A History of the County of Surrey: Volume 4. Originally published by Victoria County History, London, 1912.
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Tenrige (xi cent); Tanerig, Tanerigge, Tanrich (xiii cent.); Tenrig, Tenrugge.
Tandridge village is 2 miles north-east of Godstone station. Godstone cuts off a detached portion of Tandridge (Tillingdon), which is inclosed between Godstone and Caterham and is now ecclesiastically attached to the latter. The extreme length of the parish, including the detached portion, is 10 miles. The greatest width is 1 mile; it is in places narrower and tapers almost to a quarter of a mile on the Sussex border. The detached portion is on the chalk hills, capped with clay with flints and gravel; the northern extremity of the main portion is on the southern face of the chalk, the village and church are on the Green Sand, and the greater part of the parish runs southward over the Wealden Clay. The area is 3,918 acres of land and 10 of water. There is no Inclosure Act on record for Tandridge. The parish is chiefly agricultural, but there are brick and tile works in it. The road from Reigate to Westerham traverses it, also the Redhill and Tonbridge branch of the South Eastern and Chatham railway. In Rocque's map of 1761 Woodcock's Hammer is marked in the south of the parish, near Hedgecourt, showing that an iron forge stood there or had once done so.
No prehistoric antiquities are on record at Tandridge, and the history of the parish resolves itself into an account of the priory, a small house of Austin canons already described. (fn. 1) There are practically no remains of the priory. Priory Farm, now the Priory, preserves its name, but there is no evidence that it ever included any of its fabric. Mediaeval tiles have, however, been found in its neighbourhood. The ponds near the priory may have been fish-ponds attached to it. That Tandridge had once some importance would seem likely from its giving a name to the hundred, the courts for which used to be held at Undersnow (called 'Hundred Snow' in a deed of 1656), in the south-east corner of Rooksnest Park, at cross ways. Here a constable was chosen for Tandridge and head-boroughs for the Priory Borough, Blindley Heath Borough, Baldock Borough and Bishop's Borough, all in Tandridge. The greater part of Blindley Heath is, however, in Godstone. (fn. 2)
Tandridge Hall, part of the estate granted to the Rede family with the priory, was sold in 1573 to Henry Hayward. (fn. 3) In 1613 his son John Hayward settled it upon himself and his heirs male, but subsequently revoked the settlement and limited the reversion to his son John. John the father died in 1633 and his son William purchased John's estate in 1649 and settled it upon his wife Martha. This son William, with his mother, sold the whole to John Borrough in 1681. It passed through several hands to Sir Joseph Jekyll. He died in 1738, and his estates were ultimately sold under an Act of Parliament of 1753 and Tandridge Hall was bought by Sir Kenrick Clayton. (fn. 4) Sir William Clayton sold it to Mr. Joseph Wilks after 1808. It then belonged to Mr. John Pearson, (fn. 5) and is now the seat of Mrs. Berendt. Parts of the house are of the 16th century, and it contains a mantelpiece with the date 1598 and initials of the Hayward family and some good panelling and carving.
Rooksnest is a fine house in classical style, with an Ionic portico, standing in a park of 140 acres. It was a farm of the priory of Tandridge sold in 1577 by John Rede to Richard Bostock. Bostock sold to Richard Hayward, who died in 1607, leaving a daughter, Catherine Roffey, his heiress. Catherine Roffey had been previously married to Anthony Bickerstaff, by whom she had a daughter Catherine, married to Hugh Henne. (fn. 6) In 1653 Henry Henne or Hene, probably son of Catherine and Hugh, was in possession. In 1707 he left Rooksnest by will to his nephew Edward Nelthorpe, son of Dorothy sister of Henry Henne, to hold after the death of his wife. Edward Nelthorpe conveyed it in 1711 to Anne Paston, who sold to Charles Boone (see Godstone). His son Daniel succeeded in 1735. His trustees sold to John Cooke in 1763. In 1775 Cooke sold to Richard Beecher, who perhaps built the greater part of the present house. He spent more than he could afford and had to sell in 1781 to Colonel Edward Clarke. He died in 1788, having left Rooksnest to Henry Strachey, afterwards Sir Henry Strachey, bart., who died in 1810. Matthias Wilks bought it, and sold it in 1817 to C. H. Turner, whose descendant Captain C. H. Turner is the present owner. It is leased to Mr. W. J. M. MacCaw, M.P. (fn. 7) It was for some years the residence of the late Sir Gilbert Scott, the architect.
