BHO

Lambeth: The parish

Pages 50-64

A History of the County of Surrey: Volume 4. Originally published by Victoria County History, London, 1912.

This free content was digitised by double rekeying. All rights reserved.

Citation:

Table of contents

DESCRIPTION OF PARISH

A number of the streets in North Lambeth recall by their names the Lambeth of the past. Ferry Street abuts on the place where the old horse-ferry used to cross the river, where Lambeth Bridge now stands. Until Westminster Bridge was opened in 1750 the horse-ferry was the only means of communication (fn. 1) between Lambeth and the opposite bank, and was a source of much profit to the archbishops who owned it. (fn. 2) In 1628 the number of watermen in Lambeth amounted to 176. (fn. 3) During the Parliamentary wars Lambeth Ferry was confiscated with the rest of the archbishop's property and sold to Christopher Wormeall in 1648. (fn. 4) In July of the same year during the Surrey insurrection it was commanded 'that the horse-ferry be fixed on the Middlesex side at sunsetting, and kept there till sunrise,' and also that a sufficient guard should be placed there 'so that none be suffered to pass in the daytime except market-people and such as have business from the State and passes to warrant their crossing over.' (fn. 5) It was at Lambeth Ferry in 1655 that Cromwell's coach and six horses were upset while crossing the river; the boat and coach sank and three of the horses were drowned. This gave rise to the remark that 'my lord of Canterbury's coach and horses were drowned in the same place a little before he was sent to the Tower.' (fn. 6) It was also at Lambeth Ferry that Lady Arabella Stuart, a prisoner, on the discovery of her secret marriage to William Seymour, (fn. 7) was delivered into the custody of the Bishop of Durham. (fn. 8)

Carlisle Street is built on the site of the mansionhouse belonging first to the Bishops of Rochester and afterwards to the Bishops of Carlisle. The Bishops of Rochester when they conveyed Lambeth to the Archbishops of Canterbury retained the right to entertainment and forage from the manor of Lambeth. (fn. 9) Land was afterwards granted to them there, and in 1333 a mansion-house was built for their accommodation by Hamo de Hethe, then bishop. (fn. 10) Under Henry VIII an exchange took place with the king, Nicholas Heath receiving a house in Southwark which had belonged to St. Swithun's, Winchester. The king shortly after granted this house in Lambeth to the Bishop of Carlisle, and it was thenceforth known as Carlisle House. (fn. 11) In 1647 it was sold by the Parliament to Mathew Hardy for £220, (fn. 12) but at the Restoration it reverted to the Bishop of Carlisle. A pottery was afterwards established on part of the grounds, and the house was turned into a tavern. Stangate Street marks the way from Carlisle House to Stangate Stairs, which were built by John Sheppey, Bishop of Rochester, as a landing stage for himself and his successors. Here in 1826 stood the Mitre Inn, kept by 'Independent Bend, a house celebrated for Authors who flourish there and for Actors of less prudence than power.' (fn. 13)

The mansion-house of the Dukes of Norfolk stood almost opposite the Palace, close to Doulton's Pottery Works, and the memory of it is kept in Norfolk Place and Norfolk Row. The Dukes of Norfolk had a house in Lambeth in the 16th century, which probably had been in their possession for some time previously. (fn. 14) Here Leland taught the poetic Earl of Surrey Latin. (fn. 15) It was here also that Katherine Howard was brought up by her grandmother the Duchess of Norfolk, and became acquainted with Francis Dereham, a player of the lute. (fn. 16) After her marriage with the king, when rumours began to arise against her past, her grandmother turned over certain writings and papers and ballads stored away at Norfolk House, and standing herself at the end of the chest with a candle, 'she put back again those she liked not.' (fn. 17) The old duchess was arrested for complicity. (fn. 18) Her son, Thomas Duke of Norfolk, (fn. 19) was attainted of high treason in 1546–7, (fn. 20) and the property was granted to William Parr Marquess of Northampton, (fn. 21) who afterwards conveyed it to Edward VI, (fn. 22) and in 1551 the king bestowed it upon the Bishop of Winchester. (fn. 23) On the accession of Mary, however, the Duke of Norfolk was liberated (fn. 24) and the house restored to him. According to Manning and Bray it was sold to the wife of Archbishop Parker at the beginning of Elizabeth's reign, and her younger son Mathew was holding in 1570. (fn. 25) He died in 1573, and it passed from his widow to his elder brother John. In 1592 Margaret Adams, widow, died possessed of the 'chief messuage or middle part of a great house called the Duke of Norfolk's house' in Lambeth, which she bequeathed to her kinsman John Colte and Frances his wife. (fn. 26) In 1611 John Colte died seised of it, leaving a son and heir also called John, aged twelve. (fn. 27) The house was completely demolished before 1786. (fn. 28) A few yards south of Norfolk Place is a disused burial-ground, which was given to the parish by Archbishop Tenison and consecrated in 1705. (fn. 29) It was turned into a public garden later. In 1602–3 Elizabeth granted a house in South Lambeth to Sir Noel Caron, the Dutch Ambassador, (fn. 30) who lived here till his death in 1625. (fn. 31) The house had formerly belonged to John Hewett of London, who had acquired it in 1585 from William Henbury and Morgan Pole. (fn. 32) It was granted in 1666 to Edward Hyde Earl of Clarendon, then Lord Chancellor, for a rent of 10s., the grounds amounting to 10 acres, (fn. 33) and in 1667 it was used as the Fleet Prison, (fn. 34) the old Fleet Prison having been burned in the Fire of London. Sir Fulk Greville Lord Brooke, the friend of Sir Philip Sidney, had a house in Lambeth, which was held in dower by his widow Lady Elizabeth Greville. (fn. 35) John Tradescant, the antiquarian and horticulturist, had a museum and garden in South Lambeth. He bequeathed his collections to Elias Ashmole, who presented them to the University of Oxford. (fn. 36)

Lambeth Marsh (fn. 37) was formerly a partially inhabited district, (fn. 38) a haunt for game, and there are several allusions to the office of gamekeeper in the 17th century. (fn. 39) In 1594 marsh-land there was leased to one Jane Denham, with licence to drive her cattle to pasture over 'the two bridges,' (fn. 40) but excepting 'the fishing in Gurwall's pond, and the royalty of breeding swans.' (fn. 41) Inigo Jones is said to have buried his stock of ready money in Lambeth Marsh during the Commonwealth. (fn. 42) Lambeth Fields are mentioned as early as 1263, when Simon de Montfort and his soldiers, wearing the sign of the cross back and front, encamped there. (fn. 43) In the 17th century a pest-house stood there, (fn. 44) and in 1647 one George Duke, who had been imprisoned by the Parliament, was turned out half-naked and destitute into Lambeth Fields. (fn. 45) The land south of the Thames used to be crossed by narrow channels of water, and in 1638 one of the bridges in the king's private way between Lambeth and Greenwich was broken by carts conveying 'great quantities of bricks and other heavy carriage.' Not long after, the king 'passing in his coach' was stopped by the damage 'and constrained to come by foot over, while the coach came dangerously after.' (fn. 46)

In the 18th century only a cluster of small huts and sheds were built on the shore of the river where St. Thomas's Hospital now stands. The river was very inadequately embanked and overlapped its present confines, leaving only a narrow pathway in front of the palace. (fn. 47) This, which had developed into a road by 1841, was then still known as the Bishop's Walk, (fn. 48) but has now been absorbed into Lambeth Palace Road. A boathouse or stairs were opposite the palace gateway. In 1746 Cuper's Gardens were standing on the site of Waterloo Road, and were only done away with at the beginning of the 19th century. These gardens belonged to the Dukes of Norfolk, who bestowed them upon Jesus College, Oxford. The college owned them early in the 18th century, and they were then pleasure gardens, adorned with fragments of statues brought by the Earl of Arundel from Italy. (fn. 49) They had been first laid out by Mr. Cuper, the Duke of Norfolk's gardener. They became known as Cupid's Gardens, and were closed for good reasons in 1753. The Old Barge House at the north-eastern limit of the parish was still to be seen in 1769, and Commercial Road, which runs east and west parallel with the river, crosses the centre of what was then a bowling-green. A timber yard stood east of the bowling-green, and seven more timber yards lay along the bank between Cuper's Gardens and Westminster Bridge. Vine Street, with its sharp angle, and College Street were in existence at that time, but very few other roads crossed the marsh-land. A turnpike stood where Westminster Bridge Road crosses the road called Lambeth Marsh. (fn. 50)

In 1809 the 'Prince's Meadows' were acquired to make the necessary new roads at the building of Waterloo Bridge. According to the description then given of these meadows they contained 28 acres 3 roods 10 perches and 1,250 ft. of wharfs, 'behind which is a narrow road or street called the Narrow Wall.' The buildings were of wood and 'of a very inferior description,' some being much ruined. The rest of the property consisted of pasture and gardens, with very few buildings of any sort. To encourage the construction of better houses the prince was entitled to let his ground for ninety-nine year leases, upon such terms as would bring him in £5,000 annually, the property hitherto having only been worth £3,200. (fn. 51) The present names of the streets—Prince's Street, Duke Street and Cornwall Road—indicate more or less the prince's estate.

In the last 150 years Lambeth and Vauxhall have been transformed from rural suburbs into a part of London itself. Between 1801 and 1831 the population was more than trebled, and ten years later had increased from 87,856 to 105,883. (fn. 52) At the beginning of the 17th century the arable land amounted to 1,261 acres and the pasture to 1,026 acres; garden ground was then 37 acres, wood 150, and common land was supposed to be 330 acres. (fn. 53) About 1809 1,271 acres represented the sites of buildings and roads; arable land was then only 540 acres, gardens, private and public, amounted to 830, and common land to 280 acres. (fn. 54) The last was inclosed by an Act of 1822. The common fields were inclosed by an Act of 1806. (fn. 55)

Under the Reform Act of 1832 Lambeth was made into a Parliamentary borough returning two members. (fn. 56) The borough included, besides Lambeth, all Camberwell except Penge and part of Clapham. The Lambeth Police Court Division was constituted 17 November 1840, (fn. 57) and on 17 December 1844 the court was removed from Whitechapel to Kennington Lane and re-named Lambeth Court. (fn. 58) The Lambeth Metropolitan County District was formed 10 March 1847. (fn. 59) Lambeth was included in London County in 1888, (fn. 60) and was made a metropolitan borough 13 July 1899. (fn. 61) The population in 1901 was 301,895, showing an increase of over 23,000 since 1891. (fn. 62) This development has been chiefly due to the opening of the Westminster, Waterloo and Vauxhall Bridges, the building of Waterloo and Vauxhall stations in 1848 on the London and South Western line, (fn. 63) and to the value of the riverside for trade.

The first mention of a project to build a bridge near Lambeth occurs in 1664, but was abandoned because of the opposition of the Londoners. (fn. 64) The objections put forward were the danger of its breaking, the interruption to the course of the river, and injury to the employment of watermen; while amongst the reasons in its favour were the convenience of passage to the king and the two queens to their palace at Greenwich, increase of trade to Westminster, and better access for soldiers to Southwark. The expense was to be met by a toll. (fn. 65) The Londoners gained their point, but at a heavy price, for in October 1664 the court of aldermen and commons, while thanking the king for preventing the construction of the bridge, undertook to advance him a loan of £100,000. (fn. 66) The scheme was revived again not long after, and about 1670 the Company of Watermen declared themselves opposed to the building of bridges at Lambeth and Putney. (fn. 67) The same feeling existed in 1720, when the City was said to be in 'a high ferment' about the new bridge to be built at Lambeth. (fn. 68) The bridge, however, was actually begun in 1738, (fn. 69) and when it was opened twelve years later £2,205 compensation was paid to the archbishop. (fn. 70)

In 1809 an Act (fn. 71) was passed to permit the building of Waterloo Bridge (which was at first intended to be called the Strand Bridge). One result of the opening of the bridge and the increased accessibility of the district was the building of the Royal Coburg Theatre, which was situated 'near Waterloo Bridge on the road leading to the Obelisk, from which seven roads branch in as many directions.' The ground was still marshy, and rubbish was brought from the Savoy Palace, then being finally demolished, to render the foundations firm. The theatre was opened on 11 May 1818 with a play called 'Trial by Battle,' an Asiatic ballet, and a harlequinade. (fn. 72) It subsequently became the Victoria Theatre, and has since been used for literary and religious meetings and lectures. It is about to be opened again as a theatre.

