A History of the County of Sussex: Volume 3. Originally published by Victoria County History, London, 1935.
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The NAVE (average length and breadth 154 ft. by 26 ft.) is of eight bays. It is in the main of the early-12th-century period, although the four western bays were probably built later than the four eastern, and their piers, the two westernmost in particular, are of less breadth and the arches of greater span than those to the east. After the fire of 1187 the walls of the four eastern bays below the triforium were refaced with Caen stone, and Purbeck marble shafts were added to the arcades and clearstory. The four western bays, perhaps because they were less damaged, were only partly refaced and the remodelling of the arches, etc., was apparently not proceeded with until after the other part was completed as certain changes, specified below, were made in the details. The orientation of the arches is very irregular, practically no single bay being in line with its neighbour. The general tendency of the deflections in the arcades is to the northwards in the middle bays, but in the clearstory, judging from the parapets, the deflections (of both) seem to be to the south
The north arcade has round-headed openings of two orders divided by solid piers. The easternmost pier has been broadened (? in the rebuilding of the 19th century); the second, third and fourth piers average 8 ft. in breadth, but all vary slightly; the fifth and sixth piers are about 7½ ft. wide, while the seventh, which is the south-east leg of the tower, is 11½ ft. wide. Except in the modern eastern bay, the responds of the piers are of two square orders, the inner order having half-round attached shafts and the outer order, towards the aisle, smaller half-round shafts in the reveals of the angles, the courses of both ranging with the walling. In the first pier, which has been broadened, traces of the original respond are visible towards the aisle. Most of the shafts have plain cushion capitals or double-scalloped capitals, with chamfered abaci, but a little more variety is seen in the three western bays, where cabled ornament to the neck-moulds and incipient foliage and lines in the scallops are introduced. The shafts have moulded original bases on square sub-bases and plinths, which in the three eastern bays are chamfered in the reveals. The westernmost moulded base is a later alteration.
In the 12th-century arches (that is, the inner order, and the outer order towards the aisle) the inner order is square with small chamfers, and the outer order has a half-round member that is practically a continuation of that in the responds; a few of the edges of this outer order have small chamfers. The outer order towards the nave is of the late-12th or early-13th-century period. The responds of the four eastern bays are fitted with 7 in. detached shafts of Purbeck marble which have 'hold-water' bases and square capitals carved with 'stiff-leaf' foliage. The shafts of the western respond of the fourth bay and all west of it are generally of smaller diameter, with wider spreading bases of 'hold-water' section and, in addition, moulded intermediate bands to tie them to the masonry. The capitals resemble the others, but are mostly of wider spread and slightly more free treatment. The abaci throughout the whole arcade are continued as string-courses along the piers and around the vaulting shafts. The outer orders of the arches are moulded to a section closely allied to those in the eastern arm. Those to the four western bays have relieving arches above them.
The south arcade is practically a replica of the north. The capital of the east respond of the westernmost bay has its scallops treated with scale ornament in lines, but half the capital has been renewed.
The bases of the original shafts are lower than those of the Purbeck marble shafts. The latter vary in height irregularly, but generally from 2 ft. 3 in. at the east end to about 3 ft. 6 in. at the west, indicating that the original pavement sloped upwards from east to west.
The triforium arcades are much the same as those to the sanctuary, the shafts having cushion or doublescalloped capitals in no regular order. The abaci, from the middle shafts of the fifth bay westwards, are of grooved and hollow-chamfered section, but east of the same point they are plain-chamfered. The four east bays of the north side have arches of the same radius as those to the sanctuary, but in all the other bays the arches are smaller.
The tympana are variously decorated and each bay is the same north and south, except the easternmost modern bays, where the north has diagonal checker work and the south scale-ornament. The second, third and fourth bays have old diagonal checkers, but only those of the fourth bay display any diversity in the tints of the stones, and this chiefly on the north side, where the stones are of grey, red and yellow. The fifth bay is treated with rows of scallop-ornament like tile-hanging. The sixth bay has rows of lozengeshaped facets, the ground work cut back between them. The north side of this bay is of modern repair. The seventh bay has a diaper of diamond checkers, but the edges of each are cut back to form concave sides; they are in horizontal rows excepting a patch in the north arch where they are arranged on the slant. The eighth bay is similar to the fifth; the arches here, opening into the towers, are of four orders towards the nave instead of three. The outermost order of the south arch is of the late-12th or early-13th-century section seen in the arcades below. The walling about the arches is the original 12th-century ashlar.
In addition to the repairs next to the central crossing, there are other later repairs in the triforium; for instance, the middle shaft of the fifth bay on the north side is a rather clumsy, heavy one, nearly double the thickness of the others, and may be a 17th-century restoration. The middle shafts in the sixth and seventh bays of the north side are modern, the coupled secondary arches of the sixth bay, north side, have been rebuilt with old stones reworked, and other repairs can be observed. Below the triforium is a moulded Purbeck marble string-course.
The clearstory is more or less a repetition of that in the transept, but some of the shafts are of modern black marble instead of Purbeck. It is noticeable that in many of the bays the outer arches of the triplets differ in span one from the other; some of these differences are very marked. Externally the lights have shafted jambs with cushion capitals; the abaci of the three east bays on the north side and four east bays on the south side are of plain chamfered section, but west of them they are of the grooved and hollowed section. All the windows have billet-moulded labels.
The vaulting again follows the lines of that to the eastern arm, but the rolls in the vaulting ribs are not in this instance keeled. The wall-shafts dividing the bays have triple keeled rolls; they are carried up vertically, but the main wall face on the south side leans outwards in places, so that above the five east piers pilasters have been built out to receive the shafts in the triforium and clearstory stages. Where the inner face of the clearstory sets back from the main lower face (in nearly the whole of the south side and in the three west bays on the north side), the wallribs of the vault have a break-back at right angles, some 4 ft. or 5 ft. above the capitals. The webbing has been all very evenly repointed in modern times. In the east compartment of the fifth bay is a square patch of repair where a former trap-hole existed.
The north parapet of the nave has 14th-century corbel-tabling in two rows of trefoiled arches between the corbels as in the eastern arm. The parapet is apparently in a dead straight line from east to west, but the walling below has a deflection so that the lower row of corbelling dies away into it at the sixth bay.
Between the windows are shallow buttresses as in the eastern arm, with similar flying buttresses from the aisle against them. The roof is covered with lead. That in the second, third and fourth bays is ancient and the rolls lean westwards; the remainder has been repaired and the rolls are square with the walls.
The south side of the clearstory resembles the north, except that here the bend in the main wall is outwards instead of inwards, so that there is only one row of corbelling. Where necessary the projecting wall is sloped back in order that the parapet may preserve its straight line.
