A History of the County of Wiltshire: Volume 15, Amesbury Hundred, Branch and Dole Hundred. Originally published by Victoria County History, London, 1995.
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Maddington, a downland parish WNW. of Amesbury, (fn. 1) contained the settlements called Maddington, Homanton, Bourton, and Addestone, each of which had a strip of land running from the river Till in the east to the downs in the west. (fn. 2) It may also have included a hamlet called Newport. (fn. 3) A total of 12 a. in three detached parcels to the east (fn. 4) was transferred to Winterbourne Stoke in 1885, leaving Maddington parish with 3,968 a. (1,606 ha.). (fn. 5) In 1934 the whole parish was added to Shrewton parish. (fn. 6)
An earlier name for the Till was the Winterbourne: in the 11th century many estates in its valley were called Winterbourne, and several became part of Maddington parish. Maiden Winterbourne, so called because it belonged to the nuns of Amesbury, became Maddington and gave its name to the parish. Addestone, called Winterbourne in 1086, Abboteston in the 13th century, took its new name because it belonged to Hyde abbey, Winchester. (fn. 7)
On the north-east the parish's boundary with Shrewton was marked by the Till, and the east part of the southern boundary and part of the boundary in the extreme west follow dry valleys. A road marks the south part of the eastern boundary, and elsewhere the boundary is followed by roads and tracks.
Chalk outcrops over the whole parish, overlain by gravel near the Till and in several northerly dry valleys. The downland relief is gentle: the highest land is over 160 m. on the west part of the southern boundary, the lowest is below 91 m. in the Till valley and its tributaries. (fn. 8) The Till sometimes floods in winter and, as its old name indicates, sometimes dries out in summer. (fn. 9) From the Middle Ages land use was typical of Wiltshire's downland parishes. There were open fields between meadow land beside the river and rough grazing on the downs. Some of the meadows were watered and in the 17th century were said to produce extraordinarily long grass. Downland was ploughed from the 18th century. (fn. 10) Woodland was sparse: some was planted in the 18th century and early 19th, and in 1841 and 1990 there were c. 30 a. of scattered woods. (fn. 11) From c. 1940 the west half of the parish has been used for military training. (fn. 12) Since 1980 c. 70 a. near the southern boundary have been part of Parsonage Down national nature reserve. (fn. 13)
Two early main roads crossed the parish away from the village. The Southampton—Bristol road via Salisbury and Bath across the west part of the parish declined in importance in the 18th century, (fn. 14) and the east—west road from Amesbury to Warminster across the northern tip of the parish and along its boundary, (fn. 15) part of the road from London to Bridgwater (Som.) in the later 17th century, (fn. 16) was surpassed in importance by a new Amesbury—Warminster turnpike road made soon after 1761. The turnpike road crossed the Till near Maddington church, bisected Maddington village, and followed a dry valley westwards over the downs towards Chitterne: it was disturnpiked in 1871. (fn. 17) In 1773 roads running south from Orcheston St. George and south-east from Tilshead met the old eastwest road at a junction, now called the Gibbet, where a gibbet was standing in 1666 and 1773, and a road linked that junction with the turnpike road and Maddington village. (fn. 18) A north—south route led from the old Amesbury—Warminster road towards Winterbourne Stoke and Wilton: north of the church it survives as Tanner's Lane, south of it as the Common. A parallel road on the east bank of the Till in Shrewton has become more important. From the north—south route in Maddington other roads led west and south-west across the downs. (fn. 19) The Tilshead road and the eastern part of the turnpike road became part of a Devizes—Salisbury road which replaced another further east across Salisbury Plain c. 1900 (fn. 20) and was the main road through the parish in 1990.
Evidence of prehistoric activity includes a barrow at the western tip of the parish known from the early 19th century as Oram's Grave, and the sites of others at the Gibbet and in the parish's south-east corner. Near the south-west boundary is a circular enclosure of c. 1 ha. In the south-east corner Romano-British pottery and coins have been found, and near the church other artefacts of similar date, perhaps associated with a burial; (fn. 21) the site of a Pagan-Saxon burial ground is on the northern boundary near the village. (fn. 22) There is evidence of prehistoric ploughing on the downs. (fn. 23)
There were 115 poll-tax payers in the parish in 1377. In 1801 the population was 327: it had risen to 445 by 1841 but fell in the next decade as people sought work elsewhere. It remained c. 400 from 1851 until 1881, had fallen to 343 by 1891, rose again in the early 20th century, but had declined to 329 by 1931, the last date for which a figure is available. (fn. 24)
Maddington was the principal settlement in the parish and had almost half the poll-tax payers in 1377. (fn. 25) It apparently originated as a village closely grouped around its church. A large farmstead stood south of the church, three large farmsteads and the vicarage house north of it. (fn. 26) To the south were the three subsidiary settlements of the parish, to the north there may have been early settlement in Tanner's Lane, and to the north-west there was settlement, presumably later, along the turnpike road now called Maddington Street. On the east bank of the Till buildings of the less closely grouped Shrewton village were strung out south of Shrewton church along the Winterbourne Stoke road, now called High Street, parallel to the line of settlement in Maddington: (fn. 27) the turnpiking of the south part of that road as part of the Amesbury—Warminster road in 1761 and the increased importance of the road after 1900 (fn. 28) apparently drew Shrewton's centre of gravity south from its own church towards Maddington's. As a result the two villages coalesced, (fn. 29) and later building has embraced the hamlet of Netton in Shrewton and the villge of Rollestone. The unified and enlarged village is called Shrewton, and since 1934 use of the name Maddington has greatly decreased.
South of Maddington church stand Maddington Manor and large farm buildings, some of which have been converted for residence. North of the church were the manor houses of Winterbourne Maddington manor, one of which may survive as the Priory, (fn. 30) and its principal farmstead. South of the Priory in 1990 stood the remains of a nine-bayed barn of 17th-century origin. North of the church the Grange, built of stone and flint, has a central east—west range of the 17th century, a parallel 18th-century range to the north, and an early 19th-century wing to the south. Maddington House is L-shaped and was built of banded flint and stone in the late 17th century: it was extended northwards in red brick in the 18th century and given a new south front, also of brick, c. 1800. Nearby stand Pear Tree Cottage, of flint and stone and possibly of 17th-century origin, and an earlier 19th-century lodge of Maddington Manor (fn. 31) built of cob.
