards became the wife of Mr. Pallmer of Norbiton Hall, who built Norbiton Place, and they resided here. A great part of the house was pulled down after 1830. A Mr. A. S. Douglas resided in part of it in 1842, (fn. 128) and Commander Lambert, R.N., in 1852.
In the 12th century HAM (Hamma, xii cent.) was included in the royal demesne as a member of Kingston, and in 1168 contributed 43s. 4d. towards the aid for marrying the king's daughter Matilda. (fn. 129) In 1174 land to the value of £19 13s. 4d. in Ham was bestowed by Henry II upon Maurice de Creon, (fn. 130) a powerful baron of Anjou, whose English estates lay chiefly in Lincolnshire, by whom it appears to have been granted with his daughter to Guy de la Val. (fn. 131) The latter forfeited his estates for taking arms against the king, (fn. 132) and Ham next appears as an escheat of the Crown, part of which was granted to Godfrey de Lucy, Bishop of Winchester; and is described in the Testa de Nevill as the vill of Ham, worth £6 per annum. (fn. 133) The bishop died in 1204, (fn. 134) and in the next year the king granted it to Roger de Mowbray, who already enjoyed a rent of £4 there in virtue of a previous grant (fn. 135) of the rest of the manor of Ham. Later it was granted in farm to the men of the manor who, in 1215 when the king decided to restore it to Peter son of Maurice de Creon, were ordered to render obedience to the latter as to their lord. (fn. 136)
Peter mortgaged the manor to William Joynier who, upon the death of the former in 1221, was confirmed in his tenure by Aumary, brother of Peter, who had inherited this estate. (fn. 137) Aumary appears to have died or forfeited before 1227, in which year this, with other of his estates in Surrey, was bestowed upon Ralph Nevill, Bishop of Chichester, to hold until the king should restore it to the heirs of Aumary, either of his free will, or by a peace. (fn. 138)
The bishop died in February 1244, (fn. 139) and three months later his lands in Ham and elsewhere were conceded for life to Imbert de Salinis to hold by the service of rendering yearly a bow of dogwood, (fn. 140) but in 1248 Imbert granted a five years' lease of the manor to Peter de Genevre, (fn. 141) which in 1252 was held by Geoffrey de Geynville who had married the widow of Peter. (fn. 142) About this time the manor appears to have been restored to the Creon family in the person of Maurice de Creon, who married Isabel half sister of Henry III, and died before 1251, (fn. 143) in the year after which his widow was granted the wardship of the manor. (fn. 144) Maurice de Creon, the son and heir, (fn. 145) described as a knight of the province of Anjou, granted the manor to Sir Robert Burnell, afterwards Chancellor to Edward I and Bishop of Bath and Wells, who was confirmed in his title to it in 1272, (fn. 146) and, dying in 1292, was succeeded by his nephew Philip son of Hugh Burnell, (fn. 147) then aged twenty-five. Philip married Maud daughter of Richard Earl of Arundel, and died in 1294, leaving Edward his son and heir, then aged twelve years, (fn. 148) who in 1307 had livery of his father's lands. (fn. 149) Edward Lord Burnell married Aliva daughter of Hugh le Despenser, and died in 1315 without issue. He was succeeded in the manor by Maud his sister, (fn. 150) who in 1332 jointly with her husband, John de Handlo, paid 20 marks for licence to settle this estate upon themselves and their heirs. (fn. 151) Upon the death of John de Handlo in 1346, Nicholas his second (fn. 152) son by the said Maud, who afterwards assumed the name of Burnell, had livery of his lands in Ham, (fn. 153) and died seised of the same in 1383, leaving Sir Hugh Burnell his son and heir, aged thirty-six. (fn. 154)
Sir Hugh Burnell (fn. 155) died in 1420 without male issue, and from this date the connexion of the Burnells with Ham is lost sight of; (fn. 156) it appears to have escheated to the Crown shortly after, being included in 1466 in the dowry of Elizabeth Woodville, queen of Edward IV, (fn. 157) together with Sheen and Petersham; and with those estates was bestowed by Henry VIII on Anne of Cleves in 1540; (fn. 158) by James I on Henry Prince of Wales, (fn. 159) and, upon the death of the latter, on Charles afterwards Charles I, (fn. 160) who in 1639 granted it to William Murray, whose descendants, the Earls of Dysart, hold it at the present day. (See Petersham.)
