A History of the County of Wiltshire: Volume 15, Amesbury Hundred, Branch and Dole Hundred. Originally published by Victoria County History, London, 1995.
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South Newton parish, 3,502 a. (1,417 ha.) in 1879, consisted of a main part immediately north of Wilton and a detached part, North Ugford, immediately west of Wilton. (fn. 1) The main part is essentially the land of a 10th-century estate bounded on the west by the river Wylye and on the east by a way along the ridge dividing the valleys of the Wylye and the Christchurch Avon; to the south-east the estate extended east of the watershed to the Avon. (fn. 2) Four settlements grew up by the Wylye, South Newton, Little Wishford, Stoford, and Chilhampton: each stands on gravel, (fn. 3) bears a Saxon name, (fn. 4) and had a strip of land extending from the river to the downland of the watershed. (fn. 5) In the south-east extension there may have been, or it may have been intended to plant, a settlement beside the Avon with land extending west to the ridge way and comparable to those of Wilsford, Woodford, and Durnford parishes, (fn. 6) but there is no direct evidence of one; later the land nearest the river was in Fugglestone parish. (fn. 7) To the south Burden's Ball, a fifth settlement standing on gravel beside the Wylye and evidently having a strip of land extending east to the ridge way, (fn. 8) had been added to South Newton parish by the 16th century: (fn. 9) c. 40 a. of its meadows, however, had been added to Wilton parish by the earlier 19th. (fn. 10) North Ugford, a small village on the north bank of the river Nadder with a triangle of land extending northwards to downland, was presumably added to South Newton parish in the late 12th century, when tithes from it were part of the endowment of South Newton prebend. (fn. 11)
At the south-east corner of North Ugford c. 7 a. were deemed to be part of South Newton parish in 1844, part of Wilton parish in 1879. The remainder of North Ugford, 372 a., was transferred to Burcombe parish in 1884; (fn. 12) in 1934 the east part was transferred to Wilton. (fn. 13) When Wilton was incorporated in 1885 the borough included 7 a. of Burden's Ball, on which stood buildings which were part of the town. The 7 a. were designated South Newton Within parish in 1894, and transferred to Wilton parish in the same year. The remainder of South Newton parish became South Newton Without in 1894 but was evidently not so called for long. (fn. 14) In 1934 a further 195 a. of South Newton parish were transferred to Wilton, (fn. 15) and in 1986 the c. 183 a. east of the ridge way in the south-eastern corner were transferred to Woodford. (fn. 16) As a result of all those changes South Newton parish was reduced to 1,111 ha. (2,745 a.). (fn. 17)
Much of the long western boundary of the parish follows the main course of the Wylye, but in places deviates from it or follows a minor course. To the north and east the roads which mark the boundary are ancient, (fn. 18) and another road marks the boundary on the south-west. In the Avon valley the boundary follows a coomb on the north and a ridge on the south. The Nadder is North Ugford's boundary on the south, and a probably ancient road (fn. 19) and a prehistoric ditch mark parts of it on the east and west respectively; elsewhere the boundary is marked by no natural or man-made feature.
Chalk outcrops over the whole parish. All three rivers, the Wylye, Avon, and Nadder, have deposited alluvium and gravel, although only a little of the Avon's alluvium is in the parish; dry valleys lined with gravel, of which Stoford bottom is the longest and deepest, lead from downland to all three. To the south-east on the watershed of the Wylye and the Avon there are deposits of clay-with-flints and plateau gravel. The downs reach 157 m. in the north-east; North Ugford's highest point is its northern tip at 144 m. The Wylye leaves the parish at c. 55 m., the Nadder at c. 60 m.; near the Avon the land is at c. 60 m. (fn. 20) In the Wylye and Nadder valleys land use has been typical of Wiltshire's chalk downland, with meadows beside the river, most extensive at Little Wishford and Chilhampton, open fields on the lower slopes of the chalkland, and pasture on the downs. In the Avon valley the land descends steeply to the river: there was some meadow land but evidently no open field. From the 18th century or earlier much of the downland in all parts of the parish was brought under the plough. (fn. 21) At the highest point, east of Stoford, a police wireless station was erected in the mid 20th century. (fn. 22)
In 1086 the estate on which the parish was based included 200 a. of woodland, the right to take from Melchet forest in the south-east corner of the county 80 cartloads of wood and the wood needed to repair houses and fences, and the right to feed 80 pigs in the forest. (fn. 23) There is no later evidence that men of the parish had rights in Melchet forest. The main part of the parish was within Grovely forest in 1184–5, but not in 1219 or later. North Ugford was within the forest in the Middle Ages, (fn. 24) and in 1567 men of the village were eligible to serve on the jury at swanimotes. (fn. 25) There was very little woodland in the parish in 1773. (fn. 26) Between c. 1805 and 1844 scattered plantations totalling c. 8 a. were made on the downs; (fn. 27) there were c. 30 a. of woodland in the parish c. 1863 (fn. 28) and in the later 20th century.
A Roman road from Winchester and Old Salisbury to the Mendips is thought to have passed through the parish, crossing the Wylye c. 300 m. south of the church, but no trace of it has been found. (fn. 29) The ancient road along the eastern boundary became the main Devizes— Salisbury road. A downland road from Bath converged on it across the north part of the parish. The Devizes road, on which a turnpike road from Bath via Market Lavington converged further north, was turnpiked in 1761, and in the same year the Wilton—Warminster road linking settlements on the left bank of the Wylye, including those in South Newton parish, was turnpiked as part of a Salisbury—Bath road. Both roads were disturnpiked in 1870 and remained important in 1993. The Salisbury—Bath road was designated a trunk road in 1946 as part of the main Southampton—Bristol road: (fn. 30) between 1958 and 1972 improvements to it caused the main course of the Wylye to be moved westwards south of the church. (fn. 31) The old Bath road across the parish decreased in importance; in 1993 it was a track called Chain Drove. East—west roads across the main part of the parish included one through Stoford bottom, one to Chilhampton, and one, later called Kingsway, to Burden's Ball. (fn. 32) Kingsway, which linked the villages of the Avon valley to Wilton, and the road through Stoford bottom were metalled public roads in the late 20th century. The ancient road on the northern boundary (fn. 33) remained a track in 1993.
North Ugford's three roads are all ancient. That along the north bank of the Nadder was called Portway between Wilton and North Ugford in the 11th century; (fn. 34) diverging from Portway the Grovely ridge way is the road on the east boundary; (fn. 35) and diverging from that Ox drove crossed the north corner. The south part of the ridge way and Ox drove were part of a main Wilton—Mere road, along which milestones were erected in 1750, (fn. 36) but declined in importance from 1761, when the riverside road was turnpiked as a Wilton—Mere road. The Mere road was disturnpiked in 1870. (fn. 37) As part of the London—Penzance road the North Ugford part of it was designated a trunk road in 1936; it was distrunked in 1958, (fn. 38) but in 1993 remained the main road between Salisbury and Shaftesbury (Dors.).