Tillingdon is occupied as a farm-house. Moat Farm is on the borders of Tandridge and Crowhurst. Near it to the west is a rectangular moated inclosure, but there are now no buildings within the moat.
The National school, which serves Tandridge and part of Oxted, was built in 1870.
In the 17th century there was a fair at Tandridge appurtenant to the manor of Chipstead. This fair was held on St. James's Day. (fn. 8) There seems to be no further trace of it.
At the time of the Survey TANDRIDGE was among the lands of Richard de Tonbridge, lord of Clare, of whom it was held by the wife of Salie; Torbern had held it of King Edward. The assessment, which had then been 10 hides, was only 2 in 1086. (fn. 9)
The overlordship remained in the hands of the Clares, the manor being held by the service of one knight's fee, a rent of 2s. and suit of court at Blechingley. (fn. 10) After the death of Gilbert de Clare in 1314, at the division of his lands between his sisters and co-heirs, Margaret wife of Hugh de Audley succeeded to the manor of Blechingley and Eleanor wife of Hugh le Despenser succeeded to the knights' fees belonging to the manor. Tandridge was afterwards held of the Despensers (fn. 11) and their descendants, the Beauchamps, (fn. 12) till Anne Beauchamp widow of Warwick the king-maker was compelled to convey her estates to Henry VII. The rent and suit above mentioned remained, however, due to the lord of Blechingley, (fn. 13) the reason for which is shown by an interesting suit concerning the right of overlordship in Tandridge which was heard in 1343. (fn. 14) John de Warblington (the tenant) complained that Hugh de Audley, Earl of Gloucester, had unlawfully taken his beasts for arrears of rent; Hugh de Audley's bailiff stated that John de Warblington and his father had held Tandridge of Gilbert de Clare as of Blechingley Manor by service of suit at court of Blechingley and 2s. annually, and that as the demesne of the manor of Blechingley, with suit and rent from the tenants of it, had been apportioned by the Court of Chancery to Margaret, Hugh's wife, he claimed John de Warblington's service for himself and Margaret. Against this view it was urged that if a man had a manor and a tenant holding of him by suit, &c., and granted that tenant's services to another, and the tenant attorned, then the suit was extinguished, for the person who granted the manor could not have them, the tenements being by his grant out of his fee, and the grantee could not have them because he was not seised of the manor of which they were held, or, as in this case, if the seignory in its entirety were allotted to one heiress, and rent and other services such as suit to another, she who had not the seignory could not have any avowry, and therefore neither could claim John de Warblington's service. It was decided, however, that as the partition of land, &c., was effected by Court of Chancery, it could not be adjudged to be an act of Margaret and judgement was accordingly given for her and her husband. This decision accounts for the later inquisitions, &c., which show that Tandridge was held of the descendants of Eleanor for one knight's fee, but owed suit and 2s. rent to Blechingley, (fn. 15) which was held by the descendants of Margaret.