The west wall of the nave retains very little if anything to denote that it is of 12th-century origin; it is probable that most of its original masonry has disappeared during the course of the many alterations and repairs it has undergone since its first erection. The west doorway is of early-14th-century date, and no doubt displaced a 12th-century doorway which had survived till then. It has jambs of four orders, the innermost chamfered; the other three are recessed square orders with hollow-chamfered angles containing nook-shafts with round bell-capitals of Purbeck. The two-centred head is also of four orders, the innermost moulded, the others moulded with scroll-rolls and fairly wide hollows; they die on to stones (tas de charge) of rounded plan above the capitals, instead of springing directly from the capitals; the arch has a moulded label with damaged stops. The shafts, of stone without base-moulds, and the neck-moulds of the capitals are entirely modern, but the capitals are old and badly decayed. Internally the doorway has a single shaft in each jamb and the rear-arch is of two moulded orders with a label and head-stops.
Above, in range with the triforium, is a triplet of lancet windows, of which the intermediate piers are of two shallow chamfered orders. The jambs externally have, in addition, an outer recessed chamfered order with detached nook-shafts, the capitals of which are like those of the doorway. The intermediate detached shafts stand in front of the piers and carry the outer moulded orders of the heads which have hood-moulds. The windows have been considerably restored. Inside they have a free arcade on the inner face of the wall with Purbeck marble shafts. These shafts have round moulded capitals and moulded intermediate bands tailed back to the outer walling as lintels over the wall-passage. The mouldings of the outer orders of the rear-arches are carried tas de charge over the intermediate shafts as in the doorway. The side shafts are shorter than those in the middle and the arches above are highly stilted. The arches have moulded labels with head-stops.
The string-course at the base of the triforium is continued across the west wall, but is dropped about 2 ft. for the wall-passage. A broad band of carved and coloured diaper ornament below the stringcourse appears to be a modern addition.
The west window, in range with the clearstory, is of five trefoiled lights and tracery of 14th-century character, but all executed in 1849 from a design by Richard Carpenter, the architect to the cathedral. It replaces the austere stonework which had resulted from the utilitarian repairs of the 17th or 18th century. The jambs are old and are of two orders; the inner externally has two half-round rolls or engaged shafts with blended foliated capitals, and the outer square order has detached Purbeck marble shafts with stone capitals of free foliage. The moulded arch has a label with head-stops. Much of the stonework, besides the tracery, has been renewed. The inner reveals have each a detached Purbeck marble shaft with a moulded bell-capital carrying the rear-arch, which is chamfered and has a hood-mould with head-stops. The window contains glass by Wailes of Newcastle, to Dean Chandler, d. 1830. Below the window inside and out are moulded string-courses; and another outside above the apex.
The gable-head to the wall has two single wide pointed lights with stone shafts in the jambs having moulded capitals of Purbeck marble. The heads are of two chamfered orders and have hood-moulds with heads or grotesque stops. The surface of the gablehead is treated with diaper ornament like that in the tympana of the westernmost bays of the triforium.
At the nave screen, described below, there were on the north side the altar of St. Augustine and the Holy Cross, and on the south the altar of St. Mary 'at Stok.' (fn. 1) Both altars were originally founded by Dean Thomas de Lichfield (fn. 2) (1232–47), for whose soul there was a chantry at each altar and also at the altar of St. Thomas and St. Edmund. (fn. 3) In 1482 the president and scholars of Magdalen College, Oxford, agreed to pay an annuity from Sele Priory for the maintenance of a chaplain at the altar of the Holy Cross and St. Augustine to pray for the soul of Thomas de Lichfield, late Dean of Chichester. (fn. 4) At the altar of St. Mary 'at Stok' there was a chantry for Bishop John Arundel (d. 1477), who built the screen, which is described as the 'Chantry of John Arundel, Bishop, at the Choir Door.' (fn. 5) His tomb stands in the second bay of the arcade. There also seem to have been images of St. Augustine (fn. 6) on the north side of the screen, and of St. Mary on the south. (fn. 7)
The parish altar of St. Peter must have been at or near the nave screen, but although we have many references to it, (fn. 8) its exact position is not known.
The North Aisle of the Nave, about 12 ft. wide, has seven bays of vaulting carried on triple wall-shafts (the middle shaft being keeled) against the north wall, and on single shafts of Purbeck marble on the backs of the arcade-piers on the south side. The moulded capitals and bases are approximately like those of the east bays of the south aisle of the eastern arm, but the capitals differ slightly from them in section and from each other, although they have the same form of abacus; the third to the sixth on the north wall, however, are carved with various kinds of foliage. The bases of the fourth and fifth shafts are nearly buried in the stone benches which run along the wall. The bases of the single shafts on the south side behind the main piers have mostly round sub-bases that stand on the remains of the original bases or plinths of the former cross-arches. The first from the east is a large square plinth but restored; the third has a small chamfered square plinth, the fourth has had the plinth roughly splayed back and the walling behind the shaft has been patched; the fifth and sixth piers must have had wider cross-arches of two orders—about 5 ft. thick—which are indicated by straight joints in the walling and the double-chamfered plinths, still in place. The shaft, etc., behind the second pier has been hidden or destroyed for a modern monument. At the south-east and the west end the ribs spring from head-corbels. The ribs of the vaulting also resemble those of the east part of the south aisle of the retroquire, the transverse ribs having a V-shaped member in the soffit between two rolls, and the diagonal ribs a filleted central roll between two hollows. The majority of the bosses are carved with foliage, but the boss in the first bay has four human heads, the eastern and western carved (reversely to the others) with chins outwards.
In the north wall of the easternmost bay is a late12th or early-13th-century window of a single light like those to the sanctuary aisles. Below the window is a moulded string-course inside. The walling here is of rough ashlar mostly wide-jointed. Externally above the window is a 12th-century window to the triforium. Below is a triple-hatched string-course continued from the transept, and the walling is widejointed. The carved corbel-table is like that of the eastern arm, but mostly altered or restored. The second to sixth bays have arches appertaining to the chapels into which they open and are described with them.
The seventh bay of the north wall contains the doorway from the north porch, inserted east of the centre line of the bay, being probably an enlargement of an earlier doorway. This has jambs of two orders, the inner chamfered, the outer square with rather decayed nook-shafts of Purbeck marble; the foliated capitals have square moulded abaci continued along the wall, and moulded bases on chamfered plinths. The outer order of the two-centred head and its label are moulded. Internally the jambs have a recessed order with stone nook-shafts also with moulded bases and foliated capitals. They carry a moulded rear-arch with a hood-mould, like those outside, but set much higher in the wall. In the reveals are sockets for a draw-bar. West of it, in the porch, is a moulded base of a shaft, perhaps of an original 12th-century doorway which was displaced by the present one. The base is of the same size as those to the angle-rolls of the towerbuttresses, and may possibly be one of them placed here afterwards. There are three steps up to the threshold from the aisle. The doorway seems to be of much the same period as the other early-13th-century features. In it is a pair of ancient doors, probably of the 16th century; each leaf is of three vertical panels divided by moulded ribs and having raised keel centres; at the springing level is a moulded rail, below which, in the east leaf, is a wicket door.
Above the doorway, and central with the bay, is the outline of the former 12th-century window that was partly destroyed for the doorway or its predecessor. The original doorway below this window was flanked by a 12th-century wall-arcade. A portion of the arcade survives west of the present doorway in the form of a round arch to a recess and its western scalloped capital with a grooved and hollowed abacus, 6 ft. 6 in. high; the shaft has disappeared. Owing to the setback of the wall-face for the arcading the later doorway is flanked by an east pilaster.