A rent of 50s. in this manor was bestowed by King John on the abbey of Clermund, (fn. 161) and an equal sum by Guy de la Val on the abbey of Savigny; (fn. 162) both of these subsequently passed to the Abbot of Waverley, (fn. 163) who claimed in 1279 to hold them by a charter from Guy de la Val. (fn. 164)
Some idea of the early extent of the manor may be gathered from inquisitions taken at various times: in 1253 it comprised a capital messuage worth 20s. per annum; 200 acres of arable land worth 4d. per acre; 7½ acres of meadow at 3s. per acre; common pasture for 200 sheep, but if the lord of the manor had no sheep he could take nothing from it; a weir in the Thames worth 26s. 8d. per annum; rents of assize £2 10s. 4½d.; labour of customary tenants £1 10s. 4d.; the total yearly value amounting to £5 16s. 4½d., (fn. 165) after deducting a £5 rent-charge to the abbey of Waverley. The survey taken on the death of Bishop Burnell in 1292 mentions 220 acres of arable land, a windmill, a dovecote and half of another weir besides that mentioned above. (fn. 166) In 1346 the manor was valued at £3 1s. 2d. yearly and included 60 acres of arable land worth, if well tilled, 4d. per acre; 40 acres of arable land worth 2d. per acre; (fn. 167) 5 acres of meadow and 5 acres of pasture at 1s. per acre; a weir on the Thames worth 5s.; and assized rents of free tenants worth 19s. 6d. (fn. 168) The weir and dovecote mentioned above were bestowed by Henry V on the convent of St. Saviour and St. Mary and St. Bridget, Syon, which he founded at Isleworth. (fn. 169)
In a survey taken in 1610 a barn called Court Barne is mentioned, and numerous closes; common of pasture in Ham Common; an island called Crowell Ait; rent of free tenants 64s. 2d.; assize rent of customary tenants 36s. 7d.; total yearly value £53 3s. 8d. (fn. 170) In 1650 the manor with its appurtenances was valued at £117 3s. 1d. yearly, the trees on the estate being worth £64 5s. (fn. 171)
There was a hospital for lepers near Kingston in the 13th century, founded by the men of the vill on a site now unknown. (fn. 172) In 1227 the lepers received royal letters of protection, (fn. 173) but the house was abandoned by 1343–4, when it was ruined and escheat to the Crown. (fn. 174) In this year William de Veirdire, valet of the chamber of Queen Philippa, petitioned for a grant of the site called 'Ye old Hospital,' (fn. 175) and appears to have obtained it for life. (fn. 176) He died before 1366–7, when it was valued at 10s. a year and granted for life to Nicholas Gretton, sompter of the king's larder. (fn. 177) In 1392 he was dead, and the croft called 'Spitelland' was granted at a rent of 10s. a year to Robert Clay, yeoman of the spicery. (fn. 178) The grant was confirmed to Robert Spicer alias Clay in 1400; (fn. 179) and a croft, lands and tenements called Spittelland are again mentioned in 1534 as having belonged in the reign of Richard III to John Popyll. (fn. 180) In consequence of his murdering one John Byrde this and other land escheated to the Crown, which appears to have retained it until 1534, when it was granted to Richard Kynwelmershe, mercer, John Crymes, clothworker, and Richard Crymes, haberdasher of London. (fn. 181) No later mention of it has been found.
Rights of free fishery in the creek at Kingston were conveyed by William le Grys and Katharine his wife to John Celye in 1586; (fn. 182) he and William Barkworth sold them in 1612 (fn. 183) to William Ryder, whose heirs James Maxwell and Elizabeth his wife, Broome Whorwood and Jane his wife and Ann Ryder parted with them to Benjamin Agar in 1637–8. (fn. 184) They again changed hands in 1641, when they were bought by George Sheeres. (fn. 185) Similar rights were sold by John Evelyn to Anthony Benn in 1605, (fn. 186) and by John Rowle and Elizabeth his wife to Edward Wilmot in 1778. (fn. 187)
The church of ALL SAINTS is a large building consisting of a chancel 43 ft. by 22 ft. 8 in., north chapel 25 ft. 2 in. by 17 ft. 9 in., now used as a vestry and organ chamber, north-east vestry, south chapel of the same length as the chancel and 20 ft. 4 in. wide with a shallow south transept at its west end 17 ft. 2 in. long by 11 ft. 3 in. deep, central tower 17 ft. square, north transept 27 ft. 4 in. by 18 ft. 11 in., south transept 29 ft. 11 in. by 18 ft. 9 in., nave 73 ft. 6 in. by 20 ft. 6 in., north aisle 18 ft. 11 in. wide, south aisle 21 ft. 3 in. wide, the latter with a small south transept at its east end in line with the transept wall and 10 ft. wide, and a north porch.
Apart from the destroyed chapel of St. Mary there appears to have been on the site of All Saints a 12th-century church, probably successor of the one mentioned in Domesday. A 12th-century doorway is said to have been discovered in the west wall of the nave when the modern restorations were begun about 1865; unfortunately it was only discovered to be again destroyed, but a photograph showing it was taken and is preserved in the vestry. This church must have been of considerable size and probably had a central tower, some of the stones of which may be still preserved in the piers and walling of the present one; it is said that when one of the piers was rebuilt in the restoration of 1877–8 it was found that the visible ashlar work was merely a casing about the older work with which it had no real bond. The south wall of the early nave and the present south arcade probably coincided in position, but the nave was evidently some 2 ft. narrower, the north wall being moved outwards subsequently. There were also probably transepts of a depth equal to the width of the present aisles, but all vestiges of them are destroyed, as also are those of the earlier chancel, excepting for a length of roll mould in the jamb of the arch opening into the north (Holy Trinity) chapel. This length of mould appears to be of 13th-century date and points to the enlargement of the 12th-century chancel by moving the north wall outwards, keeping the south wall in its old position. In fact the widening of both chancel and nave may very well have taken place in the 13th century. If the widening of the chancel took place in the 15th century (the date of the rest of the arch) it seems curious that this short length of mould should have been re-used in a rebuilding when the remainder was so thoroughly destroyed; but the fact that the mould was already in situ would assist in its preservation.
Before tracing the history of the present fabric, mention should be made of the chapel of St. Mary, which has now disappeared. It stood at the south-east of the church next to the south chapel of St. James, and was pulled down in 1730 after a partial fall of the walling when the sexton was killed. There is nothing left to show its exact position, nor are any of its details remaining except perhaps the few stones which were discovered during the 19th-century restoration and which stand on the windowledge east of the north chapel; these include a piece of a 12th-century scalloped capital, a piece of stiff foliage of the same period, a 13th-century moulded base to a shaft, some grotesque corbel heads, probably of the 12th century, and a small corbel head with a wimple; a fragment of stonework with some Saxon interlacing pattern carved upon it probably formed no part of the fabric. In a view shown by Manning and Bray (fn. 188) from 'a draught taken in 1726' it appears that the lower parts of the walls were of 12th-century date, with a wide round-headed west doorway above which was a string running round the building and over two 13th-century lancet windows at the west end and five at the side; the doorway and two end lancets were filled in when a large window was inserted in the 14th century; this window had three lights under a net-traceried head. In the 15th century a large window was inserted in the east wall, an earlier bull's-eye gablelight being preserved but filled in. A south porch with an embattled parapet was added later in the century. Whether this chapel was connected with the earlier parish church is uncertain; it is shown quite independent of the church in Manning and Bray's view, but obviously because they had no information on the point. The dimensions given by them are 60 ft. by 25 ft. outside, and 55 ft. by 20 ft. inside.