Two railways diverging at Wilton crossed the parish, each carried by a bridge over the Warminster road at Burden's Ball. The Salisbury—Warminster section of the G.W.R. along the Wylye valley was opened in 1856 with Wilton station north-west of Kingsway at Burden's Ball. The line crosses only the south-west corner of the main part of the parish. The Salisbury & Yeovil Railway opened a line along the Nadder valley through North Ugford in 1859; it was extended to Exeter in 1860. Wilton G.W.R. station was closed in 1955 but both lines remained open in 1993. (fn. 39)
The parish is not rich in known prehistoric remains. In the south-east on the watershed of the Avon and Wylye there was a small RomanoBritish settlement, and there was an associated field system of over 100 a. on Camp Down in the Avon valley. Another prehistoric field system lay west of it on the downs of Chilhampton, and part of one of 450 a. lay in the north-east corner of the parish. North-east of South Newton village three barrows stand beside the Devizes road. Little, if any, trace remains of a prehistoric ditch said to have run south-west from Camp Down or of another along the parish's northern boundary. (fn. 40)
The parish, including North Ugford but possibly not Burden's Ball, had 176 poll-tax payers in 1377: South Newton had 69, Little Wishford 18, Stoford 38, Chilhampton 14, and North Ugford 37. The population of the whole parish was 541 in 1801, 516 in 1811 when South Newton had 223 inhabitants, Little Wishford 8, Stoford 64, Chilhampton 64, Burden's Ball 112, and North Ugford 45. The increase from 565 in 1831 to 692 in 1841 was caused by the opening of Wilton union workhouse at Burden's Ball. A peak of 768 was reached in 1871 but the population had fallen to 675 by 1881 and was further reduced by the transfer of North Ugford and Burden's Ball. The parish had 454 inhabitants in 1901, 478 in 1911; in 1931 and 1951 it had 436 despite a further reduction in its size between those dates. (fn. 41) The population had increased to 763 by 1961, presumably because of new housing in South Newton village; in 1991 it was 696. (fn. 42)
With c. 40 per cent of the poll-tax payers in 1377 and of the population in 1811 South Newton has long been the largest settlement in the parish. (fn. 43) In the Middle Ages its land belonged to Wilton abbey, and by 1243 the village had attracted its prefix, (fn. 44) evidently to distinguish it from North Newnton, where the abbey also owned the land. (fn. 45)
The village stands on a wide band of gravel beside the Wilton—Warminster road. The church, vicarage house, and demesne farmstead formed a group on the east side of the road. The demesne farmhouse, Manor Farm, was rebuilt in 1799 (fn. 46) as a square house with a five-bayed west entrance front of chequered flint and stone. The vicarage house immediately west of the church was demolished in the mid 19th century. (fn. 47)
North of the church there were farmsteads and other buildings on both sides of the road in the late 18th century and earlier 19th, more on the east than the west. (fn. 48) Those to survive include, on the east side, Newton Cottage, of brick and flint rubble, thatched, and dated 1679, and, on the west side, a brick and flint house of the 18th century. The Bell inn, on the east side, occupies an 18th-century house and was open in 1759 (fn. 49) and 1993. The Plough was an inn in the early 18th century (fn. 50) but where it stood is obscure. In 1752 a fire destroyed seven houses and three barns in the village. (fn. 51)
About 400 m. south of the church South Newton mill has long stood on the Wylye, (fn. 52) and between it and Manor Farm its main leat was along the west side of the road: the leat was stopped in the mid 20th century. (fn. 53) By 1773 a line of buildings stood along the east side of the road north of the mill, (fn. 54) evidently including some of the 11 cottages which stood on the waste there c. 1844. (fn. 55) A school was built there in the 1830s. (fn. 56) A few of the cottages survived in 1993 but not the school.
Several large new houses were built in the 19th century, all east of the road. Newton House, a white-brick house of c. 1840 incorporating a reset doorcase of earlier date, and a new vicarage house were built north of the church; (fn. 57) each was used as a nursing home in 1993, the vicarage house having been much extended in the 1980s and renamed Glenside Manor. South of the church Spex Hall, also of white brick, was built c. 1860, and east of the mill a large farmstead was built between 1844 and 1860. (fn. 58) Some cottages were also built or rebuilt, chiefly in red brick, in the mid or later 19th century. Pembroke Cottages, a terrace of four flint and brick estate cottages north of the church, bear the date 1859.
In the 20th century most new building was north of the church. At the north end of the village 4 council houses, West View, were built on the east side of the road in 1927, (fn. 59) c. 12 private houses from c. 1920, and a large garage and other industrial buildings in the mid 20th century. On the west side of the road c. 10 private houses were built in the 1980s. There has been building on land behind the houses east of the road since the 1930s: the local authority built 6 houses and 2 bungalows in Jubilee Terrace 1935–7, (fn. 60) 2 bungalows were built as a peace memorial in 1946, (fn. 61) a total of 73 council houses and bungalows were built in several streets 1947–56, and 6 council bungalows were built in 1966. (fn. 62)
Outside the village barns on the site of Folly Farm were standing in 1773, (fn. 63) and the farmstead incorporated a house in 1844. (fn. 64) The number of buildings there was reduced after c. 1940. (fn. 65) A pair of cottages beside the Wilton—Warminster road south of the village was built between 1844 and 1860 (fn. 66) and rebuilt in 1927. (fn. 67) Keeper's Lodge, a red-brick house 500 m. east of the church, and Field Barn 1.5 km. north-east, were probably built soon after 1860. (fn. 68)
Was a small settlement in the 14th century (fn. 69) and had a church in the 15th. (fn. 70) In the later 18th century and the early 19th it consisted of no more than two groups of farm buildings, both of which stood south of the Warminster road; only the western group included a farmhouse in 1844. (fn. 71) The house, Little Wishford Farmhouse, was rebuilt apparently in the early 19th century, using the long narrow plan of an earlier house and re-using 18th-century bricks in a gable wall; in the later 19th century bay windows were added on the south front. Between 1844 and 1860 the eastern group of buildings was demolished and a pair of estate cottages in banded brick and flint built north of the road. (fn. 72) A large farm building called Crough's Barn was built 400 m. north of Little Wishford Farmhouse between 1957 and 1969. (fn. 73)
Stoford village comprised a line of farmsteads, on small freeholds or copyholds of South Newton manor, on the east side of the Warminster road. (fn. 74) The ford between it and Great Wishford on the west bank of the Wylye had been replaced by a bridge evidently by the early 18th century; (fn. 75) the bridge was largely rebuilt in 1841, (fn. 76) and was called Wishford bridge in the earlier 19th century, (fn. 77) Stoford bridge in the 1870s and later. (fn. 78) In 1844 there were about five farmsteads in the line; only a cottage, which survives, stood west of the road. (fn. 79) Two farmhouses of 18th-century origin survive. Stoford House opposite the bridge was altered or rebuilt in 1822; (fn. 80) Stoford Farmhouse at the south end of the line was also much altered in the 19th century. Several 18th-century cottages were also standing in 1993.
An inn in the village was called the Swan in 1740, (fn. 81) the White Swan in 1789. (fn. 82) The Swan was open in 1844 and 1993, north of the junction of the Warminster road and the road through Stoford bottom: (fn. 83) it was rebuilt in the 19th century, was again called the White Swan c. 1863, (fn. 84) and was called the Black Swan in 1919. (fn. 85)
Between 1844 and 1879 three pairs of cottages, later called Verandah Cottages, and in 1912 a nonconformist chapel were built between Stoford House and Stoford Farmhouse. (fn. 86) Off the main road and north-east of the Swan c. 40 houses and bungalows were built in the mid 20th century, mainly in Mount Pleasant. Two halls for the joint use of South Newton and Great Wishford parishes were built at the south end of Stoford in 1949–50 and 1980. (fn. 87) There was some infilling in the 1980s, including the building of two bungalows and a house in Riverside, north of the Swan.