Immediately west of this relic of arcading is a halfround shaft which is carried up to the springing of the vault where it finishes abruptly; it bears no relation to the west arch of the aisle into the tower, for which the north wall face was cut back next to the shaft.
The South Aisle of the Nave (about 11 ft. wide) has vaulting resembling that of the north aisle. The triple shafts on the south wall have carved capitals, all of foliage only, except the fifth, which has three human heads and fleurs de lis. The Purbeck single shafts behind the main piers stand on the plinths of the original 12th-century responds and the walling behind them is patched where the responds have been removed, except at the first and second piers. These early bases vary in size, that behind the third pier being shortened to 2 ft. 1 in. wide, the fourth is 2 ft. 9 in., the fifth 3 ft., and the sixth 3 ft., with an additional setback on each side as though this respond was of two orders and much wider than the others. The fifth retains a part of the original actual respond, projecting a few inches at the base, but dying out at the capital level. West of the sixth respond is a half-round wall-shaft which has no relation to the archway into the tower; this shaft may be a relic of the former groined-vaulting or barrel-vaulting. The corresponding south shaft has been cut away.
The vault-ribs, which are like those of the north aisle, spring at the east end from human head corbels, of which the northern is modern. At the west end they spring from a moulded corbel on the south wall and from the above-mentioned 12th-century shaft on the north side. All the bosses are foliated.
In the south wall the easternmost bay contains the much restored doorway of the stair to the chapter house, and a loop-light above it. Next to the latter is the outline of an early-12th-century window walled up with rough ashlar. A similar blocked window exists in the second bay. In the third bay is the doorway from the south porch; this is later than the north doorway, approaching more nearly the middle of the 13th century. It has a pointed head of three moulded orders, the outer two with filleted rolls and hollows, the innermost with keeled rolls and dog-tooth ornament. The two outer orders are carried on free Purbeck marble shafts which have moulded bases (of three rounds) and moulded bell capitals (rather defaced) with Purbeck moulded abaci. The shafts stand in front of splayed jambs in which are smaller engaged shafts cut out of the solid, between the free shafts. The innermost order has a plain edge-roll. The hood-mould has head-stops, the western a priest.
Internally the jambs have a recessed order with chamfered edges, and Purbeck nook-shafts with similar capitals and bases. The high segmental-pointed rear-arch is moulded and has a moulded label cut off square at the ends. The doors, of two leaves, are medieval: they have chamfered and moulded framing and fillets planted on the outside, and at the back (inside) are horizontal battens; in the west leaf is a wicket.
Above the north aisle the main piers retain the responds and the broken springing stones of the former cross-arches as in the eastern arm, and the north wall against the further north aisle or chapels still contains the original small windows; they are fitted with doors and give access to the roof spaces above the chapels. Also the corbel-tabling is preserved inside these roof spaces.
The two western bays of the north wall seem to have been thinned at some later period and have a corbeltable on the inside: the corbels are plain except two which are 13th-century foliated capitals reset.
The south triforium has remains of the responds of the former cross-arches, but on the south wall at the first and sixth piers they have been completely cut away. At the third and fourth piers there are traces of the former cross-arches and above them, partly below the roof, are the arches of the flying buttresses. The stonework at the fifth and sixth piers has been newly repaired. The original windows remain in the four west bays with doors opening into the roof space over the south chapels. In the two east bays the round heads of blocked windows can be seen rising above the aisle vaulting.
The Outer North Aisle (about 13 ft. wide) flanks the third, fourth, fifth and sixth bays of the inner aisle, and consists of the former chapels of St. Theobald and St. Anne: they were each of two bays, but the dividing wall was subsequently removed and the aisle formed.
East of them, opening from the second bay of the inner aisle, is the chapel of SS. Thomas of Canterbury (fn. 9) and Edmund (Rich). (fn. 10) This chapel was refitted in memory of Lieut. Noel Abbey, Grenadier Guards, who was killed in the Great War in 1918, as recorded on a wall-tablet west of the chapel. There were three chantries at this altar, namely to John, Bishop of Chichester, (fn. 11) who must be identified as John de Climping (d. 1262) or John de Langton (d. 1337), Thomas the Dean, (fn. 12) probably Thomas de Lichfield (c. 1232) or Thomas de Berksted (c. 1296), and to William the Dean, probably William de Brakelsham (c. 1296) (fn. 13) or William de Grenefeld (c. 1302).
The chapel is about 14½ ft. from east to west, by 12½ ft. wide. Its south archway towards the aisle is of three moulded orders with keeled-rolls and hollows; the innermost order is carried on detached Purbeck marble shafts which have moulded bases of 'hold-water' type and foliated square capitals of a fairly primitive kind with abaci of simple section; the other orders are carried on splayed responds with engaged shafts, alternating with smaller rolls, all cut out of the solid; the shafts have similar bases and capitals to those of the Purbeck shafts, but the rolls stop below the main capitals and are brought out to square at the bases. There are splayed sub-bases.
The chapel is lighted by a north window of two plain pointed lights and a quatrefoil in plate-tracery form. Outside the head is of two moulded orders and is carried on shafted jambs of two orders with foliated square capitals and moulded round bases. The inner shafts have moulded edges and a recessed order with Purbeck shafts under a moulded rear-arch. The jambs and arch are of the 13th century, but the mullion and tracery have been restored. Below the sill inside is a moulded string-course which is carried round the north-east vault-shaft and returns at the west wall. Above the window outside is a sexfoiled bull's-eye window lighting the roof space.
The vaulting of the chapel has diagonal ribs of filleted roll-and-hollow section, and east and west wall-ribs to correspond. The north wall-ribs rise to the level of the abaci of the window and mitre with them. In the north angles are single stone shafts with foliated capitals and round abaci of slightly differing sections. The western has a moulded base at the floor, but the eastern is cut short above a blocked doorway of the 15th century which formerly pierced the wall. At the south angles are carved head corbels. The central boss is carved with foliage.
The chapel has a modern altar table. The reredos in the east wall is contemporary with the chapel and consists of an arcade of three niches with moulded arches, the middle arch trefoiled and the other two pointed, carried on Purbeck marble shafts which have carved square capitals of stone and moulded bases. Above the spandrels are two other niches of quatrefoil form. Above the whole is a moulded string-course serving as a label. The three niches have been fitted with modern figures of the Crucifixion and SS. Thomas and Edmund, while the quatrefoils have demi-figures of angels holding shields with the emblems of the Passion.
The blocked doorway to the north of the reredos has a four-centred arch and is partly hidden behind modern panelling which lines the east and north walls. The reveals on the east face are rebated and the four-centred rear-arch chamfered. The blocking forms a recess outside.
The south and west arches of the chapel are fitted with modern wrought-iron grilles, the western with a gateway; the top rails bear the motto 'Loyal au mort' and there are medallions with the sacred monogram, grenades and a shield of arms.