The earliest visible portion of the present structure is the lower half of the central tower, which dates from the 14th century. There is little detail to give its exact date, but it was rebuilt (or the older tower encased) probably early in the century. At the north-east corner it has a vice which has an early piscina in its north-west face; this piscina, which served a transept chapel, is probably contemporary with the rebuilding or casing of the tower.
About 1400, aisles were added to the nave, their widths being governed by the depths of the pre-existing transepts, into which arches were made to open from the aisles. That into the south transept is of the same date as the arcades. The arch on the east side of the transept opening into the south chapel is some twenty years later, and it is probable that the chapel of St. James was then added, but less in length than the present south chapel. At the modern restoration it was discovered that this archway had another in line with and to the south of it, of which the springing stones still remain. Whether the original span of this second arch was as now restored is uncertain, but there is little doubt that it was inserted to open into the chapel of St. Mary. Presumably the transept was lengthened when the two arches were inserted; and if the present end wall marks the limit of the lengthening, the modern inserted archway would appear to be of the correct span, just enough to make a comfortable opening into the earlier chapel, that is, assuming that the west wall of St. Mary's Chapel was in a line with the two arches, and the north wall of the same chapel formed the south wall of St. James's Chapel.
In February 1444–5 William of Worcester records that the church suffered from a fire (probably caused by a stroke of lightning) when a good part of the town was also destroyed. (fn. 189) The effects of this fire are not now evident, and it is uncertain whether it extended beyond the tower.
In 1459 licence was granted to William Skerne of Downhall to found a chantry in honour of the Blessed Virgin and the most Holy Body of Christ at the altar of St. James in Kingston. (fn. 190) From this it would appear that the altar of St. James was already in existence, and it is probable that the chapel was then lengthened to its present size with its east wall in line with that of the chancel, and that the arcade of three bays between the chancel and the chapel was then inserted. The archway in the south wall of this chapel at the west end also appears to be contemporary with the arcade, and was probably inserted then to enlarge the opening into the chapel of St. Mary. On 14 May 1477 Edward IV granted letters patent to Robert Bardsey for the foundation of a fraternity of the Holy Trinity in Kingston-on-Thames. The fraternity was two consist of two wardens and of clerks or laymen, both men and women. An annuity of £6 13s. 4d. was left by Bardsey to maintain a priest to sing mass in Trinity Chapel, this rent being collected from the tenants of Bardsey and his successors by the two wardens. After the Dissolution this rent was paid to the king. (fn. 191) Robert Bardsey was one of the feoffees of the property given for the endowment of the Skerne chantry; it was therefore natural for him to copy as exactly as possible the detail of the south chancel arcade in the archway between the Trinity Chapel and the chancel. He retained the west jamb of the arch opening into the earlier chapel, of which his was an enlargement, but evidently widened the arch eastwards. There is some doubt as to the respective situations of the two chapels of the Holy Trinity and St. James, but we have adopted the late Major Heales' (fn. 192) suggestion that the former was on the north side and the latter on the south on the evidence of two wills. Clement Mylan in his will of 1496 directed his body to be buried in 'the trinitie chauncell on the north side of the church by the wall'; there are several sepulchral recesses in the north wall of the Trinity Chapel. William Skerne, the founder of the chantry in St. James's Chapel, by his will of 1463 directs his burial to be juxta ossa Roberti Skern his uncle. Manning and Bray (fn. 193) describe the brass of the latter as being at the east end of the south chapel. The vestry was probably added subsequently to the enlargement of the north chapel near the end of the 15th century. A porch was removed in 1530 according to the churchwardens' accounts. The tower seems to have fallen into a bad state by the beginning of the 16th century and needed considerable repair; it was again much out of repair in 1699 when a levy of 6d. in the £1 was made to put it into order, but this did little good, as in 1708 its timbers were so rotten and it was in such great decay and danger that is was necessary to take it down, when the present brick superstructure the shallow transept at the western end of the south wall is spanned by a four-centred arch of similar section to the arcade on the north side; it rests on the pillar between the two west arches and has thrust this arcade out of the perpendicular. The east window of this shallow transept is of three trefoiled lights under a pointed head filled with net tracery; the tracery and outer stonework are quite new, but the inner jambs are old, and it is possible that they are the stones of the traceried west window of St. Mary's Chapel (mentioned above) re-used here after the fall of the chapel.
A large archway spans the west end of the chapel and a smaller one that of the shallow transept, both springing from a partly-restored octagonal pillar with a moulded base and capital (both old); the arches are of two moulded orders divided by a large three-quarter hollow and with moulded labels; the larger arch is old, the springing stones of the smaller arch above the pillar are also old, but the rest of the arch is modern; it is obvious from the old springing stones that there has been an arch here formerly, but it is not at all certain that the present one is an exact reproduction of the old. The two arches in the west wall of the transept are of like size to those opposite but are of much plainer detail. The pillar and smaller archway are entirely modern in conception and workmanship, but the larger arch, which is of two hollow-chamfered orders like the nave arches, is old. The large six-light traceried south window and the doorway beneath it are both modern.
The nave arcades each consist of four bays with octagonal pillars having simple bases and moulded bell capitals, the arches being two-centred and of two hollow-chamfered orders; both arcades may be said to date from the beginning of the 15th century, but there are light differences in detail which point to the work not having all been carried out at one time. The north pillars are more slender than those on the south side, whilst the easternmost pillar on the south side is of greater diameter than its fellows; this pillar has no base (unless the base is buried), and it is not improbable that it may have formed part of some earlier arcade; all the capitals, though generally similar, have slight differences in their depths and the sizes of their bells. Above the arcades is a clearstory lighted by four windows in either wall, each of three trefoiled lights and tracery under pointed segmental arches; they are modern excepting the inner jamb stones and rear arches. The west doorway is a modern one set in a very thick wall under a gable head; the wall thins again below the west window, which is also a modern one of four lights and tracery. All the aisle windows and the north doorway are modern as well as the north porch. At the east end of the south aisle is a small modern transept or aisle to the south transept containing a modern south window.