Houses had been built in Tanner's Lane by the 17th century. Plots extended from the east side of the lane to the river, and surviving houses of the 17th and 18th centuries, some thatched and built of cob, lie at right angles to the lane. By 1773 a row of houses of which two survive had been built at the east end of several plots: the houses were approached by bridges over the Till and formed a west side to Shrewton village street. By that date also a group of cottages had been built in the angle between the west side of Tanner's Lane and the old Amesbury—Warminster road: the road there was later called the Hollow, and the cottages were replaced by three pairs of estate cottages in the later 19th century. There were buildings on both sides of Maddington Street in 1773. (fn. 32) At the north-west end a pair of cottages built c. 1842 was one of several pairs in villages of the Till valley paid for by public subscription after a flood of 1841. (fn. 33) Other cottages were built beside Maddington Street in the 19th century.
Maddington village expanded little between the late 18th century and the mid 20th. On the west side of Tanner's Lane three pairs of council houses were built c. 1950 and the Butts, an estate of 12 private houses, c. 1985. In the Hollow 15 bungalows were built, mainly in the 1950s, and in the 1980s and 1990 houses were built near the church on the farmyard of which the Priory was part. Elsewhere there was infilling.
Homanton had 25 poll-tax payers in 1377, (fn. 34) and in the 18th century was a hamlet of c. 10 houses on the east side of the Common; several houses in Shrewton and Winterbourne Stoke parishes were part of the hamlet. (fn. 35) Homanton House was built in the 17th century of banded stone and flint to a two-roomed plan with a gable stack at the east end. An 18th-century western extension was itself extended northwards in the 19th century. In the late 19th century a northern service block was added and a large central staircase, comprising re-used parts of various dates, some of high quality, was inserted. Between 1817 and 1841 a new farmstead was built of flint in Gothic style 750 m. south-west of the hamlet; it was called Homanton Farm in the later 19th century and Cherry Lodge Farm in the 20th. By 1841 some buildings in the hamlet had been demolished, and in 1886 as in 1990 only two or three within the Maddington part of it remained. (fn. 36)
Bourton had only 20 poll-tax payers in 1377, although in 1334 its assessment for taxation had been considerably higher than that for Homanton. (fn. 37) In the early 19th century its buildings were on the west bank of the Till, linked by a ford to buildings in Shrewton on the east bank. (fn. 38) In 1841 only Bourton House and its farmstead stood west of the ford. (fn. 39) The house was rebuilt in the mid 19th century, and in the 20th another farmhouse was built east of it.
Addestone, with only nine poll-tax payers in 1377, (fn. 40) may have been no more than a hamlet in the Middle Ages, and in 1773 consisted only of Addestone Manor and its farm buildings. (fn. 41) A second farmstead, Addestone Farm, was built 250 m. south-west of Addestone Manor between 1817 and 1841, (fn. 42) and a new farmhouse was built between the two in the 1980s.
Other Settlement. A house was said to be in Newport in 1538 (fn. 43) but no other reference to a settlement of that name in the parish has been found. There was no building on the downs in 1773. (fn. 44) Down barn, later the site of cottages, was built c. 3 km. WSW. of the church probably in 1806 and certainly before 1817. Melsome's field barn and Castle barn, both west of Homanton Farm, and farm buildings near the turnpike road in the west part of the parish were all erected between 1817 and 1841. (fn. 45) Those near the road had been demolished by 1886. New downland barns and farmsteads of the mid or later 19th century included Maddington Farm, built beside the turnpike road 2 km. west of the church between 1841 and 1853, and Bushes Farm near the parish's western corner, Tile barn northeast of Down barn, and Bourton field barn south-east of Down barn, all built between 1841 and 1886. (fn. 46) The three most westerly, Down barn, Bushes Farm, and Castle barn, were demolished, presumably when military training began c. 1940. (fn. 47) In the mid 20th century Middlecroft Farm was built between Maddington Farm and the village.
Manors and other estates.
In 1066 Amesbury abbey held 4½ hides, (fn. 48) later MADDINGTON manor. In 1179 the estate was confirmed to Amesbury priory, (fn. 49) which in 1286 was probably granted free warren in Maddington as in other manors. (fn. 50) Maddington manor passed to the Crown at the Dissolution, and in 1564 was granted to Sir Walter Hungerford and Thomas Hungerford. (fn. 51) Thomas apparently had no later interest in it. Sir Walter (d. 1596) was succeeded by his half-brother Sir Edward Hungerford (d. 1607), who devised his estates to his grandnephew Sir Edward Hungerford (d. 1648). (fn. 52) The younger Sir Edward's relict Margaret (d. 1673). claimed a life interest in Maddington (fn. 53) but his half-brother and heir Anthony Hungerford evidently held the manor in 1650. Anthony (d. 1657) was succeeded by his son Sir Edward. (fn. 54) In 1673 Sir Edward conveyed the manor to Sir Richard Mason and Richard Kent, (fn. 55) probably trustees of Sir Stephen Fox who held it in 1678. (fn. 56) Sir Stephen (d. 1716) was succeeded by his son Stephen (cr. Baron Ilchester 1741, earl of Ilchester 1756), who took the name Fox-Strangways in 1758 and died in 1776. The manor passed in turn to Stephen's son Henry, earl of Ilchester (d. 1802), and Henry's son Henry, earl of Ilchester, (fn. 57) who sold it in 1809 as an estate of 1,500 a. to John Maton (d. 1827) and his brother James (d. 1856). (fn. 58) In 1850 James conveyed it to L. P. Maton (fn. 59) (d. 1865), who was succeeded by his son L. J. Maton. The manor was apparently sold c. 1896 by Maton to E. T. Hooley, (fn. 60) after whose bankruptcy it was sold in 1898 to Sir Christopher Furness. (fn. 61) In 1909—10 Furness sold the estate in parcels through the Cavendish Land Company. J. C. Hayward bought Manor farm, 1,164 a., and A. Wallis bought land called Ingram's, 207 a. (fn. 62) In 1938 Hayward sold most of Manor farm to the War Department: the Ministry of Defence owned the land in 1990. (fn. 63) Tanner's Lane farm, 128 a., later called Middlecroft farm, was bought in 1910 by Wiltshire county council, the owner in 1990. (fn. 64)
A house on or near the site of Maddington Manor was lived in by Stephen Fox, later earl of Ilchester, from 1727. It burned down in 1741 and a larger house, built in 1742, (fn. 65) was used by Ilchester for some months of most years until his death. (fn. 66) It was replaced in 1833 (fn. 67) by Maddington Manor, a red-brick house of three bays.