The next two bays westward formed originally the chapel of St. Theobald. (fn. 14) The dedication to St. Theobald was probably to the Cistercian abbot of Vaux de Cernay (d. 1247). (fn. 15) In 1278 the dean moved the image of St. Richard from the saint's chapel of St. Mary Magdalene to the chapel of St. Theobald, and placed the image of St. Theobald outside the door of the chapel of St. John Baptist, whereby the offerings at the saint's image were prejudiced. (fn. 16) The two bays of the chapel have south arches from the third and fourth bays of the north aisle resembling the first in general character but with details of a later period. The Purbeck marble inner shafts have bases of three roll section and moulded bell-capitals, below which the small intermediate rolls die. The bases stand on subbases, which, except the easternmost, have projecting chamfered ledges as benches. The moulded arches have filleted rolls and there are hood-moulds on the north face only, with head or foliage stops. The east wall, in which is the plain archway cut through at a later date, retains north of it the remains of a former reredos which probably resembled that in the other chapel. They consist of the original northernmost engaged stone shaft having a 'hold-water' base and foliated capital with a moulded square abacus, and also a fragment of the arch above it, besides a portion of the string-course which served as a label. The transverse arch between the two bays resembles the south arches, but the shafts in the north respond have capitals carved with foliage and half- or quarteroctagonal moulded abaci, and (all but one) 'hold-water' bases on square sub-bases; also the Purbeck marble shaft is provided with a moulded intermediate band which the others lack. From these slight differences it may perhaps be inferred that the outer wall and respond were built before the north aisle wall was pierced and the south respond and south arches were inserted.
The two bays farther west, flanking the fifth and sixth bays of the north aisle, formed the chapel of St. Anne, where there was a chantry at the altar to pray for the soul of Walter de Gloucester, dean (1262–80). (fn. 17) The arches on the south side of the chapel are similar to those adjoining to the east. The transverse archway between the two chapels is also similar, without the intermediate rolls, and has carved northern capitals and moulded round southern capitals; it had originally a closing wall about 11 ft. high for the reredos of St. Anne's Chapel. This was afterwards cut away, but the stumps of its two ends remain in the responds. It has a moulded coping. On its west face, towards St. Anne's Chapel, are the outermost stone shafts of the former reredos, with carved capitals of fairly free foliage and round abaci and bases; also the springers of former arched niches, which are of later mouldings than the others and have filleted rolls and hollows, on the latter of which are remains of red colouring.
The vaulting of the four bays is of like detail. The section of the diagonal ribs includes a triple-filleted roll and is of later contour than any of the others hitherto mentioned in the main building; its nearest counterparts are in the ribs in the early 14th-century Lady Chapel, but these are rather less developed. The ribs are carried on carved corbels in the angles, except that at the north-east of St. Theobald's Chapel, where there is a stone shaft cut out of the solid having a foliated capital and moulded round abacus. The corbels have diverse carvings including the heads of a king, a priest and a woman in a wimple. The central bosses are of foliage. The webbing is plastered; the north compartments are raised for the windows.
The windows in the four bays resemble each other and are of three plain pointed lights and tracery of foiled circles in two-centred heads. In all, the tracery is of 19th-century restoration (they had no foils previously), (fn. 18) but the jambs, mullions and arches are mostly old. Externally the arches are of three moulded orders, and the recessed jambs have inner detached and outer engaged stone shafts, with foliated capitals and moulded bases; the mullions, also shafted, are wholly restored in the first and fourth windows, and partly in the second and third. Internally they are moulded and have a recessed order in which are Purbeck marble shafts with moulded bases and intermediate bands. The capitals are carved with fairly free conventional foliage and the mouldings of the heads and rear-arches have filleted rolls of later character than those to St. Thomas's Chapel.
In the west wall are two straight joints which appear to coincide with the jambs of the recess in the north porch (q.v.), but the northern is carried up to the vaulting and the southern to about half the height, where it breaks to the south.
Each of the five bays—of the three chapels—was gabled originally and the walling still retains the lower ends of the weather-courses. The wall now has plain horizontal parapets, that to the east chapel lower than the other, with moulded string-courses (the four west bays with paterae), and a battering plinth with a moulded top member.
The buttresses dividing the bays have similar plinths, but the battering is on the outer faces only. Above this they are continued up in one plane, but are divided by string-courses into three stages. The top stage of each has, sloping down its two sides, projecting stone water-channels which were originally employed to carry away the rain water from the valleys of the gabled roofs.
Higher in the buttresses are projecting spouts which serve to discharge the water brought down from the nave-roof in the channels of the sloping tops of the flying buttresses and through piercings in the buttresses themselves. The spouts are carved as monsters and grotesque human heads; the penultimate west spout is partly missing, the westernmost is a non-grotesque half-figure of a man looking westwards. The easternmost buttress is finished with a moulded gabled head. The four intermediate buttresses are capped by octagonal turrets, the top corners of the buttresses being splayed back for them; their edges are moulded and the lower points carved with heads or grotesques, some restored, some much decayed. The second buttress does not retain the mouldings, being cut back abruptly from a square to octagon; the turret above is modern. The other turrets, much restored, have angle-shafts with moulded capitals and bases and the faces have foiled panels under moulded gablets. Between the heads of the foiled panels the angles have bosses of foliage and above these are corbels carrying the gabled mouldings, mostly carved as men's heads, and mostly restored. Above the turrets are modern tall pointed pinnacles.
The westernmost buttress has the splayed corners like the others, but the turret on it is square with triple angle-shafts and single intermediate shafts, all with perished capitals and bases. The turret is covered by a plain square slab of stone. On the west face of this buttress is a double-headed niche coeval with it; it has two trefoiled recesses, over which is a large quatrefoil and again above that a smaller quatrefoil, all below a foiled and gabled hood-mould. The jambs have engaged shafts with foliated capitals and moulded bases; between them is a free shaft with a foliated capital. The base of the niche is level with the lower string-course and the (perished) finial at the apex of the gable just reaches the upper stringcourse. There is nothing to show what the niche contained. A little higher, south of the niche, is another short length of moulded string-course, but the purpose of this is not evident. The central shaft and possibly the south jamb are old restorations.
The North Porch, at the westernmost bay of the north aisle, between St. Anne's Chapel and the northwest tower, projects flush with the north-east angle of the tower. The entrance archway has recessed square jambs of three orders externally, the innermost with detached Purbeck shafts and the outer two with detached stone nook-shafts, the bases of 'hold-water' type, and the capitals with 'stiff-leaf' foliage and moulded square abaci: each jamb has a shaft inside the porch. The head, of three orders, has coupled pointed arches to the inner order, carried on a central Purbeck shaft, below a two-centred main head formed by the two outer orders. The latter are of the usual keeled roll and hollow form of the early-13th-century period, but the inner order has wider hollows in the soffit and outer faces filled with dog-tooth ornament. In the tympanum is a trefoil-niche with a moulded frame.