The upper part of the tower is of brick with a plain parapet and pine-apple corner-pinnacles; the older walls, immediately above the roofs, are of flint with an admixture of freestone; the ashlar angle buttresses are modernized. The windows to the bell-chamber are modern. In a panel on the south side is the date of the rebuilding of the tower—1708.
The roof of the chancel has a low arched barrel vault divided into panels by moulded ribs; the transverse ribs spring from corbel-capitals in the moulded cornices, and the intersection of each alternate and larger rib with the ridge is covered by a foliage boss; the work appears to date from late in the 15th century.
The south chapel roof has plain old rafters (formerly plastered) with collar-beam trusses, and three principal trusses supported on stone corbels carved as angels with shields, some of which may be old; the roof is also of the 15th century. The north chapel has a flat plastered ceiling divided into panels by large moulded timbers, apparently old. The nave roof is modern with hammer-beam trusses and more recent tie-beams; the north transept roof is also modern. The south transept roof is for the greater part modern, but the southernmost truss, at least, is old and has traceried spandrels and rests on carved corbel-heads which are also old. The aisles have modern roofs. The gable roofs are covered with slates. The altar table, oak quire seats, carved stone pulpit, carved stone and marble font, deal pews, and other furniture are all modern.
There are a large number of monuments in the church, of which the following are worthy of notice:— On a slab formerly in the south chapel, but now standing upright against the west jamb of the chapel arcade, is a brass figure of a man standing on a mound or hillock dressed in a fur-lined tunic reaching to the ankles and having loose sleeves with tighter wristlets and cuffs; his waist is encircled by a belt with a pendant reaching to the knees; his hands are in prayer; on his right is the figure of his wife in a covered horn head-dress, a tight-fitting gown, over which is a loose cloak fastened across the breast by a cord; the inscription faces towards them so that it is now reversed; it is in black letter and reads:— 'Roberti cista Skēni corpus tenet ista, Marmoree petre coniugis atq[ue] sue. Qui validus, fidus, discretus lege peritus, Nobilis ingenuus perfidiam renuit Constans sermone, vita sensu racione Committi cui[..] iusticiam voluit, Regalis iuris vivens promovit honores, Fallere vel falli res odiosa sibi, Gaudeat in celis quia vixit in orbe fidelis Nonas Aprilis pridie qui mori[u'] Mille quadringintis d[omini] Trigintaq[..] septemannis ipsius Rex miserere Jesu.'
In the north transept is set a small gravestone with the brasses of a headless man in a long cloak girdled about the waist, and a lady in a tight-fitting dress and a butterfly head-dress; both are kneeling; over them are the indents of two shields and of a central figure, possibly a Trinity, to which their prayers are ascending; the black letter inscription below reads:— 'Hic jacent Jo[hann]es Hertcombe Gen[er]osus et Katerina uxor ei['] qui quid[am] Joh[ann]es obiit xxiio die Julii Anno d[omini] millō ccccolxxxviiio Et p'dicta Katerina obiit xij die Julii anno d[omini] millīo cccclxxviio quor[um] a[nimabus] propicietur deus Amen.'
Below the first window on the south wall of the south chapel is an altar tomb in a recess to Anthony Benn, formerly Recorder of Kingston and afterwards Recorder of London, who died in 1618; it contains his recumbent effigy in his lawyer's robe and ruff collar and cuffs; his hands which were in prayer are broken off. The arch of the recess is a coffered round one of alabaster; the base is low and has shields, one of which is faded; the other is charged quarterly 1 and 4 a griffon on a chief or (?) three molets sable; 2 and 3 or (?) two bars sable between nine martlets sable, three, three and three; the colours of the shield are indistinct. On the north wall of the chancel is a monument to Mark Snelling, alderman of the City of London and a benefactor of the church and parish, died 1633 (?); and two other monuments of about the same period. There are many 18th-century and later monuments.
On the pillar east of the south transept is an ancient painting (probably coeval with the chapel) of a bishop with his pastoral staff, mitre, &c., and holding what may be a comb, which would identify him with St. Blaize the patron of wool-combers.
In the tower is a fine ring of ten bells; the treble is dated 1748; the second 1841, by T. Mears; the third 1750, by Robert Catlin; the fourth 1875, by Blews and Son, Birmingham; fifth, sixth, and seventh 1826, by T. Mears; the eighth is inscribed 'The 8 old bells recast and two new trebles added to make 10 by subscriptions, S. London, S. Belchier, Collectors, 1748'; the ninth, 1879, was recast by Mears and Stainbank, and the tenor (which weighs 33 cwt.) by Mears, 1850.
The registers date from 1542 and, up to 1812, they comprise twenty volumes as follows:— i. mixed baptisms, marriages and burials 1542 to 1556, a wellbound volume on the original paper; ii. the same, 1560 to 1574; iii. mixed, 1574 to 1586, and marriages at the end also for 1574, 1575, and 1579; iv. 1586 to 1602; v. 1603 to 1609; vi. July 1620 to August 1621; vii. September 1622 to June 1636; viii. 1636 to 1653 (in this volume are many notices of banns published on market days and Lord's days); ix. 1653 to 1665, at the end a list of deaths from the plague 1665; the register has been lost or torn out from 1665 to 1668, this book is partly vellum and partly paper; x. 1668 to 1693 (paper); xi. 1693 to 1713 (parchment) contains a list of the burials of Dissenters from 1696 to 1699; xii. 1712–13 to 1740, parchment with paper end sheets; xiii. 1741 to 1749, parchment; xiv. baptisms and burials 1749 to 1769 and marriages to 1757; xv. baptisms and burials 1770 to 1789; xvi. the same, 1789 to 1809; xvii. the same, 1810 to 1812; xviii. marriages 1754 to 1769; xix. the same, 1769 to 1807; and xx. the same, 1808 to 1812. The earlier books are of paper and are much torn and worn out, but have been carefully interleaved in recent years in paper volumes.
