A History of the County of Surrey: Volume 4. Originally published by Victoria County History, London, 1912.
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Aultone, xi cent.; Kersauton, Cresalton, Creshauton and many other forms are found until the 18th century, when the country pronunciation Casehorton began invariably to be spelt Carshalton.
Carshalton is a parish on the north side of the Chalk Downs, in extreme width not much above a mile at any point, but over 4½ miles from north to south. It contains 2,926 acres of land and 22 acres of water. (fn. 1) It extends from the chalk, across the Woolwich and Thanet Beds, on to the London Clay. There are several strong springs in the parish, which form one branch, the larger branch, of the Wandle, and, after a short distance, join the stream from Croydon. The united waters form the eastern boundary of the parish for some distance, and the houses of Hackbridge (Pons Aquae) on the stream are partly in Carshalton parish. In the village itself the water forms large clear ponds which give a peculiar and picturesque appearance to the place. The London, Brighton and South Coast railway lines from Mitcham and from West Croydon respectively to Sutton pass through the parish, and Carshalton station, opened in 1868, is on the former branch. A good deal of market gardening, some lavender growing and ordinary agricultural work are carried on in the parish. The common fields, inclosed with those of Wallington under an Award made 10 March 1853, (fn. 2) were upon the Chalk Down south of the village.
Though the number of recorded prehistoric remains found in Carshalton itself is not large, it is likely that the abundant water made it early a place of habitation. Nearly a mile and a half south of Carshalton Church, on the Downs near the Woodmansterne border, is rising ground known as Stag Field, from a figure of a stag placed there by the Earl of Derby when he held the Oaks in Woodmansterne parish (q.v.) close at hand. Drainage works carried on here in connexion with the Metropolitan Asylums Board Hospital in 1905 revealed a prehistoric settlement. Traces were found, though slight and defaced by ploughing, of a banked and ditched inclosure containing hearths from which charred grain, perforated tiles, corn-crushers and pottery were taken. Some human bones were also found. The remains seemed to range from the Neolithic to the Iron Age, and included a cake of copper, a bronze buckle, an amber bead and a fragmentary vessel of the type found by Dr. Arthur Evans at Aylesford, and believed to be an importation from Italy. The discovery has been recorded. (fn. 3)
The village of Carshalton lies on the road between Croydon and Sutton, about a mile east of the latter town. The old village, situated at the foot of the Chalk, runs east and west along this road, but larger modern settlements of a suburban character have grown up and are rapidly developing both to the north and south of the original settlement, while on the west the village is now connected with Sutton by Sutton New Town, and on the east with Wallington by a line of modern residences. In the centre of the village, on the north side of the High Street, is one of the large ponds mentioned above, across which runs the road to Wimbledon. The church stands in a churchyard above the roadway and on the south side of the High Street, immediately opposite the pond. Many of the older cottages are of timber. Adjoining the churchyard on the east is an 18th-century butcher's shop, two stories high, built of brick with a tile roof and lower story projecting considerably in front of the first floor. In front of it are two ancient lime trees, between which is an 18th-century hanging beam with hooks and a small pent roof. On the south side of the High Street, some 100 yards to the east of the church, is a row of 18th-century red brick cottages, two stories high, with dormer windows lighting the attics in the tile roof. At the wall head is a moulded wooden cornice. The 'King's Arms,' an 18th-century inn, is incorporated in the west end of this block. Opposite the 'King's Arms' is another red brick building with a tile roof of the same date. It is two stories high, stands on a basement and has attics in the roof. To the front doorway is a hood, and at the wall head is a moulded wooden cornice.
A public hall in the village was built in 1874. A school board was elected in 1873. A parish school had been built in 1853, which was apparently superseded by Camden Road School, built in 1877 and enlarged in 1895. Camden Road (infants) was built in 1882; an infants' school (National) was founded in 1825. St. Mary's is a Roman Catholic school. (fn. 4) Leicester House, where the hospital for incurables (now at Putney) was first started, is used as a boys' school.
The town is now governed by an urban district council of nine members, established under the Local Government Act of 1894. In 1883 the vestry was superseded by a local board.
Carshalton House stands in wooded grounds at the west end of the old village. It was the property of Dr. Radcliffe, physician and M.P. (for whom see below), and after his death was bought by Sir John Fellowes, a director of the South Sea Company. It was confiscated after the South Sea catastrophe in 1721, although Fellowes still continued to reside in Carshalton. It subsequently came into the possession of Lord Chancellor Hardwick, (fn. 5) was afterwards used as a military college, and from 1859 to 1893 as a private school, kept by Mr. Bath and Dr. Barrett, who added a wing containing a dormitory. In 1893 it was taken over by the Daughters of the Cross, a Roman Catholic body founded in Liége in 1833. They built further additions to the west of the old building, and now carry on the educational work of the convent of St. Philomena, the name by which the house is known. In spite of its many different occupants the house itself has been little disturbed and stands to-day in practically the same condition as when erected.