The vaulting has moulded ribs of the early-13th-century characteristics of those in the sanctuary, but differing slightly in section; they are carried on foliated corbels in the angles, and have a plain disc as the central boss. Against the side walls are stone benches. These walls are of tooled ashlar, the western of wide-jointed masonry except where the courses of the inner and outer archways bond into it; in the north half of the eastern wall is a recessed arcade of two pointed bays with hollow-chamfered heads and square jambs; the latter have moulded abaci in their reveals which may have been cut back on the faces. The middle stone shaft has a foliated capital of early form and a moulded base on the stone bench. The walling at the back does not course with the jambs.
On the west wall are the remains of a 15th-century memorial tablet; the frame is moulded, and it contained apparently a carving of two or three figures kneeling to a crucifix (?), but it seems to have been purposely defaced; below was an inscription cut on a representation of a linen band, but only a few meaningless letters are visible.
There is an inaccessible upper story to the porch with a moulded string-course at its base and a plain parapet partly restored. In it is a rectangular light to the east of the centre-line and to the west of the centre-line is a small cross-loop now blocked.
The front wall of the porch forms a straight joint with the tower west of it, by the upper part of the jamb of the entrance, but the lower part is the widejointed masonry of the tower continued eastwards beyond the real east angle of the tower. It may be inferred from this that there was originally a 12th-century porch or other structure which had its masonry bonded in with that of the tower.
The South Porch between the sacristy and the chapel of St. Clement leads from the west walk of the cloister into the third bay of the south aisle. The entrance archway of the porch is of three orders, the innermost forming coupled pointed arches on a central shaft and the outer two the main two-centred head. The moulding of the coupled arches is a series of rolls and hollows. A touch of the early craftsman is shown in the curious monsters' heads carved as springing stones above the capitals. They are cut upside-down so that the mouldings appear to issue from their mouths. The main arch is of two moulded square orders with keeled edge rolls. The arches are carried in the jambs on Purbeck marble shafts with 'hold-water' bases and foliated capitals of stone; they stand free in front of the splayed jambs, and have Purbeck marble abaci, square to the outer orders and splayed to the innermost order. The foliage in the capitals seems to be a little more advanced in type than the simple 'stiff-leaf' foliage of the 12th to 13th-century period. In the tympanum of the head is a foiled niche with a moulded frame and a foliated and a moulded bracket, on which stands a modern figure of St. Richard with crozier and mitre.
The vaulting has moulded diagonal and wall-ribs springing in the angles from corbels with Purbeck abaci; those in the north angles are carved to represent little crouching men with belted tunics, and foliage, the southern have rather crudely carved men's heads.
There are stone benches against the east and west walls. The west wall has, mostly in the south half, a recessed arcade of four bays with moulded twocentred heads and labels carried on square capitals and free shafts of Purbeck marble standing directly on the stone bench without bases. The second capital from the south is carved with bird-like monsters, the others with foliage.
The exterior face of the outer south wall flanking the entrance and above it is of smooth ashlar, the courses of which range with those of the west wall of the sacristy, and are probably of one date with it. But the internal faces of the east and west walls show a great deal of the diagonally tooled masonry characteristic of the 12th century, and are therefore earlier than the external ashlar. The buttress which flanks the west side of the entrance is mostly straight-jointed or unbonded where it meets the porch wall.
In the upper story of the porch are small lights concealed by the cloister roof, but visible inside the chamber. This chamber is entered from the chapter house by the doorway behind the 'secret panel,' and is thought to have been the ancient treasury of the cathedral.
The lights above mentioned in the south wall are a central rectangular loop and a small cross-loop west of it, like those over the north porch. There are also traces of another cross-loop, now blocked, east of the middle light. Above these lights there is sufficient evidence in the masonry to show that the porch was originally gabled, in the existence of a partly destroyed weather-course in the west half of the wall. The north side of the chamber retains the 12th-century carved corbels of the aisle parapet. The floor is not paved, and is considerably lower than that of the chapter house; there are steps down through the wall and in addition an ancient ladder of solid oak balks. The present roof is a nearly flat lean-to with a heavy central beam from east to west and a few old rafters.
The door in the east entrance is an ancient nailstudded one of oak vertical battens on the east face and horizontal battens at the back. It is hung on plain hinges and is fitted with a heavy oak lock.
The chapels of St. Clement and St. George, which were altered into an outer south aisle (about 12½ ft. wide), have now been reconverted to their original use as chapels: St. Clement's at the end of the last century in memory of Bishop Durnford, whose canopied tomb occupies its north archway; St. George's Chapel was refitted in 1921 as a memorial to the men of the Royal Sussex Regiment who died in the Great War (1914–19).
At the altar of St. Clement was a chantry for Dean Cloos (d. 1500). (fn. 19) At the chapel of St. George, William Hoore, citizen of Chichester, and others, had licence in 1446 (fn. 20) to found the Guild of St. George, to maintain a chaplain in the chapel of St. George in the Cathedral Church, or elsewhere in the city, for the good estate of the king and for the souls of the brethren and sisters of the Guild and for the maintenance of the poor brethren and sisters. (fn. 21) In 1481 we find there was a chaplain celebrating here for the soul of James, formerly mayor of Chichester. (fn. 22) There was also at this altar a chantry founded in 1467 by John Goryng, Humphrey Heuster, and Thomas Best, where a priest should pray for the good estate of the king and Elizabeth, the queen, of the said John, Humphrey and Thomas, and the souls of William Okehurst, John Okehurst and Cicely his wife, to be called the Chantry of William Okehurst. (fn. 23) The chantry was subsequently known as the Okehurst Chantry. Walcott says that the Charnel House Chantry was also at this altar.
Each chapel is of two bays. The four arches from the fourth, fifth, sixth, and seventh bays of the south aisle are almost precisely of the same detail as the archway to the chapel of SS. Thomas and Edmund, but the capitals and bases are of Purbeck marble and the free shafts of the three western bays are tied in with intermediate moulded bands. The easternmost bay has 'hold-water' bases; the others are of threeround section. The westernmost bay is much narrower than the others because of the proximity of the southwest tower; this and the next arch differ slightly in section from the others and their bases have leaf-spurs.
The two transverse arches, one in each chapel, have similar details, but the capitals have much freer foliage than those of the arcade and the responds and arches are not symmetrical, the eastern arch being of only two orders on its west face and three orders on the east face, while in the western arch this arrangement is reversed, the three orders being on the west face. Both arches have hood-moulds on their east and west faces, with foliage or head-stops, and both have been partly restored, especially that in St. Clement's Chapel. Their bases, mostly of 'hold-water' section, are carried on wide sub-bases fashioned as benches. There are stone benches against the south wall, but the bench has been cut away in the east bay of St. Clement's Chapel.
The vaulting of the chapels is like that of the opposite double-bayed chapels. Against the south wall, except in two angles, the ribs spring from single shafts with foliated capitals and with moulded bases on the stone benches except the south-east shaft in St. Clement's, which stops at the string-course below the sill level on a man's-head corbel. The other angles have corbels carved with foliage or human heads. The southern compartments are lifted to clear the south windows.