The churchwardens' accounts of Kingston are preserved from 1503 to 1538 and recommence 1561. A brief mention may be made here of some of the items affecting the fabric and fittings. (fn. 194) In 1504 and 1505 a mason was paid for building and repairing the steeple, which, from entries in 1508–9, had a weathercock and gilt cross. In 1523 the second bell was exchanged for a new one, and in 1529 the third bell was recast; again in 1535 the second and third bells were recast at Reading. In 1553 there were five bells in the steeple, 'a sauns bell and a chyme for the belles.' In 1561 another bell was recast at Reading, while in 1566 the fourth bell, which weighed 6 cwt. 42 lb., was recast. The great bell was recast in 1574. There was a clock in 1508. A large payment was made for lead in 1561, evidently for re-roofing. An order was made in 1585 for the removal of the pulpit from the place it 'nowe standeth unto the north-west piller,' and in the same year:— 'It is ordered that the seats in the church shall be altered and the parishioners to be placed in order in their degrees and callings.'
The chapel of ST. MART MAGDALENE, attached to the grammar school, and now used as a gymnasium, is a building of much interest. It was founded by the merchant, Edward Lovekyn, in 1309. (fn. 195) He apparently died childless, and his successor, Robert Lovekyn, was excommunicated for neglecting the endowment of the chapel. (fn. 196) Robert was succeeded by John, his son, who increased the endowment. (fn. 197) The chapel came into the hands of the Crown at the Dissolution, (fn. 198) but in 1560 was granted to the governors of the lately revived grammar school, (fn. 199) who have retained it until the present day. If the date of its erection — 1351—were not known, it might have been ascribed to some twenty years later at least. It is a plain rectangular building, 38 ft. by 17 ft. 2 in., with octagonal vices at the eastern angles. The north vice retains many of its steps but has no outlet at the top; the southern one now has no steps and has an outer doorway inserted in its south side; both open off the east wall by a pointed doorway and both are of ashlar. The east window has three cinquefoiled pointed lights with two quatrefoils (rather after the 'Perpendicular' style) in the traceried two-centred arch; the side windows are each of two cinquefoiled lights with a sexfoil over in the two-centred head; only one (the easternmost) of the three in the north wall is now open, the second being filled in at the glass line, and the third (if a window ever existed in the bay) having lost all its tracery. On the south side the two eastern windows remain, the existence of the westernmost being again doubtful; the west window is similar to that at the opposite end. All the windows have widely-splayed inner jambs and arches, with the edges moulded as a double ogee-mould or, perhaps more properly, as the sides of two filleted rolls; the mullions inside have two hollow chamfers; the inner jambs and arches are original, but the external stonework of all the windows is modern excepting the north-east window, which is very much decayed. At the foot of the mullions of the east window were set two image brackets carved with the heads of Edward III and Queen Philippa, but the latter has now disappeared although it was existing in 1883, (fn. 200) its place being occupied by a modern foliated capital. In the south wall, east of the first window, is the piscina, rather tall for its width and rather shallow; its sill contains an octofoil basin and is somewhat broken; the upper shelf is also damaged; the head has a cinquefoiled ogee arch.
Between the second and third bays in each side wall is a shallow recess 3 ft. 11 in. wide, the use of which is not apparent; they are too shallow for sedilia but may, in connexion with the original woodwork, have formed the setting for the two most important and westernmost seats; they have a transom moulded and embattled at the level of the window sills and, at about double the height, a foliated three-centred arch with plain sunk spandrels in a square head with a moulded and embattled cornice; the jambs are moulded to match the piscina and windows. In the north wall are two modernized doorways, one between the first and second bays, and the other in the third bay and opening into a modern wing. The south doorway is in the third or westernmost bay; it has an old two-centred arch and modern jambs of two orders.
In the west wall south of the great window were two doorways one over the other, but they are now filled in. The walls were originally of flint, but the east wall and the first two bays of the south have been faced with modern ashlar; in the west wall can be seen a worked stone with an edge roll, imbedded among the flints; the turrets are also faced with ashlar and have rather perished surfaces. A general restoration of the building took place in 1886, before which time it was in a very dilapidated condition. Unfortunately Godstone stone was used for the dressings, with the consequence that some of the stones, particularly those in the head of the west window, are already beginning to show signs of decay; modern buttresses strengthen the south wall. There was a porch with a chamber over it at the south doorway, but the dates of its erection and destruction do not now appear. A late or modern building still remains against the north wall. The roof is gabled, has two modern trusses, and a plastered cradle ceiling. The parapets are embattled.
The church of ST. PETER, NORB1TON, London Road, is a building of white and stock brick with stone dressings, built in 1842 in the style of the 12th century and consisting of a chancel, north and south transepts, nave with a gallery on three sides, narrow gabled aisles, west porches and a north-west tower of four stages; the roofs are covered with slates. The reredos and quire fittings are of oak and of later and better design than the fabric. The churchyard is chiefly on the north side towards the road, is planted with shrubs, &c, and fenced by an iron railing.
The church of ST. JOHN THE EVANGELIST, Grove Lane, is a building of Kentish rag with Bath stone dressings, erected in 1872 in the style of the latter half of the 13th century; it has a chancel, nave, north and south transepts, aisles, north-east vestry, south porch, and the stump of a proposed south-east tower; the roofs are tiled. The churchyard, sown with grass, surrounds the building, and has an iron railing on the west and south sides towards the roads.