There was no building on the downs east of Stoford in 1817: (fn. 88) by 1844 a barn, later part of a farmstead called Stoford Hill Buildings, had been built near the parish's north-east corner. (fn. 89) Additional buildings and a bungalow were erected in the 20th century.
In the Middle Ages and until the mid 19th century Chilhampton seems to have been a small settlement, like Stoford consisting of a line of farmsteads on small freeholds or copyholds of South Newton manor and mainly on the east side of the Warminster road. (fn. 90) The road is likely to have been remade on a new course east of the village when it was turnpiked in 1761, and the street along which the farmsteads stood in 1773 was presumably the old course. (fn. 91) In 1800 there were about four farmsteads, one of which was on the west side of the street, and several other houses or cottages. (fn. 92) Most of the buildings were standing in 1844, (fn. 93) none in 1993. Most were probably demolished in 1856 when new red-brick farm buildings were erected to adjoin the west side of the main road; (fn. 94) Chilhampton Farmhouse, a red-brick house on higher ground east of the road, was built then or soon afterwards.
East of Chilhampton near the Avon a substantial house called the Bays was built c. 1900.
There was probably little more than a single farmstead at Burden's Ball in the 16th century. (fn. 95) A chapel which stood there early in that century, and possibly from the 13th or earlier, (fn. 96) had probably been demolished by 1650 when only Burden's Ball Farm and two other houses stood there. (fn. 97) The farmstead stands, as did most of the others in the main part of the parish, on the east side of the Warminster road. Burden's Ball Farmhouse is a small mid 18th-century house of brick and rubble with a north-eastern kitchen wing; a new south-west front of brick was added in the mid or later 19th century, and a second north-eastern service wing was built c. 1900.
In 1773 there were several other buildings beside the main road, (fn. 98) and in the 19th century Wilton expanded along North Street into Burden's Ball. North-west of its junction with North Street the Warminster road was called Queen Street, south-east of it King Street. Primrose Hill led north-east from King Street. Several of the c. 10 houses in those streets in 1844 survive: (fn. 99) the oldest, at the junction of King Street and Primrose Hill, bears the date 1725. Burden's Ball House, at the junction of North Street and Queen Street, is a two-storeyed house of three bays built c. 1830; in 1844 it was the Shepherd inn, possibly having replaced the Tap open in 1822, and was open as the Shepherd, the Shepherd's Tap, or the Shepherd's Crook until the 1850s. (fn. 100) At the junction of North Street and King Street a house also of the earlier 19th century was open as the Wheatsheaf in 1844– 5 (fn. 101) and 1993. Several cottages were rebuilt in the 19th century.
In 1837 the Wilton union workhouse was built north-west of Kingsway, and a chapel in 14thcentury style was built for it in 1864. (fn. 102) North-east of the workhouse a railway station was opened in 1856 and closed in 1955; (fn. 103) a gasworks had been built by 1859 and was closed in 1934. (fn. 104) In the 1990s the former workhouse and the sites of the station and the gasworks were used for industry. Some 19th-century buildings remained in use and there were some 20thcentury buildings.
Ugford was a village on the south side of the riverside road from Wilton to Mere. It had a church in the Middle Ages and its land belonged to Wilton abbey: (fn. 105) it was called Ugford St. John in the 12th and 13th centuries, (fn. 106) Ugford Abbess in the 16th, (fn. 107) and Ugford St. Giles in the 17th, (fn. 108) but much more often North Ugford. The epithets distinguished it from a village called Ugford, otherwise South Ugford, on the south side of the Nadder. (fn. 109) South Ugford had apparently lost its identity by the late 18th century, since when North Ugford has usually been called simply Ugford. (fn. 110)
In 1773 North Ugford had buildings beside the road and in a short lane leading to the river; most were on the south side of the road. (fn. 111) There were c. 10 houses in 1798, 1844, (fn. 112) and 1993. At the east end of the village Ugford Farm is a timber-framed house of the 16th century with a 17th-century cross wing of chequered flint and stone. At the west end Ugford Old Farm is also timber-framed and has a four-bayed A-framed roof of the late 16th century or early 17th. In the middle Ugford House is apparently 18th-century, is of chequered flint and stone, and was altered and extended southwards in the early 19th century; in the mid or later 19th century large red-brick buildings were erected west of it. North of the road a brick cottage was built in the early 20th century (fn. 113) and two council houses, Nadder Vale Cottages, replaced other buildings in 1944. (fn. 114)
Between 1844 and 1879 a barn was built beside Ox drove. It was replaced by Ugford Red Buildings, built at the junction of Ox drove and the Grovely ridge way between 1879 and 1900; (fn. 115) the buildings are of red brick and incorporate a pair of cottages. East of the village a cemetery for Wilton was opened in 1901 on land regarded as part of South Newton parish in 1844; (fn. 116) later in the 20th century houses were built as part of Wilton town on land which was in the parish until 1884.
Manors and other estates.
In 943 King Edmund granted to his thegn Wulfgar 10 mansae, evidently all the main part of South Newton parish except Burden's Ball. The estate, except Little Wishford, was later held by Wulfthryth and became SOUTH NEWTON manor. It was granted by King Edgar to Wilton abbey in 968. (fn. 117) The manor, which comprised South Newton, Stoford, and Chilhampton, belonged to the abbey until the Dissolution. It was granted by the Crown in 1544 to Sir William Herbert (fn. 118) (cr. earl of Pembroke 1551) and descended with the Pembroke title. (fn. 119) In 1993 Henry, earl of Pembroke and of Montgomery, owned most of the land in South Newton, Stoford, and Chilhampton. (fn. 120)
Henry de Bohun, earl of Hereford (d. 1220), held 2 carucates in South Newton in 1212. The estate passed to his son Humphrey, earl of Hereford and of Essex, who resisted a claim to it by his kinswoman Ela Longespée, countess of Salisbury. (fn. 121) Humphrey held it in 1242–3, when it was part of the honor of Trowbridge. (fn. 122) By the 16th century it had presumably been added to South Newton manor. (fn. 123)