The cross-wall between the two chapels was originally solid, but was afterwards pierced by the existing archway, which has plain chamfered jambs and imposts; on the north reveal are traces of colouring. The archway has now been closed with a thinner wall to take the reredos of St. George's Chapel.
St. Clement's Chapel retains the ancient arcade, partly repaired, and niches forming the reredos. It is similar in design to that of SS. Thomas and Edmund, but the intermediate Purbeck marble shafts (modern) have old foliated stone capitals with round moulded abaci. In the three niches are images of SS. Alphege, Clement and Anselm and in the quatrefoils above are standing figures of angels holding shields with emblems of the Passion. The string-course above the niches is a continuation of the abacus of the north main arch. South of the reredos is a moulded square bracket for an image. There are a piscina and a locker, both with trefoiled heads and rebated jambs in the south wall.
St. George's Chapel has a new altar and stone reredos with a figure of the patron saint. It is set in the recess, against the modern thin wall, formed by the old cutting through the solid wall. North of this cutting the old wall retains one engaged shaft of the former reredos that was destroyed for the piercing; it has a damaged foliated capital. In the south wall are a piscina and locker as in the other chapel.
The four windows to the chapels are each of two plain pointed lights and a cinquefoil in plate-masonry under a two-centred head. All the mullions and tracery are modern. The reveals inside have one recessed order with Purbeck marble shafts which have moulded bases, intermediate moulded bands and foliated square capitals; the rear-arches are of keeled edge-roll and hollow section. Externally the arches are of two moulded orders carried on shafted jambs; the restored inner shafts are detached, the outer shafts course in with the masonry.
The walling of this side also bears evidence of having been gabled above each bay as on the north side, and the four intermediate buttresses also have the sloping water channels and the grotesque spouts, except where the westernmost spout has been removed and the place repaired. The octagonal shafts are also similar but are covered with flat stone slabs just above the capitals of the angle shafts.
The South-West Tower (about 19 ft. square inside) is divided externally by string-courses into four stages. The lower part of the tower is of the early-12th-century period, but either because it suffered from the fire of 1187 or more probably because of its innate weakness, it was found necessary to strengthen it with new buttresses early in the 13th century, when also the third stage was remodelled and the top stage added. This was probably one of the two towers which suffered after the great storm of 1210.
There are shallow clasping buttresses at the angles, which are complete at the north-west angle, but at the south-west and south-east angles are concealed by the later deeper buttresses projecting south and west and reaching to the third stage; only the angle shafts on their inner sides are here left exposed to view. These shafts are cut out of the solid and reach nearly to the top of the third stage, where they finish with foliated capitals, and the breadth of the buttresses is diminished by tabling on their inner sides. The outer edge-rolls or shafts are continued up to near the top of the fourth stage, where they also terminate with foliated capitals. There are looplights to the southwest and the upper half of the south-east stair turrets. The parapet, flush with the shallow buttresses, has moulded corbels.
The archway from the nave is a part of the south arcade. That in the east wall from the south aisle has double-shafted responds to the inner order with moulded bases and cushion capitals which have grooved and hollowed abaci; the outer order has single shafts and all are of half-round plan. The round arch is of two orders, the inner chamfered, the outer with a halfround like the arcades.
In the south wall is a blocked early doorway; its jambs are of two orders, the inner square, the outer with modern shafts but original carved capitals, that in the eastern jamb has voluted leaves and the western spear-shaped foliage and diaper ornament; both have cabled neck-moulds. The round head is of two orders, both with zigzag ornament; the inner of two-roll section, the outer of three with a small V-shaped member between the two orders with cheveron ornament. The label is hollow chamfered and on its flat surface it is treated with a tiny zigzag pattern. Inside, the doorway has square jambs and round head. Above the doorway is a window of the same period with shafted jambs having cushion capitals and abaci continued as string-courses; the outer order of the round head has a roll-mould and the label is enriched with billet ornament. The splays inside have similar shafts. Below the window are string-courses; that outside is carved with triple-hatched ornament; the other inside is plainchamfered. The west face is unpierced, but at the south end inside is a round - headed doorway into the south-west stair turret.
The lowest stage is treated inside with a large arched recess in each face, with half-round shafts having moulded bases and grooved cushion capitals, and grooved and hollowed abaci. The recess in the east wall has its south jamb cut back square, and there is an additional shaft next it. The south-west angle has two shafts, the north-west angle only one; and there is one nearly buried in the north wall near the north-east angle, as though the wall containing the archway from the nave had been thickened subsequently. The last has a voluted capital, and east of the capital and level with it up to the east wall is a short band carved with scallop and volute ornament, perhaps part of a design which was afterwards altered or never proceeded with. There are string-courses in the east recess, one about 8 ft. high and the other level with its abaci, in line with those below the south and west windows. Above all these shafts and capitals each angle has a shaft continued upwards, the string-courses being carried round them. The north-east shaft stops at the base of the clearstory and the north-west a little higher, but the other two reach the top of the third stage. None of the upper floors is left, the tower being open from ground floor to roof.
The second stage has a south window like that below, but taller, and there is a similar window in the west wall, set midway between the shallow buttresses and level with the triforium of the main body. There are string-courses below the windows, a plain one outside carried round the shallow buttresses; that inside is carved with zigzag and billet ornament.
The third stage, level with the clearstory, has east, west and south windows of early-13th-century date, each of a single pointed light with a moulded arch of two orders: the jambs have each two engaged shafts with foliated square capitals and continued abaci. The north wall is pierced by the three clearstory arches having Purbeck marble free shafts with foliated round capitals, and stone respond-shafts with foliated square capitals, the middle arch being stilted like those to the nave. Similar arcades stand in front of the windows in the other three walls; each is of three bays with Purbeck marble shafts which have their round foliated capitals tailed back to the outer wall. The stringcourses below the windows are plain outside and moulded inside: the string-course level with them, on the north wall, has hatched ornament.
The fourth or top stage is pierced on each side by coupled pointed windows with triple-shafted jambs having foliated capitals similar to the others, but all of stone; the arches have 13th-century mouldings. The windows are also shafted inside and have chamfered rear-arches. The tower has a modern flat panelled ceiling.
The North-West Tower is of similar detail to the other, excepting the lower parts of the shallow buttresses that adjoin the nave and the north porch and some of the wall adjoining them; the outer walls and the upper part are modern, copied from the other tower in 1901 by John L. Pearson, the architect. (fn. 24)
The West Porch is a single-storied structure with buttresses at the outer angles, those to the west being of one stage. In the front of each is a modern patching, probably where niches formerly existed. The north and south walls have shallow buttresses reaching nearly to the top of the wall, and against them are lower buttresses, but partly covering both are deeper buttresses added later. The walls have plain copings. The side walls and outer faces of the buttresses have battering plinths with a moulded top member (similar to those of the outer aisles or chapels) which goes all round the porch; it is partly restored as a chamfer against the north buttress.