ST. PAUL'S CHURCH, Queen's Road, Kingston Hill, is an unfinished building of stone dating from 1878 and in the style of the 13th century. It consists at present of a nave, with a clearstory, and north and south aisles, the chancel not being yet built.
ST. LUKE'S CHURCH, Gibbon Road, is a large building of red brick and stone in 13th-century style, erected in 1890. It has an apsidal chancel with a vaulted ceiling of wood, nave of five bays with stone pillars and brick arches and having a clearstory of lancets, north and south aisles, north organ-chamber, over which rises a tower with a tall octagonal brick spire, south chapel, vestry, porches, &c. The chancel and the chapel are closed by iron screens painted black and gold. The font is of alabaster and marble, the pulpit of carved oak. The roofs are covered with slates. The churchyard is small and planted with shrubs, &c.
ST. MARK'S CHURCH, Victoria Road, Surbiton, is a large building of stone in the 14th-century style, consecrated in 1845. It consists of a chancel, north and south transepts, north-east vestry, and south-east organ-chamber, nave with a clearstory, aisles, south porch and a north-west tower with a tall octagonal broach spire of stone. An arcade of five bays with grey stone pillars and plastered arches divides the nave from the south aisle, and a similar arcade with the addition of a smaller west bay from the north aisle. At the west end is a gallery. The pulpit and font are of stone and marble. The churchyard is triangular in plan; it contains many graves, and is inclosed by a hedge and wood fence.
CHRIST CHURCH, King Charles Road, is a building of red and other coloured bricks with stone dressings of a late 12th or early 13th-century style, built in 1863. It has a chancel with gabled aisles, nave of five bays having stone pillars and brick arches, and a clearstory with small circular windows, low aisles, vestries, and south porch; a small cote over the chancel arch contains one bell.
The church of ST. ANDREW, Maple Road, was built as a chapel of ease to St. Mark's in 1872. It is of various coloured bricks and stone in 13th-century style. It has a shallow chancel with deep transepts, nave, aisles, west baptistery, and a tall north tower with a gabled head. The nave has arcades of four bays, a clearstory of lancets, and a panelled vaulted ceiling; the pulpit is of carved oak; the font of stone with marble shafts; the reredos is a tall one of stone.
ST. MATTHEWS CHURCH, Ewell Road, is a large well-built structure of stock brick and stone in the style of the 13th century, erected in 1874. It has a vaulted apsidal chancel, north-east and south-east vestries, north and south transepts, nave, aisles, and a south-west porch-tower with a tall octagonal stone spire. The interior wall facing is of stock brick; the nave arcades are of four bays with round pillars and pointed arches to the aisles and of a single large bay to each transept. The roofs are open-timbered and gabled. The churchyard, which is planted with shrubs and grass, is bounded by a stone wall to the roads on the south and east sides.
The church of ST. ANDREW, Ham, stands on Ham Common. It consists of a chancel erected in 1900, nave built in 1832, and south aisle added in 1860. The chancel with the vestry south of it are built of red brick with stone dressings. The nave is of stock brick and Bath stone, and has two small turrets at the west end. It is roofed by a flat gable. A stone arcade of four bays divides it from the aisle. Both nave and aisle are wide in proportion to their length. A gallery spans the west end.
ST. PAUL'S CHURCH, Hook, which has replaced an earlier church built in 1835, is a small building dating from 1883. It is of red brick and stone in the style of the 14th century, and consists of a chancel, north vestry and organ chamber, nave, north aisle, and south porch. There is an alabaster reredos with medallions of the Evangelists. The altar is of oak, cedar, and olive wood, the last brought from Palestine. The font, of Devonshire marble and mosaic with an oak cover, and the stained east window, were presented by Mr. Thomas Hare and Mrs. Hare of Gosbury Hill. The roofs are tiled.
The church of ST. JOHN THE BAPTIST, Kingston Vale, is a small building dating from 1861. It is built of stock and red brick with stone dressings, and consists of a chancel, nave, aisles, organ chamber, vestry, &c, and has a small bell-turret of wood over the east end of the nave.
CHRIST CHURCH, New Maiden, is a stone building, begun in 1866 and finished in 1893. It is in the style of the 13th century, and consists of a chancel, vestries, &c, nave, north and south aisles, and a west baptistery and porches; arcades of six bays divide the nave from the aisles; each bay of the north aisle has a transverse gabled roof, while the south aisle has a lean-to roof; the end bay of the south aisle forms a sort of western transept.