In 1335 Richard of Chiseldon was licensed to grant 1 yardland in South Newton to the hospital of St. John the Baptist, Wilton. (fn. 124) The grant may not have been made, as in 1361 Richard or a namesake was licensed to grant what may have been the same estate to Wilton abbey. (fn. 125)
Two estates in Stoford were held freely of South Newton manor. Henry Quintin (d. 1284) held 61¼ a., presumably with pasture rights. (fn. 126) Like land in Great Wishford the estate descended to William Quintin (d. by 1290), William Quintin (d. by 1341), and William Quintin (d. 1351). It was inherited by the last William's daughters Edith and Isabel. (fn. 127) With the land in Great Wishford it was held by another pair of sisters, Edith, wife of John Stone, and Agnes, wife of John Dykeman. Edith and Agnes died in 1433. Edith's heir was her grandnephew Hugh Moleyns, Agnes's her granddaughter Maud, wife of John Cooper. (fn. 128) In 1466 the Coopers conveyed the Stoford estate to Maurice Berkeley (fn. 129) (d. 1474). It probably passed with East Hayes House farm in Sedgehill in turn to Maurice's son William (d. s.p. 1485) and daughter Catherine (d. 1494), wife of John Stourton, Lord Stourton (d. 1485), and later of Sir John Brereton, and to Catherine's daughter Werburgh Brereton (d. 1525), wife of Sir William Compton (d. 1528). It passed to Werburgh's son Peter Compton (d. 1544), whose relict Anne, wife of William, earl of Pembroke, held it until her death in 1588, (fn. 130) and in turn to Peter's son Henry, Lord Compton (d. 1589), and Henry's son William, Lord Compton, who sold it to William Gray c. 1598. (fn. 131) Gray sold it in 1602 to Barnaby Lewis (fn. 132) who in 1609 sold it to Sir Richard Grobham. (fn. 133) By will Grobham (d. 1629) gave it to endow an almshouse at Great Wishford: (fn. 134) in 1948 the trustees sold the estate, 69 a. (fn. 135)
The second freehold in Stoford, 1¼ yardland, which was held with 1 yardland in South Newton, belonged in 1462 to William Stourton, Lord Stourton (d. 1478). (fn. 136) In 1468 William gave it to his son John (Lord Stourton from 1478, d. 1485) and John's wife Catherine (d. 1494), later wife of Sir John Brereton. (fn. 137) It passed in turn to John Stourton's brothers William, Lord Stourton (d. 1524), and Edward, Lord Stourton (d. 1535), and with the Stourton title to Edward's son William (d. 1548), that William's son Charles (d. 1557), Charles's sons John (d. 1588) and Edward (d. 1633), Edward's son William (d. 1672), William's grandson William Stourton (d. 1685), and that William's son Edward, (fn. 138) who sold it to Henry Blake between 1693 and 1704. In 1704 Henry conveyed it to John Blake, who sold it in 1720 to John Powell (fn. 139) (d. 1737). It passed in turn to Powell's son (Sir) Alexander (d. 1784), Alexander's son Francis (d. 1786), and Francis's son Alexander. (fn. 140) Between 1815 and 1820 Alexander sold the estate, 112 a., to George, earl of Pembroke and of Montgomery, who added it to South Newton manor. (fn. 141)
An estate in Chilhampton, sometimes reputed a manor, (fn. 142) was held of the lord of South Newton manor by knight service. Walter of Calstone's heirs held it in 1242–3. (fn. 143) Roger of Calstone (d. by 1292) held at Chilhampton 1 hide which passed to his son Roger. (fn. 144) The estate was granted by Sir Thomas Kingston to Margery and Walter Barrow and, after Margery's death, was held by Walter in 1358. (fn. 145) From Walter's relict Isabel (d. 1369), wife of Sir Hugh Tyrell, it passed to his son John, (fn. 146) whose relict Christine held it at her death in 1396. It passed to John's son John (born c. 1378), (fn. 147) who in 1431 settled it on Drew Barrow and Drew's wife Anne in tail with reversion to himself. (fn. 148) In 1455 John Barrow (d. 1456), presumably he born c. 1378, settled it on his son Walter and Walter's wife Anne. (fn. 149) On Walter's death after 1469 the estate was held by his relict Eleanor, later wife of Charles Bulkeley. On Eleanor's death in 1476 it passed to Walter's son Maurice. (fn. 150) John Barrow (d. by 1550) held the estate in 1538 and was succeeded by his grandson Edward Barrow, (fn. 151) who in 1585 sold it to Giles Estcourt (fn. 152) (d. 1587). It passed in turn to Giles's son Sir Edward (d. 1608) and grandson Sir Giles Estcourt (cr. baronet 1627), who in 1646 sold it to (Sir) Samuel Eyre (fn. 153) (d. 1698). Sir Samuel was succeeded in turn by his son Sir Robert (d. 1735) and Sir Robert's son Robert (d. 1752), whose relict Mary held the estate until her death in 1762. It was inherited by the younger Robert's cousin Samuel Eyre (d. 1794), who was succeeded by his daughter Susannah, wife of William Purvis. In 1795 William took the surname Eyre. (fn. 154) In or soon after 1806 Susannah and William sold the estate, c. 300 a. with pasture rights, to George, earl of Pembroke and of Montgomery, (fn. 155) who added it to South Newton manor.
In 1407, under a licence of 1403, William Chitterne granted a total of 12½ a. in places including Chilhampton and South Newton to the hospital of St. Giles and St. Anthony, Wilton: (fn. 156) 2 a. in Chilhampton belonged to the hospital in 1801. (fn. 157) In 1567 Eton College (Bucks.) owned 6 a. and feeding for 30 sheep, probably in Chilhampton: (fn. 158) it owned 15 a. in Chilhampton in 1844. (fn. 159)
In 1086 Wilton abbey held LITTLE WISHFORD. (fn. 160) The manor belonged to the abbey until the Dissolution, was presumably granted with South Newton manor to Sir William Herbert in 1544, belonged to him c. 1553, (fn. 161) and, like South Newton, descended with the Pembroke title. Lord Pembroke owned most of the land in 1993. (fn. 162)
BURDEN'S BALL manor, in the Middle Ages sometimes called Fugglestone manor, was held by Robert Burden (d. c. 1280). After Robert's death it was held for life by William of Chardstock though claimed as dower by Robert's relict Mary. (fn. 163) The manor passed to Robert's son Nicholas (d. by 1304) (fn. 164) and descended to John Burden (d. 1395). It passed to John's daughter Cecily (fn. 165) (fl. 1419), wife of Henry Thorp (d. 1416), (fn. 166) and to Cecily's son Thomas Thorp, whose relict Agnes held it in 1423. (fn. 167) In 1424 it was held by Thomas's brother Ralph (fn. 168) (d. 1446), from whom it passed with East Boscombe manor in turn to John Thorp (d. 1464) and William Thorp (d. 1509). William was succeeded by his nephew William Clifford (d. by 1536), whose son Henry held Burden's Ball manor in 1536 (fn. 169) and sold it in 1547 to Sir William Herbert. (fn. 170) Thereafter it descended with South Newton manor.