The entrance archway is of four orders: the outermost is very deeply recessed and with the two intermediate orders forms the main pointed head, while the innermost has coupled pointed arches on a central shaft. The last are moulded (including triple-filleted rolls) and have wide hollows in the soffits in which are two rows of nail-head ornament. The other three orders are moulded. The arch has a small label with decayed head-stops. The jambs have recessed orders with filleted angle-rolls and in the nooks are stone shafts with bases, which have leaf-spurs, and moulded bell-capitals. The reveals of the innermost order have triple shafts, and the central pillar, which is of quatrefoil plan, matches them. In the tympanum is an elongated quatrefoil niche containing a seated figure of Christ, representing the arms of the see, and side quatrefoil niches with figures of censing angels. The entrance has been very much restored, all the shafts and the innermost order and tympanum being modern.
The vaulting of the porch has moulded ribs of much the same type as those to the north and south aisle chapels, but a little more elaborately moulded. They spring from stone angle shafts, with moulded capitals and bases like those of the entrance. The north shafts are partly modern. There is no central boss. Against the north and south walls are stone benches.
Both north and south sides of the porch are treated with wall-arcading of three bays and tracery up to the string-courses about 20 in. above the level of the vault shafts. The recesses have trefoiled heads, and above them is a range of whole and half quatrefoils all of a moulding resembling those of the entrance; they are carried on Purbeck marble shafts which have rather badly perished bases, on the stone benches, and moulded bell capitals. The east shafts are modern. Both arcades have been partly destroyed for later funeral monuments. That on the south side is nearly contemporary, judging from its mouldings. It has a segmental-pointed moulded arch, originally cinquefoiled but now robbed of its cusping, under a gabled hood-mould, enriched with crockets but many missing. The arch is carried on jambs with engaged shafts having perished capitals and bases, and flanked by square pilasters or buttresses with panelled faces and gabled heads and (truncated) pointed pinnacles. In the recess is set a stone coffin with a plain tapering lid. It was probably brought from elsewhere in the church, and the jambs have had to be cut into to receive it. Gordon Hills assigns the tomb to Seffrid II (d. 1204) because the eastern part of the church was incomplete at the time of the bishop's death. (fn. 25) Mackenzie Walcott, however, allots it to Bishop Berghsted (d. 1287). (fn. 26)
The monument on the north side is later, probably of the 15th century, and is attributed to Dean Milton (d. 1424). (fn. 27) It has a base with a moulded top slab, and a panelled front. The recess has moulded jambs and a four-centred arch with a wide hollow in the reveals. The jambs project from the wall-face and their exterior sides are also panelled. At the top is a modern frieze with shields, etc.
The Monuments in the nave and aisles include the following: under the arch between the second bay of the north aisle and the chapel of SS. Thomas and Edmund are the tomb and effigy of an unidentified lady. The tomb is panelled on its long sides with quatrefoils in which are figures of female 'weepers' (three each side) alternating with blank shields and foliage; in the spandrels above the quatrefoils are tiny human busts and in the lower spandrels foliated carvings. The effigy of the lady wears a flat head-dress with a wimple and veil, gown with tight sleeves and loose cloak; her hands, in prayer, have lost their fingers. Her head rests on a cushion 'supported' by (headless) angels; her feet rest on a dog. The figure has been badly maltreated.
Under the arch between the fourth bay of the north aisle and the outer aisle is a tomb with effigies of a knight and a lady, attributed to Richard Fitz Alan, 14th Earl of Arundel (d. 1376), and his Countess (d. 1372), or to his son of the same name (d. 1397), the 15th earl, and his wife, but probably the former from the armour. The base has panelled sides of narrow and square quatrefoiled panels alternating, all of limestone, and probably modern. The knight is represented in full armour—bascinet and camail, a close-fitting gypon carved with the heraldic charge of a lion, and having a scalloped lower edge, plate brassarts and elbow cops, a baudric, the lower edge of a hauberk, plate cuisses and greaves, knee cops and pointed sollerets with spurs. His left hand rests on the pommel of a sheathed sword, most of which is missing; the hand has a gauntlet and also holds his other gauntlet; his right hand holds that of his wife. On the right side are the remains of a short dagger or misericord, his head rests on his lion-crested helm and his feet on a lion. The lady wears a wimple and long head veil, dress with fairly tight sleeves and full skirt, her left hand to her breast, her right hand holding that of the knight; her feet rest against a dog. Round the tomb is an iron railing, the strikes with fleur de lis heads. (fn. 28)
In the nave there is a marble floor tablet with brasses missing and others to Capt. James Alms, 1791; to Ann, wife of Thomas Lane, 1735; to Joshua le Marchant, 1751 (a black marble slab with shield of arms). There are also many undecipherable floor slabs, some with indents for brasses. (fn. 29)
In the north aisle of the nave there are mural monuments to Thomas Hayley, dean, 1739, and his wife Sarah, daughter of Thomas Harlowe, 1736; to Henry Baker, 1730, Penelope, his wife, 1734, and Penelope, their daughter, wife of Thomas Hayley, 1740; to Edmund Woods, 1833, Katherine, his first wife, Caroline Sophia, his second wife, Mary Ann Woodrooffe, Emma Woods, Frances Woods and Charlotte Woods, his daughters.
There are floor slabs to John Barnard, 1715, and Mary, his wife, 1746; to James Reeves, 1790; to Emma Jane, daughter of S. S. Heming, 1819, and Amelia Elizabeth Heming, 1832; to Ann Steele, 1750; to Thomas Ball, 1770; to Barbara Briggs, 1735; to W. H. Evans, 1833; to Mary, daughter of John Briggs, 1733; to John Briggs, 1723; to J. S. M. D., 1721; to Mary Lee, 1774; to Mrs. Amelia Phripp (n.d.), and many others that are indecipherable.
Over the altar in the chapel of SS. Thomas and Edmund is a mural monument to Lieut. George Pigot Alms, 1782; and outside the gates is a tablet mentioning the restoration of the chapel in memory of Noel Roland Abbey, 1918.
There are also mural monuments in the outer north aisle to John Mackie ; to Major-General John Henry Fraser, 1804, and Maria Anne Hobart, his widow, 1846; to Sir George Murray, 1819, and Ann, his widow, 1859; to Major-General Sir George Teesdale, 1840; to Alicia, wife of George Murray, 1853; to Dean Thomas Ball, 1770, and Margaret (Mill), his wife, 1783 (by Flaxman); to John Quantock and Mary, his wife, 1820 (with arms); to Edward Madden, 1819; to Vice-Admiral Henry Frankland, 1814 (by Flaxman); to Charles Sinclair Cullen, 1830; to Matthew Heather Quantock, 1812; to William Huskisson, M.P., 1830 (statue holding a scroll); and to Joseph Baker, 1789 (by T. Hickey).
In the north-west tower, to Lt.-Col. Sir Edward Wheeler, 1903; to Lt. Edward Humphrey Tyacke, 1918; to Col. Arthur Sampson Hector Gem, 1918; to William Collins, 1759 (by Flaxman); and to Lt.Col. George Leonard Thomson, 1898.