Astley's Royal Amphitheatre, which stood close to Westminster Bridge, had preceded the Coburg Theatre by more than forty years. The circus was founded in 1774 by Philip Astley, who, having hired the ground and erected a few boards to screen it from the road, gave his exhibitions of horsemanship there. His success was prompt, and he put up a more adequate building. The circus was burnt in 1794, and again in 1803, with nearly forty houses. It was again rebuilt, and the scope of the performances widened. (fn. 73)

The Hungerford Suspension Bridge was built between Hungerford Market, Charing Cross, and Lambeth in accordance with an Act of 1836, (fn. 74) Sir I. K. Brunel being the engineer. The central span was 676 ft. wide. It was opened 1 May 1845. It was a footbridge only with a halfpenny toll. It was removed when the Charing Cross railway bridge was built almost upon the same line in 1863. The footbridge by the side of the railway bridge is a record of its existence. The chains and ironwork of the Suspension Bridge were re-erected at Clifton on the Avon.

The river in front of Lambeth and Vauxhall began to be fashionable at an early date, and on Holy Thursday in 1539 Henry VIII was rowed up and down there in his barge, his fifes and drums playing for an hour after evensong. (fn. 75) Again, in 1612–13 there was a grand display of fireworks and a mock sea-fight near Lambeth, while after the Restoration the queen and her ladies used to 'undertake long voyages' up the river, and, 'falling short of provisions, victual sometimes at Vauxhall.' (fn. 76) On another occasion Charles II, the Duke of York and the Duke of Monmouth are said to have gone in their barges to Vauxhall, 'whence they intend to take their recreation in fowling along the river.' (fn. 77)

The tradition that Guy Fawkes owned Vauxhall and that it took its name from him has been disproved. (It took its name from Falkes de Breauté, see manor). (fn. 78) The Gunpowder Plot conspirators hired a house at Lambeth where Catesby was accustomed to lodge on his visits to London, and put it in charge of Thomas Keyes. There they first stored the powder, which they brought across the Thames in small quantities to the house which Percy had taken at Westminster. (fn. 79) The tradition that this house was John Wright's seems to rest on the fact that Percy met Catesby and Wright there.

In 1675 the 'chief messuage called Vauxhall' in Kennington as part of the duchy of Cornwall was granted to Sir Samuel Morland, bart., for thirty-one years. (fn. 80) It had previously been held by Peter Jacobsen, a sugar baker, son-in-law to Caspar Kalthop. (fn. 81) Caspar, who had served Charles I as an engineer, had lost his property during the Commonwealth. (fn. 82) It was, however, restored to him on the accession of Charles II and shortly afterwards passed to Jacobsen. (fn. 83) Kalthop had built a sugar bakery there, and his son-in-law added to it and improved it, spending £700 upon it. (fn. 84) Sir Samuel Morland also at some time acquired Spring Gardens, which were adjacent to the capital messuage, and he expended his ingenuity upon fantastic contrivances both in the house and garden. (fn. 85) This property probably included the gardens belonging to Jane Vaux in 1615, which were divided between her two daughters, one of whom married Dr. Barlow, Bishop of London. (fn. 86) The capital messuage acquired by Sir Samuel Morland has been identified with Copt or Copped Hall which stood opposite the original Vauxhall. This was a quaint turreted building with an outside staircase covered with scrolllike designs, according to a plan published in 1813. (fn. 87) In 1712, when Addison wrote the Sir Roger de Coverley papers in the Spectator, Spring Gardens were a place of public resort, and in the first half of the 18th century, about 1730, the house of Sir Samuel Morland and the gardens were occupied by Mr. Jonathan Tyers, who made the existing gardens a still more famous place of entertainment. (fn. 88) By degrees it was arranged with pavilions—some painted by Hogarth—covered walks and colonnades; performances of music, acrobats, dances and displays of fireworks took place there, and when Westminster Bridge was completed Mr. Tyers opened a new coach-way connecting it with the gardens. (fn. 89) In 1827 it was advertised that the illuminations were to be increased by 10,000 lamps, and the wonder of the spectacle was compared to scenes in the Arabian Nights. (fn. 90) Vauxhall Gardens were finally closed on 5 July 1859, (fn. 91) and the site was soon covered with buildings. Only the names Spring Gardens and Italian Walk survive. Cumberland Tea Gardens were on the river close to Vauxhall Bridge. Glass House Street in Vauxhall recalls the factory of Venetian glass founded in the 17th century by Rossetti. Princes Road leading inland to Kennington Lane is called after the royal lords of Kennington and Vauxhall Manors. In 1841 a toll-bar stood close to Kennington Common and another where the Turnpike (now Wandsworth) Road and South Lambeth Road touch Vauxhall Bridge Road.

In Fentiman Road (next to Vauxhall Park) are the almshouses founded by Sir Noel Caron (see under Charities) in 1628, and rebuilt in 1832 on the present site—a part of the Caron Estate—the land being the gift of William Evans, Sheriff of London in 1820. The buildings are of red brick with stone dressings in Tudor style. In the middle gable are the arms of the founder: between three martlets a cheveron with two swords interlaced with an annulet thereon impaling a lion holding a ragged staff, on a chief three roses; crest a lion with a staff. Over the middle porch doorway are the arms of the donor of the ground—a cheveron semée of fleurs de lis.

Kennington lies south-east of Vauxhall and Lambeth, and is a thickly populated district. The present park is on the site of old Kennington Common, which is described in the 17th century as being of about 20 acres. The lords of the manor had the right of driving game there, but it could not be inclosed except by the consent of the freeholders and copyholders. (fn. 92) The house of the Bishop of Southwark, built in 1896, is close to Kennington Park. A little to the west is the Oval, approached on one side by Bowling Green Street. The Surrey County Cricket Club have long rented their ground at the Oval from the Duchy of Cornwall. In 1896 King Edward VII personally interested himself in a renewal of the lease for thirty-one years. The old manor-house is supposed to have stood a little east of the Wandsworth Road. The manor became royal property towards the end of the 14th century. Geoffrey Chaucer was made clerk of the works there in 1389, for which with several other charges he received 2s. a day. (fn. 93) This palace was pulled down by Henry VIII to supply material for the completion and adaptation of Whitehall after Wolsey's disgrace, (fn. 94) and a dock was dug in Vauxhall to load the barges. Apparently the barn which is mentioned in 1465 (fn. 95) was left, for in the Parliamentary Survey taken in 1649 there is a detailed description of a great barn, 50 yards long and 8 yards wide. It was roofed with tiles, and consisted of twelve 'bayes of building.' The manor-house, which probably occupied the site of the palace, was built of brick, consisting of hall, parlour, buttery and kitchen, two sheds, three chambers upstairs, and over these a loft. (fn. 96) A vine-garden is mentioned in 1461, and Hugh le Despenser, when lord of the manor, appears to have made wine and sent it to market in London. Most likely, however, this was not actually in Kennington itself, but in the Prince's meadows in Lambeth Marsh, which were appurtenant to the manors on the site of Vine Street. In 1649 'one little court' stood before the door of the manor planted with small trees 'and paled with baker's boards.' A little garden adjoined a small tenement near the shed, and a 'great garden' lay to the south-west planted with young trees, and 'gardener's fruit,' while another garden lay to the north. (fn. 97) The Kennington estate now covers about a third of a square mile and extends (in sections) from Blackfriars Road to Kennington Oval. King Edward VII whilst he held the estate did much towards reforming the property, and a scheme is now being prepared under the direction of King George V for the entire rebuilding of the houses on it.

To the east of Kennington Park Road, between Penton Street and New Street, lay the Surrey Zoological Gardens, a well-known place of entertainment. Mr. Spurgeon used to preach there before the Metropolitan Tabernacle was opened in 1861.

The districts of Stockwell, Brixton, Herne Hill and Tulse Hill practically owe their existence to their position neither in nor out of London, and have been laid out in wide roads bordered by villas and gardens. In 1823 Stockwell was a mere hamlet, and though letters were dispatched there twice a day the inhabitants had to depend upon the Brixton coaches to reach London. Nine years later, however, there was a constant service of coaches for London from Stockwell itself and carriers travelled to town every day.

Brixton, though it gave its name—derived from a probable dolmen, Brixi's stone, which was a well-known landmark—to the hundred, was not an inhabited district till a century ago. Brixton Hill was the hill where this stone had been, and Brixton Causeway was a part of the road from Streatham to London carried over a causeway to avoid the swamps and overflow of the Effra at the foot of the hill. In 1835 it is described as a stretch of road two miles in length between Kennington and Streatham, bordered by well-built houses both in rows and detached. (fn. 98) The lateral expansion seems to have been then beginning, however, to judge from maps. The schools of St. Anne's Society were built there as on a country site in 1830. They have been since removed to Redhill. The Brixton House of Correction was built in 1820 and the first tread-mill, the 'Brixton Wheel,' was in it. In 1824 Mr. Thomas Bailey established the Trinity Almshouses in Acre Lane, for twelve poor women, who, however, were not to be destitute but to have £20 a year at least of their own, and to profess belief in the Holy Trinity. In 1834 the Reform Almshouses were built by subscription to commemorate the passing of the Reform Bill of 1832. The London and the Rogers Almshouses opposite the church of St. Paul in Ferndale Road are modern buildings of brick, with stone dressings, belonging to the Corporation of the City. In the same road is the City of London Freemen's Orphan School, a large Renaissance building of brick and stone with a heavy eaves-cornice. The town hall is a new building opposite the church of St. Matthew.

Tulse Hill, which seems to be named from the land of Sir Henry Tulse, Lord Mayor in 1683, whose daughter Elizabeth married the first Lord Onslow, was not built upon till rather later than the time when houses at Brixton were begun.

Herne Hill, partly in Camberwell, had detached houses upon it early in the 19th century. The origin of the name is doubtful. Hernhill is a parish in Kent, and the name may be borrowed; but Tulse Hill, Champion Hill and Denmark Hill in the neighbourhood owe their names to persons, and a Sir William Heron and his wife Elizabeth were parties to a fine in Hatcham and Bredinghurst in 1394, connecting them with the neighbourhood. The name Herne Hill, however, is not found so early as that date.

MANORS

The manor of LAMBETH, sometimes called NORTH LAMBETH, (fn. 99) was held under Edward the Confessor by Goda, sister of the king and wife of Eustace Count of Bologne. (fn. 100) Goda, who died in 1056, is said to have granted it to the church of St. Andrew, Rochester, (fn. 101) but in the Survey it is entered under the land of the church of Lambeth with the heading 'St. Mary is a manor which is called Lambeth. (fn. 102) It was then assessed for 2½ hides, having formerly been assessed for 10, and besides its other appurtenances mention is made of '19 burgesses in London who render 36 shillings.' The Bishop of Bayeux held a piece of arable land which before and after the death of Goda had been attached to the land belonging to the church of St. Mary at Lambeth. (fn. 103) The church must have soon lost possession of the manor, as, during the episcopate of Gundulf Bishop of Rochester, William Rufus granted the vill of Lambeth, as of his demesne, to the church of St. Andrew (fn. 104) and to its new foundation of Benedictine monks, (fn. 105) a grant which was also confirmed by Henry I. (fn. 106) A thousand lampreys were supplied from Lambeth for the monks' table. (fn. 107) In spite of this grant Bishop Ascelin of Rochester (1142–47–8) disputed the lordship of Lambeth with the monks, who appealed to their charter, against which the bishop had nothing to show, and the pope's legate Irna Bishop of Tusculum gave judgement in favour of the monastery. (fn. 108)

In 1196 (fn. 109) the manor was given to Hubert Archbishop of Canterbury in exchange for the manor and church of Darenth in Kent and chapel of Helles (St. Margaret Hills in Darenth), (fn. 110) and from this date the successive archbishops were lords of the manor until in the reign of Charles I it was seized by the Parliament and was sold in 1648 to Thomas Scott the regicide and Matthew Hardy for £7,073 0s. 8d. (fn. 111) At the Restoration the archbishops regained possession.

See of Canterbury. Azure the cross of an archbishop or having its staff argent surmounted by a pall in its proper colours.