An estate of 4 hides held by Ulward in 1066 and by Matthew de Mortain in 1086 (fn. 68) was later called WINTERBOURNE MADDINGTON manor. (fn. 69) It was probably among lands formerly Matthew's granted by Henry I to a member of the le Moyne family to be held by the serjeanty of serving as the king's larderer. (fn. 70) The estate was held by serjeanty c. 1200; (fn. 71) a claim to serve as larderer at the coronation of George IV in 1821 was made in respect of it, not by its owner but by the Maton brothers who presumably believed theirs to be the estate in question. (fn. 72)
Geoffrey le Moyne held Winterbourne Maddington in 1162 (fn. 73) and 1198. (fn. 74) By 1212 it had passed to Ralph le Moyne, (fn. 75) probably Geoffrey's grandnephew Ralph who held it in 1230. (fn. 76) Ralph (d. by 1238) left a son and heir. (fn. 77) William le Moyne (fl. 1252, d. by 1295) (fn. 78) had by 1278 conveyed all or part of the manor to his son Henry, (fn. 79) who at his death c. 1315 held the whole jointly with his wife Joan (fn. 80) (d. by 1340). She was succeeded in turn by her son John le Moyne (fn. 81) (d. by 1349), John's son Sir Henry (fn. 82) (d. 1374), and Sir Henry's son John (fn. 83) (d. by 1381), whose heir was a minor. (fn. 84) Sir John le Moyne (fl. 1398) held the manor at his death in 1429 and was succeeded in turn by his grandson John Stourton (fn. 85) (cr. Baron Stourton 1448, d. 1462) and Stourton's son William, Lord Stourton (d. 1478), whose relict Margaret, later wife of John Cheyne, Lord Cheyne, (fn. 86) had a life interest in it.
After her death in 1503 the manor passed in turn to her sons William Stourton, Lord Stourton (fn. 87) (d. 1524), and Edward Stourton, Lord Stourton (d. 1535), and to Edward's son William, Lord Stourton. (fn. 88) William sold it in 1544 to Thomas Long, (fn. 89) and Long in 1546 to William Bailey. (fn. 90)
In 1552 Bailey's relict Mary conveyed the manor to John Tooker (fn. 91) (d. 1558), who was succeeded in turn by his son George (fn. 92) (d. 1561) and George's son Henry (fn. 93) (d. 1570). From Henry two thirds of the manor passed to his uncle Charles Tooker and a third to his sister Agnes. (fn. 94) No later record of Agnes's share has been found. Charles (d. 1571) was succeeded by his son Giles (fn. 95) (d. 1623), who devised Winterbourne Maddington manor to his wife Elizabeth for life. (fn. 96) The manor passed to their son Edward (d. c. 1671) (fn. 97) and to Edward's son Sir Giles Tooker, Bt. (d. 1675), whose heirs were his sisters Philippa, wife of Sir Thomas Gore, and Martha, wife of Sir Walter Ernle, Bt. (fn. 98) (d. 1682). (fn. 99) It apparently passed from Martha (d. 1688) (fn. 100) to her grandson Sir Walter Ernle, Bt. (d. 1690). Thereafter, until 1917, it descended with Etchilhampton manor. Sir Walter was succeeded by his brother Sir Edward (d. 1729), whose heir was his daughter Elizabeth (d. 1759), wife of Henry Drax (d. 1755). Elizabeth and Henry were succeeded in turn by their sons Thomas (d. 1789) and Edward (d. 1791), whose daughter and heir Sarah married Richard Grosvenor, later Erle-Drax-Grosvenor (d. 1819). From Sarah (d. 1822), Winterbourne Maddington manor passed successively to her son Richard Erle-Drax-Grosvenor (d. 1828) and daughter Jane, wife of John Sawbridge, later Sawbridge-Erle-Drax. Jane (d. 1853) was succeeded in turn by her daughters Maria (d. 1885) and Sarah (d. 1905), wife of F. A. P. Burton (d. 1865) and later of J. L. Egginton, who took the name Ernle-Erle-Drax in 1887. Sarah's heir was her daughter Ernle Plunkett, Baroness Dunsany (d. 1916), who took the surname PlunkettErnle-Erle-Drax. (fn. 101) Ernle devised the manor to her son Reginald Plunkett-Ernle-Erle-Drax, who offered it for sale in 1917 as an estate of 1,039 a. In 1918 Maddington farm, 961 a., (fn. 102) later called Grange farm, was bought by G. H. Barnes, (fn. 103) who sold it, part in 1938 and part in 1943, to the War Department. The Ministry of Defence owned the land in 1990. (fn. 104)
The building now called the Priory stood on the manor. It is a single range built of flint with stone-mullioned windows c. 1600. It may originally have been a house, was apparently used later as a barn, (fn. 105) and was restored as a house c. 1990. (fn. 106) It is likely to have been built for Giles Tooker, who had a manor house at Maddington in 1618, (fn. 107) and was possibly the house lived in by Sir Walter Ernle (d. 1690), who was of Maddington. (fn. 108) A much larger house was built east of it and in 1773 was lived in by Thomas Drax. (fn. 109) Later owners of the manor may have occupied that house occasionally until it was demolished in the later 19th century. (fn. 110)
An estate of 1½ hide, later HOMANTON manor, was part of the honor of Wallingford (Berks., later Oxon.) in 1242–3 (fn. 111) and 1300. (fn. 112) Thomas of Appleton held it as mesne tenant in 1242–3 (fn. 113) and his right in it passed, presumably with Appleton manor (Berks.), to Giles de la Mote (d. c. 1334). (fn. 114)
The estate was probably that granted to Richard Rous and in 1203 confirmed to his nephew Richard the chamberlain. (fn. 115) John Rous held it in 1242–3, (fn. 116) Thomas Rous in 1275, (fn. 117) and John Rous at his death c. 1330. (fn. 118) From John the manor passed to his son Sir John (d. c. 1339) and afterwards to Sir John's son Richard (d. by 1374), (fn. 119) whose relict Elizabeth held it in 1375. (fn. 120) In 1438 Richard's grandson William Rous conveyed the manor to Walter Hungerford, Lord Hungerford, for an annuity for life. (fn. 121) Hungerford (d. 1449) was succeeded by his son Robert, Lord Hungerford (d. 1459), whose relict Margaret, Baroness Botreaux and Hungerford, (fn. 122) in 1472 gave the manor to the dean and chapter of Salisbury to found a chantry in the cathedral for her husband and his parents. (fn. 123) A Crown grant of Homanton manor as concealed land in 1582 to Theophilus Adams and James Woodshaw (fn. 124) was ineffective. The dean and chapter retained it, (fn. 125) and in 1869 the Ecclesiastical Commissioners sold it as an estate of 422 a. to Charles Wansborough (fn. 126) (d. 1890). Wansborough's executors conveyed Homanton farm to the mortgagee J. G. Simpkins, who owned it in 1894. (fn. 127) It was acquired, probably by purchase in 1896, by John Fallon, who owned it in 1914. (fn. 128) R. C. Dawson owned the land in 1920–1, (fn. 129) and in 1927 it was sold as part of his Scotland Lodge estate, based in Winterbourne Stoke parish, to Robert Wales (d. 1979). On Wales's instructions the estate was sold in 1980 for less than the market price to the Nature Conservancy Council, whose successor English Nature owned 283 a. in Maddington in 1991. (fn. 130)