The church of Kingston is said to have been part of the grant made by Gilbert Norman to his foundation of Merton Priory, (fn. 201) and in the early 13th century was reported to have been given a long time before that date. (fn. 202) The priory certainly had land here in 1177–86, and this may have been the manor of Kingston-Canbury (q.v.), which later was called a 'parcel of the rectory.' (fn. 203) In 1231–8 an allowance was made to the vicar, but this was given as a gratuity and not as his right; (fn. 204) an endowment, however, was made in 1303, when among other grants was that of two quarters of wheat, one quarter of barley, and one quarter of oats from the prior's grange of Canbury. (fn. 205) The vicar's complaint that the allowance was insufficient reached the bishop, and the dispute was not finally settled until 1375. (fn. 206) In the middle of the 14th century the king claimed the patronage during the vacancy following the death of the prior, (fn. 207) and established his rights after some litigation. (fn. 208) The patronage for the next turn was granted by the prior in 1516 to Jasper Horsey and John and Richard Bowie, citizens of London, (fn. 209) and in 1536 an assignment was made to Sir Nicholas Carew and Sir Thomas Cheyney; Sir Nicholas presented in 1536, (fn. 210) but after his attainder in 1538 the advowson, rectory, and Canbury Manor came into the hands of the Crown. (fn. 211) The rectory was the subject of various Crown leases, (fn. 212) and was bought for £4,000 by Sir John Ramsay in 1618. (fn. 213) He was created Baron of Kingston-uponThames and Earl of Holderness in 1620, and obtained a grant of the advowson in 1622; (fn. 214) he married Martha daughter of Sir William Cockayne and died without issue in 1626. (fn. 215) The rectory, manor, and advowson then passed, under a settlement, (fn. 216) to his wife, who married as her second husband Montague, Lord Willoughby. (fn. 217) They assigned the advowson for a term to one Abraham Chamberlayne, merchant, who presented to the living in 1632. (fn. 218)
On the death of the Countess of Holderness with out heirs in 1640, (fn. 219) the advowson, rectory, and manor came into the hands of the Crown and were granted to William Murray, created Earl of Dysart in 1643. (fn. 220) In the following year he assigned them to the Earl of Elgin in trust for his daughters, (fn. 221) who in 1656–7 made a settlement of them, (fn. 222) and in 1662 Lord Maynard, husband of one of these daughters, with others, presented to the living. (fn. 223) The family of Ramsay had rights in the manor of Canbury, the rectory, and advowson, which Patrick Ramsay and Elizabeth his wife conveyed to the Earl of Elgin in 1652; (fn. 224) John Ramsay and Alice his wife conveyed them to John Ramsay in 1664. (fn. 225) Four years later the right of patronage was in dispute between John Ramsay and Elizabeth, Countess of Dysart, daughter of William Murray. (fn. 226) Lady Dysart presented Thomas Willis, whose institution was hindered by a caveat entered by John Ramsay, with the result, as the bailiffs bitterly complained, that they had been ten months without a minister, and that the disaffected assembled at their meetings. (fn. 227) The dispute was settled in 1670, when the countess and the other heirs of William Murray quitclaimed their rights to John Ramsay. (fn. 228) He sold the manor, rectory, and advowson in 1671 to Nicholas Hardinge. (fn. 229) On the death of Dr. Willis in 1692 the right of presentation was again questioned, but Nicholas Hardinge established his claim, (fn. 230) and in 1692 presented his cousin Gideon Hardinge, father of Nicholas Hardinge the Latin scholar, (fn. 231) who, as clerk of the House of Commons, arranged the Commons' Journals in their present form. (fn. 232) This Nicholas inherited the estate from his kinsman of the same name, and lived at Canbury in the early 18th century. He was the father of George Hardinge (1743–1816) the author, the senior justice of Brecon, (fn. 233) who had no children, and after making a settlement of the manor, rectory, and advowson in 1781, (fn. 234) sold them in 1786 to King's College, Cambridge, (fn. 235) the present patrons.
The chapelries of Kew, Sheen, Petersham, East Molesey, and Thames Ditton remained annexed to the church of Kingston until the 18th century; they were separated by Act of Parliament obtained in 1769. (fn. 236)
A chapel of St. Augustine in the parish of Kingston is mentioned in 1422, but its site is not now known. (fn. 237)
The bishop of the diocese is the patron of St. Luke's Church, Gibbon Road. The advowson of St. Mark's, Surbiton, is vested in the donors, Messrs. Coutts & Co., (fn. 238) that of Christ Church and St. Matthew's in trustees; St. Peter's, Norbiton, is in the gift of the vicar of Kingston, while St. John the Evangelist, Norbiton, and St. Paul, Kingston Hill, are in the gift of trustees. (fn. 239) The living of St. John the Baptist, Kingston Vale, is a vicarage in the gift of the Bishop of Southwark.
The Grammar School and the foundations of Thomas Tiffin and John Tiffin, and of other donors for charitable purposes, including the charities of Elizabeth Brown, Edward Belitha, John Dolling, King Charles I, Henry Smith, Nicholas Harding, John Hartop and Vandercomb are treated in the article on Surrey Schools. (fn. 240)
1. The Almshouse and Pension Charity, regulated by a scheme, 9 December 1890, including the almshouse of William Cleave, founded by will, 11 May 1665, and the benefaction of John Pilsley, by will, date not stated. The trust property now consists of the old almshouses, erected by Mrs. Ranyard, the George Inn, let at £95 per annum, the Grange, Kingston Hill, and 2 a. 2 r. let at £180, several parcels of land, containing 27 a. 2 r. with messuages thereon producing £196 per annum, a sum of £406 17s. 6d. consols and a sum of £385 per annum, received by way of interest on a sum of £9,500 on loan to the Kingston Endowed Schools.
The scheme provides that the inmates should number twenty, of whom four should consist of two married couples, and the remainder single persons; the former to receive a stipend of not less than 12s. or more than 15s. weekly, and the latter 7s. 6d. up to 10s. weekly. There are also men and women pensioners, to whom the like amounts may be paid.
2. The Bridge Estate Charity, including the gifts of Clement Milam, by will, 11 November 1497; Richard Clark, by deed, temp. Henry VIII; Hugh Stephynson, by deed, 5 January 1520; Robert Hamonde, by will, 7 March 1556.
The trust estate consists of several parcels of land and tenements situate in Kingston producing £235 13s. per annum, and a sum of £4, 618 18s. consols, producing £115 9s. 4d. yearly. The income is applied in lighting and in the general upkeep of the bridge.
4. Mark Snelling, by will, 21 February 1533, gave trust property consisting of several parcels of land at Hersham, containing 28 a. or thereabouts, producing £84 per annum, and £1,669 11s. 9d. consols, representing proceeds of sales of land, producing yearly £41 14s. 8d. The income is applicable in the distribution on the first Sunday in each month of a sixpenny loaf, and a sum of 6d. to twenty poor householders, and the residue in the distribution of coals.
5. Edward Hurst, by will, 28 April 1551, gave a yearly rent-charge of £6 out of land at Kingston, belonging to Hon. L. Powys-Keck, to be distributed to ten poor persons, each to receive 1s. on the first Sunday in the month, which is given to poor widows.