The main house, which is rectangular in plan, is three stories high, and stands on a basement and faces the south, while against its west wall was a conservatory. It is built of stock bricks with gauged brick dressings, and has at the level of the top floor an elaborate wooden cornice. The house is symmetrically designed both in plan and elevation, and had its principal entrance in the centre of the south front and another on the east. The principal entrance opened into a large panelled hall—now used as the library—having some good carving over the doors in the respective north ends of the east and west walls. From the north-east corner a smaller hall is entered, which opens into the garden on the east. This room is also panelled in oak, and the doorway has Ionic columns supporting an entablature with a triangular pediment over, while in the north wall is a marble fireplace, surmounted by a large oak panel carved on either side with fruit and foliage. Above the panel is a shield carved with the arms of Fellowes quarterly : (1) and (4) a fesse dancetty between three lions' heads razed and murally crowned, and (2) and (3) two dolphins face to face, with the badge of Ulster; above the shield is a mantled helm with the crest, a lion's head murally crowned. The oak cornice running round this room is enriched with delicate carving, as are also the door architraves, and the plaster ceiling is of a beautiful French design. The room in the north-east corner is panelled with woodwork covered with paintings of diverse subjects. To the south-west of the library is a most elaborately ornamented room, with an Ionic arcading round its walls having an entablature with a carved frieze. Behind is another hall, off which opens the conservatory. The hall has a plaster vaulting carried on columns of the Ionic order, while the floor is of black and white marble. The main staircase opens off the hall, and is a fine piece of woodwork, being of oak with a moulded handrail and carved balusters, supported on carved spandrel brackets. The conservatory, now forming the principal entrance, has on its south front a colonnade of the Doric order, surmounted by an entablature, but the space between the columns has now been filled in and another story added. On the first floor the bedrooms, most of which are panelled, are entered from a large panelled gallery, and appear to have been little altered, many still retaining their 18th-century grates.
The elevations are refined and dignified. The entrance in the centre of the south front is approached by a short flight of stone steps having a simple wroughtiron balustrade, and stands between wooden columns of the Corinthian order supporting an entablature and triangular pediment. The east entrance doorway has carved architraves and brackets and a curved pediment and, as with the front entrance doorway, is approached up a flight of stone steps, having a light iron balustrade. To the west of the house fronting on to West Street—the road to Wimbledon—is a brick building of a little later date, the original purpose of which is not quite apparent. It is now used as a preparatory school. Above the middle of this building rises a square tower having long semicircular-headed openings in each wall and pairs of right-angle buttresses at the corners, which stop at the springing of the arched openings and support stone vases, while it is crowned by a parapet of fanciful design having stone pinnacles at the angles.
Between the building and the house is a large pond with a stone garden-house at its south end.
The wrought-iron entrance gates to the grounds are of good 18th-century design and stand between stone piers supporting the crest of the Fellowes. Worked into a monogram in the upper part of the gates are the initials J. F., though the gates are now surmounted by a modern cross.
Formerly Carshalton was described as being famous for walnuts and trout. (fn. 6) In the 16th century the Gainsfords had a swannery in their waters belonging to their mill in a place called ' the moore 'or 'moores' in Carshalton. The river has given Carshalton some industrial importance and from early times there have been mills in the parish. There was one in 1086, mentioned in the Domesday Survey of the manor. There is also record of a mill at Carshalton early in the reign of John. Robert de Beseville at that date appears to have held half of 3 carucates of land and a mill there, and William de Flanders and Maud de Colville (Couel) his wife held the other moiety with the capital messuage of the same. (fn. 7) In the reign of Henry III William de Coleville granted 72 acres and a capital messuage to William de Beseville, while the mill and the rest of the land which William de Beseville had formerly held remained to William de Coleville. (fn. 8) However, it appears that half a mill in Carshalton descended from Robert de Beseville to his granddaughter Joan, who became the wife of William Ambesas. (fn. 9) This moiety William Ambesas and Joan granted to the priory of St. Mary Overy (of whom it was held) in 1289. (fn. 10) After the dissolution of the priory Henry VIII leased a fulling mill in Carshalton in 1541 to Anthony Silver, citizen and leatherseller of London. (fn. 11) The tithes of this mill were held by Merton Priory. They amounted to 6s. 8d. yearly and were held in farm by Walter Lambard. (fn. 12) Merton apparently held tithes from two mills in Carshalton (worth 9s. altogether), which after the priory's dissolution were granted by Henry VIII to the Dean and Chapter of Canterbury. (fn. 13) Richard Clere in 1372 had granted a mill and some land in Carshalton to Merton, but the priory evidently parted with the mill before the Dissolution, retaining tithes only. Of a mill granted by William and Joan Ambesas to Bartholomew, Abbot of Chertsey, in 1279 nothing further is known. (fn. 14)
In 1364 Cecily Beauchamp died seised of a fulling mill in Carshalton held of Bartholomew Burghersh, her heirs being John Murvet and John de Beauchamp. (fn. 15) In 1569 Thomas Lambert granted a fulling mill to Anthony Wood, who died in 1581 and left his 'Brassell' or ' fullynge 'mill in which he dwelt and his waters and fishing rights to Margaret his wife, with remainder to his son Thomas. (fn. 16) Thomas Wood died in 1584. His heir was his brother Epaphroditus, who died in 1592 and whose son John Wood was born the February following his death. (fn. 17) John Wood in 1623 sold three water mills and land and free fishery in Carshalton, Beddington and Wallington to Dr. William Burton, (fn. 18) whose family was already in possession of a mill called Burton's Mill. (fn. 19) In 1686 Edward Burrish was in possession of these premises (fn. 20) and levied a fine of them in 1693 to Richard Cock and Luke Hodges. (fn. 21) By an inquisition taken in 1713 a certain Edward Carleton was shown to have been owner of a capital messuage, five fish ponds and lands in Carshalton, including Styles meadow, Hedges land and Three-cornersfield, and a copper mill, which by reason of Carleton's being in debt to the Crown were taken by the sheriff and granted by George I to John Fellowes of London. (fn. 22) This last owner, Sir John Fellowes, purchased the house of the celebrated Dr. Radcliffe (see above), founder of the Radcliffe Library and Observatory at Oxford, who during his residence at Carshalton made himself exceedingly unpopular with many patients by his candid speeches about their disorders. He had been physician to the Princess Anne but had been dismissed for this reason. He refused to stir from Carshalton, where he was suffering from an attack of gout, when recalled to attend her during her last illness, and was violently attacked by the Tory and Jacobite parties, to whom the prolongation of her life was extremely important. He was himself a Tory M.P. It is said that threatening letters that he received after the queen's death, on account of this, helped to hasten his own end. (fn. 23)
There were also powder mills at Carshalton in the 17th century owned by a Mr. Jarvis. (fn. 24) In 1842 there were ten mills, (fn. 25) of which some still exist, situated partly in Hackbridge on the stream which divides the parishes.