In 1242–3 William Longespée, styled earl of Salisbury, was overlord of ½ knight's fee said to be in Maddington. (fn. 131) The overlordship passed with the overlordship of Shrewton and the earldom of Salisbury until 1462 (fn. 132) or later. Sir Ellis Giffard (d. 1248) held the land in 1242–3, Hugh Giffard held of Ellis, and Gilbert Giffard, Hugh Francis, and William Franklin held of Hugh. (fn. 133) William Botreaux, Lord Botreaux, held it at his death in 1462. (fn. 134) In 1464 his relict Margaret and her husband Sir Thomas Burgh conveyed the estate, nominally 110 a. and pasture rights, to feoffees, possibly of Botreaux's daughter Margaret, Baroness Botreaux and Hungerford. (fn. 135) It was apparently conveyed with Homanton manor to the dean and chapter of Salisbury in 1472. (fn. 136) It was not afterwards a separate estate and, since the dean and chapter held no land in the parish except Homanton's, (fn. 137) it was apparently absorbed by Homanton manor.
Lands at BOURTON may have formed the estate near Shrewton called Winterbourne held by Sir Ellis Giffard in 1242–3. (fn. 138) Gilbert Giffard was overlord of land in Maddington, perhaps the same, in 1278, (fn. 139) as was John Giffard in 1327 (fn. 140) and Hugh Giffard in 1428. (fn. 141) Henry Daubeney died seised of the estate held of Gilbert Giffard c. 1278. (fn. 142)
In 1435 lands in Bourton were part of Winterbourne Stoke manor, held by Walter, Lord Hungerford (d. 1449). (fn. 143) They seem to have passed with that manor in the Hungerford and Hastings families and to have been sold with it by Sir Edward Hungerford in 1674 to Sir John Nicholas (d. 1704) and by Nicholas's son Edward in 1715 to John Howe (d. 1721) or Howe's son John (cr. Baron Chedworth 1741, d. 1742): (fn. 144) Sir Walter Hungerford owned 2 yardlands in Bourton in 1582 (fn. 145) and Howe owned them in 1730. (fn. 146) With his title the land passed to Howe's sons John (d. 1762) and Henry (d. 1781) and to their nephew John Howe (d. 1804), (fn. 147) whose executors sold it in 1807 to Harry Biggs. (fn. 148)
Biggs inherited two other estates in Bourton. In 1428 Sir John le Moyne, lord of Winterbourne Maddington manor, held lands in Maddington of Hugh Giffard, (fn. 149) from which was perhaps derived an estate in Bourton held in 1617 by Giles Tooker, lord of the same manor. (fn. 150) The estate, of 3 yardlands in 1634, (fn. 151) passed with the manor to Thomas Drax (d. 1789) (fn. 152) and before 1780 was acquired by Henry Biggs. (fn. 153) Another 3-yardland estate in Bourton belonged in 1582 to John Eyre of Bromham (fn. 154) and in 1617 to his son Thomas, (fn. 155) who sold it in 1633 to Henry Miles. (fn. 156) In or before 1635 Miles settled it on his son Richard. (fn. 157) A Henry Miles died in or before 1685; (fn. 158) another died in 1726 and was succeeded in turn by his son Henry (d. 1765) and daughter Jane, wife of Tristram Biggs. (fn. 159) By 1780 the estate had passed to Jane's son Henry Biggs. (fn. 160) Henry (d. 1800) was succeeded by his son Harry, (fn. 161) the purchaser of Lord Chedworth's lands, who in 1841 held the whole of Bourton, 495 a. (fn. 162) From Harry (d. 1856) Bourton farm may have passed to his son H. G. Biggs (d. 1877), whose heir was A. G. Yeatman, later Yeatman-Biggs. (fn. 163) It was held in 1903 and 1910 by J. H. Barrington, (fn. 164) and in 1921 by J. C. Hayward: (fn. 165) with Manor farm it passed to the Ministry of Defence, the owner in 1990. (fn. 166)
Lands at ADDESTONE were given to the New Minster at Winchester c. 950 probably by King Eadred: (fn. 167) the estate was 2 hides in 1086. (fn. 168) The monastery, called Hyde abbey from the early 12th century, (fn. 169) retained Addestone manor until the Dissolution. The Crown may have granted the manor to William Gilbert, who held it at his death in 1548 leaving as heir a son John. (fn. 170) In 1572 and 1585 John or a namesake held it. (fn. 171) In 1604 John Gilbert died holding the manor and was succeeded by his son John, (fn. 172) perhaps the John Gilbert who died in 1661. (fn. 173) Another John Gilbert held Addestone manor in 1662. (fn. 174) Later members of the Gilbert family who may have held it include William (fl. 1688– 1700), (fn. 175) William (fl. 1736), (fn. 176) Joseph (d. 1759), and Joseph's son William (d. 1777). (fn. 177) By 1780 it had been acquired by William Roles (d. 1781), who was succeeded by James Roles (fl. 1831). (fn. 178) The manor, 385 a., was held by William Davis as trustee for J. Festing in 1841 (fn. 179) and was sold by Davis in 1877. It may have been bought by W. K. Melsome (fn. 180) and was offered for sale in 1894 by George Melsome. (fn. 181) C. M. Lesley owned the land in 1907 and 1931. (fn. 182) It was offered for sale several times in the later 20th century, and in 1987, as a farm of 505 a., (fn. 183) was bought by Mr. G. Etherington, who sold it soon afterwards to the Ministry of Defence. (fn. 184)
Addestone Manor has a west range of flint and limestone apparently built in the early 18th century. Later in the century a north-east service wing of rubble was added and the west front was altered and given two Venetian windows. In the early 19th century the house was extended to the south in brick, a new staircase was made, and parts of the house were refitted.