Tandridge was held of the Clares in the 12th century by the family of Dammartin, as is shown by a 12th-century deed by which Odo son of William de Dammartin granted to the house of St. Pancras at Lewes a virgate of land in 'Chartham' which was of the fee of Tandridge. (fn. 16) In the next century Alice de Dammartin, heir of Odo de Dammartin the younger (see Priory Manor), held one knight's fee in Tandridge. (fn. 17) She granted the manor to Thomas de Warblington in 1248. (fn. 18) In 1316 Thomas de Warblington, probably the son of the first, died eised of the manor, which passed to his son John. (fn. 19) The latter died in 1332. (fn. 20) His son, also called John, alienated the manor to John Forester, (fn. 21) apparently for the purpose of settling it on his wife Alice, as at her death in 1384 it was stated that she had held the manor of Tandridge jointly with her husband. (fn. 22) Having survived both her son John, who received a grant of free warren in 1368, (fn. 23) and her grandson Thomas, her great-grandson William, aged two years, was declared her heir. (fn. 24) The manor continued in this family for another century. Margery widow of William de Warblington died seised of it in 1484. (fn. 25) She had no children by William de Warblington and the manor, by the terms of a previous settlement, passed to William son and heir of Henry Puttenham, the latter being first cousin to the last lord. (fn. 26) In 1499 George Puttenham, who was afterwards knighted, son of William, was lord of the manor, for which he held courts in 1509 and 1527. (fn. 27) He was succeeded at his death by his son Robert, who sold Tandridge in 1542 to John Cooke, a goldsmith of London. (fn. 28) By deeds of 1544 it would appear that Cooke sold the manor to Thomas Pope (fn. 29); possibly, however, this conveyance was made with a view to mortgaging the estate. An inquisition taken in 1553 shortly after Cooke's death shows that he had in 1551 mortgaged the manor to Thomas Bradshaw. (fn. 30) Bradshaw assigned his interest in 1555 to Richard Bostock, (fn. 31) who remained in possession and died without issue in 1612, having previously settled the manor on Bostock Fuller, the son of his sister Katharine, (fn. 32) wife of Richard Fuller or Fulwer of Uckfield in Sussex. (fn. 33)
About this time the manor became known by the name which it has since borne of Tandridge Court, to distinguish it from the manor of Tandridge Priory (q.v.), which had also become the property of Richard Bostock, the two manors being held by the same lord. Bostock Fuller, who was a justice of the peace for Surrey, (fn. 34) died in 1626, having in the previous year settled Tandridge Court on his son Edward on the latter's marriage with Mary Gilbourne. (fn. 35) Edward only lived until 1637, (fn. 36) and, his eldest son John dying under age soon after, (fn. 37) the property passed to his second son Francis Bostock Fuller, afterwards serjeant-at-law, (fn. 38) who held until his death in February 1708. (fn. 39) By the terms of his will the Tandridge estates, which included besides this manor that of the priory and the rectory, were again separated, Tandridge Court passing to his grandson and heir Francis Fuller, (fn. 40) from whom it was purchased in 1712 by William Clayton, (fn. 41) nephew and heir of Sir Robert Clayton, kt., lord of Blechingley and of other lands in Surrey. (fn. 42) The nephew was created a baronet in 1732. (fn. 43) By the terms of his will, proved 1744, he devised this property to his younger son William in tail-male, but by an Act of Parliament of 1766 the estate was vested in trustees to enable Sir Kenrick Clayton, the elder son, to buy the property. (fn. 44) It descended to Sir William Robert Clayton, the present baronet, by whom it has lately been sold to Sir Walpole Greenwell, bart.
A capital messuage is mentioned in an extent of the manor taken in 1351, but it was then broken down and in disrepair. (fn. 45) It was afterwards held with the manor by the Fullers and sold in 1712 to William Clayton, whose family appear to have sold it in the early 19th century to Mr. Matthias Wilks, who built a new house (fn. 46) called Tandridge Court, now the property of Mr. Max Michaelis. Near the site of the old house are the new buildings of Tandridge Court Farm put up by Mr. Michaelis.