Carshalton was held in the time of King Edward the Confessor by five freemen as five manors. In 1086 it was held as one manor by Geoffrey de Mandeville, (fn. 26) who gave 6 hides from it as the marriage portion of his daughter, wife of Geoffrey son of Eustace Count of Boulogne. (fn. 27) These at the time of the Domesday Survey were held of Geoffrey Fitz Eustace by a certain Wesman. The greater part of this estate formed the manor of CARSHALTON, of which the overlordship descended to the Mandevilles Earls of Essex and the Bohuns Earls of Hereford and Essex. Eleanor daughter and co-heir of Humphrey de Bohun married Thomas of Woodstock, son of Edward III. (fn. 28) Their son Humphrey died without issue in 1399, after which the overlordship seems to have lapsed to the Crown.
Geoffrey de Boulogne, the undertenant of 1086, was grandfather of Faramus de Boulogne, whose daughter Sibyl married Ingelram de Fiennes. (fn. 29) Thus, at the beginning of the 13th century, according to the Testa de Nevill, William de Fiennes held a knight's fee or a knight's fee and a half in Carshalton (fn. 30) and likewise, also, Ingram de Fiennes, son of William, is said to have held half a knight's fee there. (fn. 31) In 1279 William de Fiennes, grandson of the first William, claimed to have in the vill of Carshalton assize of bread and ale, tumbril, pillory, gallows, view of frankpledge, infangentheof and utfangentheof, which had descended to him from his ancestors. (fn. 32) He died in 1302, having previously granted the manor to Sir William de Ambesas to hold for a fee-farm rent of 20 marks. (fn. 33) This rent he granted to William de Medeburn and it was confirmed by his son John de Fiennes. (fn. 34) The rent with the service of the lord of the manor then descended to Richard son of William Fitz Stephen de Medeburn, nephew of William de Medeburn, and by him was granted about 1319 to William Cosyn, citizen of London, (fn. 35) who granted it to Richard de Chissebech and Henry de Creton in 1319–20. (fn. 36) Sir William de Ambesas was returned as lord of the vill of Carshalton in 1316, (fn. 37) and in 1318 he and his wife Joan granted two messuages, 144 acres of land and 8s. rent in Carshalton to William de Bekenesfeld for life. (fn. 38) In 1324 Joan Ambesas, then a widow, granted the manor itself to William de Bekenesfeld and Christine his wife and Richard son of John de Kimberle for life, with remainder to Andrew, the son of William de Bekenesfeld, and Joan his wife, who was daughter of Richard de Kimberle. (fn. 39) By 1331 William de Bekenesfeld was dead and the manor was then held by Andrew son of William de Bekenesfeld and Joan his wife and by Richard de Kimberle and Christine de Bekenesfeld. (fn. 40) John de Mickleham, who was son of Maud daughter of Sir William de Ambesas, laid claim to half the manor, (fn. 41) but in 1332 released his right to Richard de Kimberle. (fn. 42) In 1362 Joan daughter of Richard de Kimberle and widow of Andrew de Bekenesfeld was holding the manor with reversionary interest to Henry Mot of Malden in right of his wife Alice, who was probably a sister and co-heir of Andrew de Bekenesfeld, (fn. 43) and Henry Mot in this year granted his interest to Thomas Cook. (fn. 44) Before 1372 Joan with Richard Claypole her second husband granted her life interest to Nicholas Carew, (fn. 45) and in 1373 Thomas Cook released his right in the reversion to him, (fn. 46) Henry Mot and Alice following suit in the next year. (fn. 47)
Nicholas Carew received a grant of free warren in Carshalton in 1375 (fn. 48); he died in 1390, leaving as heir his son Nicholas. (fn. 49) Nicholas died in 1432, after which the manor was claimed by the daughters of his second son Thomas, viz. Mercy wife of Richard Forde and Joan wife of William Saunder. (fn. 50) However, the manor had been settled by Nicholas (the father) upon Nicholas elder brother of Thomas (with remainder in default to Thomas), (fn. 51) and therefore descended to his (Nicholas') issue, he having a son Nicholas, (fn. 52) who was father of another Nicholas, (fn. 53) who died childless. On the death of this last Nicholas his uncle James Carew took his estates held in tail-male, but his sister Senchia, (fn. 54) who had married Sir John Iwarby, must have had Carshalton Manor, as it was settled upon Sir John Iwarby in 1514 with remainder to Joan the daughter and heiress of Senchia and her (Joan's) second husband Nicholas Saunder and to the heirs of Joan. (fn. 55) This Joan Saunder had first married John St. John, and her son by her first marriage, John St. John, was her heir. (fn. 56) In 1549 Joan St. John, widow, suffered a recovery, the uses of which were to her for life, with remainder to her son John St. John. (fn. 57)
John St. John (who was of Lydiard Tregoze, co. Wilts.) died in 1576, leaving issue by his wife Margaret, daughter of Sir Richard Carew, a son Nicholas, aged fifty. (fn. 58) Nicholas sold a moiety in 1580 to Richard Burton, and must have died before 1590, when John, apparently his brother, confirmed this to Henry son of Richard Burton and conveyed the other moiety to Walter Cole. (fn. 59) Walter Cole and William his son sold their moiety of the manor in 1620 to Sir Thomas Penruddock, Sir George Stoughton and George Duncombe, (fn. 60) who were trustees for Anne Countess of Arundel. (fn. 61) From the countess the moiety descended to her grandson Henry Earl of Arundel, from whose trustees Sir Edmund Hoskins purchased it in 1655. (fn. 62) At his death Sir Edmund left eight sons, six of whom died in the lifetime of their mother, who survived her husband and died in 1688. The moiety then descended to his eldest surviving son John Hoskins. (fn. 63) In 1696 it was purchased by Sir William Scawen. (fn. 64)