Maddington church, with tithes and ½ hide, may have been held by Amesbury abbey and was confirmed to Amesbury priory in 1179. (fn. 185) The priory held the RECTORY estate until the Dissolution, and the land was presumably absorbed by Maddington manor. The tithes were granted with the manor to Sir Walter Hungerford and Thomas Hungerford in 1564 (fn. 186) and descended with it to James Maton who in 1841 received all tithes from c. 2,700 a. in the parish, tithes of hay from 581 a. of Winterbourne Maddington manor, tithes from a further 10 a. of wheat and a further 10 a. of barley, and some further small tithes. Those tithes were then valued at £528 and commuted. (fn. 187)
Tithes from Addestone manor were held by Hyde abbey in 1223 and probably in 1341. Amesbury priory held the tithes by lease in 1223 (fn. 188) and, after the Dissolution, they were apparently part of the rectory estate: tithes from Addestone were due to James Maton in 1841. (fn. 189)
In 1291 Salisbury cathedral and Bradenstoke priory each received a pension of 13s. 4d. out of the rectory: (fn. 190) nothing further is known of Bradenstoke's. In 1341 the dean and chapter of Salisbury were entitled to tithes from Maddington, (fn. 191) and in the 16th and 17th centuries they received those from Winterbourne Maddington manor not due to the owner of the rectory estate. (fn. 192) In 1841 those tithes were valued at £107 and commuted. (fn. 193)
Tithes from Bourton belonged in 1730 to John Howe, later Lord Chedworth (d. 1742), and passed with his lands there to Harry Biggs (d. 1856): (fn. 194) they were valued at £80 at commutation in 1841. Other tithes from Bourton belonged to the vicar of Winterbourne Stoke. They were valued at £21 5s. in 1841 and commuted. (fn. 195)
In 1689 Sir Stephen Fox endowed a hospital at Farley in Alderbury with a rent charge of £188 from Maddington manor. The payment, from 1909 made by the owners of Manor farm, (fn. 198) ceased in 1959. (fn. 199)
Maddington, Homanton, Bourton, and Addestone each had its own system of fields and pastures. In the early 19th century Maddington had c. 2,500 a., Homanton 550 a., Bourton c. 500 a., and Addestone 385 a.; Winterbourne Maddington manor included land in both Maddington and Homanton. (fn. 200)
In 1086 the two Maddington estates had a total of 4½ demesne hides, with 2 teams and 1 servus, and, also with 2 teams, of 6 villani, 8 bordars, and 2 cottars. They had 8 a. of meadow, 10 a. of pasture, and pasture 4 furlongs square. (fn. 201)
In the later 16th century Maddington's land was apparently about half arable, and there were apparently three sets of open fields. Of one set 440 a. of c. 505 a. were demesne of Maddington manor; the c. 65 a. were in copyholds of the manor. Another set, which later evidence suggests was of c. 200 a., may have been primarily demesne of Winterbourne Maddington manor, and the customary tenants of both manors may have shared a third set, of c. 500 a. Each demesne farm had downland largely for the use of its own sheep; other downland was used in common, and the sheep of the tenants of both manors may have fed together. Each manor, however, had a separate Cow down: in winter that of Maddington manor, 50 a., was for sheep of the lessee of the demesne, in summer for the cattle of all tenants; that of Winterbourne Maddington manor was called the Heath. There were a few acres of common meadow, and the demesne of Maddington manor included 5 a. of meadow and 22 a. of several pasture. (fn. 202)
The demesne lands of Maddington and Winterbourne Maddington manors had been inclosed by the early 19th century, a total of c. 1,675 a. (fn. 203) Both Cow downs had possibly been inclosed by the late 17th century, when the demesne of Maddington manor included 100 a. of several pasture on the downs; (fn. 204) the demesne of Winterbourne Maddington manor later included 58 a. of former Cow down. The other land of the two manors remained open. In the early 19th century 509 a. of open arable were north and north-west of the village, and Tenantry down, 211 a., was presumably for sheep. Of the arable c. 275 a. were part of Maddington manor, c. 235 a. part of Winterbourne Maddington manor. (fn. 205) Parts of both Tenantry down and the demesne pastures may have been ploughed in 1726 when the lord of Winterbourne Maddington manor and others agreed to burnbake 203 a. of down. From the late 17th century the lord of Maddington manor had pasture rights on 12 a. in Fisherton de la Mere adjoining Maddington's western boundary. (fn. 206) The detached 12 a. of the parish were watered meadows, some of which apparently remained in common use in the early 19th century. (fn. 207)
From the early 16th century, as presumably earlier, the demesne of Maddington manor was held with the lands of the rectory estate, said in 1341 to be 2 yardlands and 4 a. of meadow. The demesne was apparently stocked with 371 sheep when first leased, (fn. 208) and the farmer had a flock of 500 c. 1560. (fn. 209) Including c. 200 a. of downland the demesne was c. 670 a. in 1582. (fn. 210) By 1797, when much of the farm's downland had been ploughed, a flock of sheep, 30–40 young cattle, 30–40 pigs, and two or three Alderney cows, all of poor quality, were kept. Suggested improvements to the farm then included building a barn and stable on the downs and doubling the acreage of turnips to feed more and better stock. (fn. 211) Down barn was built soon afterwards, (fn. 212) and in 1809 the demesne, Manor farm, was 1,094 a. (fn. 213)
The demesne of Winterbourne Maddington manor in 1295 comprised 100 a. of arable and pasture for 100 sheep; (fn. 214) the flock remained 100 in the early 16th century. (fn. 215) In 1815 the demesne, later Maddington farm, was 581 a., including 346 a. of arable of which 150 a. were on the downs, 8 a. of meadow, and 224 a. of pasture. There was apparently also a hopyard. (fn. 216)
In 1582 nine tenants of Maddington manor shared 16 yardlands, which included c. 397 a. of arable, and could pasture 650 sheep, 17 horses, and 40 cattle. The largest holding had 56 a., the smallest 30 a., of arable. (fn. 217) By 1715 five holdings had been accumulated by one tenant, who was also lessee of the demesne. There were 11 copyholders and 5 leaseholders c. 1730, 8 and 6 c. 1755, (fn. 218) and 4 and 7 in 1783. (fn. 219) In 1809 three copyholds totalled 40 a. and there were leaseholds of 120 a., 77 a., and 74 a. (fn. 220) There were customary tenants of Winterbourne Maddington manor in the late 13th century, (fn. 221) and in 1624 two tenants held 4 yardlands each in Maddington and a third held 52 a., some in Maddington and some in Shrewton. (fn. 222) In 1815 a total of c. 264 a. was held by 11 tenants: the largest holding was of 83 a. and three were of 30–50 a. (fn. 223)