Odo de Dammartin, lord of the fee of Tandridge, founded the PRIORY there at the end of the 12th century, and successive lords of Tandridge, who were also patrons of the priory, (fn. 47) made grants of land there to the prior and convent. (fn. 48) In 1226 John de Wauton and Alice his wife, heiress of Odo de Dammartin (fn. 49) and then holding Tandridge, granted the prior 80 acres of wood, receiving in return the grant of mast for thirty hogs, which the prior had had of the gift of Odo de Dammartin the elder, and the right of chase with thirteen dogs and six harriers or greyhounds in the warren, a privilege granted to the prior by Odo de Dammartin the younger. (fn. 50) The priory also received an annual rent of 20s. 8d. chargeable on the manor of Tandridge. (fn. 51)
The Priory Manor seems as early as the 15th century to have been known by the name of NORTH HALL MANOR, (fn. 52) the name by which it was frequently afterwards known. In 1538, after the suppression of the priory, John son and heir of William Rede received a grant in tail-male of the house, site and church belfry and churchyard of the same, together with the manor of Tandridge. (fn. 53) His son John Rede (fn. 54) conveyed the entire property in 1576 to Richard Bostock, (fn. 55) lord of the manor of Tandridge Court, and the two estates, together with the site of the priory, remained in this family until the death in 1708 of Francis Bostock Fuller, when a division of the property ensued. The daughters of Francis Bostock Fuller, Elizabeth and Lettice Fuller and Anne Badger, together with Francis Fuller his grandson and heir, sold the priory manor to William Clayton in 1715, (fn. 56) and it remained in this family with Tandridge Court until 1797, when Sir Robert Clayton granted it with the farm known as Priory Farm, possibly representing the site of the priory, to Robert Graeme, his steward, and his heirs in return for the valuable services rendered by Graeme and because he had relinquished the profession for which he had been educated in order to become steward to Sir Robert. (fn. 57) In 1817 Robert Graeme and Mary his wife conveyed the manor to Charles Hampden-Turner, (fn. 58) in whose family it still remains.
TILLINGDON or TILLINGDOWN
TILLINGDON or TILLINGDOWN was held as a manor in 1086. The wife of Salie, who held Tandridge of Richard de Clare at Domesday, held Tillingdon also of the same overlord, and it is probable that the two manors descended together until the time of Thomas de Warblington, in the latter part of the 13th century. In 1300 Christine his widow, then married to Henry de Shenefeld, sued for her dower out of lands here, but it was found upon inquiry that Thomas had sold to Gilbert de Clare, late Earl of Gloucester and Hertford, all his lands in Tillingdon held in fee, including a capital messuage and curtilage of the yearly value of 3s. per annum, 300 acres of land and 200 acres of meadow, held for the service of half a knight's fee. (fn. 59) Tillingdon was then held as a member of Blechingley Manor (fn. 60) (q.v.) by the Clares and their descendants, (fn. 61) passing with Blechingley to Margaret wife of Hugh de Audley, one of the co-heirs of Gilbert de Clare. In 1428 the Earl of Stafford held half a knight's fee in Tillingdon and 'Todeham' in this parish. (fn. 62) The manor came to the Crown with Blechingley at the attainder of Edward Duke of Buckingham. The king granted it to Thomas Cardycan for life in 1522. (fn. 63) In 1525, presumably after Cardycan's death, Walter Chaldecote, serjeant-at-arms, received it from the king. (fn. 64) In 1532 the reversion was granted in tailmale to Sir Nicholas Carew, (fn. 65) who, however, forfeited it by his attainder.
Later the manor was granted to William Wibarn, who alienated to Sir Thomas Cawarden in 1545. (fn. 66) In 1562 William Lord Howard of Effingham received licence to alienate 'the capital messuage or farm called Tillingdon to Thomas Gardener.' (fn. 67) It passed before 1565 to Humphrey Shelton, who in that year alienated it to Alan Horde. (fn. 68) It afterwards became the property, by purchase from Horde, of George Evelyn of West Dean, Wiltshire, who died in 1637 and who also held Caterham and Marden in this county. (fn. 69) After this date it passed with the latter manor (q.v.), the sale of Marden from Mary Gittings to Sir Robert Clayton in 1672 including also the tenement or farm of Tillingdon, estimated to contain about 600 acres. (fn. 70) The farm of Tillingdon lies in the detached portion of Tandridge cut off by Godstone parish. The original manor, however, seems from the Domesday Survey to have included the site of a church, presumably Tandridge Church, which is as old as 1120. The part of the manor where the church is situated is apparently not in the hands of Sir W. R. Clayton, but it is not known at what date it was separated from the rest of the estate.