4. The Right Hon. Robert Banks, Earl of Liverpool, by a codicil to his will, dated 4 January 1822. Trust fund, £833 6s. 8d. consols, the income, amounting to £20 16s. 8d. a year, to be distributed equally among five industrious poor, with a preference to such as have two or more children.
5. William Walton the elder, by will and codicil, proved in the P.C.C. 1847. Trust fund, £154 5s. 9d. consols, producing £3 17s. yearly, applicable in the distribution of coals equally amongst widows.
7. Mrs. Bythewood, by will, 18 August 1843, Trust fund (with accumulations), £246 15s. 1d. consols, the annual dividends of which, amounting to £6 3s. 4d., are applied in the distribution of 4-lb. loaves.
10. Richard Tollemache, by will, proved at London, 5 October 1865. Trust fund, £1,000 consols, the annual dividends of £25 are divided equally among five poor men and five poor women of the age of sixty years and upwards.
In 1703 William Hatton, by will, directed that out of the rents of certain premises in Mark Lane, six rugs to the value of 15s. each should be provided for distribution among six poor housekeepers of either Thames Ditton, East Molesey, West Molesey, or Kingston.
In 1726 William Nicholl, by will, bequeathed £200, to be laid out in land, the rents thereof to be applied in the distribution of coal. The legacy with accumulations was laid out in the purchase of 12 a. or thereabouts, at Shenley, let at £12 a year; 16 a. in Maiden, let at £35 a year; and a sum of £363 3s. 8d. consols is held by the official trustees in trust for this charity producing £9 1s. 4d. per annum.
In 1884 John Cam, by will, proved at London, 9 July, gave £1,000 consols, the income to be divided equally among three poor men and three poor widows of the age of sixty years or upwards not in receipt of parochial relief. The endowment is £1,010 4s. consols in the name of Bedford Marsh, esq., producing £25 5s. per annum.
2. The General Charities Endowment £12,303 6s. 3d. consols, annual dividends £307 11s. 8d., applicable as follows, namely:—£13 19s. 1d. for Kingston Clothing Society; £5 11s. 7d. for inhabitants of poorhouse; £1 13s. 8d. for repair of husband's tomb; £67 10s. 2d. to Princess Charlotte Memorial; £63 2s. 11d. for twelve poor widows; £119 15s. 4d. for church services; £16 19s. 10d. for ringers and chimers, and £18 19s. 1d. for promoting psalmody in church.
3. Public School endowment, consisting of £558 4s. 3d. consols, producing £14 1s. 8d. a year, set aside by order of Charity Commissioners 1905. The income of £13 19s. is applied for educational purposes.
4. The Sunday School endowment, consisting of £563 11s. 9d. consols, producing £14 1s. 8d. a year, set aside by the same order, representing the gift of clothing for the girls of the Kingston Sunday School.
The official trustees also hold a sum of £92 16s. 7d. consols, producing £2 6s. 4d. yearly, purchased with £90, the trusts of which are unknown, which was paid to the credit of 'Princess Charlotte Memorial' on 2 June 1872. This fund is administered by the trustees of Mrs. Savage's Charities.
In 1743 William Plomer, by will proved at London, 25 May of that year, gave £1,000 for the benefit of the minister of the Protestant Dissenting Meeting of Kingston-upon-Thames. Trust fund, £1,342 4s. 6d. consols, with the official trustees, producing £33 7s. per annum.
The Robert Dearie Charity (will of 1806) consists of a sum of £210 consols, producing £5 5s. yearly, and a piece of land at New Maiden, unlet for several years. The income is applied for the benefit of the minister of the Baptist chapel in Union Street.
The Society of Friends' Charities in connexion with Kingston-upon-Thames Preparative Meeting and the Esher Preparative Meeting are regulated by a scheme of the Charity Commissioners of 13 September 1910. They comprise the charities of:—
3. The Poor's Trust. Bequest of 1668 and augmentations. Endowment, £3,771 18s. 5d. consols and £7,248 5s. India 3 per cent. stock, with the official trustees, producing an income of £311 14s. 8d. a year.
Ham and Hatch.
Hamlet of Ham.
In 1892 the Hon. Algernon Gray Tollemache, by will and codicil, proved at London 12 February, gave £500 to the poor. This sum was augmented by gifts of £100 each from his widow the Hon. Frances Louisa Tollemache and the Earl of Dysart. The fund was in £704 9s. 9d. Consols in the names of the Rt. Hon. Baron Sudeley and others, the trustees appointed under the will, who by indenture, dated 2 March 1894, directed that the income should be applied in or towards the support of a sick nurse.
The Hon. Frances Louisa Tollemache also founded six almshouses in memory of her late husband, by deed, 16 November 1892, for the accommodation of nine inmates, and endowed the same with £16,000, which is now invested in certain British and Colonial securities, producing an annual income of £490. Each of the single inmates receives 7s. 6d. a week, and each married couple (of whom there may be three) 13s. 6d. a week. The surplus income is applied in out pensions and in subscriptions to various local institutions. A scholarship of £10 a year is also granted to a boy or girl at the Ham National Schools.
Hamlet of Hook.
In 1859 Anne Greene, by a codicil to her will proved at London 8 September, directed that the interest on a sum of £200 should be applied in a dinner to the poor on Christmas Day, or in gifts of 5s. each at Christmas to poor widows, or in apprenticing poor boys and girls, as the incumbent and churchwardens should think fit. Owing to a deficiency of assets a sum of £101 17s. 2d. consols only was received in satisfaction of the legacy. The dividends, amounting to £2 11s. per annum, are distributed in sums of 5s. to ten poor widows.
In 1888 William Mercer, by deed, dated 25 April 1888, settled a sum of £81 13s. 10d. consols upon trust that the income should be applied in the repair and maintenance of the church of St. Paul, Hook, and for the services thereof.