By 1841 the number of farms in Maddington had been reduced to five. Manor, 998 a., worked from buildings south of the church, and Maddington, 608 a. worked from the buildings of which the Priory was one, were the largest farms. Both also had buildings on the downs. A farm of 200 a. was worked from the Grange, one of 184 a. from Maddington House, and one of 93 a. from other buildings near the church. Also by 1841 the land in the open fields had apparently been redistributed into much larger parcels for the three smaller farms, which presumably had feeding in common on those fields after harvest and on Tenantry down. There were c. 1,400 a. of arable and c. 1,000 a. of pasture. (fn. 224) All common husbandry was eliminated by an award of 1853 under an Act of 1845. Some divisions of the open fields made before 1841 were confirmed, others were altered, and Tenantry down was inclosed: c. 1,000 a. were thus allotted. (fn. 225)
From the 1860s until c. 1900 Manor farm measured c. 1,300 a. and was worked from buildings near Maddington Manor, in Tanner's Lane, and on the downs. (fn. 226) Some arable was converted to pasture in the late 1870s, but c. 1880 there were still 942 a. of arable and only 315 a. of downland pasture, 19 a. of meadow, and 22 a. of wood and plantation. A rotation of wheat, barley, clover, and turnips was practised on the better land, and a five-crop rotation on the poorer. A flock of 900–1,000 breeding ewes was kept. The farmer employed 5 shepherds, 14 'horsemen', and a varying number of labourers. (fn. 227) In or before 1909 the farm was reduced to c. 1,150 a., and 128 a. of it were taken for smallholdings. Then and in the 1920s an arable holding of 207 a., Ingram's land, was worked either separately or with Maddington farm. (fn. 228) Both Manor and Maddington, later Grange, were sheep and corn farms in the early 20th century. (fn. 229) In the late 20th century their farmsteads in Maddington village were disused and the lands were worked from the more easterly downland farmsteads. On Grange farm sheep had been replaced by pigs and dairy cattle by the 1940s. Pig rearing and dairying ceased in the 1970s. In 1990 the farm, 2,000 a. including land outside the former parish, was worked from Maddington Farm: there were over 350 a. of arable and 1,600 a. of rough grazing on which 200 suckler cows and their offspring were kept. (fn. 230) Manor farm, including the land of Bourton, was a stock farm of 1,300 a. in the 1950s. It was worked as two farms 1967–88, afterwards as Barleycroft farm. In 1990 it had 500 a. of rough grazing on which 80–100 beef cattle and 1,200 sheep were kept, 350 a. of leys, and 450 a. of arable, chiefly used for winter wheat. (fn. 231) Middlecroft farm was then a small dairy farm with, north-west of the village, buildings which replaced those of Tanner's Lane farm in the village. (fn. 232)
A windmill standing at Maddington in the 1580s and 1662 may have been built between 1576 and 1578. (fn. 233) It was presumably that standing west of the village south of the old Amesbury-Warminster road in 1675. (fn. 234) The mill was still wind-powered in 1841 (fn. 235) but was steampowered in the late 19th century. (fn. 236). It went out of use between 1899 and 1923, (fn. 237) and had been demolished by 1958. (fn. 238)
In 1472 Homanton manor was said to include 200 a. of arable, 300 a. of pasture, and 8 a. of meadow. (fn. 239) Attempts at inclosure by the farmer of the demesne in the mid 16th century were unsuccessful, although some copyhold land was then untenanted and uncultivated. (fn. 240) In the early 19th century Homanton remained little affected by inclosure: there were open fields called Upper, Middle, Home, and Stoke, totalling c. 300 a., in the parish's south-east corner, and a common down of 238 a. further west. (fn. 241) In 1815 five tenants of Winterbourne Maddington manor held 93 a. in the open fields with pasture rights. (fn. 242) In 1841 the fields and downs were shared by only two farms: most of the five holdings of Winterbourne Maddington were in one, and the two holdings of Homanton manor, with 160 a. and 69 a., were worked together. (fn. 243) The fields and downs were inclosed in 1855 under an Act of 1845. (fn. 244) The proportion of arable to pasture, two thirds to a third, changed little between the 1860s and the 1890s. In 1894 Homanton (Cherry Lodge) farm, c. 400 a., was well stocked with sheep. (fn. 245) From the earlier 20th century the farm was worked with lands in Winterbourne Stoke. Cattle were introduced in the early 20th century and from the 1940s rare breeds of both cattle and sheep were kept. Arable farming ceased c. 1985. In 1991 English Nature managed 283 a. in the former parish of Maddington, of which 70 a. were part of a national nature reserve and stocked with sheep and cattle, including some rare breeds. (fn. 246)
In the later 16th century Bourton had four open fields, Home, Down, North, and South, and common pasture on downs south of Maddington's. A yardland included 25–30 a. of arable and, at 60 sheep, 4 beasts, and 2 horses, was generously stinted. Each yardland may have had land in only three of the fields. (fn. 247) In the 17th century there was a common meadow of 8 a. (fn. 248) Open fields were called North, Middle, and House in the later 17th century and early 18th. (fn. 249) In 1674, for each of c. 10 yardlands, there were pasture rights for 60 sheep and 10 lambs, 4 beast leazes on Cow down in Winterbourne Stoke, and 2 horse leazes in Bourton mead. (fn. 250) From 1730 or earlier the land was worked as a single farm. (fn. 251) In 1809 and 1841 it measured c. 500 a., of which a little over half was arable and the remainder downland pasture. Pasture rights in Winterbourne Stoke, part of the farm in 1809, (fn. 252) were replaced by an allotment of 21 a. in 1812. (fn. 253) From the 1920s the land was worked with that of Manor farm, Maddington. (fn. 254)
There may have been a mill at Bourton in 1674. (fn. 255)