In 956 King Edwy granted 4 mansae at NORTH UGFORD to Wistan. (fn. 171) Wilton abbey held the manor in 1086 (fn. 172) and until the Dissolution. In 1544 the manor was granted to Sir William Herbert, (fn. 173) and thereafter, like South Newton manor, it descended with the Pembroke title. Lord Pembroke owned most of the land in 1993. (fn. 174)
Small areas of land in North or South Ugford were granted in 1195 by Gervase son of Sprackling to St. James's hospital at Wilton, presumably the hospital later called St. John the Baptist's, (fn. 175) and in or after 1333 by Robert Hungerford (d. 1352) to Ivychurch priory. (fn. 176)
From the earlier Middle Ages the prebendary of South Newton (fn. 177) evidently held all the tithes from the main part of the parish, including Burden's Ball; (fn. 178) he held North Ugford's from c. 1191 or earlier. (fn. 179) The PREBENDAL estate was worth £20 in 1291, when the prebendary also received £5 16s. 8d. from other parishes, (fn. 180) and is later known to have included 1 yardland in South Newton. (fn. 181) Wilton abbey appropriated the prebend in 1450 (fn. 182) and held it until the Dissolution. Like South Newton manor the estate was granted to Sir William Herbert in 1544 (fn. 183) and descended with the Pembroke title. The land was absorbed by South Newton manor. The tithes from all but 400 a. of the parish had been merged with the land from which they arose by 1844, when the remaining tithes were valued at £115 and commuted. (fn. 184)
In 1086 the estate of 19 hides and 3 yardlands called Newton almost certainly included Stoford and Chilhampton besides South Newton. It had land for 14 ploughteams. The demesne, assessed at 2 hides and with 6 coliberts and only 2 teams, was small and, to judge from later evidence, may have been restricted to South Newton itself. There were 20 villani and 16 bordars with 12 teams. There were 20 a. of meadow and 150 a. of pasture. (fn. 185)
South Newton had c. 1,300 a., about half of which was arable in open fields. In the 16th century some of the arable was demesne of South Newton manor and most was in freeholds and copyholds of the manor; in the Middle Ages some belonged to the prebendary of South Newton. In 1567 all c. 650 a. of arable was in three fields, North, Middle, and South. On the higher ground mainly east of the arable there were then three pastures for sheep; one of 300 a. to the north and one of 200 a. to the south were used in common, and between them one of 100 a. was shared only by the farmer of the demesne and a freeholder. Pin marsh, 30 a. west of the Wylye, was demesne pasture for cattle and horses in winter; at other times customary tenants of both South Newton and Stoford had rights to feed animals there, as they did throughout the year in Long marsh, 10 a., and Little marsh, 4 a. The first cut of Duttenham mead, 22 a., was shared by the demesne, freeholds, and copyholds of South Newton, and the men of Great Wishford had the aftermath. (fn. 186) Some arable had been inclosed by 1750. (fn. 187) Although some rights to common pasture on the downs for sheep were said to survive c. 1805, the open fields and most, if not all, of the common pastures had by then been inclosed, presumably by private agreement, and much of the downland had been ploughed. (fn. 188) Any remaining common pasture had been inclosed by 1844. (fn. 189)
In 1341 the prebendary's estate included 30 a. of arable and the right to feed 200 sheep. (fn. 190) By 1561 the land and rights had been added to the demesne farm, which was leased then. The combined farm included 195 a. of arable with pasture for 620 sheep and c. 60 cattle, 15½ a. of meadows in severalty, and the first cut of 10½ a. of Duttenham mead. (fn. 191) About 1805 it was worked from Manor Farm and comprised 336 a. of arable, 24 a. of lowland pasture and dry meadows, 18 a. of watered meadows, and 49 a. of downland pasture. (fn. 192)
In 1315 the customary tenants of South Newton held 400 a. There were 7 yardlanders, 18½-yardlanders, and 1⅓-yardlander. All except a single ½-yardlander owed labour services, each yardlander more than each ½-yardlander. Each yardlander owed four boon works, two of ploughing and two of harrowing, had to work daily between 1 August and 29 September, and had to provide a man for an additional two days' work at harvest; he had to wash and shear sheep, to mow, carry, and stack hay from Duttenham mead, Long mead, and Reeve's mead, and once a year to carry grain or malt anywhere within the county and to carry dung for one day. (fn. 193) In the mid 16th century tenants had to mow and carry hay and to carry fuel and timber to Wilton, and each yardlander had to find a man for one day's work in autumn, but other services had apparently been commuted. By 1567 holdings had been merged: 10 copyholders, one of whom held 4½ yardlands, then had c. 420 a. of arable with pasture for c. 1,000 sheep. (fn. 194) Some copyholds were converted to leaseholds in the 18th century. About 1805 the seven copyholds and leaseholds included 717 a. of arable, and the largest leasehold included the barns on the site of Folly Farm; the copyholders were then said to share pasture rights for 233 sheep. (fn. 195)
Freeholds in South Newton were neither numerous nor large. In 1315 there were four totalling 4½ yardlands; two included rights to feed 24 beasts, 13 pigs, and 175 sheep in the demesne pastures. In 1567 the four freeholders had 68½ a. of arable with pasture for 160 sheep and 22 cattle and draught animals. (fn. 196) There was a freehold of 73 a. c. 1805. (fn. 197)
In 1844 over 1,000 a. were arable, only c. 100 a. of the downland were pasture, and there were 73 a. of water meadows. The land was worked in six farms, some including land in Stoford or Chilhampton. Manor farm was a compact farm of 560 a., extending north-east from the farmstead and including 462 a. of arable, 49 a. of water meadows, and 34 a. of downland pasture. South-east of it was a single farm of 319 a., including 60 a. in Chilhampton, a farmstead in South Newton village, and Folly Farm: of its South Newton land 222 a. were arable, 28 a. down, and 8 a. meadow and lowland pasture. North-west of Manor farm three other farms had farmsteads in the village. The largest, 217 a. including 10 a. in Stoford, had 151a. of arable, 69 a. of down, and 6 a. of water meadows: the two others were of 82 a., including c. 30 a. in Stoford, and of 73 a. (fn. 198) In 1863 only two farms were based in South Newton village, Manor farm, 485 a., and Mill farm, 328 a., for which a new farmstead had been built at the south end of the village. The south-east lands and Folly Farm were part of Chilhampton farm. The land remained principally arable. (fn. 199) The pattern of farms and land use had changed little by 1920; (fn. 200) there was a dairy herd on Manor farm in the mid 20th century. In 1993 Manor farm, 545 a., and Mill farm, 351 a., were worked in partnership and were mainly arable; a small herd of beef cattle was kept. (fn. 201)
In 1086 Little Wishford, with land for 3 teams, may have had twice as much demesne as other land. There were 2 teams on the demesne, 1 villanus and 16 bordars had 1 team, and there were 8 a. of meadow and 9 a. of pasture. (fn. 202) In 1315 there were 10 customary tenants holding ½ yardland each and 3 holding ⅓ yardland each; a freehold was of 1½ yardland. Seven of the ½-yardlanders had to carry dung, wash and shear sheep, harrow and weed, mow, stack, and carry hay, and work daily between 1 August and 29 September; each had to provide a man for an additional day's work at harvest. Three others, who held no meadow, owed slightly lighter services. A reeve, a ploughman, a shepherd, and an ox herd were appointed from among the customary tenants. (fn. 203)
Common husbandry continued on the c. 420 a. of Little Wishford until the early 19th century. (fn. 204) In the mid 16th century there were three open fields, East, Middle, and West, and, north-east of the settlement, a common down for sheep. (fn. 205) By 1567 all the customary land except a holding of 6½ a. with feeding for 25 sheep had been added to the demesne, which then comprised 180 a. of arable, 25 a. of meadow and pasture in severalty, and feeding for 420 sheep. The freehold was then of 50 a. with feeding for 130 sheep. (fn. 206) Those holdings remained distinct in the early 19th century, (fn. 207) but by c. 1820 had been merged into a single farm. About 1820 the farm comprised 79 a. of downland pasture, 14 a. of dry meadow, 19 a. of water meadow, and 279 a. of arable; of the arable 60 a. were former downland pasture, including 15 a. which had been burnbaked. (fn. 208) The remaining downland had been ploughed and the area of water meadow increased to 35 a. by c. 1863: the farm was then 537 a. (fn. 209) The lands remained principally arable and were worked from Little Wishford Farm in the late 20th century. (fn. 210)
All Stoford's land, c. 500 a., was in copyholds and small freeholds of South Newton manor. (fn. 211) Of 13 customary holdings in 1315 there were 4 of 1 yardland, 8 of ½ yardland, and 1 of ¼ yardland. Labour services due from the tenants were similar to those due from the tenants of South Newton but in addition each yardlander of Stoford had to find a man for 24 days every year to prepare land to be ploughed, and all Stoford yardlanders and ½-yardlanders were required to carry salt. (fn. 212)