The manor was transferred to the Ecclesiastical Commissioners on the vacation of the see of Canterbury, 6 September 1862, occasioned by the death of Archbishop Sumner. (fn. 112)

At the court leet of this manor tithingmen, constables and aletasters were elected for the tithings of Lambeth Town or the Bishop's Liberty, Water Lambeth, (fn. 113) the Marsh and Wall, and Lambeth Deane. (fn. 114) The fine for non-suit was 2d. There are still a number of copyhold tenants in the manor, and courts are held yearly at the York Hotel in Waterloo Road. The court rolls are mostly in the possession of the Ecclesiastical Commissioners, but there are a few preserved at the Public Record Office. The custom of Borough English is observed in the manor in the case of males, but succession is to co-heiresses if the heirs are females. Copyholders may strip and waste on their copyholds. The fine on descent or purchase is a year's quit-rent, but no fine is payable if the incoming tenant is already in possession of a copyhold estate. (fn. 115)

A fair was granted to the Archbishop of Canterbury by King John in 1199. (fn. 116)

LAMBETHWICK, WYCOURT or WATER LAMBETH, adjoining Brixton Causeway, was a small manor appurtenant to the manor of Lambeth. It is mentioned in 1291 as the 'grangia de Wyck.' (fn. 117)

In 1329 Rose de Burford held parcels of land in Lambeth from the archbishop with suit at his manor of Wick. (fn. 118) Under Henry VIII the value of the manor was £8. (fn. 119) At the time of the sale of Lambeth by Parliament John Blackwell treated for the purchase of it, (fn. 120) but apparently he drew back and the transaction was not completed. (fn. 121) However, after the Restoration he had to pay £1,580 10s. 7¾d. in order to be exempted from the Act of Oblivion for this manor and two others. (fn. 122) The estate consisted in 1858 of the mansion called Loughborough House and about 234 acres of land. Loughborough House, now pulled down, has left its name in Loughborough Road and Loughborough Junction. Henry Hastings, younger son of the fifth Earl of Huntingdon, created Lord Loughborough in 1643, was an eminent Royalist commander. He was living at Loughborough House in 1664, (fn. 123) when he obtained a private Act of Parliament (fn. 124) to make a navigable canal of the stream from near Brixton Causeway to the Thames. He may have built the house or it may have been named after him, for it is said to have been older in appearance than the 17th century. Lambeth Wick is now no longer a separate manor.

The manor of SOUTH LAMBETH was probably the land given by Harold to Waltham Abbey, the gift being confirmed by Edward the Confessor. (fn. 125) The canons held it during the reign of Edward, and after the Conquest it was acquired by the king's halfbrother, the Count of Mortain, (fn. 126) whose son forfeited his lands after the battle of Tinchebrai in 1106. (fn. 127) Under King John it was held as seven librates of land by William de Redvers Earl of Devon, (fn. 128) who died in 1216. (fn. 129) His great-grandson Baldwin de Redvers was holding South Lambeth at his death in 1262, and his wife Margaret held it in dower as she did the manor of Vauxhall. In 1278–9 Margaret and her second husband Robert de Aguilon were summoned before the quo warranto commissioners to show their title for holding Lambeth as a separate hundred. It appears to have been withdrawn from the hundred of Brixton by Guy de Rocheford about twenty years previously, when Baldwin de Redvers was a minor. (fn. 130) As Margaret and Robert were holding of 'the inheritance' of Isabel de Fortibus, sister of Baldwin, the next heir, (fn. 131) the latter was summoned, and claimed the right as exercised by her ancestors from time immemorial. Owing to this separation Lambeth appears in the Assize Rolls of that date as 'not participating' with the hundred of Brixton. (fn. 132)

At Margaret's death South Lambeth and Vauxhall were inherited by Baldwin de Redvers' sister, Isabel de Fortibus. (fn. 133) Isabel died in 1293 and the manors then passed into the king's hands by what is now generally believed to have been trickery. An inquiry was held in 1315 at the instigation of the next heir her distant cousin Hugh de Courtenay. On this occasion Walter Bishop of Coventry related how he had been sent for to Stockwell, where the Countess of Albemarle lay dying, and how on his arrival the Bishop of Durham had bidden him draw up charters conveying the lands to the king. Brother William de Gaynesborough was present in her room when the Bishop of Durham read her the charters, and asked her if they represented her wish. Brother William then deposed that the countess had signed in his presence and that of several of her household. Sir Richard Aston, Isabel's seneschal, described how for more than ten years he had carried on the negotiations between her and the king for the rendering up of the manors for £4,000. Finally it was deposed that the countess went to see the king at Canterbury, to speak with him, and the king had said that 'she could do this on her return.' The countess, however, fell ill on her way back, and died between the midnight and dawn after signing the deeds. (fn. 134) The result of the inquiry was that the king retained the lands; but it appears that the conveyance was really a forgery, planned and carried through by Adam de Stratton. The king had long desired the lands, and the countess had as long resisted him. Adam de Stratton, who had at one time been her confessor, had frequent access to her house and knowledge of her affairs, and in this matter he served the king at least skilfully and effectively. (fn. 135) South Lambeth ceased to exist as a separate manor soon after this date. Courts and view of frankpledge were held there up to 1299, (fn. 136) but before 1338 the courts had been transferred to Vauxhall, where views were held for the tithings of South Lambeth, Stockwell, Streatham and Mitcham. (fn. 137) The two latter places had been members of South Lambeth. (fn. 138)

There is no mention in Domesday Survey of the manor of VAUXHALL (Faukeshall, xiv, xv, xvi and xvii cent.; Fawkishalle, xv cent.; Fauxhall, xvi and xvii cent.; Faxhall, xvii cent.). It appears to have been part of the inheritance of the Earls of Devon, and to have been held by Margaret widow of Baldwin de Redvers (who died in 1216). She married as her second husband Falkes de Breaute, (fn. 139) who lived there, and it is from him that the name of Fawkes Hall or Vauxhall is derived. After the death of Falkes the king granted to the Earl Warenne 'all the houses which were of Falkes de Breauté with appurtenances at Lambeth to inhabit until the son and heir of Baldwin Earl of the Isle of Wight should come of age.' (fn. 140) Vauxhall remained in the possession of the Redvers family until it was conveyed with South Lambeth (q.v.) to the king at the death of Isabel de Fortibus. From this date Vauxhall and South Lambeth were amalgamated in one manor under the name of Vauxhall.

Falkes de Breauté. Gules a cinqfoil argent.

In 1308 Vauxhall was granted for life to Richard de Gerseroy, the king's butler, (fn. 141) and in 1317 to Roger Damory and Elizabeth his wife, the king's niece, and their descendants. (fn. 142) Roger Damory joined the rebel forces of the Earl of Lancaster in 1321, (fn. 143) and, dying shortly after, all his estates were declared forfeited and three years later Vauxhall was granted by Edward II to Hugh le Despenser the elder. (fn. 144)

After the execution of Hugh in 1326 Roger's widow Elizabeth regained the manor, and she was in possession in the following year. (fn. 145) In 1337 Elizabeth exchanged the manors of Vauxhall and Kennington for that of Ilketshall with the king, (fn. 146) who shortly after granted them both to the Prince of Wales. The Black Prince granted Vauxhall in 1362 to the monastery of Christchurch, Canterbury, to endow a chantry in the crypt of the cathedral, (fn. 147) which was the condition imposed on him by the pope for permission to marry his cousin Joan, the Fair Maid of Kent, (fn. 148) and in 1428 the prior contributed aid for one fee in Vauxhall, 'which the lord Edward at one time held.' (fn. 149) The revenue from the manor proved insufficient to support the chantry, the yearly expenses amounting to about double the value of the estate, which in 1472 was 'scantly worth £20.' (fn. 150) In that year the monks petitioned that the manor should be given over to the chantry priests for them to make it pay as best they could, the monks being responsible only for the choice of the priests to serve the chantry. (fn. 151) Under Henry VIII the manor was rated at practically the same amount, £20 19s. 11¾d., (fn. 152) the perquisites of the court being worth 18d. After the dissolution of the priory in 1539 (fn. 153) it was granted to the Dean and Chapter of Christchurch. (fn. 154) Part of the land has been sold, but the manor remained with the dean and chapter till it was taken over by the Ecclesiastical Commissioners.

From the beginning of the 14th century, after South Lambeth had been amalgamated with Vauxhall, a view of frankpledge was held at Vauxhall for the tithings of South Lambeth, Stockwell, Mitcham and Streatham. One tithingman attended for each of the first two places and two tithingmen for the last two, from whom 14d. and 2s. were payable for borghsilver respectively. Court rolls for the 14th, 15th and 16th centuries are preserved at the Public Record Office. (fn. 155)

Most of the lands forming the manor of STOCKWELL in Lambeth seem to have originally formed part of the Redvers fee. (fn. 156) William de Redvers Earl of Devon gave early in the 13th century 3 virgates of land in Stockwell and 3½ acres in the meadow beyond (de super) Lambeth to William son of John de Stockwell; amongst these lands were 12 acres which had belonged to Richard de Stockwell father of John. (fn. 157) In 1219–20 Geoffrey the son of William conveyed two parts of a carucate in Stockwell, Lambeth Hese and Wick to John de Gloucester, mason, (fn. 158) who in 1255–6 restored it to Amicia Countess of Devon. (fn. 159) In 1293 Isabella de Fortibus died at Stockwell. The first trace of it as a separate manor occurs in a conveyance of rent in 1299, which mentions a court held there every three weeks by Thomas Romayn. (fn. 160) The manor was then said to include lands held of the lord of Vauxhall, of the archbishop with suit at his court of the manor of Wick, and of Roger de Waltham. (fn. 161) The king granted Thomas and his wife Juliana free warren in their demesne lands of Stockwell and Clapham in 1310. (fn. 162) Thomas Romayn died in 1313 (fn. 163); his wife Juliana survived him about thirteen years. (fn. 164) In the extent of the lands which she was holding at her death is mentioned a piece of land at Vauxhall for depositing 'funis.' The rent of a head penny was payable by this manor to the view of frankpledge at Vauxhall. (fn. 165) Juliana's lands were divided between her two daughters, Rose the wife of John de Burford and Margery wife of William de Weston. (fn. 166) The chief messuage at Stockwell with two gardens and a dovecote and 287 acres of arable land scattered in the fields fell to the share of Rose; also nineteen bondmen holding 84½ acres, each having a plough and 'plough-beasts,' who were bound to attend the 'boon-ploughing' twice a year. They were also obliged to gather in the lord's hay, while all the bondmen and cottars were bound to come to the great boon work in the autumn with all their family except their wives and one shepherd. The extent mentions also rents of assize and pleas and perquisites of court. (fn. 167) Rose was said to be holding the manor of Stockwell at her death about 1329. (fn. 168) Her son James, then a minor, inherited, (fn. 169) and Sir John Pulteney, Rose's son-in-law, (fn. 170) was his guardian. (fn. 171) In 1351 James was granted the privilege of hearing mass in the oratory of the manor of Stockwell. (fn. 172) The lands descended from James de Burford to his daughter Margaret, who married John de Garton. Her son, also John de Garton, conveyed 'all his lands in South Lambeth' to Thomas Stanmore called Denny, (fn. 173) and in 1411–12 Sir Robert Denny and his wife Anna conveyed one messuage, 100 acres of land, 20 of pasture and 6 of wood in Lambeth to Thomas Knowles, William Symond and John Gredy, jun. (fn. 174) The next stages of the descent are difficult to disentangle, but the manor was apparently held in 1418 by one John Bacon in right of his wife Katherine, (fn. 175) and in 1419–20 it was conveyed to trustees by John Harold, possibly Katherine's second husband, in a settlement on his wife Katherine for her life, with remainder to John Copeland of Calais and his wife Clemens. (fn. 176) About the year 1450 John Copeland, a servant of the Earl of Warwick, came to England to claim by virtue of this settlement the manor of Stockwell, which in the mean time had been seized by Ralph Leigh. (fn. 177) Ralph Leigh met him with countercharges of forgery and of having entered the manor with violence, accompanied by 100 men 'having upon them the badge of the ragged staff.' (fn. 178) The exact issue of this dispute does not appear, but apparently a certain Nicholas Molyneux obtained some interest in the manor. (fn. 179) In 1471 John Copeland conveyed the manor to Ralph Leigh, (fn. 180) and at the same date William Molyneux son of Nicholas also quitclaimed his right in it to Ralph Leigh. (fn. 181) Sir John Leigh, the son of this Ralph Leigh, died seised of Stockwell Manor in 1523. (fn. 182) His nephew John son of Ralph Leigh (fn. 183) was his heir, and in 1543 he conveyed the manor to King Henry VIII in exchange for lands in co. Dorset. (fn. 184) For some time the king kept the manor-house in his own hands and in 1543 £50 were spent on repairing it. (fn. 185) The office of steward of the manor and keeper of the woods there was granted by Edward VI to Sir Thomas Cawarden, (fn. 186) and in 1554–5 the manor was bestowed by Philip and Mary upon Anthony Brown Viscount Montagu, (fn. 187) with a fee-farm rent of £8 12s. 11d. reserved. The mansion-house was possibly reserved in this grant, for his grandson Viscount Montagu (fn. 188) appears to have been keeper of it about 1607. (fn. 189) He succeeded to the manor on the death of his grandfather in 1592 and was holding it in 1613, (fn. 190) but before 1618 it was in the possession of George Chute of Bethersden, (fn. 191) who in February 1617–18 was succeeded by his son Sir George Chute. (fn. 192) The property was still in this family in 1650. (fn. 193) Under William III Stockwell was held by the family of Thorneycroft, (fn. 194) who were still holding it in 1781. (fn. 195) It afterwards passed into the possession of W. Lambert, who dying in 1810 left it to his wife Elizabeth for her life with remainder to his nephew James. (fn. 196) In 1858 Lydia widow of James Lambert, who had married secondly Captain Sir Richard Grant, was lady of the manor. (fn. 197)

Redvers, Earl of Devon. Or a lion azure.