There were 2 ploughteams at Addestone in 1086, 1 on the demesne of 1 hide with 3 servi, and I held by I villanus and 4 bordars; there were 4 a. of meadow and 60 a. of pasture. (fn. 256) No later record has been found of cultivation in common, and in the 16th century the lands formed one farm, said in 1551 to comprise 300 a. of arable, 200 a. of downland pasture, and a pasture close of 10 a. (fn. 257) In 1576 there was a flock of 300 sheep. (fn. 258) In 1841 and 1894 the farm, c. 390 a., included 310 a. of arable, 40–50 a. of pasture, and 5–10 a. of wood. (fn. 259) Between 1910 and 1921 c. 70 a. were added to the farm, (fn. 260) and in the later 20th century it was an arable and stock farm of c. 500 a. In 1987 there were 420 a. of arable, a flock of 240 ewes, and 20 cows. (fn. 261)
A tithing called Maddington is recorded in the 13th, 15th, and 16th centuries; (fn. 262) how much of the parish it included is not clear. A tithingman, said to be from Maiden Winterbourne, who attended Wallingford honor courts in the 15th and 16th centuries, may have represented a tithing which included Homanton, (fn. 263) and in the 15th century Addestone was considered a tithing. (fn. 264)
From 1179 Amesbury priory held its lands, including Maddington manor, with extensive liberties. (fn. 265) In 1255 the prioress had view of frankpledge and return of writs in Maddington, (fn. 266) rights which were confirmed in 1286. The court at Maddington evidently claimed jurisdiction over Bourton in the early 14th century. (fn. 267) In the earlier 16th century a tourn and a manor court were both held twice a year. (fn. 268) A court for Maddington manor was held in most years between 1716 and 1783. Although in 1716 it was said to be held twice a year by custom, it usually met only once, in May or June until 1750, thereafter in October or November; none is recorded between 1743 and 1749 or between 1770 and 1782. It was called a court leet in 1716 and 1718, at other times a court baron: the business transacted did not vary. The homage presented rights of common pasture and other customs of the manor, death of copyholders, and repairs needed to field boundaries and the pound. Offences for which fines were imposed included felling the lord's trees in 1743, making a path across a field in 1749, and encroaching on the waste in 1751. In 1716 the bay mare of a thief caught within the manor was claimed by the lord, and in 1758 a fine was set for pasturing diseased horses on the common. A tithingman was appointed by the court in 1716 and later, and a hayward from 1719. From 1760 those appointments and the admission of copyholders were the chief business of the court. (fn. 269)
Men from Bourton attended the court of Winterbourne Stoke manor in the early 16th century. (fn. 270) Between 1542 and 1606 a court baron for Homanton manor was held, usually every three or four years. Although the homage presented minor inclosures, repairs needed to roads and buildings, and subletting of customary holdings, most business concerned surrenders and admittances, especially at the later courts. (fn. 271) Occasional meetings of the court are recorded between 1661 and 1751, and from 1751 until 1841 the court met every two or three years: the only business was tenurial. (fn. 272)
In 1671 Maddington parish spent c. £6 on the poor, relieving c. 3 parishioners each month. Annual expenditure had increased to £10 by 1700, and in 1707 it was agreed that all secular costs laid upon the parish, including payments for bridges and vagrants, should be borne from the poor rate; £35 spent by the overseers of the poor in 1712 presumably included such costs. Of £61 spent in 1761 over half was regular relief to 13 parishioners. Other payments were for nursing, midwifery, clothing, and rents. The number receiving regular relief rose from 16 in 1771 (fn. 273) to 49 adults and 65 children in 1803, when occasional relief was given to a further 22, a total of £424 was spent, and the parish rate was above the average for Branch and Dole hundred. (fn. 274) In 1814–15 regular relief was given to 27 adults and occasional to 12; £350 was spent. (fn. 275) Spending reached a peak of £701 in 1818, was much lower in the 1820s and 1830s, (fn. 276) and was on average £242 a year between 1833 and 1835. Maddington became part of Amesbury poor-law union in 1835, (fn. 277) and with the remainder of Shrewton parish part of Salisbury district in 1974. (fn. 278)
Maddington church may have been held by Amesbury abbey and was confirmed to Amesbury priory in 1179. (fn. 279) Until the Dissolution it was presumably served by chaplains provided by the priory; thereafter curates were appointed by lords of Maddington manor, owners of the rectory estate. (fn. 280) A proposal of 1650 that Maddington should be the parish church of a combined parish of Maddington, Shrewton, and Rollestone (fn. 281) was not then implemented. From 1868 the incumbent of Maddington was called vicar. (fn. 282) In 1869 the benefice was united with Shrewton vicarage, (fn. 283) and in 1923 Rollestone rectory was added. (fn. 284) The three ecclesiastical parishes were united in 1970, (fn. 285) and the benefice was called Shrewton from 1972. (fn. 286) Maddington church was declared redundant in 1975 (fn. 287) and vested in the Redundant Churches Fund in 1979. (fn. 288)
In 1865 the executors of L. P. Maton conveyed to the Ecclesiastical Commissioners the right to appoint vicars of Maddington: (fn. 289) they evidently transferred it to the bishop of Salisbury, patron of the united benefice between 1869 and 1923. The bishop held two of three turns of the presentation from 1923 (fn. 290) until 1958 when the Crown became the sole patron by an exchange. (fn. 291)
In 1650 the curate received £60, of which £40 derived from an endowment given by Sir Edward Hungerford (d. 1648), the owner of the rectory estate. (fn. 292) In 1688 Sir Stephen Fox gave £40 yearly to the curate from Maddington manor and the rectory estate; (fn. 293) in 1783 it was the curate's sole income from Maddington and was from small tithes. (fn. 294) By the late 19th century the payment had ceased. (fn. 295) A grant of £200 was made from Queen Anne's Bounty in 1827, (fn. 296) raising the curate's income to c. £50 in 1830. (fn. 297) A house of chequered flint and limestone built for the curate in 1704 was enlarged in the early 19th century; a larger extension, in banded red brick and flint, was completed in 1877. (fn. 298) It was the vicarage house for the united benefice from 1869 (fn. 299) until 1974, when it was sold and a new house was built in Shrewton. (fn. 300)