In the mid 16th century there were three open fields, East, Middle, and West, a total of c. 360 a., and a common pasture in the north-east corner of the parish for 615 sheep said in 1567 to be of 100 a.; cattle were grazed on the common pasture of South Newton. Detached from its other land Stoford had a 12-a. common meadow between two courses of the Wylye north-west of the village. Six copyholders and a tenant at will held between them 8¼ yardlands, sharing 262 a. of arable and pasture for 405 sheep. Some labour services at haymaking and harvest were still owed. Three free tenants held 98½ a. of arable with rights for 210 sheep. (fn. 213)
Probably in the 18th century, certainly by the early 19th, a new open field of c. 90 a. was made by burnbaking the northern part of the downland; strips in it were larger than in the older open fields. (fn. 214) Common cultivation was ended by an award of 1815 under an Act of 1809. (fn. 215) There were apparently about seven farms in Stoford c. 1805, (fn. 216) but between 1815 and c. 1820 the number was reduced to four. The remaining downland was ploughed after inclosure, (fn. 217) and in 1844 there were 439 a. of arable. (fn. 218)
About 1863 all Stoford's land was in a 530-a. farm, which included buildings in the village and on the downs. (fn. 219) In the 1920s the lands, still principally arable, lay in farms of 325 a., 114 a., and 131 a. (fn. 220) There was no farmstead in the village in the late 20th century, when the lands were worked as parts of farms based nearby; 180 a., including Stoford Hill Buildings, were part of Manor farm, Great Wishford, and provided sheep pasture. (fn. 221)
The 600 a. of Chilhampton included the land of South Newton parish east of the Devizes-Salisbury road and in the Avon valley, c. 183 a. (fn. 222) It was all shared by free and customary tenants of South Newton manor, the freeholders having the greater share. (fn. 223) In 1315 two customary tenants held ½ yardland each, three held ¼ yardland each, and there were two cottagers: all owed labour services similar to those required of South Newton and Stoford tenants with similar holdings. (fn. 224)
In the mid 16th century there were three open fields, North, South, and East, later called Bottom, Hill, and Lower respectively. The downland east of the fields evidently included all the land east of the Devizes road. Chilhampton mead, 33 a. west of the main course of the Wylye, was then used in common. In three copyholds there were 84½ a. of arable, 5½ a. in Chilhampton mead, 8 a. of inclosed pastures, and pasture rights for 190 sheep; in two freeholds there were 203 a. of arable, 26 a. of meadow, 16 a. in pasture closes, and pasture for 420 sheep. (fn. 225)
By 1788 some arable had evidently been laid to grass, and in that year a new open field was created by burnbaking 82 a. of downland adjoining Hill and Bottom fields: strips in it were assigned in proportion to the pasture rights given up. Another 21 a. were added to the field in 1790. (fn. 226) About 1805 there were c. 332 a. of arable, 90 a. of meadow and lowland pasture, and 170 a. of downland pasture. One farm included 239 a. of arable, 60 a. of meadow and lowland pasture, and rights to feed sheep on the downland; three others included a total of 93 a. of arable and feeding for 190 sheep. (fn. 227)
The fields and downs were inclosed before c. 1820, presumably soon after the lord of South Newton manor bought the main freehold c. 1806. By c. 1820 another 90 a. of downland had been ploughed and the largest farm, 373 a., was two-thirds arable. There were then c. 70 a. of meadow of which c. 55 a. were watered; (fn. 228) in 1820 a common drowner was appointed to oversee the watering. (fn. 229) From the mid 19th century most of the land was in Chilhampton farm, for which a new farmstead was erected beside the Wilton— Warminster road in 1856; presumably about then the old farm buildings were demolished. (fn. 230) In 1863 Chilhampton farm, 616 a., included Folly Farm and land around it, both previously parts of a farm based in South Newton; the land east of the Devizes road was part of Avon farm based in Stratford-sub-Castle. (fn. 231) Chilhampton farm c. 1920 comprised 474 a. of arable, 105 a. of meadow, 85 a. of which were watered, and 39 a. of downland pasture. (fn. 232) In 1993 land west of the Devizes road was worked with that of Burden's Ball and land outside the parish. Much of it was arable, on which early wheat and break crops were grown in rotation; sheep and suckler cattle were also kept. Most of the land east of the Devizes road was pasture and used from outside the parish. (fn. 233)
Although Burden's Ball had only c. 215 a., (fn. 234) it is possible that in the Middle Ages it had its own open fields, that its downland pasture was commonable, and that the manor included both demesne and a few customary tenants. In 1550 and probably earlier all the land was in Burden's Ball farm, which in 1567 comprised 126 a. of arable in fields called North, East, and West, and 60 a. of downland on which 400 sheep could be fed. The farmer was entitled to the first cut of 3 a. of meadow, 2 a. of which were in Chilhampton. (fn. 235) By 1735 the number of sheep which could be kept had been reduced to 120 in summer and 160 in winter, suggesting that some downland had been ploughed, (fn. 236) and c. 1805 the farm was entirely arable except for 10 a. of inclosed meadows and pasture. (fn. 237) It remained mainly arable throughout the 19th century and early 20th; it was worked with lands outside South Newton parish from c. 1863 or earlier, (fn. 238) in 1993 also with Chilhampton farm. (fn. 239)
In 1086 there were 2 teams on land enough for 3: one was on the 3-hide demesne, and 2 villani and 4 bordars held the other. There were 6 a. of meadow. (fn. 240)
In the mid 16th century c. 250 a. lay in open fields called East, Middle, and West. There was a tenantry sheep down of 80 a., there were c. 10 a. of common meadows, and 18 a., including 9 a. taken from the open fields, provided common grazing for cattle. (fn. 241) The demesne, including c. 60 a. of arable, may have been leased as one farm in the early 16th century, but by c. 1553 most of its lands had been distributed among customary tenants. (fn. 242) In 1567 seven copyholders shared 193 a. of arable with pasture rights for 400 sheep; four of them also each held 10 a. of court land, formerly demesne arable, in ½-a. parcels. Another 20 a. of court land with pasture rights for 40 sheep were held by lease. Grain rents were due for all court land. A meadow of 3½ a. remained in the lord's hand and the tenants were obliged to cut and carry the hay from it. (fn. 243)
By 1632 c. 15 a. of arable had been inclosed, (fn. 244) by 1705 another 5 a. (fn. 245) By 1798 a total of c. 50 a. of the open fields had been inclosed and about half the downland converted to a fourth open field. Pasture rights for 380 sheep were said to remain on 37 a. of down, and there were 23 a. of meadow, some of which had been watered since the 1730s or earlier. The fields and downland were inclosed between 1798 and 1844, presumably by private agreement; there may have been about five farms in 1798, and by 1844 most of the land had been absorbed into two, of 182 a. and 150 a., worked from buildings respectively north and south of the Wilton—Mere road. In 1844 there were c. 270 a. of arable, 29 a. of meadow of which 24 a. were watered, 8 a. of orchards, and 38 a. of downland used to grow sainfoin. (fn. 246) All the downland was under the plough c. 1863. (fn. 247) New farm buildings were erected in the village and on the downs in the mid and later 19th century, (fn. 248) and in the early 20th Ugford farm was based at those in the village. About 1920 the farm comprised 284 a. of arable, 27 a. of dry meadows, 18 a. of watered meadows, and 5 a. of orchards. (fn. 249) In 1993 cereals were grown on most of the land and a small flock of sheep was kept. (fn. 250)
In 1086 there were two mills on South Newton manor, two at Little Wishford, and one at North Ugford. (fn. 251) In 1305 and 1315 a mill perhaps in or near South Newton village belonged to members of the Imbert family, owners of corn mills at Wilton; (fn. 252) a different mill at South Newton was mentioned in 1335 and 1361, (fn. 253) a mill at Little Wishford in 1303 and 1315, (fn. 254) and one at North Ugford in 1338. (fn. 255) They were presumably the four mills in the parish in 1341. (fn. 256)
From the 16th century there is evidence of only one mill, at South Newton. In 1567 the customary tenants of South Newton manor were required to use the mill, (fn. 257) and in 1679 the level of the fine for failure to do so and of the miller's charges were published at the manor court. (fn. 258) The mill was used for both grinding and fulling from c. 1680: (fn. 259) fulling may have ceased c. 1820, when the mill was rebuilt. (fn. 260) It remained in use as a corn mill until 1960. The miller's house was later demolished, (fn. 261) the mill building was converted for residence, and in 1993 an iron undershot wheel survived.