The freehold of the manor-house and some land was purchased by Bryant Barrett of William Lambert, and at his death in 1808 was bequeathed to his two sons George Roger Barrett and the Rev. Jonathan Tyers Barrett. (fn. 198) The former was still living in 1858. (fn. 199)

The manor of KENNINGTON (Chenitune, xi cent.; Kenyton, Kenyngton, xiv cent.) was held of Edward the Confessor by Teodric the goldsmith, and he was still holding it at the time of the Domesday Survey. (fn. 200) Afterwards it formed part of the Redvers fee, and Avelina the wife of the king's brother Edmund Crouchback, Earl of Lancaster, died seised of it in 1274. (fn. 201) Avelina was the only daughter of Isabella de Redvers and William de Fortibus Earl of Albemarle, and in her the descendants of Baldwin de Redvers became extinct. (fn. 202) Presumably she held Kennington as part of her marriage portion, as her mother survived her for nearly twenty years. (fn. 203) Two years later it was in the possession of Hugh Delaval, who was holding in right of his wife Maud, (fn. 204) and it seems likely that it came into his hands in the following manner. William de Fortibus, Avelina's father, granted certain lands to Richard de Bolebec, whose son Hugh left four daughters and co-heiresses. One of these, Lora (or Maud ?) married Hugh Delaval, and it seems not unlikely that the reversion of Kennington Manor had also been settled upon Richard de Bolebec and his heirs and descended at Avelina's death to the wife of Hugh Delaval. (fn. 205) In 1276–7 Hugh conveyed the manor to John de Warenne Earl of Surrey, (fn. 206) whose grandson in 1315–16 conveyed it to King Edward II. (fn. 207) The king granted it in the following year to Anthony Pessaigne of Genoa in exchange for certain houses in London. (fn. 208) It then passed into the possession of John de Merkingfield, (fn. 209) from whom it was acquired by Roger Damory, an adherent of the Earl of Lancaster, whose lands were forfeited at his death in 1322. (fn. 210) Early in the following year Edward II gave the manor to Hugh le Despenser the elder, (fn. 211) who in that same year was created Earl of Winchester. (fn. 212) After his execution in 1326 (fn. 213) Elizabeth de Burgh, widow of Roger Damory, regained possession of it with the manor of Vauxhall (q.v.), and in 1337 she conveyed them both to the king in exchange for other lands. Shortly afterwards Edward III gave Kennington to Edward the Black Prince, (fn. 214) and it thus became part of the Duchy of Cornwall. From this date the manor has always belonged to the Princes of Wales, and leases of it have been granted at various dates. Sir John Pulteney held it for twenty-one years from 1517, (fn. 215) and in 1588–9 Richard Beamond and Miles Barker were granted a forty years' lease of the site and demesne lands. (fn. 216) James I settled it on his eldest son Henry in 1610, (fn. 217) and at Henry's death upon Prince Charles. (fn. 218) A lease was given to Sir Noel Caron of the rents of assize and perquisites of the court leet in 1614, (fn. 219) while in 1624 the manor, site and house were leased for eighteen years to Francis Lord Cottington. (fn. 220) His estate was sequestrated by the Parliament and the remainder of his lease was granted to Richard Boucher. (fn. 221) At the Restoration the lease of the manor was much in demand. Captain John Maxwell, (fn. 222) Clara widow of Theophilus Bolton (fn. 223) and Abraham Halsted—this latter jointly with Sir Edward Walker (fn. 224) —all petitioned to be recompensed for their loyalty in this way, but the lease was actually granted to Henry Moore Earl of Drogheda for thirty-one years. (fn. 225) In 1747 the capital messuage of Kennington, with the land adjacent, was leased by Frederick Prince of Wales to William Clayton of Harleyford, Bucks., and in 1776 an Act of Parliament was passed to enable him to let the ground on building leases. (fn. 226) His son, Sir William Clayton, who succeeded to the baronetcy on the death of his cousin Sir Robert Clayton in 1799, was his heir, and at his death in 1834 the lease passed to his son Sir William Robert Clayton, whose grandson, also William Robert, is the present baronet. (fn. 227)

Duchy of Cornwall. Sable fifteen beants.

According to the Parliamentary Survey of 1649 the freeholders of Kennington Manor held by doing suit and service at the court leet and paying their ancient rent. For absence they were amerced, also they usually paid reliefs. Copyholders did suit and service at the court baron, and paid fines, generally consisting of one year's improved rent, upon descent or alienation. The copyholders held by Borough English, the youngest son inheriting, and if there were no sons the daughters inherited as co-heiresses. (fn. 228)

LEVEHURST or LEFHURST.

Towards the end of the 13th century Pinus Bernardi of Florence, a citizen of London, was holding land in Levehurst and received a grant of free warren in his demesne lands there in 1290. (fn. 229) Three years later he and his wife Alice conveyed one messuage, one mill and 1 carucate of land in Lambeth and Levehurst, excepting 20 acres, to Martin de Ambresbury and Rosamund his wife, (fn. 230) who in 1301–2 conveyed this lands to Reginald de Thunderle, warranting it against the heirs of Rosamund. (fn. 231) In 1305 Roger de Privelsdon and Emmeline his wife also conveyed to Reginald de Thunderle one messuage and 2 carucates of land in Lambeth. (fn. 232) This grant is also warranted against the heirs of the wife, and it seems possible that Emmeline and Rosamund were both daughters of Pinus, and were joining in quitclaiming their right to Reginald de Thunderle. Pinus was still living in 1309–10, when he remitted a rent of 6s. to the hospital of St. Thomas, Southwark. (fn. 233) Licence to hear mass in the oratory of his manor of Levehurst for two years was granted to John de Castleacre in 1326, (fn. 234) and in 1332 Isabella de Castleacre sought to replevy her land in Lambeth which had been taken into the king's hands. (fn. 235) In 1337 Isabella, with William de Castleacre and Alice his wife, conveyed the manor of Levehurst to Master John de Aylston, clerk, with contingent remainder should he die without issue to Philip son of John de Pree de Aylston and Richard his brother. (fn. 236) Sixteen years later it was conveyed by Sir Thomas de Mortymer and his wife Isabel to Ralph de Halstead, woolmonger, of London, (fn. 237) probably identical with Ralph Nunthey of Halstead who died in 1378–9 and was buried in the churchyard of St. Thomas, Southwark, leaving a son John. (fn. 238) In 1394–5 John Langeston of co. Bucks. and his wife Elizabeth conveyed the manor (held in the right of Elizabeth) to John Waddysle, goldsmith, and Thomas Prentys Fletcher, both of London. (fn. 239) In 1449 Roger Wynter, John Cotford and Richard Baker, apparently trustees, conveyed their right in the manor of Levehurst to John Stanley, Nicholas Molyneux, John Basset and Adam Levelond. (fn. 240) The manor was confirmed to Nicholas Molyneux in 1453. (fn. 241) William son of Nicholas Molyneux quitclaimed all right in the property to Ralph Leigh in 1471, (fn. 242) and in the 16th century it passed with Stockwell into the king's possession. In 1565 Elizabeth granted it to Richard Barnard and Robert Taylour, (fn. 243) probably trustees for Sir Richard Sackville, who died seised of it in the next year. (fn. 244) Dr. Robert Forth died possessed of Levehurst Manor in 1595 and was succeeded by his son Thomas, (fn. 245) who conveyed it in 1601 to Samuel Weller. (fn. 246) In 1616 William Weller and his wife Christina were holding the manor, and in that year sold it to John Bingham. (fn. 247) Thomas Overman and Hester his wife were in possession in 1645, (fn. 248) and in 1702 another Thomas Overman and his wife Mary conveyed it to Samuel Lewin. (fn. 249) The Lewins retained possession of it until 1720, (fn. 250) when it was sold by Richard Lewin to William Wall. (fn. 251) In 1795 Levehurst was held by James Wall, (fn. 252) but after this date there appears to be no further trace of the manor. Part of it according to an account in the 16th century lay 'between Deane Green and the wood called Norwood, and common called Leigham Common to the west of it,' (fn. 253) which places it in the southern part of the parish towards Lower Norwood.

BODLEY (Budele, Budelys, xiii cent.; Bodley, Boddeles, Baddeleys, xvi cent.), SCARLETTS and UPGROVE were small manors in the parish of Lambeth held by the hospital of St. Thomas of Southwark. There are several references to a family called de Bodyleys, who were holding lands in Lambeth in the 13th century. (fn. 254) At the beginning of the 14th century Richard Hardel of Bodyleys was holding lands there. (fn. 255) At his death his wife Margery held them in dower for the term of her life. (fn. 256) Their son and heir John (fn. 257) appears to have predeceased his mother and the estate then passed to Edmund son of William Hardel, (fn. 258) who in 1352 granted 66 acres of land and 1 acre of wood in Lambeth to the hospital of St. Thomas the Martyr. (fn. 259)

At the same date Hugh de Brikelesworth, parson of the church of St. Olave, Southwark, granted one messuage, 128 acres of land, and 2 acres of wood in Lambeth to the hospital, (fn. 260) and in 1379 they acquired 20 acres there from Sir Nicholas Carew. (fn. 261) These lands were held by the hospital until its surrender in 1538. (fn. 262) They are entered in the Valor Ecclesiasticus under the name of 'Bodley cum aliis' and estimated as worth £7 6s. 8d., with 10 acres of wood worth 10s. (fn. 263)

The manor of Bodley was granted on 28 April 1542 to Sir Richard Longe for life, (fn. 264) and in 1545 the reversion of Bodley and the manors of Upgrove and Scarletts, all described as formerly belonging to the hospital, were granted to Richard Andrews and William Grosse, who were to hold them in chief as the fortieth part of a knight's fee at the annual rent of 13s. 6d. (fn. 265) This rent was granted in the same year to John Williams and William Rainsford. (fn. 266) The manors afterwards passed into the possession of Sir John Leigh, who was holding them at his death in 1564. (fn. 267) The estate was settled upon his nephew John with contingent remainder to Dame Agnes Paston, wife of Edward Fitzgarrett, her second husband, and daughter of Sir John Leigh. (fn. 268) In the autumn of that year John Leigh conveyed the manors to John Glascocke and Edward Walshe as trustees for himself, (fn. 269) and in 1566 his cousin Agnes and her husband Edward Fitzgarrett united with John Leigh and his trustees in what appears to have been a further settlement. (fn. 270) The manors were leased to Richard Blunt some years before this, (fn. 271) and in 1573 they were conveyed to him by John Leigh and his wife Margery. (fn. 272) Richard Blunt died in 1575, leaving the manors to his wife Margaret for her life, with remainder to his only child Elizabeth, then a minor. (fn. 273) In 1592 Nicholas Saunder and his wife Elizabeth, 'daughter and sole heir' (fn. 274) of Richard Blunt, conveyed the manors to Thomas Jones and Gerome Stevens. (fn. 275) During the Commonwealth the manors were held by the family of Tulse. (fn. 276) Elizabeth the daughter of Sir Henry Tulse married Richard Onslow, first Lord Onslow, in 1676, (fn. 277) and their daughter Elizabeth became the wife of Thomas Middleton of Stanstead. (fn. 278) One of Elizabeth's daughters Diana married Sir Thomas Trollope, bart., and in 1776–7 (fn. 279) they were holding a quarter of the manors, which they conveyed to Savill Reade. (fn. 280) A portion of the manor was also quitclaimed in the same year to Savill Reade by John Williams Onslow, son of Sir John Williams and Mary (another daughter of Lord Onslow), who had assumed the name of Onslow, and Charlotte Maria his wife. (fn. 281) The conveyance was for barring of the estates tail, and was to be held in trust for the said John Williams. (fn. 282) These lands included the farm called Tulsehill Farm. There is no further trace of the manors after this date.