In 1553 the church had the income from a flock of 28 sheep, presumably for its maintenance, but money was owed to it by two men who may have bought ornaments made superfluous by the 1552 prayer book. (fn. 301) In 1584 the churchwardens reported that no sermon had been preached for nine months, (fn. 302) and in 1585 the curate served both Maddington and Rollestone churches. (fn. 303) William Arnold, who served Maddington in 1650, conformed to the Directory of Public Worship and preached twice on Sundays, but was nevertheless said to be unfit for the ministry. (fn. 304) In 1662 the churchwardens promised to replace a missing copy of Jewell's Apology and presented that they had no poor box: they had warned parishioners who claimed poverty as an excuse for absence to attend the church. (fn. 305)
From the late 17th century incumbents of neighbouring benefices were often curates of Maddington. Thomas Harward, curate 1681– 1722, was rector of Rollestone and vicar of Winterbourne Stoke. (fn. 306) Charles Digby, curate in 1783 and 1787, did not serve the church, and in 1783 the curate of Orcheston St. Mary and of Shrewton held a service at Maddington each Sunday alternately in the morning and the afternoon. He celebrated communion at Christmas, Easter, and Whitsun with c. 30 communicants, but did not have time to catechize. (fn. 307) Frederick Bennett, curate from 1851, also served Shrewton and became incumbent of the united benefice in 1869. (fn. 308) On Census Sunday in 1851 the congregation at morning service was c. 185, at evening service c. 260. (fn. 309) In 1864 the morning congregation usually numbered c. 140 and the evening congregation c. 190. Additional services were held on holy days, in Advent and Lent, and daily in Holy Week. Communion was celebrated at Christmas, Easter, and Whitsun, and monthly: there were c. 30 communicants. (fn. 310)
Land in Winterbourne Stoke was said in 1904 to have belonged to the churchwardens of Maddington for many years. The income from it, 10s. yearly, was used for church expenses in 1904 and the 1920s. (fn. 311) Payments from the land had ceased by 1990. (fn. 312)
ST. MARY'S church, so called in 1763, (fn. 313) is built of flint and ashlar, partly chequered, and has a chancel, a nave with north porch and south chapel and aisle, and a west tower. The nave is narrow and may be contemporary with fragments of 12th-century stonework which survive in the church. The chancel and tower are 13thcentury. The aisle, also narrow and with a partly reconstructed west lancet window, may be of early 13th-century origin, but its two-part arcade is later: the two eastern bays may be late 13th-century, the three western early 14th. The nave roof was renewed in 1603. (fn. 314) The upper part and south side of the tower and the south wall of the aisle were rebuilt, the north wall of the nave was apparently moved c. 0.5 m. further north, and the porch was added, all possibly c. 1603. Medieval windows were reset in the nave and aisle. A decorated plaster panel of 1637 on the inside west wall of the nave may date the insertion of a west gallery, and the transeptal south chapel is also of the mid 17th century. The chancel's east window was blocked and the interior was elaborately decorated with plasterwork c. 1700. A new east window and chancel arch were made, the plasterwork was removed, and the gallery was taken down during a restoration by T. H. Wyatt and D. Brandon between 1843 and 1853. Further restoration was undertaken 1896–1900 (fn. 315) and pinnacles on the tower, added or replaced in 1755, (fn. 316) were removed c. 1970. (fn. 317)
In 1553 a chalice weighing 8 oz. was left in the parish and 2½ oz. of plate were confiscated. A chalice with paten cover, a paten, and a flagon, all given c. 1700, and a chalice and paten, given in the late 19th century, (fn. 318) belonged to the combined parish in 1990. (fn. 319)
Of three bells in the church in 1553 one was replaced in 1587 and one in 1699: the new bells were cast (by John Wallis and William Cor respectively. (fn. 320) Those two bells and the medieval bell hung in the church in 1990. (fn. 321)
There are registers of baptisms, marriages, and burials from 1652. (fn. 322)
There was one dissenter in Maddington in 1676, (fn. 323) none in 1783. (fn. 324) A house was certified in 1815 for Independent meetings, (fn. 325) and before 1858 there was a chapel. (fn. 326) In 1864 a fifth of the inhabitants were Baptists or Wesleyan Methodists and apparently attended chapels in Shrewton. (fn. 327)
A school in Maddington attended by 30 children in 1818 (fn. 328) had closed by 1833. (fn. 329) A schoolroom standing north of the vicarage house in 1841 (fn. 330) was used as a National school in 1847, when it was attended by children from Shrewton. (fn. 331) It was for girls and infants in 1856, when boys attended a school in Shrewton. (fn. 332) The Maddington school, attended by 50–60 children from Maddington, Shrewton, and Rollestone, received a very favourable report in 1858. (fn. 333) It and the Shrewton school were replaced in 1868 by a new building in Shrewton. (fn. 334) Additional buildings were erected between Tanner's Lane and High Street, in the former Maddington parish, c. 1968. (fn. 335) A dissenters' school with 30 pupils was recorded in Maddington in 1858 (fn. 336) but not thereafter.
Charities for the poor.
Those living on Maddington manor were eligible for admission to Farley hospital, endowed by Sir Stephen Fox in 1689 with an income from the manor. No inmate of the hospital from Maddington was known in the late 19th century, (fn. 337) but those living on the lands of the manor remained eligible in the 20th. (fn. 338)
A rent charge of £3 11s. 6d. from Winterbourne Maddington manor, given by either Edward Tooker (d. c. 1671) or Sir Giles Tooker, Bt. (d. 1675), and another of £4 from Shrewton, which had apparently replaced the income from £100 given by William Woodroffe by will proved 1753, were distributed to the poor of Maddington under the name Candlemas money in the early 19th century. The £4 was replaced by rent from 1 a. in Shrewton in 1899. (fn. 339) In the 1970s the total income, £28, was distributed annually to about six recipients. (fn. 340)
Rents from the cottages built after the flood of 1841, including those in Maddington, were used to buy clothing and fuel for the poor from the mid 19th century. A seventh of the total was due to Maddington, and with that income 27 sheets were bought for poor householders in 1904. (fn. 341) The cottages were later used as almshouses. (fn. 342)