As to the other moiety Richard Burton died possessed of it in 1589, when it passed to his son Henry Burton, then aged twelve years. (fn. 65) He was made a knight of the Bath in 1603. (fn. 66) In 1642 he mortgaged it to Dixie Long of Lincoln's Inn. (fn. 67) Charles Burton, younger brother of Sir Henry, in 1647 also released all claim to Dixie Long, who died in 1664. (fn. 68) He left it to his wife Theodosia for life, for, according to the words of his will, 'all this and more is due unto her inasmuch as when shee was young and beautifull and of an honourable family and had a plentiful fortune she took me to be her husband without any condition of any provision of maintenance or joynture whatsoever.' (fn. 69) The reversion of the property was left to his nephew George Long on condition that he should live at Carshalton and should settle £100 a year on another nephew Robert Cutt. (fn. 70) From Long the moiety descended to Joseph Short, who, according to Manning and Bray, married Hannah the heir of George Long, (fn. 71) and they in 1688 mortgaged it to John Hoskins, owner of the other moiety, for £2,000 at 5 per cent.; this money becoming due to Hoskins' successor Sir Willam Scawen in 1711, Joseph Short with his son George conveyed the half manor with other property to trustees in order to raise by sale or mortgage the sum of £2,000 and more, after which settlement was to be made on Joseph Short in tail. (fn. 72) The moiety was eventually conveyed to Sir William Scawen in 1713, who thus became possessed of the whole manor. (fn. 73)
Sir William Scawen was a great merchant who ventured almost all his property in the cause of William III. He had no children and died in 1722, leaving his property to his nephew Thomas Scawen. (fn. 74) In 1759 Thomas Scawen and his son James suffered a recovery of this manor, (fn. 75) and in 1781 this James, his only son, conveyed all his estates in Surrey to Earl Bathurst, Robert Drummond and Charles Bragge as trustees to sell the same. In the same year the manor and park were sold to George Taylor, (fn. 76) who died in 1834, and was succeeded by his nephew John Taylor. Mr. John F. W. B. Taylor, J.P., is now lord of the manor.
Mascalls (q.v.) was at one time used as the manorhouse of Carshalton. Thomas Scawen, who succeeded in 1722, projected the building of a large house in Carshalton Park. The design was published in the Architecture of Leo Baptista Alberti in 1742. An inclosing wall two miles in length was built round the park, and the great gates of hammered iron, bearing the initials of Thomas Scawen, were very fine. They have now been removed. The figures of Diana and Actaeon on the gate-posts may have been originally brought from Nonsuch, where similar figures existed. The property is now in the hands of a building company. The house designed by Alberti was never built.
Another part of the Domesday fee of Geoffrey de Mandeville was held at the end of the 12th century and later by the family of Colville. (fn. 77) According to the Testa de Nevill this property was one knight's fee held by John de Gatesden by reason of his wardship of Gilbert de Coleville. (fn. 78) In 1259 the ward brought a charge against the guardian of having disseised him of a carucate of land, a messuage and a water mill, which had been held by his grandfather and father, both named William. He being a minor at his father's death had been in wardship, first of his grandfather and then of John de Gatesden, to whom his uncle Ralph de Coleville had conveyed the premises in question. The jury, however, decided against Gilbert on the grounds that as Ralph de Coleville had conveyed half of his nephew's lands to John de Gatesden (the other half Gatesden had annexed), the disseisin had been made by Ralph and not by John de Gatesden. (fn. 79) A second assize showed that William de Coleville the grandfather had held a messuage, 80 acres of land, 2 acres of wood, 2 acres of meadow, one mill and 5 marks rent in Carshalton, which had descended to Gilbert, and as he was able to show a charter in proof, and as John de Gatesden could not show his supposed charter of feoffment, which, so he said, a messenger of his had lost somewhere by Winchester, the jury this time returned a verdict for Gilbert. (fn. 80) In the same year (1259) a grant of a weekly market on Tuesday and an annual fair on the vigil, feast and morrow of the Nativity of the Virgin was made to Gilbert de Coleville. (fn. 81) The further history of this property is obscure, but possibly it may be represented by STONE COURT (q.v.), which Bartholomew de Burghersh held in Carshalton. (fn. 82) Bartholomew de Burghersh was granted free warren in his lands in Carshalton in 1344. (fn. 83) In 1349 Edward Botiller of Wem, clerk, granted to him all his land in the town of Carshalton which had descended to him from his brother William Botiller. (fn. 84) Bartholomew de Burghersh died in 1355 possessed of a messuage and 60 acres of land in Carshalton which were held of Walter Vaughan, and he left a son Sir Bartholomew de Burghersh. (fn. 85) In 1372 Margaret Lady Burghersh, granddaughter of Sir Bartholomew, junior, is called lady of the manor of Stone Court. (fn. 86) She married Robert Lord Ferrers and had a daughter Philippa, afterwards married to Sir Thomas Grene, (fn. 87) who in 1428 is returned as holding three parts of a knight's fee in Carshalton, 'formerly the property of Bartholomew de Burgherssh.' (fn. 88) His daughter Isabel Grene in 1454 released her right in the manor of Carshalton (fn. 89) to William Holt, citizen and mercer of London, and a certain Thomas Grene and Matilda his wife did likewise. (fn. 90) The manor soon afterwards passed to Nicholas Gainsford, who was Sheriff of Surrey under Henry VI and charged with treason in the reign of Edward IV. His confiscated estates were still in the hands of the king in 1484 when Richard III commanded John Kendale to take possession for the Crown of the manor of 'Burghersshe alias Kersalton,' which formerly belonged to the rebel and traitor Nicholas Gainsford. (fn. 91) He was pardoned in the following year, (fn. 