NEWLANDS or NEWLAND
NEWLANDS or NEWLAND (la Newland, xiii cent.) was a small manor lying in Tandridge, Oxted and Lingfield. To judge from its name, it must have been taken into cultivation out of the Wealden Forest, and in 1554 is associated with Moteland—that is the present Moat Farm and the moated inclosure adjoining. In the 13th century lands here seem to have been in the hands of John de Lobright and his wife Felicia. (fn. 71) Later the estate appears to have been held by the Newdigates and to have been conveyed by them to the Gainsfords. It was then described as in Crowhurst, Lingfield and Tandridge. (fn. 72) In 1609 Thomas Thorpe died seised of Newlands in Tandridge, held of Sir Thomas Hoskins of his manor of Oxted. (fn. 73)
The church of ST. PETER, like that of Tatsfield and others in the neighbourhood, occupies a very elevated site. There is a picturesque modern lych-gate, and a path leads up to the churchyard, which is very carefully kept. At the west end is one of the largest and most ancient yews in England, almost as large as the better known Crowhurst yew. Though quite hollow, it is full of life. 'At about 4 ft. from the ground it spreads out into four great limbs, below which it has a girth of 32½ ft.; there is a great spread of branches, measuring 81 ft. from north to south.' On the ground to the west of the south porch is a thick oblong slab or grave cover of local sandstone, bearing a rude Latin cross. (fn. 74) Among the numerous monuments, ancient and modern, in the churchyard are those of Edward Hawkins, Keeper of Antiquities in the British Museum, 1829; Lord Chancellor Cottenham, 1851; Sir J. Cosmo Melvill, K.C.B., 1861; and Lady Scott, wife of Sir Gilbert Scott, R.A., of Rooksnest, who restored the church. The monument to this lady, who died in 1872, is an elaborately sculptured tabletomb to the west of the church, of white marble, which shows signs of disintegration.
The church is built of flints and rubble, with firestone (old) and Bath stone dressings, the west wall having a coat of old plaster, the roofs being tiled and the timber tower and lofty tapering broach-spire at the west end being shingled. In plan it consists of a nave occupying the area of the late 11th-century nave, about 40 ft. by 25 ft.; chancel, dating originally from the same period, 27 ft. by 20 ft. A south aisle was added to the nave in 1844, together with a porch, and a north aisle, from Sir Gilbert Scott's designs, in 1874 (a north transept, added in 1836, having been pulled down), with a vestry on the north of the chancel. The tower and spire form a most interesting example of timber construction, and one of the earliest of its class in Surrey, dating, in fact, from the end of the 13th or the beginning of the 14th century. (fn. 75) It has huge 'legs' or corner-posts, about 9 ft. apart, rising from the nave floor, and these are braced together with a curious and intricate arrangement of cross-timbers, the whole of black oak in very perfect preservation. The shingled tower, with battering sides, rises to some height above the ridge of the roof before the spire begins. The oak tracery windows of the bell-chamber are modern, and in Cracklow's View of 1824 small plain louvred openings are shown. The same View shows an early 14th-century two-light window, with a quatrefoil in the head, in the south wall of the nave, the same as now existing in a similar position in the south aisle, east of the porch, but the stonework has been renewed externally. A small lancet, shown eastward of this, has not been preserved in the new work, and the new porch bears no resemblance to the old, a plain gabled structure with a low circular arch. There was also at this date a small vestry projecting from the south wall of the chancel, with low gabled roof, at right angles to that of the chancel, and westward of it a small two-light window with square head, apparently of 16th-century date, both no longer existing. Westward of the present porch is a single-light window of plain character and uncertain date. The east window of the aisle, of three lights, is modern. The old south door has been rebuilt within the porch, and is a plain pointed opening of the early 14th century. This aisle has diagonal buttresses. In the south side of the nave roof two large dormers have been inserted. The present windows in the east and south walls of the chancel would appear to be a restoration by Sir Gilbert Scott from evidence. Those in the south wall have two narrow lights beneath a pointed head with delicate tracery.