The reputed manor of HEATHROW or KNIGHTS probably consisted originally of those lands in Lambeth held by Henry son of Thomas Knight under Henry VIII. (fn. 283) In 1580 it was held by Thomas Wiseman, who bequeathed the property to his son Thomas, (fn. 284) a priest in Rome. (fn. 285) Thomas sold the property to William Wiseman, his nephew, who sold it again to Francis Fitch. (fn. 286) In 1628 Sir Francis Gofton died seised of this manor and was succeeded by his son Francis. (fn. 287) The latter died in 1642, leaving a son and heir, also Francis, aged nearly six. (fn. 288)

In 1789, when Lord Thurlow bought the manor of Leigham Court in Streatham, it included land held of the manor of Lambeth and land in Lambeth parish. At Knight's Hill in the part held of Lambeth he built a large house. It seems possible that this (for which see Knight's Hill in Streatham), not the part of the manor in Lambeth parish, represents the manor of Heathrow or Knights united with Leigham Court between 1642 and 1789.

CHURCHES

The only original portion of the structure of the church of ST. MARY (fn. 289) that now remains above the foundations is the tower, which appears to date from the latter half of the 15th century. In the chancel two ornate early 16th-century altar tombs have been reset in the present walls, and the door to the clergy vestry from the south chapel is a good specimen of woodwork of the same period. The present chancel, chapels, nave and aisles were erected upon the former foundations in the year 1851. The architect of this miscalled restoration was Philip Hardwick, and the style of the 14th century was adopted. Views of the building previous to this date show that the windows were all of late Gothic types with four-centred heads, and the walls are said to have been of flint mixed with brick. (fn. 290) It is, however, very probable that the nave arcades with their octagonal piers are copies of those of the former building; these are described by a writer of 1811 as consisting of 'octagonal pillars and pointed arches.' (fn. 291) The church is known to have been rebuilt between 1374 and 1377, (fn. 292) with which period the mouldings of the modern arcade, if facsimiles of their predecessors, would exactly tally. The unequal sizes of the bays would seem to show, at any rate, that the piers stand upon the original foundations. The east window of the chancel is of five lights, and at the eastern ends of the north and south walls are corresponding pairs of two-light windows. The arches dividing the north and south chapels from the chancel occupy the remaining portion of these walls. The chancel arch is two-centred, with an outer continuous and an inner shafted order. Below the north-east windows is a very elaborate early 16th-century altar-tomb and recess, said to be that of Hugh Peyntwin, D.D., who died in 1504. The original inscription has perished; the present inscription, in letters painted on a brass plate, has also become illegible. The recess is framed by flanking octagonal pilasters supporting a cornice richly carved with the vine ornament and crowned by brattishing. The head of the recess is four-centred, and the spandrels which it forms with the cornice and pilasters are traceried. The jambs and head are splayed, and filled with cinquefoiled panelling in two continuous compartments. The back of the recess is also richly panelled; the portion below the springing of the arch appears to be modern. The lower portion is occupied by the altar-tomb, the slab of which is of Purbeck marble. The front is panelled in two stages with subfoliated quatrefoils, three in each stage. In the centre of each is a shield gules, the three upper ones each bearing three thistles, leaved and slipped vert. On the cornice are three similar shields. Opposite in the south wall is a tomb recess almost exactly similar in size and design, with the exception that a plain moulded base is substituted for the lower stage of panelling on the front of the altar-tomb, and that there is an image-bracket on the eastern splay of the jambs. This is said to be the tomb of John Mompesson, who died in 1524, and a mock-mediaeval inscription to that effect is painted on a brass plate in black-letter characters. The north and south chapels are divided from their respective aisles by two-centred arches dying into the wall-faces. The north wall of the north chapel breaks back 3 ft. 7 in. from the north aisle.

In the south chapel is a small square window made to contain the piece of glass representing the 'Pedlar and his Dog,' connected by local tradition with the gift to the parish of the piece of land known as Pedlar's Acre Estate, situate in Belvedere Road on the river side. The land is mentioned in 1504, and the window in 1607 in the church books; a pane of glass for the window where 'the picture of the pedlar stands.' Again under the year 1703: '£2 paid for a new glass pedlar.' Before the rebuilding of the church it is stated to have been placed in the 'south-east window of the middle aisle,' (fn. 293) a description which can only apply to the south-east window of the clearstory.

The nave arcades have two-centred arches of two orders. The north arcade is of five bays and the south arcade of four only, the westernmost bay being occupied by the north wall of the tower, which is placed at the angle of the building.

The tower, the ground stage of which opens into this aisle, is of four stages, each stage setting back, with a stair turret at the south-east, and angle buttresses of five off-sets at the western angles. The parapet is embattled. The tower arch is two-centred and of two orders, the outer continuous and moulded with a large casement, the inner shafted. The west window of the ground stage is of five transomed lights with vertical tracery within a two-centred head. The tracery appears to be entirely modern. In the south wall is a four-centred doorway to the vice. The ringing-stage is lighted on the west and south by single trefoiled lights with square heads and external labels. The clock-stage is lighted on the south by a four-centred window of two cinquefoiled lights, and on the north by a square-headed window of a similar number of lights, both having external labels. In the east and west walls there appear to have been originally windows similar to that on the north side, the jambs being visible internally, with the start of the tracery in the four-centred heads; but these have been blocked up, and the clock-faces occupy their places externally. The belfry is lighted on all four sides by coupled windows, each of two cinquefoiled lights with traceried four-centred heads and external labels. All the tower windows appear to have been submitted to drastic restoration. The walls of the tower and whole church are faced with Kentish rag.

Externally there are buttresses on the east wall of the chancel and at the east end of the north wall, which may be on the original foundations. The angle buttresses at the east end of the south chapel, and upon the south wall at its junction with the south aisle, are wholly modern, as old views show no buttresses at these places. This statement also applies to the buttress between the two western windows in the south wall of the south aisle, though that to the eastward of these windows occupies the position of an original buttress. The two buttresses at the north-west of the nave and north aisle respectively also occupy the positions of original buttresses. There are no buttresses on the north wall of the north aisle.

The roofs are high-pitched and of timber, the wall-posts of the trusses of the nave roof resting on carved corbels, bearing the arms of contributors to the rebuilding fund. All are covered externally with slate. The church has the unusual feature of a deep pool or bath for baptism by immersion.

Of the ring of eight bells, six were recast in 1723 by R. Phelps, the sixth and eighth by C. & G. Mears being added in 1848.

The plate consists of two silver-gilt cups and covers and a silver-gilt paten of 1638, one of the cups bearing the arms of Fairclough impaling Coyner; three silver-gilt flagons of 1664; a modern silver-gilt paten and spoon strainer.

The registers are in nineteen books: (1) and (2) all entries 1539 to 1717, baptisms and burials being defective; (3) and (4) baptisms and burials 1718 to 1765; marriages 1718 to 1753; (5) to (8) baptisms and burials 1766 to 1812; (9) to (19) marriages 1754 to 1812.

The parish of ST. JOHN THE EVANGELIST was formed out of St. Mary's in 1824. The church in Waterloo Road consists of a nave and chancel in one structure with a hexastyle Doric portico at the west. Above this rises a square tower surmounted by a Corinthian order supporting an obelisk. The body of the church is of stock brick, while the detail dressings and the portico and tower are in stone. The whole structure is designed in the style of the Greek revival, and belongs to the early part of the 19th century. The churchyard, which is of fair size, has been taken over by the County Council as a park.

The parish of ST. LUKE, West Norwood, was also formed out of St. Mary's in 1824. The church, which was built in 1825, consists of a sanctuary and nave of rectangular form lit by semicircular-headed windows. It is built of stock brick and stone and is of Greek detail. At the west is a hexastyle Corinthian portico, and over this rises a square tower surmounted by a small octagonal lantern.

The parish of ST. MARK'S, Kennington, was another of the parishes formed in 1824. The church occupies a triangular site at the junction of Camberwell Road with Kennington Park and Clapham Roads. The building is a classic one built early in the 19th century of brick and stone, with a large west portico formed by four fluted Doric columns and two pilasters supporting a frieze and pediment. Over this mounts a square tower crowned by an open cupola with a domed top. The nave is surrounded by a gallery and narrows at the east end to a shallow chancel. The side walls are of brick divided into bays by shallow stone pilasters.

ST. MATTHEW'S, Brixton, was the fourth parish formed from the ancient parish in 1824. The church is a large Doric structure of stock brick and stone, erected about 1820 and occupying a triangular site surrounded by roads at the junction of Brixton Rise and Effra Road. It is of the usual square nave and chancel type, the former surrounded with galleries. Over the sanctuary is a square tower, the bell-chamber stage having fluted columns and pilasters and finished with an octagonal lantern and cupola. On either side of the tower is a porch. At the west end is a large portico of the full height of the building with four fluted columns and two square pilasters, supporting a frieze and pediment.

The parish of HOLY TRINITY was formed in 1841. The church, which is in Carlisle Street, is a square building in Romanesque style. Slender posts divide the nave from the aisles, and evidently once helped to carry galleries, which, however, are now removed. The east end is towards the road, the chancel being little more than a small recess. The ceiling is plastered. The font is a small one of marble. The walls are of brick.

The parish of ST. MARY THE LESS was formed in 1842. The church, which stands in Princes Road, is built of brick with stone dressings in late 15th-century style. It is of a plain square plan, closed in on both sides by schools and at the east end by houses. The west front is on the street line and has three entrances. Over the middle doorway is a three-light window, but the windows over the other two entrances have been filled in. A single low gabled roof covers nave and aisles. Over the gable end is a small bellturret, with an open lantern and stone spire.

The parish of ST. MICHAEL, Stockwell, was formed in 1845. The church in Stockwell Park Road is a brick building with a few stone dressings in early 19th-century Gothic style. It was built about 1840. It has a wide nave, with galleries on its north and south sides supported by iron posts which continue up to carry trusses in the roof, and a small apsidal chancel, which is at the west end. The entrance front is at the east next the road, and has a small octagonal tower with angle buttresses and pinnacles, behind the latter of which are flying buttresses, helping, possibly, to support a narrow stone spire; porches flank the tower. The tower and exterior were repaired in 1896.

The parish of ST. PAUL, Herne Hill, was formed in 1845 from parts of Lambeth and Camberwell. The church is a large building of stone in the style of the 13th century. It has a chancel, nave, aisles, north porch and west tower, with porch at the foot and an octagonal stone spire. The roofs are slated. The pulpit and font are of stone with marble shafts. The church contains a mural monument of marble to John Ruskin, who lived in Camberwell for fifty years; also one to two brothers, Henry Charles and Rev. Robert Fearon, who were killed by lightning on the Wetterhorn in Switzerland in 1902.

The parish of ST. ANDREW, Lambeth, was formed out of St. John the Evangelist, Waterloo Road, in 1846. The church consists of a chancel and nave, with aisles running the whole length of the building, and a tower. The building is placed a little west and east of north and south, the chancel being to the south and the tower in the northerly bay of the aisle to the east. It is built of stock brick with bands and detail of stone, and the tower is surmounted by a tile-hung spire.

The parish of ST. THOMAS, Lambeth, was formed from St. John the Evangelist, Waterloo Road, in 1846. The church, which is in Westminster Bridge Road, is a small building at the corner of Pearman Street. The chancel is at the north end. The building has a chancel, nave, transepts, vestries, &c., and is built of brick with stone dressings in the geometric style.

The parish of ALL SAINTS, York Road, was formed out of St. John the Evangelist, Waterloo Road, in 1847. The church, however, was pulled down a few years ago when the site was acquired by the London and South Western Railway Company for the enlargement of Waterloo station.

The parish of ST. CATHERINE'S, Loughborough Park, was formed in 1877, but the church, which was only a temporary building, was closed in 1902 and the site acquired for a fire station.

The parish of ST. BARNABAS, Kennington South, was formed in 1851. The church, which is in Guildford Road, is built of squared rubble with stone dressings and has a chancel, nave with a clearstory and low aisles, with porches at the west ends of the aisles. In the west wall of the nave is also an entrance, above which is a large west window, and at the north-west corner is a small turret and spire.

The parish of ST. JOHN THE EVANGELIST, Angell Town, was formed from St. Matthew, Brixton, in 1853. The church stands on part of a triangular site bounded by Wiltshire Road, Angell Road and Angell Park Gardens, the south-east corner being occupied by the vicarage. The church is of stone in the style of the 15th century, built about 1850, and consists of a chancel with vestries, &c., nave with a clearstory, north and south aisles flanking both nave and chancel, north porch and a west tower with corner pinnacles. The principal entrances are through the tower and north porch.