92) and before he died in 1497 he must have regained some or all of his Carshalton property, for he left his lands in Carshalton to his wife Margaret for life and then to his son Robert. (fn. 93) He had been sheriff both under Richard III and Henry VII and had been high in favour with the latter king. (fn. 94) He was buried as he desired in the church of All Hallows at Carshalton, where a handsome brass preserves his memory. Henry Gainsford son of Robert left some property in Carshalton which descended to his son Robert, (fn. 95) but he had before his death alienated a great part of his land in Carshalton to Sir Roger Copley and his wife Elizabeth (fn. 96) and leased the site of the manor of Stone Court and lands to Walter Lambert for ninety-nine years. (fn. 97) Robert Gainsford owned a water mill in Carshalton and in 1555 leased his swannery belonging to it to Nicholas Burton. (fn. 98) This mill was sold by his son John Gainsford to Humphrey Rogers, who died seised of it and certain land pertaining in 1593. (fn. 99) Lambert built a handsome house on the site of the manor, (fn. 100) which Thomas Lambert his son sold to his brother-in-law Christopher Muschamp, who died in 1579 seised of a capital messuage called 'Tallesworthe' and lands in Carshalton, Beddington, Sutton and Wallington. He left a son Henry. (fn. 101)
The property later was owned by Sir Henry Burton and afterwards by Joseph Cater, who sold it in 1729 to Thomas Scawen (fn. 102) Thomas Scawen and his son James both held the manor of Stone Court or Gainsford's Place. (fn. 103) The trustees of the latter sold it in 1781 to William Andrews. (fn. 104) The house, which was called Gainsford's Place, was pulled down in 1800.
As for the other moiety of Henry Gainsford's property, Elizabeth Copley died in 1559 seised of a messuage called Cockes in Carshalton and 200 acres of land, 200 acres of pasture and 10 acres meadow in Carshalton and Wallington, which comprised meadows named Byggyn, Shope House Close, Annot Lande, Pytclose, Sparkmore Meade, and Newcloses and lands in 'the Southfeilde' of Carshalton. (fn. 105) Her son Sir Thomas Copley died owner of the same in 1584 and left a son William, (fn. 106) who died in 1643. His eldest son William had predeceased him, leaving two daughters, Mary married to John Weston of Sutton and Anne married to Sir Nathaniel Minshull, between whom his property was divided.
The manor of KYNNERSLEY derives its name from the family of that name who held land in Carshalton. John and Walter de Kynardele occur in the reign of Henry III, (fn. 107) and in 1391 Thomas Kennardesle by his will desired to be buried in the churchyard of All Saints' Church, Carshalton, for the fabric of which church he bequeathed thirty sheep. (fn. 108) The property appears in 1507 when Edward Burton, owner in right of his wife Isabel, granted the 'manor of Kenersley' in Carshalton to John Scott. (fn. 109) John Scott died in 1532, leaving a son John, (fn. 110) who died in 1558 and left Kynnersley to his five sons—Edward, William, Bartholomew, Acton and Edgar Scott. (fn. 111) It appears that Edward Scott, who had no issue, settled his fifth part of the manor on his brothers in tailmale. (fn. 112) At his death his widow Dorothy held it, with reversion to his brother William, who died in 1588. (fn. 113) As Robert Scott, the only son of William, died at the age of fifteen some five years later, (fn. 114) Edward Scott's fifth then descended to his brother Bartholomew, who died in 1600 and whose heir was Peter son of Acton Scott. (fn. 115) Peter Scott therefore held two fifths of the manor, the original fifth of his uncle Edward and the fifth of his uncle Bartholomew. (fn. 116) In 1616 Peter Scott sold his two fifths to William Hatteclyffe and Robert Ducke. (fn. 117) The latter held these parts of the manor, and in 1638 levied a fine thereof to Robert Tucler and Marmaduke Scott. (fn. 118) Later, according to Manning and Bray, Cecilia Sollers, widow, only sister and heir of Henry son of Robert Ducke, claimed two fifth parts. (fn. 119)
Meanwhile in 1583 Acton, Edgar and William Scott had sold their several fifths to John Huntley. (fn. 120) In 1607 John Huntley suffered a recovery of three fifths of Kynnersley, (fn. 121) which in 1631 were sold by Margaret Huntley, widow, to William Huntley. (fn. 122) By 1665 the three fifths seem to have been in possession of Thomas Saunders in right of his wife Anne, (fn. 123) for at that time they sold them to Francis Hildesley and Thomas Justice, from whom by descent or purchase the three fifths passed to Allen Avery, who made settlement on himself and his heirs in 1683. (fn. 124)
In 1497 Thomas Ellingbridge (son-in-law of Nicholas Gainsford) by his will bequeathed certain land in Nutfield to Carshalton Church for an obit and for alms. (fn. 125) His sister was Joan wife of Henry Burton, (fn. 126) who died in 1524. In 1543 Henry Burton died seised of a mansion called MASCALLS and some land belonging to it in Carshalton. (fn. 127) This messuage was held of the Hospital of St. John of Jerusalem as of the manor of Clerkenwell, but it is not known how that order obtained property in Carshalton. (fn. 128) Henry's son Nicholas Burton, who died at the beginning of Elizabeth's reign, left the property to his wife Ellen with reversion to his son Richard. (fn. 129) Mary Burton his daughter complained that her mother, who remarried with Ralph Hurlston, had not paid her the legacy to which she was entitled under her father's will. (fn. 130) Richard Burton made settlement of Mascalls on himself and his wife Anne daughter of Barnard Hampton He died in 1589. (fn. 131) Of his son Sir Henry Burton or of one of his successors Mascalls was purchased by Sir Edmund Hoskins, by whose family in 1696 it was sold to Sir William Scawen, who left it to his nephew Thomas. (fn. 132) The house called Mascalls in Carshalton Park has been mentioned under that manor.