The window in the west wall of the nave apparently dates from 1616; at least, that date appears on the wall above it and probably marks a general repair. The only features besides the tower of any great archaeological interest are a door and window in the north wall of the chancel. Only nine or ten priests' doors remain in Surrey, and this is much the oldest, dating from the close of the 11th century. It is of local sandstone, coarsely tooled, and is exceptionally narrow (2 ft. 1½ in.), with a circular head and moulded imposts of rude quirked chamfer section, its present height being 6 ft. 4 in.; but it has probably been about 8 in. higher originally. It now conducts to the modern vestry, into which also opens the one remaining original window, a tiny round-headed slit, with narrow round-arched internal splays. The eastern part of the chancel skews internally and may represent a 14th-century extension.
The piscina in the chancel is probably a restoration.
Both the nave and chancel roofs are ancient oak (c. 1300) and of very massive construction, retaining the original tie-beams.
No ancient wall-paintings remain, but there is much modern mural decoration in the chancel especially, on walls and window-splays. All the stained glass is modern, the west window being a memorial to Sir Charles Christopher Pepys, first Earl of Cottenham, who died 29 April 1851.
The font, of white stone, with green marble shafts, is modern; so also is the elaborate reredos, the gift of Mrs. Bonsor, designed by Sir Gilbert Scott. The clock is a memorial of Queen Victoria's Jubilee. Some pieces of 16th-century oak carving remain. The seating and pulpit are modern.
There are monuments to the Wyatt and Saxby and other local families.
The five bells are modern.
The plate is modern, some of it made out of old pieces melted down in 1850.
The registers date from 1694.
The southern parts of the old parish of Tandridge have been allotted to the Blindley Heath and Felbridge ecclesiastical parishes (see Godstone). The detached part of the parish called Tillingdon has been assigned to Caterham.
A church standing on the manor of Tillingdon is mentioned in the Domesday Survey. (fn. 76) Tandridge Church (if this is the same) afterwards belonged to Tandridge Priory, (fn. 77) being possibly given to that house by Odo de Dammartin, the founder. A deed of 1290 occurs showing an agreement by which a tenant in Tandridge rendered yearly to the lord of that fee 12d., a barbed arrow and a rose at Midsummer in St. Peter's Church there. (fn. 78) The church was evidently appropriated to the priory, but no vicarage seems to have been endowed. (fn. 79) After the Dissolution the rectory, with the church and the priory manor (q.v.), were granted to John Rede, he being commanded to pay £12 yearly to two chaplains to serve the curacies at Crowhurst and Tandridge. (fn. 80) The rectory was held with the manor of the priory until the death in 1708 of Francis Bostock Fuller. By his will it was devised to his younger son Francis for life, with reversion to three of his daughters, Elizabeth, Anne and Lettice Fuller. (fn. 81) They in 1711 conveyed the reversion to their brother Francis, (fn. 82) who by will devised the property to these three sisters and to a fourth, Mary Causton, in survivorship, and after their deaths to his nephew William Causton and heirs. (fn. 83) In 1756 Edward James and Sarah his wife, daughter and heir of Thomas Causton, William's eldest son, sold the rectory to Sir Kenrick Clayton, with the proviso that he should pay £6 annually out of the tithes belonging to him towards the total of £14 forming the stipend of the curate of the parish. (fn. 84) At the present time Sir William Robert Clayton is impropriator of the rectorial tithes and Captain C. H. Turner is the patron, his family having acquired the advowson about 1845. The living is endowed by a small pension from the tithes and from the chief landowners, but is chiefly supported by the Ecclesiastical Commissioners and Queen Anne's Bounty. Since 1868 it has been styled a vicarage.
Smith's charity is distributed as in other Surrey parishes. Maynard's School charity (see Godstone) is applied by the terms of foundation to two boys from Tandridge.