The parish of CHRIST CHURCH, Brixton, was formed in 1856. The church is a cruciform building in the Byzantine style, of various coloured bricks. It stands north-west and south-east and has a north-west apse, in which the altar stands, and a vestry on either side of the apse. There is a dome over the crossing and at the south-eastern front is an outside pulpit with a bell-cupola over it.

The parish of HOLY TRINITY, Tulse Hill, was formed in 1856. The church, which was built in the same year, is in the early decorated style and consists of an apsidal chancel flanked by an organ chamber and a vestry, north and south transepts, nave, and a tower and spire in the angle west of the north transept, all faced externally with Kentish rag. There are galleries in the transepts and at the west end of the nave.

The parish of ST. PETER'S, Vauxhall, was formed in 1861. The church stands at the corner of Oswald Street in Upper Kennington Lane. It is a tall building of stock brick with stone dressings in the style of the 13th century and consists of a chancel with a round-ended sanctuary and nave, both with clearstories and vaulted roofs, north-east chapel (with an altar at its 'west' end), low aisles, vestries, &c.; provision is made for a future 'north' tower. The interior is of stock brick, but the pillars of the arcades are of stone with carved capitals. The high altar has a mosaic reredos. The building lies north and south, the entrance porch being at the latter end towards Upper Kennington Lane.

The parish of ST. STEPHEN, Lambeth South, was formed from St. Michael, Stockwell, in 1861. The church stands at the corner of St. Stephen's Terrace and Wilkinson Street, Lambeth Road. It is of stone—squared rubble with Bath stone dressings— and has a chancel with a small recessed sanctuary containing a rose window, nave with a west doorway, transepts, and a north-west tower with corner pinnacles and a tall octagonal stone spire. The roofs are covered with blue slates. The gabled roof of the nave has small lights near the ridge.

The parish of ST. PHILIP was formed in 1864. The church in Kennington Road is a building of rag and Bath stone in the style of the end of the 13th century; it has a chancel with a large east window, nave of five bays with a clearstory, north and south aisles, vestries, organ chamber, &c., and a south-west tower with a tall octagonal stone spire. All the windows are traceried. The capitals of the arcades are carved. The principal doorways are at the west end, which is towards the road, setting back some feet from the boundary fence.

The parish of ST. ANDREW, Stockwell Green, was formed in 1868. The church is a small building of Romanesque style built about 1860, the walling being of brick and rough-cast. It has a chancel and nave of equal width, the latter having a gallery on three sides, a north transept fitted up as a chapel, north-east vestry, &c., and a south-west tower through which is the principal entrance. There is no churchyard, the east wall being on the street face (Lingham Street), and the south face touching the Landor Road frontage; the other two sides are inclosed by neighbouring property.

The parish of ST. SAVIOUR, Herne Hill Road, was formed in 1868. The church was built in 1866 of stone—rag with Bath dressings—in a mixed 12th–13th-century style. It has an apsidal chancel, south transept, nave, north and south aisles flanking both nave and chancel, and a south-west tower with a pyramidal slate roof. There are entrances in the west wall of the nave and north aisle and through the tower, which is flush with the south aisle.

The parish of ST. ANNE, South Lambeth, was formed from St. Mark's, Kennington, in 1869. The church is a moderate-sized structure consisting of a half-octagonal apse with a north tower serving also as an organ chamber and a south vestry, a nave with a west gallery, west porches and staircases and a semicircular baptistery. The church is built of stock brick in the Romanesque style, with low-pitched slate roofs, and contains some good altar fittings.

The parish of LAMBETH EMMANUEL was formed in 1869. Emmanuel Church, Lollard Street, is a small building of brick with stone dressings; the west end is directly on the street face (Distin Street) and contains the principal doorway below a large window. The north, east, and south sides are closed in by houses. At the south-west corner is a small square brick bell-turret with a pyramidal roof of stone.

The parish of ST. JUDE, Brixton, was formed in 1869. The church in Dulwich Road is a stone building erected in 1867 in the style of the 14th century, and having a chancel at the north-west end, vestries, &c., nave, and two aisles, all gabled, north and south transepts, and a low north tower with an octagonal stone spire. At the south-east end is a small porch.

The parish of ST. JOHN, Kennington, was formed in 1872. The church in Vassall Road is a large well-built structure of red brick and stone in the style of the 14th century, and consists of a chancel, nave, aisles, north porch, vestries, &c., and a west tower with a tall stone spire. The chancel is vaulted and has an apsidal sanctuary; the middle window of the apse is closed by a tall reredos carved with a representation of the Crucifixion and other figures. The nave has no clearstory and is covered by a gabled roof with a painted barrel-vaulted ceiling. The arcades are each of four wide bays and one narrow one at the east end skewed to meet the chancel arch. At the west end of the north aisle is a transeptal baptistery with a round end to the south. The tower space is vaulted. Over the chancel arch is a small bell-cote with one bell. The parapets are traceried, the roofs covered with slate.

The parish of ST. AGNES, Kennington Park, was formed in 1874. The church consists of a chancel with north and south chapels, a moderate-sized nave of four bays and a vestibule to the nave under a gallery at the west. The church is lofty and is excellently designed in the 14th and 15th-century styles. It is built of red brick with stone dressing and is very richly fitted. There is an exceedingly handsome rood-loft and rood which fills a small eastern bay of the nave. There is a small bell gable over the chancel arch containing one bell.

The parish of ALL SAINTS, South Lambeth, was formed out of St. Barnabas, Kennington, in 1874. The church, which is in Devonshire Road, is built of squared rubble with Bath stone dressings. It has a chancel with an apsidal east end, transepts, nave of seven bays with a clearstory, north and south aisles, north porch and the stump of a proposed south-west tower. The inside of the building is of stock brick with stone dressings.

The parish of ST. JAMES, Kennington, was formed in 1875. The church, which stands in Kennington Park Road, is a moderate-sized structure consisting of a nave and chancel. It is built of brick, and the only exposed front, the south-east, is of red brick and terra-cotta, and is designed in the Romanesque style.

The parish of ST. SAVIOUR, Brixton Hill, was formed in 1876. The church, which is in Lambert Road, Brixton Hill, is a large building of rag stone with Bath stone dressings in the style of the 13th century; it has a chancel with vestries, &c., nave of six bays with a clearstory and a gabled roof, low aisles, tall north-west tower with corner pinnacles, the base of the tower serving as a porch, and a south porch.

The chapelry of EMMANUEL, West Dulwich, was formed from St. Luke, Lower Norwood, in 1878. The church, which is in Clive Road, consists of an apsidal chancel, north and south transepts, and nave with north and south aisles. At the south-east is a vestry. The building is of stone in 13th-century style.

The parish of ST. PAUL, Ferndale Road, was formed in 1882. The church occupies a site in Santley Street, of which three sides touch the roads. The church is built of white bricks with stone dressings in the style of the 14th century. It has a chancel with vestries, &c., nave with clearstory, wide north and south aisles, each containing a gallery and having a gabled roof, porches and the stump of a future west tower. The arcades are each of four bays and have red brick arches springing from stone pillars.

The church of ST. AUGUSTINE, Clapham Rise, is a chapel of ease to All Saints, Devonshire Road, and is a comparatively large building of red brick with stone dressings, built about 1890, standing at the corner of Jeffries Road. The building has a chancel, nave with clearstory and aisles. The entrance front is at the east end in Clapham Road and has a porch. The chancel has a north transept, by which is a small bell-cote, and south vestries, &c.

The chapelry of ALL SAINTS, West Dulwich, was formed in 1899. The church consists of an apsidal chancel, nave and aisles, apsidal chapel at the east end of the north aisle, and crypt, all in red brick with stone dressings, in the Perpendicular style. The western end of the church is unfinished.

The parish of ST. MATTHIAS, Upper Tulse Hill, was formed in 1900. The church, which was built in 1894, stands at the corner of Ostade Road; it is a red brick building in the style of the 13th century, and consists of an apsidal chancel, with south transept, vestries, nave with a clearstory of lancets, low aisles and north-west and south-west porches, flush with the aisles; the roofs are tiled. To the north of the chancel is attached the Gadsoun Memorial Hall.

The parish of ST. ANSELM, Kennington Cross, was formed in 1901. The church is a small building at the crossing of Kennington Lane with Kennington Road, built of red brick and terra-cotta. The church is on the upper floor, the lower being a hall for meetings, &c. It has a small bell-turret with pyramidal roof. A new church is being built on the adjacent site.

The Roman Catholic Church of St. Anne, Vauxhall, is in Upper Kennington Lane. The Baptist congregation in Ethelred Street dates back to 1821 and the one in Lambeth Road to 1785. A Congregational chapel was built in York Road in 1738. The Congregational church at Stockwell was founded in 1796. There is another Congregational church in Westminster Bridge Road (at the corner of Kennington Road), and one in Brixton Road at the corner of Chapel Street built in 1892. There is an Independent church in Brixton Road at the corner of Knowle Road, and a Wesleyan chapel in Mostyn Road.

ADVOWSONS

The advowson of the church mentioned in the Domesday Survey belonged with the manor to the Prior of St. Andrew's, Rochester. Since the exchange of lands in 1197 it has always belonged to the Archbishops of Canterbury. (fn. 294)

The rectors of Lambeth were usually chaplains to the archbishop. Edmund Gibson and Beilby Porteus, rectors in the 18th century, were both Bishop of London afterwards. The former was the editor of Camden, the latter well known in his own day for sermons and writings. Owing to the rector usually living as a chaplain in the palace the rectory-house was allowed to go to decay. Dr. Vyse, the rector, began to build a new rectory in 1778 in the Pound Field, where the archbishop's manorial pound had stood. Part of the glebe was disposed of under an Act of Parliament to raise the money. (fn. 295) The present rectory is on the same site, if it is not the same house. The pound is said to have been where the courtyard now is.

Two chantries were founded in Lambeth Church. Thomas Romayn, whose will is dated 1312, left 6 marks of rent from a tenement in Cordewan Strete for the maintenance of a chaplain to celebrate divine service daily in the church of Lambeth for his soul, and the souls of his wife and daughters. This chantry of the Blessed Virgin was in the gift of the archbishop. (fn. 296) The first priest was instituted in 1326. (fn. 297) Stockwell or Wynter's Chantry (fn. 298) was founded by John Wynter in 1457 (fn. 299) and was in the gift of the lords of the manor of Stockwell. (fn. 300) The chantry lands of both Lambeth and Stockwell were granted by Elizabeth to Thomas Butler in 1591. (fn. 301)

The advowson of St. John the Evangelist, Waterloo Road, of St. Matthew, Brixton, of St. Anne, Lambeth, of Emmanuel, West Dulwich, of St. Mark, Kennington, and of St. Luke, West Norwood, belongs to the Archbishop of Canterbury; of St. Andrew, Stockwell, to the archbishop, the bishop of the diocese and the rector of Lambeth; of St. John the Evangelist, Angell Town, of St. James, Kennington, of All Saints, West Dulwich, and of St. Paul, Herne Hill, to the bishop; of St. Anselm, Kennington Cross, to the Crown; of St. Andrew, of St. Philip, of St. John the Divine, Kennington, of St. Agnes, Kennington Park, of St. Paul, Ferndale Road, of Christ Church, Brixton North, of St. Saviour, Brixton Hill, of Emmanuel, of Holy Trinity, Tulse Hill, of St. Matthias, Upper Tulse Hill, of St. Saviour, Herne Hill Road, of St. Jude, Brixton, and of St. Peter, Vauxhall, to trustees; of Holy Trinity and of St. Mary the Less to the rector of Lambeth; of St. Michael, Stockwell, and of St. Barnabas, South Kennington, to the vicar of St. Mark's, Kennington; of St. Stephen's to the Church Pastoral Aid Society; of St. Thomas to the Church Trust Fund, and of All Saints, South Lambeth, to Sir Frederick FitzWygram, bart.

CHARITIES

The Pedlar's Acre was in possession of the parish in 1504, when the church accounts show that it was let for 2s. 6d. a year. It lay on the east side of where Westminster Bridge now is, next the river. The rent was applied by the churchwardens to the repair of the church or other objects at their discretion. It has been surmised that the donor's name was Chapman and that the window in the church represented a rebus on his name.

In 1620 Sir Noel Caron, the Ambassador of the States of Holland, who resided in Lambeth (see above) and had made money in England, founded almshouses for seven poor women, leaving their support as a charge on his property by will of 1625. In 1678 the holders of the estate refused payment, but the churchwardens obtained a decree in Chancery enforcing it. In 1773 the Dowager Countess Gower gave £1,100 to them, and other benefactions were added.