The church of ALL SAINTS originally consisted of a chancel, central tower, nave, north and south aisles, and a porch on the south side of the tower. (fn. 133) In 1893 the church was enlarged by the addition of a new chancel, vestries, nave and north aisle on the north side of the old building, the former north aisle having been removed to make way for the new nave. The original church has thus become a subordinate part of the enlarged church, its chancel, nave and south aisle now forming a south chapel and double south aisle. In the following account the parts are referred to under their original names.
The church was apparently erected early in the 12th century and consisted of a chancel, a central tower and a nave. To the building was added circa 1180 a north aisle (now demolished), while about the year 1200 the chancel and the east arch of the crossing were rebuilt. Early in the 13th century the building was enlarged by the addition of a south aisle and later in the same century the western arch of the crossing was widened. Nothing remains to show if any further structural alterations were effected previous to the 18th century, when the south aisle was heightened and the tower raised, but to what extent these 18th-century alterations were carried cannot be stated through the recent pulling down of so much of the old building.
The east window of the chancel, a 15th-century insertion, is of three cinquefoiled lights under a twocentred segmental head. The opening in the north wall into the new chancel is modern, as are also the two windows lighting the chancel at either end of the south wall. Between these two windows are the jambs of two blocked-up lancets. These are visible both externally and internally, though externally the heads of both lights have gone. In the east end of the south wall is a curious original piscina having two square and deeply cut drains contained under one trefoiled head, while in the back of the recess are two small two-centred niches. There appears to have been a projecting sill in front of this piscina, but it is now cut away. The walls of the chancel are faced with flint with stone quoins and dressings to the windows, and are internally plastered.
The east arch of the tower is pointed and of two continuous chamfered orders. The west arch is also pointed and of two chamfered orders, the outer one stopping on the north and south walls and the inner one carried on semi-octagonal responds with moulded capitals, a late 14th-century insertion. There is a chamfered hood mould on the nave face.
The tower as seen from the outside is divided horizontally into three stages, the two lower of flint with cement quoins; the uppermost stage was added in the 18th century and is faced with Reigate stone now much decayed. In each wall is a round-headed window with flat architraves and slightly projecting sills. The tower is crowned by a small cornice, above which rises a copper-covered spire topped by a weather-vane.
The original north arcade was pulled down when the building was enlarged, but the capitals and bases of the piers and responds are preserved in the west end of the south aisle. These were circular and of massive section and had richly carved capitals with moulded abaci and moulded bases of late 12th-century workmanship.
The south arcade is of three bays with pointed arches of two chamfered orders carried on octagonal piers and semi-octagonal responds with unusually good foliated capitals and moulded abaci and bases. Both the capitals and bases have been considerably restored, the bases in particular, some of which appear to be quite modern. The arches have chamfered labels on both faces.
With the exception of four much-restored twostage buttresses no original detail remains in the south wall of the south aisle. These buttresses all stop under the 18th-century heightening and are of stone; the two end ones are set diagonally. There are traces of an original window opening in the west bay and of a south doorway in the middle bay. The aisle is lighted from the south by ten semicircular-headed windows, five in the old wall and five in the heightening, but although they are not set immediately over each other they are all of 18th-century date. The lower part of the wall is externally cemented, but the upper part is of red brick. The windows in the western bays of this portion have gauged brick arches with slightly projecting keys and moulded imposts. That in the easternmost bay has a flat stone architrave with a plain key and imposts. The windows in the lower part of this bay are of the same design, but those in the other bays are in the form of lunettes. The lines of the buttresses of the lower portion of the wall are continued upwards by red brick pilasters, and a flat coping surmounts the whole. Between the pilasters of the east bay of the south aisle above the windows in both south and east walls is a moulded brick cornice returning on itself.
The trussed-rafter roof of the chancel is of 14th-century date. It is divided into three bays by tie-beams carrying king posts which support a longitudinal purlin on which the collars rest. The longitudinal is strutted from the king posts and the tie-beams are strengthened by curved braces. The two easternmost stone corbels taking the feet of the braces to the east tie-beam are original, the one on the south being carved with a beast's head with a small crowning moulding, while the one on the opposite wall is carved with a man's face.