In the south wall of the south aisle opposite the first pier is a late-15th or early-16th century tomb of Petworth marble. The base has a panelled front of quatrefoils, etc., and the top slab a moulded edge. The reredos has a middle trefoiled panel on either side of which are indents of the kneeling figures of a man and woman with scroll-prayers, and four shields. It is flanked by concave faced semi-octagonal pilasters and has a moulded cornice.
West of it is a plain raised projection, perhaps the base of a tomb, 8 ft. 9 in. long. This supposed tomb has been attributed to Dean Cloos (d. 1500). (fn. 30)
On the south face of the third pier of the south arcade is a stone mural monument of early Renaissance design of c. 1530–40. It has a plain ashlar rectangular panel surrounded by a narrow splayed frame with a Tudor arch, the splays panelled with quatrefoiled circles. It is flanked by diagonal pilasters with miniature carvings in low relief on the faces including a shield with a rose, naked figures, a demon playing a guitar, putti playing lutes, etc. Above is a frieze carved with scrolls and trefoiled leaves; it has in the middle a diagonal pilaster key block carved with grotesque heads and figures: the side pilasters have moulded pendants; the top pinnacles or finials are gone.
Under the second arch of the south arcade is a plain altar-tomb said to be of Bishop Arundel (1459–1477). (fn. 31) The top slab has a moulded edge and has the indents of the figure of a bishop, two shields, scrolls, and quatrefoils which probably contained symbols of the Evangelists.
On the south wall west of the doorway is a brass to William Bradbridge, d. 1546, erected in July 1592. It has the kneeling figures of a man and woman, the man in a ruff and gown, the woman with a flat cap, ruff, padded and slashed sleeves, close corsage and full skirt; their hands are in prayer, and there is a desk with books between them. Behind the man are the figures of six sons and behind the woman eight daughters. It has an architectural background, above which is a shield of the arms, [azure] a pheon [or]. The inscription reads: 'Here under lyeth the bodies of Mr. William Bradbridge | who was thrice Maior of this Cittie, and Alice, his wife, who | had vi sonnes and viii daughters, which Wm. deceased 1546 | and this stone was finished at ye charges of ye worshI Mrs. Alice Barn | ham widow one of ye dautrs of ye said Wm. Bradbridge and wife of the | worshI Mr. Francis Barnham, deceased, shrive and Aldermã of Londõ in 1570. Fynyshed in July 1592.' (fn. 32)
On the south wall of the south aisle in the westernmost bay is a mural monument with a brass to Henry Blaxton, S.T.D., chancellor and J.P., 1606, and Joan, his wife; and to a descendant Edward Blaxton, 'pharmacopola,' 1770. The brass inscription is set in a grey marble panel which has flanking pilasters with capitals and bases: the brass is round-headed and the spandrels of the square head are carved with foliage. The pilasters have panels carved in relief with foliage and the names of the sons and daughters. The entablature has a carved frieze and supports a crest with a shield of arms, Argent two bars with three cocks gules in chief and a molet gules for difference.
Under the archway between the fourth bay of the south aisle and St. Clement's Chapel is the marble monument of Bishop Richard Durnford, 1895: it has a panelled altar-tomb with an effigy of the bishop and a vaulted canopy with enriched arches, cornice and cresting.
In the chapel of St. Clement are the following mural monuments: to Francis Dear, Alderman, and his wife, Bridget (Ashburnham) 1802: a white marble tablet by Flaxman sculptured with figures of Hope and Faith; to Sarah Udny, 1811: of white marble, by Flaxman, with a niche or recess in which is sculptured the figure of a reclining lady with a book in her lap; to Agnes Sarah Harriet Cromwell, 1797, a white marble tablet by Flaxman, sculptured with figure of girl ascending to Paradise, attended by three angels; to James Alms (19th century, no date); to Bishop Charles John Ridgeway, D.D., 1927; to Admiral Swinton Colthurst Holland, 1922 (with arms).
There are also floor slabs to Joane, wife of Stephen Briggs, 1729; to Stephen Briggs, 1728; to Mrs. Elizabeth Hurdis, 1775; to Naomi Hurdis, 1781; to Thomas Hurdis, 1784; to Agnes Sarah Harriet Cromwell, 1797; to Henry Frankland, 1814; to William Floyd, 1716; to Frances, wife of William Fowler, 1801; to Mary Frances, her daughter, 1781; to Mrs. Mary Cholmeley, 1740; to Judith Harriot Williams, 1730; to Mrs. Anna Maria Watts, 1744; Mrs. Dorothy Dunster, 1771; to Thomas Kelway, organist, 1719; to Richard Libbard, 1660, and Dorothy, his wife, 1692; to William Coates, 1726; to E. M. R., 1772; to John Slaterford (n.d.), and to Agnes Booker, 1710.
In St. George's Chapel there are floor slabs to John Smith, 1742–3; to Jane, wife of John Smith, 1750; to W. E. Nembhard, 1829; to Thomas, son of Thomas and Mary Cootte, 1723; to Sarah West, 1711; to Thomas Withers, 1706; to Peggy Young, 1808; to A. F., 1729; to Mary, 1729, and Ann, 1734, daughters of John and Ann Clement; to Mrs. Mary Rosewell, 1776; to Harriott Ashburnham, eldest daughter to William Ashburnham, 1712; to Rev. Charles Ashburnham, 1800, Ann Ashburnham, his wife, 1825, Ann Frances, daughter, 1827, and Charles, son, 1810; and to James Charles Young, 1926.
In the south-west tower there are mural monuments to: Alfred Ingram Bostock, 1902; to Emma Durnford, 1884; to Lt. Jack Ronald Lewes Mackenzie, 1917; to Lt.-Gen. J. E. Tannatt Nicolls, 1900, and Louisa Ross, wife, 1876; to Lt.-Col. G. Green Nicolls, 1874; to Lt.-Gen. Sir Jasper Nicolls, 1849, and Anne Bythia, 1844, Miriam Arabella, 1865, and Louisa Rachel, 1885, daughters of Gen. Nicolls; to Gen. Oliver Nicolls, 1829, and Miriam, his wife, 1853; to Maj.-Gen. O. H. A. Nicolls, 1920, Harriet Maria Crawley, first wife, 1881, Mary Lee, second wife, 1891; to Georgina Harriet, 1881, and Guy Justly, 1890; to Henrietta, wife of Lt.-Col. G. G. Nicolls, 1857, and Harriet Mary Nicolls, daughter, 1857; to Ernest Augustus Udny, 1808 (by Henry Westmacott); to Jane Smith, 1780 (by Flaxman). There are floor slabs to Rev. Roland Duer, 1791; to Stephen Beale, 1756; to W. K., 1746; to Robert Sharp, 1761; to Elizabeth, wife of Thomas Cole, 1723; to John Arnold, 1718; and to Anthony West, 1719.
The modern font which stands in the south-west tower has a square bowl on a cylindrical stem and four marble shafts; it has a flat lid with arched iron framing over and a medallion in gilded metal, on a central stanchion. It stands under a tall oak canopy provided in 1913, which has arched sides and a pinnacle in several diminishing stages with traceried sides and carvings and a foliated finial.