The Refuge for Orphan Girls was originated by Sir John Fielding, the well-known police magistrate. In 1758 an inn called the Hercules, at the corner of Westminster Bridge Road and York Road, as they now are called, was bought for the institution. It was incorporated in 1800. It was established as a religious foundation of the Church of England, and a resident chaplain preached on Sundays and Holy Days.

The Lying-in Hospital was founded in 1765.

A school in Lambeth Marsh was founded in 1661 by Colonel Richard Lawrence, who had been Marshal of the Horse in the new Model Army. He was subsequently employed in Ireland under Henry Cromwell, and was among the Irish officers who early adhered to the coming Restoration, under which he sat on the Council of Trade. The school was endowed with houses called the Dog Houses, and was originally for teaching twenty poor children.

In or before 1731 a 'working school,' possibly a school of handicrafts, was started in Back Lane and supported by subscriptions. In 1754 it was united with Lawrence's school and a new house was built for it. It was rebuilt in 1808.

In 1704 Archbishop Tenison's School for Girls was started, and further endowed by his will in 1715. It now educates nearly 400 girls, and has an infants' school—St. Mary's Infants' School—attached to it with nearly the same number.

In 1731 a 'working school' for twenty-four girls existed, but possibly did not last much longer. In 1787 a girls' school was set up by subscription.

In 1815 the schools of the Benevolent Society of St. Patrick were opened in Stamford Street, then newly built on what was known as Prince's Meadows. (fn. 302)