The roof of the nave is modern; over the south aisle is a flat 18th-century ceiling.
The painted oak reredos is of 18th-century workmanship and is of three bays in a classical design, the cornice being carried across in a carved pediment. In each of the side bays are two panels, one above the other, and in the centre bay four. On the upper panels of the centre bay, which are semicircular-headed, are painted the Commandments. The wrought-iron communion rail is of the same date as the reredos. The hexagonal oak pulpit is also of 18th-century work.
Set in a Purbeck slab in the floor of the south chapel are the remains of an elaborate late 15th-century brass. Of the inscription only a fragment remains, but the brass is that of Thomas Ellingbridge and Elizabeth his wife, daughter of Nicholas Gainsford, who died in 1497. (fn. 134) In the centre of the slab were the figures of a man and woman each under a cinquefoiled, crocketed and finialled gable with buttresses on either side surmounted by crocketed pinnacles, below which were shields, while the gables are separated by a buttress carried on a corbel and surmounted by a figure of the Virgin supporting the body of our Lord. (fn. 135) Along the bottom of the slab connecting together the feet of the side buttresses was an inscription, above which were two groups of small figures, evidently the children of the man and woman in whose memory the brass was laid, while on the feet of the buttresses were two more shields. Only the upper part of the brass remains in anything like a complete state, but from this the sinister shields, the finial of the sinister gable and part of the sinister buttress are gone, while the lower part of the side buttresses, the figure of the woman and the groups of children are missing. The inscription is entirely gone with the exception of a small portion giving disconnected portions of words from several lines in black letter.
On the lower part of the dexter buttress is the checkered shield of Ellingbridge impaling a cheveron between three greyhounds passant with an annulet on the cheveron for difference, for Gainsford, while the lower shield of the sinister buttress has the arms of Ellingbridge. The upper part of the figure of the man remains. In a quatrefoil in the tracery of the gable over the man are the initials IHS., and in a corresponding position in the sinister gable M[ER]CY.
Against the north wall of the south chapel, within the sanctuary, is the altar tomb of Nicholas Gainsford, the father of the Elizabeth of the preceding brass, and his wife Margaret daughter of William Sidney. A slab of Purbeck marble forms the top. In the west side is inserted an enamelled brass shield, Or a pheon azure, for Sidney, and on the south three shields, the westernmost Three roses gules impaling—a lion gules; the centre one Gainsford with a crescent, impaling Sidney; and the easternmost, a cross vert impaling Sidney. The enamel in these shields is well preserved. The edge of the slab covering the tomb is moulded and sunk. On the wall immediately above the tomb is a slab of Purbeck marble in which are set kneeling figures in thin English brass of the knight and his lady, with four boys behind the knight; behind the lady only the indents of four girls remain. The knight is in plate armour and the lady in a rich red dress in well-preserved enamel, and her face and head-dress are gilt. Above the figures are three shields, the westernmost with the arms of Gainsford, the centre one Gainsford impaling Sidney, and the third Sidney. Below the figures is a long black letter inscription with uncompleted dates. (fn. 136)
In the floor of the chapel to the north of the large brass is a fragmentary figure of a late 15th-century priest in eucharistic vestments and holding the Host in his hands.
In the floor of the modern nave is a slab in which is set the brass figure of a lady in the costume of the early 16th century with a scroll over her dexter shoulder inscribed 'O blyssyd lady of pite pry for me yt my soul savyd may be.' Below the figure is the following black letter inscription : 'Pray for the Soule of Joha[nna] Barton the wyf of henry Barton Esquyer and /dought' to John Ellyngbrege Esquyer ye whych Joha[nna] deceised the XXIIIJ day of / decemb' ye yer . of our lord MtVcXXIIIJ on whose Soule Jhũ have mercy amen.' In the bottom of the slab is the matrix for a shield.
On the south wall of the original chancel is a small
mural tablet inscribed :—
Under the middle stone that guards ye ashes of
A certayne Fryer some times Vicar of this place is
Raked up ye duste of William Quelche B:D.: who
Ministered in ye same. Since ye reformat[io]n.
His lott was Through Gods mercy to burne
Incence here about 30 yrs and ended his course
April the 10 Ano D[omin]i 1654 being aged 64 yrs.'
Below this inscription are six lines in Latin and their translation in English. On the north wall of the chancel is a mural tablet to Dixie Long of Lincoln's Inn, son of George Long of Clerkenwell. He died in 1664. On the south wall of the south aisle is a black and white marble monument to Edmund Hoskins, second son of Sir Thomas Hoskins of Oxted. He died in 1664. On the east end of the north wall of the original chancel is a small mural monument to Dorothy wife of George Barrish and daughter of Joseph Jackson of Bromfield in the parish of Edmonton. She died in October 1685, aged seventy-three years. On the east end of the south wall is a carved marble cartouche to Elizabeth Byne, wife of Henry Byne and daughter of Henry and Alice Herringman. She died in childbed in 1687 in the nineteenth year of her age. On the south wall of the chancel is a marble tablet to Thomas Bradley, who died in 1689, and his wife Elizabeth. He was vicar of Carshalton and rector of Walton. The inscription states that ' He quitted his Livings to preserve His Conscience.' He was a nonjuror.
On the south wall towards the west end of the chancel is a carved mural monument to Henry and Alice Herringman. They were married in 1650 and died within six weeks and two days of each other in 1703, both aged seventy-six.