Trade and industry.
In South Newton village there was a machinist, presumably an engineer, in the 1880s, a cycle or motor cycle dealer in the 1920s. A garage built in the mid 20th century and adjacent land were used in 1993 by Real Motors for coach hire and car sales. Between 1907 and 1939 or longer W. M. Chalke & Sons traded as road contractors, from 1931 until the 1950s as timber merchants. Their former sawmills and associated buildings were occupied in 1993 by businesses including the Wessex Peat Co. Ltd. and a handle manufacturer. From 1911 members of the Moulding family worked from South Newton as builders: the firm R. Moulding & Co. Ltd. was a building contractor in 1993. (fn. 265)
There was a malthouse at the north end of Stoford village c. 1805. (fn. 266) There were brewers at Stoford in 1848 and 1855, and a corn dealer and haulier worked there between 1867 and 1885. (fn. 267)
Traders at Burden's Ball included a coal dealer in 1859, presumably working from the station, a wine and spirit merchant 1859–75, and a brewer 1867–75. There was a coal depot at the station until 1895 or later. In 1863 E. H. Cooke opened a whiting works: later, hearthstone and putty were also made at the works, which was still open in 1939 (fn. 268) and later moved to Quidhampton. (fn. 269) In 1993 the Wilton workhouse buildings were used in part as a furniture depository; north of them were a garage and small engineering works, and the sites of the gasworks and former railway buildings were occupied by small industrial units.
South Newton, Little Wishford, Stoford, Chilhampton, and North Ugford may each have been a tithing in the Middle Ages, being separately assessed for taxation in the 14th century. (fn. 270) By grants of 943 and 968 South Newton was held free of all but the three common dues, (fn. 271) and later all five places were evidently represented at the tourn of Chalke hundred, a private hundred of Wilton abbey. (fn. 272)
There are records of the court of South Newton manor, including Stoford and Chilhampton, held in 1559, 1567, and 1584. Tenants of North Ugford manor attended in 1567 but not at other times. The court was held in spring and autumn, and presentments were made by the homage of each place. Most business concerned transfers of copyholds, and presentments were made of buildings needing repair. (fn. 273) A court held for South Newton, Stoford, Chilhampton, and Little Wishford is recorded in the mid and later 17th century and for the period 1690–1844. Until 1800 a court met every year and often several times a year. After 1800 a court was held every two or three years, less frequently after 1820. From the 17th century to the 19th a single homage presented. Transfers of copyholds formed the sole business on many occasions and predominated on most. Orders were made to repair buildings, often specifying that timber be provided by the lord; the pound was presented for repair in 1635, 1691, 1713, when it was rebuilt, and 1740. A perambulation, apparently of the whole of South Newton manor, was ordered in 1635; occasionally separate inspections of the bounds of South Newton, Stoford, and Chilhampton were ordered until the later 18th century. Between 1688 and 1820 there were occasional elections of a hayward. The drowner of Chilhampton meadows was appointed at the court in 1820. (fn. 274)
There are records of a joint court held for North Ugford and South Burcombe manors in 1559, 1584, 1632, and 1651, and from 1675 to 1796. In the late 17th century and the 18th North Ugford business did not always come before it, and from the 1740s was transacted only every three or four years. Sometimes a combined homage of South Burcombe and North Ugford presented, but usually North Ugford's business was presented by its own homage. Most business concerned the transfer of copyholds. From the late 17th century orders were frequently made for marking or repairing field boundaries, in the early 18th tenants subletting without licence were presented, and from 1715 inheritance customs and regulations for common grazing were published. (fn. 275)
Of £223 raised by the poor rate in 1776, only £118 was spent on the poor. The rate was a little below the average for the hundred in 1803, when 30 adults and 45 children received regular relief and 21 people occasional relief, but by then expenditure had almost quadrupled. (fn. 276) In 1813 regular relief was given to 76 adults and occasional relief to 10 at a total cost of £1,145; by 1815 the cost had fallen to £645 and the number receiving regular relief to 60. (fn. 277) Expenditure was £793 in 1822, was lower until 1831, when it rose to £861, and was between £640 and £750 until 1836. The parish became part of Wilton poorlaw union in 1836, (fn. 278) of Salisbury district in 1974. (fn. 279)
From its foundation South Newton church probably belonged to Wilton abbey and may have been served by a rector. Before c. 1191 a prebend of South Newton in the conventual church had been endowed, (fn. 280) and the prebendary evidently held the entire rectory estate. (fn. 281) For South Newton church to be served a vicarage had been ordained by 1325. (fn. 282) In 1650 it was recommended that Burden's Ball should be transferred to Fugglestone and that Ugford, presumably North Ugford, should form part of Burcombe parish: (fn. 283) neither recommendation was implemented. In 1992 South Newton vicarage became part of the benefice of Lower Wylye and Till Valley. (fn. 284)
From 1325 to 1450 each vicar was presented by the incumbent prebendary. (fn. 285) From 1450, when Wilton abbey appropriated the prebend, until the Dissolution the abbey was patron. (fn. 286) The advowson was granted in 1544 to Sir William Herbert, (fn. 287) and descended with South Newton manor and the Pembroke title. From 1992 Lord Pembroke shared the patronage of the new benefice. (fn. 288)
In 1535 the vicarage was worth £12 19s. 4d., a little below the average for a living in Wilton deanery, (fn. 289) and in 1830 c. £222. (fn. 290) The vicar took tithes of wool and lambs, tithes of hay from some meadows, and other small tithes. (fn. 291) In 1844 his tithes were valued at £280 and commuted. (fn. 292) There was a vicarage house in 1598: (fn. 293) in 1609 and 1705 it was described as a small thatched house with three rooms on each of its two storeys. (fn. 294) In the later 18th century a new house with a five-bayed west front was built, probably on the site of its predecessor, west of the church. (fn. 295) Although the house was described as unfit for residence c. 1830, (fn. 296) in 1832 the vicar lived in it. (fn. 297) In 1865 it was demolished, and a new house built north of the church. (fn. 298) That house was sold in 1981. (fn. 299)
A church at Little Wishford was mentioned in 1428 (fn. 300) but at no other time. All Saints' church in a suburb of Wilton in 1281 (fn. 301) may have stood at Burden's Ball, and in 1464 the lord of Burden's Ball manor claimed the right to appoint a chaplain to serve a church there. (fn. 302) Services in Burden's Ball chapel were provided by the vicar of South Newton in 1535; (fn. 303) no later reference to the chapel has been found. A church of St. John was standing at North Ugford in 1281 (fn. 304) and almost certainly c. 1191. (fn. 305) A chapel there in 1535, in which the vicar of South Newton provided services, was probably dedicated to St. Giles; (fn. 306) no later record of it has been found.