Footnotes

  • 1. Manning and Bray, Hist. of Surr. iii, 463. One or two references to 'pontes' in early documents appear to refer to the landing-stages, both at the public ferry and at the archbishop's private steps.
  • 2. Hist. MSS. Com. Rep. ix, App. i, 120a; Ct. of Req. bdle. 11, no. 167.
  • 3. Cal. S. P. Dom. 1628–9, p. 467.
  • 4. Close, 24 Chas. I, pt. xxii, m. 10.
  • 5. Ibid. 1648–9, p. 171.
  • 6. Hist. MSS. Com. Rep. v, App. i, 148.
  • 7. Dict. Nat. Biog.
  • 8. Cal. S. P. Dom. 1611–18, p. 16.
  • 9. Reg. Roff. (ed. Thorpe), 141.
  • 10. Ibid. 11.
  • 11. L. and P. Hen. VIII, xiv (1), 867 (cap. 26).
  • 12. Coll. Topog. et Gen. i, 5.
  • 13. Hone, Everyday Bk. 1826.
  • 14. Manning and Bray, op. cit. iii, 479.
  • 15. Leland, Itin. ix, 78.
  • 16. L. and P. Hen. VIII, xvi, 1320, 1395 (10).
  • 17. Ibid. 1423.
  • 18. Ibid. 1438.
  • 19. Ibid. xviii (1), 66 (29).
  • 20. G.E.C. Complete Peerage.
  • 21. Pat. 1 Edw. VI, pt. vi; pt. ix, m. 24.
  • 22. Ibid. 6 Edw. VI, pt. ix, m. 24.
  • 23. Ibid. 5 Edw. VI, pt. vi, m. 26.
  • 24. G.E.C. op. cit.
  • 25. Manning and Bray, op. cit. iii, 479, 480. It was copyhold, to which the youngest son succeeded by custom of the manor.
  • 26. Chan. Inq. p.m. (Ser. 2), ccxl, 75; Cal. S. P. Dom. 1580–1625, p. 436.
  • 27. Chan. Inq. p.m. (Ser. 2), cccxxii, 181.
  • 28. Manning and Bray, op. cit. iii, 480.
  • 29. The consecration is detailed in Cant. Epis. Reg. Tenison, pt. i, fol. 227b to 229a.
  • 30. Pat. 45 Eliz. pt. vi.
  • 31. Cal. S. P. Dom. 1623–5, p. 458.
  • 32. Pat. 45 Eliz. pt. vi.
  • 33. Cal. S. P. Dom. 1665–6, pp. 361, 481.
  • 34. Ibid. 1667, p. 496.
  • 35. Chan. Inq. p.m. (Ser. 2), cxliii, 2; L. and P. Hen. VIII, vii, 923 (12).
  • 36. Manning and Bray, op. cit. iii, 465, 466.
  • 37. Commissions de wallis ct fossati, were granted for Lambeth in 1295, 1347 and 1465.
  • 38. Ct. R. (Gen. Ser.), portf. 204, no. 65; Tanswell, Hist. of Lambeth, 231.
  • 39. Cal. S. P. Dom. 1611–18, pp. 140, 362.
  • 40. The two bridges mentioned here were most likely bridges over channels crossing the marsh.
  • 41. Cal. S. P. Dom. 1598–1601, p. 532.
  • 42. Dict. Nat. Biog.
  • 43. Gervase of Canterbury, Chron. (Rolls Ser.), ii, 23.
  • 44. Cal. S. P. Dom. 1636–7, p. 316; 1639, p. 43.
  • 45. Ibid. 1660–1, p. 287.
  • 46. Ibid. 1639, p. 363.
  • 47. Views of Lambeth 18th cent. (see B. M. Map Cat.).
  • 48. Map of Poor Law Com. 1841.
  • 49. Aubrey, Hist. and Antiq. of Surr. v, 226; Tanswell, Hist. of Lambeth, 180; Manning and Bray, op. cit. iii, 481.
  • 50. A plan of Streets, &c., as they now are, &c., with newly intended streets, 1769 (see B.M. Map Cat.); Map of Parish of Lambeth div. into Eccl. Dist. 1824 (see B.M. Map Cat.).
  • 51. Priv. Act, 50 Geo. III, cap. 6; see also Parl. Surv. Surr. no. 33.
  • 52. Pop. Ret. 1841.
  • 53. Lysons, Envir. of Lond. i, 257.
  • 54. Manning and Brav, op. cit. iii, 463.
  • 55. Local Act, 46 Geo. III, cap. 57.
  • 56. Stat. 2 Will. IV, cap. 45, see. 3.
  • 57. Lond. Gaz. 1840, p. 2597.
  • 58. Ibid. 1844, p. 5189.
  • 59. Ibid. 1847, p. 990.
  • 60. Stat. 52 & 53 Vict. cap. 14.
  • 61. Ibid. 62 & 63 Vict. cap. 14.
  • 62. Census of Engl. 18.
  • 63. The original terminus at Nine Elms, opened 1838, was on the borders of Lambeth and Battersea. The spot, close to the river, was a favourite hunting ground for botanists, for water plants especially.
  • 64. Cal. S. P. Dom. 1663–4, p. 670.
  • 65. Ibid. 1664–5, p. 670.
  • 66. Ibid. 43.
  • 67. Ibid. 1670 (Add. 1660–70), p. 631.
  • 68. Portland MSS. (Hist. MSS. Com.), vii, 285.
  • 69. Tanswell, Hist. of Lambeth, 193.
  • 70. Manning and Bray, op. cit. 463.
  • 71. Loc. Act, 49 Geo. III, cap. 191.
  • 72. Londina Illustrata, i (2); Account and Prospectus of Royal Coburg Theatre.
  • 73. Londina Illustrata, i (2).
  • 74. Loc. Act, 6 & 7 Will. IV, cap. 133.
  • 75. L. and P. Hen. VIII, xiv, 967.
  • 76. Cal. S. P. Dom. 1670 (Add. 1660–70), p. 175.
  • 77. Ibid. 1667–8, p. 534.
  • 78. The tradition merely rested on the similarity of names. The Vaux family did, however, own property in Lambeth, see below, and their residence may have helped to change Fawkeshall into Vauxhall.
  • 79. Examination of conspirators, Gunpowder Plot Bk. P.R.O.
  • 80. Pat. 27 Chas. II, pt. i, no. 24.
  • 81. Ibid.
  • 82. Cal. S. P. Dom. 1665–6, p. 153.
  • 83. Ibid.
  • 84. Cal. S. P. Dom. 1666–7, pp. 218, 527.
  • 85. Aubrey, op. cit. i, 12.
  • 86. Londina Illustrata.
  • 87. Ibid.
  • 88. Ducarel, Bibl. Topog. Brit. ii, 98. On a plan of Lambeth Green by Mr. Manning, dated 1681, Spring Gardens are marked on the site of the later Vauxhall Gardens. There seems no doubt that they were identical; Manning and Bray, op. cit. iii, 490. On 28 May 1668 Pepys went 'to Foxhall, to Spring Gardens,' and it is worth noting that the licence was always taken out for 'the Spring Gardens at Vauxhall.'
  • 89. Ibid.
  • 90. Hone, Everyday Bk. 1827, p. 782.
  • 91. Boswell, Life of Johnson (ed. Napier), iii, 312.
  • 92. Parl. Surv. Surr. no. 33.
  • 93. Cal. Pat. 1388–91, pp. 82, 86. There are numerous references to royal houses and a park at Kennington both before and after this date, but these evidently refer to Kennington in Berkshire.
  • 94. L. and P. Hen. VIII, v, 260, 952.
  • 95. Cal. Pat. 1461–7, p. 435.
  • 96. Parl. Surv. Surr. no. 33.
  • 97. Ibid.
  • 98. Lewis Topic Dict.
  • 99. See Chan. Inq. p.m. 10 Hen. IV, no. 48 (file 74); Ct. R. portf. 204, no. 64.
  • 100. V.C.H. Surr. i, 312a.
  • 101. Reg. Roff. (ed. Thorpe), 2, 3.
  • 102. V.C.H. Surr. loc. cit.
  • 103. Ibid.
  • 104. Cal. Pat. 1422–9, p. 182; Cal. Chart. R. 1257–1300, p. 194.
  • 105. Dugdale, Mon. Augl. i, 155.
  • 106. Reg. Roff. (ed. Thorpe), 6.
  • 107. Ibid.
  • 108. Ibid. 41.
  • 109. The date of the king's confirmation is also dated April 1196.
  • 110. Cartae Antiq. C. 17 and 18; Cal. Rot. Chart. (Rec. Com.), 22, 27, 35, 68; Reg. Roff. 11.
  • 111. Close, 24 Chas. I, pt. xxii, m. 1; Coll. Topog. et Gen. i, 123; Surr. Arch. Coll. xii, 35.
  • 112. Information from Mr. de Bock Porter.
  • 113. Water Lambeth only occasionally appears as a separate tithing.
  • 114. Presentments were also made of resiants within the manor of Kennington; Ct. R. portf. 204, no. 65.
  • 115. Parl. Surv. 1647. Presentment of customs at court held 1810.
  • 116. Cal. Rot. Chart. (Rec. Com.), 27.
  • 117. Pope Nich. Tax. (Rec. Com.), 206.
  • 118. Chan. Inq. p.m. 3 Edw. III (1st nos.), no. 52.
  • 119. Valor Eccl. (Rec. Com.), i, 3.
  • 120. Coll. Topog. et Gen. i, 127.
  • 121. Hist. MSS. Com. Rep. vii, App. i, 52b.
  • 122. Tanswell, Hist. of Lambeth, 48.
  • 123. H. N. Bell, Memoir of the House of Hastings, 127 8.
  • 124. Priv. Act, 16 & 17 Chas. II, cap. 6.
  • 125. Kemble, Codex Dipl. no. 813; V.C.H. Surr. i, 313a.
  • 126. V.C.H. Surr. loc. cit.
  • 127. Dict. Nat. Biog.
  • 128. Red Bk. of Exch. (Rolls Ser.), 562.
  • 129. G.E.C. Complete Peerage.
  • 130. Assize R. 878, 7 Edw. I; Plac. de Quo Warr. (Rec. Com.), 740.
  • 131. Plac. de Quo Warr. loc. cit.
  • 132. Assize R. 878, 7 Edw. I; 872, 39 Hen. III.
  • 133. Chan. Inq. p.m. 20 Edw. I, file 63, no. 16; Cal. Close, 1288–96, p. 236.
  • 134. Red Bk. of Exch. (Rolls Ser.), 1015, 1020; Cal. Pat. 1334–8, p. 428.
  • 135. Red Bk. of Exch. iii, p. cccxiii.
  • 136. Ct. R. portf. 204, no. 62.
  • 137. Ibid. portf. 205, no. 10–21.
  • 138. Chan. Inq. p.m. Hen. III, file 3, no. 10.
  • 139. G.E.C. Complete Peerage.
  • 140. Cal. Close, 1231–4, p. 323.
  • 141. Cal. Pat. 1307–13, pp. 83 4.
  • 142. Ibid. 1313–17, p. 677.
  • 143. Dugdale, Baronage, ii, 101.
  • 144. Cal. Chart. R. 1300–26, p. 463.
  • 145. Exch. Anct. Extents (Rentals and Surv.), no. 56, m. 7.
  • 146. Chart. R. 11 Edw. III, m. 10, no. 70; Abbrev. Rot. Orig. (Rec. Com.), ii, 120; Cal. Close, 1337–9, p. 261; Cal. Pat. 1334–8, p. 491.
  • 147. Lit. Cant. (Rolls Ser.), ii, 422.
  • 148. Hist. MSS. Com. Rep. v, App. i, 435.
  • 149. Feud. Aids, v, 126.
  • 150. Hist. MSS. Com. Rep. ix, App. i, 106a.
  • 151. Ibid.
  • 152. Valor Eccl. (Rec. Com.), i, 14.
  • 153. Dugdale, Mon. i, 87.
  • 154. L. and P. Hen. VIII, xvi, g. 878 (59); Pat. 33 Hen. VIII, pt. ix, m. 20.
  • 155. Ct. R. portf, 205, no. 10–21.
  • 156. See South Lambeth.
  • 157. Chartul. of St. Thomas, Southwark, Stowe MS., 942, fol. 202.
  • 158. Feet of F. Surr. Mich. 4 Hen. III, no. 4.
  • 159. Surr. Arch. Coll. x, 249. Stockwell and South Lambeth are here considered identical. The possession of this land was disputed by Margery Malemeyns. Land called Malemeyns is mentioned in an extent of Stockwell about seventy years later; Ibid.; Cal. Close, 1323–7, p. 582.
  • 160. Harl. Chart. 52 E. 18. Thomas Romayn and his wife Juliana had acquired lands in Lambeth in 1294–5; Feet of F. Surr. Hil. 23 Edw. I.
  • 161. Chan. Inq. p.m. 19 Edw. II, no. 85; 3 Edw. I (1st nos.), no. 52.
  • 162. Chart. R. 3 Edw. II, m. 7, no. 10.
  • 163. Sharpe, Cal. of Wills in Ct. of Husting, i, 238.
  • 164. Chan. Inq. p.m. 19 Edw. II, no. 85.
  • 165. Ibid.
  • 166. Ibid.; Cal. Close, 1323–7, p. 582.
  • 167. Ibid.
  • 168. Chan. Inq. p.m. 3 Edw. III (1st nos.), no. 52.
  • 169. Ibid.
  • 170. Hasted, Hund. of Blackheath (ed. Drake), i, 147.
  • 171. Cal. Close, 1341–3, p. 550.
  • 172. Index Wint. Epis. Reg. Egerton MSS. 2031–4, iii.
  • 173. Add. Chart. 18686.
  • 174. Feet of F. Surr. Hil. 13 Hen. IV.
  • 175. Ibid. East. 6 Hen. V.
  • 176. Harl. MS. 49, fol. 27.
  • 177. Early Chan. Proc. bdles. 20, no. 30; 32, no. 329.
  • 178. Ibid.
  • 179. Pat. 31 Hen. VI, pt. ii, m. 31. See also Knowles in Lambeth.
  • 180. Close, 11 Edw. IV, m. 16.
  • 181. Ibid. m. 21; Harl. MS. 1561, fol. 19b.
  • 182. Chan. Inq. p.m. (Ser. 2), xl, 12, 13.
  • 183. a Ibid.
  • 184. Pat. 35 Hen. VIII, pt. x, m. 33; Feet of F. Surr. East. 36 Hen. VIII.
  • 185. L. and P. Hen. VIII, xviii (2), 231 (p. 129).
  • 186. Hist. MSS. Com. Rep. vii, App. i, 606a.
  • 187. Pat. 1 & 2 Phil. and Mary, pt. xv, m. 5.
  • 188. G.E.C. Complete Peerage.
  • 189. MSS. of Lord Montagu of Beaulieu (Hist. MSS. Com.), 74.
  • 190. Pat. 11 Jas. I, pt. xiii.
  • 191. Chan. Inq. p.m. (Ser. 2), ccclxxiv, 97.
  • 192. Ibid.
  • 193. Recov. R. Hil. 1650, rot. 3.
  • 194. Manning and Bray, Hist. of Surr. iii, 498.
  • 195. Recov. R. East. 21 Geo. III, rot. 415.
  • 196. Manning and Bray, op. cit. iii, 490.
  • 197. Tanswell, Hist. of Lambeth, 43.
  • 198. Manning and Bray, loc. cit.
  • 199. Tanswell, op. cit. 44.
  • 200. V.C.H. Surr. i, 328a.
  • 201. Chan. Inq. p.m. 3 Edw. I, no. 31.
  • 202. G.E.C. Complete Peerage.
  • 203. Ibid.
  • 204. Feet of F. Surr. Mich. 5 Edw. I.
  • 205. Wrottesley, Ped. from the Plea Rolls, 63.
  • 206. Feet of F. Surr. Mich. 5 Edw. I.
  • 207. Abbrev. Plac. (Rec. Com.), 325; Cal. Close, 1313–18, p. 347.
  • 208. Cal. Pat. 1317–21, pp. 45, 42, 150; Cal. Close, 1318–23, p. 2.
  • 209. Ibid. 1339–41, p. 34.
  • 210. Cal. Chart. R. 1300–26, p. 442.
  • 211. Exch. Anct. Extents (Rentals and Surv.), no. 56, m. 7.
  • 212. G.E.C. Complete Peerage.
  • 213. a Ibid.
  • 214. Cal. Close, 1339–41, p. 34.
  • 215. L. and P. Hen. VIII, ii, 2252; Pat. 9 Hen. VIII, pt. ii, m. 19.
  • 216. Pat. 31 Eliz. pt. xi, m. 8.
  • 217. Ibid. 8 Jas. I, pt. xli, no. 3.
  • 218. Ibid. 13 Jas. I, pt. v, no. 6.
  • 219. Cal. S. P. Dom. 1611–18, p. 251.
  • 220. Ibid. 1637–8, p. 131; Parl. Surv. Surr. no. 33.
  • 221. Ibid.
  • 222. Cal. S. P. Dom. 1660–1, p. 344.
  • 223. Ibid. 362.
  • 224. Ibid. 357.
  • 225. Pat. 13 Chas. II, pt. ix, no. 10.
  • 226. Priv. Act, 16 Geo. III, cap. 58.
  • 227. G.E.C. Complete Baronctage, v, 72.
  • 228. Parl. Surv. Surr. no. 33.
  • 229. Cal. Chart. R. 1257–1300, p. 372.
  • 230. Feet of F. Surr. Mich. 21 Edw. I, no. 19.
  • 231. Ibid. Mich. 30 Edw. I, no. 9.
  • 232. Ibid. East. 33 Edw. I, no. 32.
  • 233. Chartul. of St. Thomas, Southwark, Stowe MS. 942, fol. 193.
  • 234. Index Wint. Epis. Reg. Egerton MSS. 2031–4, v, 1.
  • 235. Cal. Close, 1330–3, p. 597.
  • 236. Feet of F. Surr. East. 11 Edw. III, no. 16, 19.
  • 237. Ibid. Hil. 27 Edw. III, no. 20.
  • 238. Sharpe, Cal. of Lond. Wills, ii, 202.
  • 239. Feet of F. Surr. East. 18 Ric. II.
  • 240. Close, 27 Hen. VI, m. 9.
  • 241. Pat. 31 Hen. VI, pt. ii, m. 31.
  • 242. Close, 11 Edw. III, m. 21.
  • 243. Pat. 7 Eliz. pt. ix, m. 2.
  • 244. Chan. Inq. p.m. (Ser. 2), cxlv, 11.
  • 245. Chan. Inq. p.m. (Ser. 2), ccxlvii, 59; Coll. Topog. et Gen. iii, 310.
  • 246. Feet of F. Surr. Hil. 43 Eliz.
  • 247. Ibid. Trin. 14 Jas. I.
  • 248. Ibid. Mich. 21 Chas. I.
  • 249. Ibid. Hil. 1 Anne.
  • 250. Recov. R. Trin. 6 Geo. I, rot. 204; Feet of F. Surr. Trin. 6 Geo. I.
  • 251. Feet of F. Surr. Trin. 6 Geo. I.
  • 252. Ibid. Trin. 35 Geo. III.
  • 253. Misc. Bks. (Ld. Rev. Rec.), cxc, fol. 211.
  • 254. Feet of F. Surr. East. 4 John 42; Chartul. of St. Thomas, Southwark, Stowe MS. 942, fol. 175.
  • 255. Chartul. of St. Thomas, Southwark, Stowe MS. loc. cit.
  • 256. Parl. Surv. Surr. no. 33; Inq. a.q.d. file 307, no. 5.
  • 257. a Chartul. of St. Thomas, Southwark, Stowe MS. 942, fol. 175.
  • 258. Inq. a.q.d. file 307, no. 5.
  • 259. Ibid.
  • 260. Ibid.
  • 261. Cal. Pat. 1377–81, p. 336.
  • 262. Dugdale, Mon. vi, 672.
  • 263. Valor Eccl. (Rec. Com.), ii, 60.
  • 264. Pat. 37 Hen. VIII, pt. iii, m. 27.
  • 265. Ibid.
  • 266. Ibid. m. 37.
  • 267. Chan. Inq. p.m. (Ser. 2), cxli, 36.
  • 268. Ibid.
  • 269. Pat. 7 Eliz. pt. viii, m. 23.
  • 270. Notes of Fines Div. Co. East. 9 Eliz.
  • 271. Chan. Proc. (Ser. 2), bdle. 11, no. 100; Chan. Inq. p.m. (Ser. 2), xvi, 27.
  • 272. Feet of F. Surr. Trin. 15 Eliz.; Chan. Inq. p.m. (Ser. 2), xvi, 27.
  • 273. Chan. Inq. p.m. (Ser. 2), xvi, 27.
  • 274. Harl. MS. 1561, fol. 58.
  • 275. Feet of F. Surr. Mich. 34 & 35 Eliz.; Recov. R. Hil. 34 Eliz. rot. 20.
  • 276. This name appears to be the origin of Tulse Hill, and helps to locate these manors, all trace of which has vanished. Feet of F. Surr. East. 1656.
  • 277. G.E.C. Complete Peerage.
  • 278. G.E.C. Baronetage, ii, 158. Elizabeth's name is here given as Mary.
  • 279. Ibid.
  • 280. Feet of F. Surr. Mich. 17 Geo. III.
  • 281. Ibid. Mich. 18 Geo. III.
  • 282. Com. Pleas Recov. R. Mich. 17 Geo. III, m. 183.
  • 283. Anct. D. (P.R.O.), A 12875.
  • 284. Chan. Inq. p.m. (Ser. 2), cxciv, 1.
  • 285. Cal. S. P. Dom. 1591–4, p. 505.
  • 286. Ibid.
  • 287. Chan. Inq. p.m. (Ser. 2), ccccxliii, 64; cccclxxxvi, 34.
  • 288. Chan. Inq. p.m. (Ser. 2), xxx, 15.
  • 289. The church consists of a chancel 41 ft. 10 in. by 22 ft. 8 in., north chapel 25 ft. 4 in. by 18 ft. 1 in., south chapel 24 ft. 5 in. by 17 ft. 9 in., nave 73 ft. by 22 ft. 2 in., north aisle of the same length, 14 ft. 6 in. wide at the east end, and 12 ft. 3 in. wide at the west end, and south aisle 58 ft. 7½ in. by 17 ft. 9 in., south-west tower 13 ft. 6½ in. by 15 ft., a south porch, quire vestry on the north side of the north chapel, and clergy vestry at the south-east of the chancel.
  • 290. Jones, Lond. in the 19th Century (1830).
  • 291. W. B. Cooke and S. Owens, The Thames, Lond. (1811).
  • 292. a Winton Epis. Reg. Wykeham, fol. 3113b, 3162b.
  • 293. Jones, loc. cit.
  • 294. Cal. Pat. 1232–47, p. 376; Inst. Bks. (P.R.O.).
  • 295. Priv. Act, 18 Geo. III, cap. 32.
  • 296. Cal. Pat. 1321–4, p. 12; 1391–6, p. 645; Index Wint. Epis. Reg. Egerton MSS. 2031–4.
  • 297. Cant. Epis. Reg. Stratford, fol. 98b.
  • 298. See Chant. Cert. 48, no. 7.
  • 299. Pat. 35 Hen. VI, pt. ii, m. i.
  • 300. Egerton MSS. 2031–4, iv.
  • 301. Pat. 33 Eliz. pt. v, m. 1.
  • 302. A long list of small benefactions is given by Manning and Bray, op. cit. iii, 527–8.