Occupying the entire east end of the southernmost aisle is an elaborate marble monument to Sir William Scawen, kt., and his wife Mary, eldest daughter of Sir William Maynard, bart., of Walthamstow in Essex. The mural tablet of Lady Scawen, who died on 30 August 1700, aged thirty-three, appears to have been erected first and is placed well up in the centre of the wall, while the larger one to Sir William was erected later, incorporating in its design the smaller monument to his wife. The recumbent effigy of Sir William, having been thrice M.P. for the county and governor of the Bank of England, who died in 1722, reclines on a rectangular inscribed base; on either side are Corinthian columns supporting entablatures and vases. In front of the monument is an 18th-century wrought-iron railing of good design.
On the west wall of the southernmost aisle is a large monument to Sir John Fellowes, who died 26 July 1724, aged fifty-four.
There is a peal of eight bells. The treble and second are by C. Oliver, 1845, and the others by Thomas Mears, 1804.
The plate consists of a silver cup, probably of 1569, with cover paten of same date; a silver chalice of 1634 inscribed ' The Gift of Sr Henry : Burton : Kt : of : the : Bath. To God : and : the : Church : of Carshalton : in : Surrey.' On the foot is ' Anno Domini 1634'; a cover paten of the same date inscribed 'Anno Domini 1634'; a large silver flagon of 1640 inscribed 'The Co[mmu]union fflagon of the parish Church of Carshalton. The Guift of Henry Byne. Gent. 1673'; a silver almsdish of 1681 inscribed ' The guift of Henry Herringman 1682'; a large silver dish of 1710 inscribed 'The Gift of Mr. John Herringman '; a set of two silver cups with cover patens and a flagon, all of 1727, and inscribed 'This Cup and Cover (Flaggon) was Given by Sr Tho: Scawen Knt and Alderman of London and Dame Martha his Wife to the Parish Church of Carshalton Anno 1727'; a modern silver paten and chalice, and a modern ciborium, presented in 1910 by the late rector, the Rev. Lord Victor Seymour.
The registers previous to 1813 are in four volumes: (i) baptisms 1538 to 1644 and 1650 to 1705, marriages 1538 to 1645 and 1651 to 1704, burials 1538 to 1645 and 1652 to 1704; (ii) baptisms 1705 to 1795, marriages 1705 to 1762, burials 1703 to 1795; (iii) baptisms and burials 1796 to 1812; (iv) marriages 1754 to 1812.
Outside the east gateway of the churchyard are the live stumps of two trysting elms, with a butcher's beam fixed between them.
Emmanuel Church, Park Lane, is a Reformed Episcopal church. There is a United Methodist chapel in North Street, and an undenominational chapel, West Street Hall, West Street.
In the reign of Henry II the priory of Merton received a grant of the advowson of Carshalton from Faramus de Bologne. (fn. 137) The church was appropriated by the convent, which retained the rectory and advowson until its dissolution in 1540. Edward VI in 1552 granted the rectory, church and advowson of the vicarage to Sir William Gorynge, (fn. 138) who died in seisin of the same in 1554. (fn. 139) His son Henry Gorynge almost immediately sold the parsonage and advowson of the vicarage to Elizabeth Draper and Elizabeth Wade. (fn. 140) By them in 1556 the reversion of the advowson and rectory after three years was settled on John Fromond and his wife Benedict. (fn. 141) In 1587 Nicholas Fromond died possessed of the rectory and advowson of the vicarage. (fn. 142) His brother John was his heir, and he, when he died, left three sisters as his heirs. Of these Sanchia married James Byne; Elizabeth, one Palmer; and Dorothy, the third sister, Thomas Mowne. (fn. 143)
In 1597 Thomas and Dorothy Mowne levied a fine of the third of the rectory and advowson to Richard Goodman. (fn. 144)
The third part of Elizabeth Palmer descended to her daughter Katherine, who married William Forster. William and Katherine Forster levied three fines: one in 1615 of the third of the rectory and advowson to Thomas Skynner, (fn. 145) another in 1616 of the third of the rectory to James Byne and Thomas Mowne, (fn. 146) and a third fine in 1620 of the advowson of the vicarage to Sir Henry Burton. (fn. 147) According to Manning and Bray (fn. 148) the advowson had in 1618 been also conveyed to Sir Henry Burton by Thomas Mowne.
Both Sir Henry Burton and Charles Burton dealt with the moiety of the rectory and land and a messuage in Carshalton, (fn. 149) but in 1657 the rectory appears to have been owned by Richard Osborne in right of his wife Elizabeth. (fn. 150)
As for the share that Sanchia Fromond brought to the Bynes, it remained with that family, various members of which presented to the vicarage in 1661, 1674, 1690, 1703 and 1738. (fn. 151) Henry Byne appears as holding half the rectory in 1686, (fn. 152) but Charles Byne, his brother, was returned as patron in 1725, and the Byne family held the whole of the rectory as well as the advowson before 1794. (fn. 153) In 1797 Henry Byne sold the advowson of the vicarage and the parsonage-house and tithes to John Cator, (fn. 154) who presented in 1829, (fn. 155) and the advowson is still in the hands of his family.
The charities include Smith's charity, and £200 left by Christopher Muschamp in 1660 for placing and apprenticing two boys every year. But besides this in 1690 Harry Byne had left land by will by providing coals for the poor. In 1726 Sir John Fellowes, by deed, gave £10 a year for apprenticing boys.
John Walford left land for the repair of highways, formerly by a decree in Chancery of 1750 divided between Carshalton, Sutton, Mitcham and Streatham.
— Shepley left £6 a year for coals, and—Hoare 17s. 9d. a year for the same.