In 1550 no service was held because of the incapacity of the vicar, presumably through illness; the church also lacked a covering for the communion table. (fn. 307) Leonard Dickenson, vicar 1631–63, signed the Concurrent Testimony in 1648 and preached regularly in 1650. (fn. 308) In 1783 one service was held each Sunday, and there were also services on Good Friday and Christmas day. Communion was celebrated at Christmas, Easter, and Whitsun, and on the Sunday after Michaelmas: no more than 10 people received the sacrament, and some parishioners attended churches in other parishes which were nearer to their homes than South Newton church. The vicar, Henry Hetley, formerly tutor to George, Lord Herbert (from 1794 earl of Pembroke and of Montgomery), lived in Salisbury and from 1782 was also vicar of Aldworth (Berks.). (fn. 309) Two services were held each Sunday in 1832; (fn. 310) in 1851 on Census Sunday 105 people attended morning service and 112 evening service, congregations smaller than usual because of an outbreak of measles. (fn. 311) In 1864 there were additional services on Good Friday, Ash Wednesday, Ascension day, and Wednesdays and Fridays in Lent. The average congregation was 80 on Sunday mornings, between 150 and 200 on Sunday evenings: there were 49 communicants. The vicar was also chaplain of Wilton union workhouse and held a Sunday and a Friday service there each week; (fn. 312) the chapel, built at the workhouse in 1864, was served by vicars of South Newton until 1940. (fn. 313)
By will proved 1844 J. H. Flooks gave £50, the income from which was to be spent each year on a coat; every other year a new coat was to be given to the clerk, every other year one to the sexton. In the late 19th century and until 1950 or later a coat was bought every second year for the holder of the joint office of sexton and clerk. (fn. 314)
The church of ST. ANDREW, so called in 1763, (fn. 315) is mainly of rubble with ashlar dressings, and has some flint and stone chequerwork. It consists of a chancel with north chapel and south vestry, a nave with north aisle and south porch, and a west tower. Nearly all the external walling was rebuilt on the old foundations in 1861–2 to designs by T. H. Wyatt, (fn. 316) the south doorway to incorporate reset masonry of the 12th century. Features of the church as it was before 1861 survive inside. The chancel and the aisle were built in the early 13th century: of that date are the chancel arch, which in 1861–2 was moved to become the tower arch, and the east bay of the arcade. The generous width of the aisle suggests that it was rebuilt in the 14th century, the date of the two other bays of the arcade. The tower, perhaps of 12th-century origin, (fn. 317) was also altered or rebuilt in the 14th century. In the early 19th the nave had a low-pitched roof, to the north continuous with that of the aisle and covered with lead. (fn. 318)
In 1553 plate weighing 3½ oz. was confiscated and a chalice of 8½ oz. was left in the parish. The chalice was replaced by one hallmarked for 1576, which, with a chalice, a paten, and a flagon all given in 1862, belonged to the parish in 1993. (fn. 319)
Of four bells in 1553, two cast in Salisbury still hung in the church in 1993. Bells cast by John Wallis in 1603 and 1610 replaced the others. A fifth bell was added in 1862, a sixth in 1887, when that of 1603 was replaced: the bells of 1862 and 1887 were all cast by John Warner & Sons. There were still six bells in 1993. (fn. 320)
Registers of baptisms, marriages, and burials are complete from 1695. (fn. 321)
A Baptist chapel at Porton in Idmiston had members from Stoford in 1655. (fn. 322) In 1662 three Baptists of South Newton parish were presented for not bringing children for baptism; they were also among 10 parishioners, of whom eight were Baptists, who were presented for not attending church. (fn. 323) Baptist meetings were apparently held in the parish in 1669, (fn. 324) perhaps at Stoford, where a house was licensed for them in 1672. (fn. 325) In 1676 there were 20 Protestant dissenters in the parish, (fn. 326) in 1678 a house was licensed for Presbyterian meetings, (fn. 327) and Quakers from South Newton were apparently part of a group centred on Fovant in the late 17th century. (fn. 328) Although a house was licensed for Independent meetings in 1777, (fn. 329) in 1783 the only dissenters were said to be a few Presbyterians who had no meeting place. (fn. 330) A dissenters' meeting house was licensed in 1798. (fn. 331)
In 1807 a licence was granted for Methodist meetings, and a Methodist chapel was built in South Newton village in 1812. (fn. 332) In 1851 on Census Sunday 15 Wesleyans attended an afternoon service there. (fn. 333) The chapel was apparently used by Primitive Methodists c. 1879 and had been demolished by 1900. (fn. 334) A small red-brick chapel was built at Stoford for United Methodists in 1912: (fn. 335) it was closed in 1986. (fn. 336) In 1843 a house at North Ugford and in 1845 one at Chilhampton were licensed for meetings, (fn. 337) and in 1864 dissenters from Burden's Ball attended a chapel at Wilton. (fn. 338)
The former workhouse chapel at Burden's Ball was Wilton Spiritualist church in 1993.
There was no school in the parish in 1783. (fn. 339) In 1818 three dame schools had a total of 75 pupils: 35 were the children of paupers but the poor still had inadequate means of education. (fn. 340) Two small schools, attended by 7 boys and 17 girls, were open in 1833. (fn. 341) In 1838 a National school, with a teacher's house, was built in South Newton village. It had 58 pupils in 1846, when there was also a dame school with 10 pupils in the parish. (fn. 342) The National school was described as tidy and well conducted in 1858, when there were 30–40 pupils. (fn. 343) The number of pupils had risen to 75 by 1873, (fn. 344) and in 1909 average attendance was 58. Attendance had fallen to 22 by 1927, and the school was closed in 1935. (fn. 345)
In 1883 Stoford House was certified for use as a residential industrial school for a maximum of 15 girls. (fn. 346)
Charities for the poor.
Some of the money given by a Mr. Daniel for poor widows of the parish had been lost by 1786; thereafter Daniel's charity comprised the income from £10 and was distributed annually. In the early 1830s J. H. Flooks yearly increased the amount distributed to 10s., and by will proved 1844 he gave £50 to augment the charity. In 1901 each of 10 widows received 3s. 4d.; (fn. 347) in 1930 £2 os. 5d. was distributed and in 1950 £1 10s. 4d. (fn. 348) In the later 20th century the income was allowed to accumulate; £34 was distributed in 1981. (fn. 349)
By his will Flooks also gave the income from £500 for bread for the poor of South Newton and Wilton. South Newton was to receive the bread in alternate years, but in the late 19th century received c. £7, half the income, annually: 210 gallons of bread were distributed in 1901, (fn. 350) 102 gallons were shared by 227 recipients in 1930, and in 1950 £6 7s. was spent on bread for 21 parishioners. (fn. 351) There was no distribution of bread recent to 1993. (fn. 352)
Two bungalows, built in South Newton village in 1946 as a peace memorial and later designated almshouses, were let at low rents to parishioners. (fn. 353)