A History of the County of Wiltshire: Volume 17, Calne. Originally published by Victoria County History, London, 2002.
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Heddington parish adjoins Calne Without parish, and Heddington village stands 5 km. south of Calne. (fn. 1) The parish measures 686 ha. (1,695 a.) and, besides Heddington village, contains hamlets called Heddington Wick and the Splatts.
On the north the parish boundary followed the course of the Roman road between London and Bath. (fn. 2) On the south three fifths of it is marked by what was the main London-Bath road until the 18th century; (fn. 3) the boundary and the road cross the summit of Beacon Hill.
Chalk outcrops in the east part of the parish, where the western scarp of the Marlborough Downs crosses the parish north-east and southwest. The highest point, at 230 m., is the summit of King's Play Hill immediately southeast of the scarp face. Also south-east of the scarp Beacon Hill reaches 213 m. at its summit on the parish boundary south of Heddington village; the southern slopes of the hill lie in Bromham parish. In the south-east corner of Heddington parish the chalk downland, at c. 190 m., is almost flat. North-west of the scarp there are roughly north-south outcrops of Upper Greensand, Gault, and, at the west end of the parish, Lower Greensand. The lowest point, at 85 m., lies on the Gault at the parish boundary north-east of Heddington Wick. The parish has virtually neither river nor stream. (fn. 4) Open fields lay on chalk and greensand below the scarp and, above the scarp, on chalk mainly in the south-east corner of the parish; the scarp face and King's Play Hill were for long rough pasture, presumably for sheep. The lowland to the west was meadow land and pasture. (fn. 5)
Heddington had 121 poll-tax payers in 1377. (fn. 6) The population was 287 in 1801, 266 in 1811. It rose steadily to reach 362 in 1861, and declined steadily to reach 256 in 1911. From 278 in 1931 it had risen to 324 by 1951, (fn. 7) and between 1981 and 1991 it rose from 317 to 364, its highest known level. (fn. 8)
The main London-Bath road, which in the 17th century diverged from the London-Bristol road at Beckhampton, in Avebury, (fn. 9) crossed the flat downland in the south-east corner of Heddington parish, crossed the summit of Beacon Hill, and ran along the southern part of the parish boundary. It was turnpiked across the parish and along the boundary in 1713. (fn. 10) It declined in importance from the mid 18th century, from when London-Bath traffic began to use the Bristol road through Calne, (fn. 11) and was disturnpiked in 1790. (fn. 12) By 1866 the parish officers had removed some of the materials forming its surface, (fn. 13) and only the west part of it along the boundary and part of it on the downland were later tarmacadamed. A toll house of c. 1713, of red brick with stone dressings and later enlarged, survived in 1999, and two milestones remained on the course of the road across the downs. In the 18th century a Calne-Devizes road led north-south across the west part of the parish. Part of the north-south course was apparently replaced by Hitchin Lane, a straight north-east and south-west section of road presumably built c. 1713 to force Calne-Devizes traffic to pass through a turnpike gate on the London-Bath road. A new road built further west in 1790 or 1791 took Calne-Devizes traffic off the road through Heddington. Another Calne-Devizes road crosses the north-east corner of the parish. (fn. 14) Several roads give access to and from Heddington village. One leads west to join the old Calne-Devizes road at Heddington Wick, and Stockley Road leads north to join the London-Bristol road east of Calne. From a junction at the south end of the village two roads lead to the old Bath road and one, called Hampsley Road in 1999, leads north-eastwards to Calstone Wellington; two, and perhaps all three, were on their present courses in 1773; (fn. 15) none has ever been of more than local importance.
There are several barrows on King's Play Hill including a Neolithic long barrow and a bowl barrow containing a Saxon burial. (fn. 16) Roman remains have been found at Heddington Wick and elsewhere in the west part of the parish. (fn. 17)
In the Middle Ages the village, which stands at the foot of the downs, apparently consisted of a church, a rectory house, two demesne farmsteads, and many smaller farmsteads. (fn. 20) In the 18th century it consisted mainly of a loose group of c. 7 farmsteads, (fn. 21) and four of the farmhouses standing then survived in 1999. Immediately north-east of the church the Manor House, formerly called Heddington House, (fn. 22) has two east-west ranges both of two storeys: the north range is of the mid 18th century and in the early 19th century was rendered and given a parapet and tripartite segment-headed windows, and the south range, apparently built shortly before 1812, has a roof supported by wrought-iron trusses designed by Thomas Pearsall & Co. (fn. 23) Church Farm, immediately east of the church, is on an L plan and of two storeys and attics; it is ostensibly of c. 1800 although of earlier origin. (fn. 24) North of the Manor House, Home Farm is a timber-framed and brick house of the 18th century and was originally three-bayed; in the 19th century the outer bays were refaced and the house was reroofed, and later a fourth bay was added. North-east of Home Farm, Manor Farm is a much altered double-pile house of the late 17th century or early 18th. It is of red brick with stone dressings, of three bays and two storeys, and incorporates re-used materials of the 16th century or early 17th; in the early 19th century the east range was largely refaced with chequered brick, and the main east front was given sashed windows and a bracketed doorhood. Other old buildings standing in the village in 1999 included the Ivy inn, which stands beside Home Farm and had been opened as a beerhouse by 1885; (fn. 25) it is a timber-framed and thatched house of one storey and a half and was apparently built in the 17th century. A timber-framed and thatched house with brick infilling and a stone end wall, standing northwest of the church, is also likely to have been built in the 17th century. In the period 1605-7 a church house was demolished and replaced by a new one. (fn. 26) Both probably stood at the edge of the churchyard beside the road north of the church where in 1841 the parish owned a pair of cottages. (fn. 27) An extended 19th-century cottage, incorporating an oeil-de-boeuf window of c. 1700, stood on the site in 1999. There was otherwise little domestic building in the 19th century in the part of the village where the farmsteads stood.
Heddington village was apparently extended westwards when, probably in the later Middle Ages, a rectory house was built on the south side of the road leading to Heddington Wick, (fn. 28) and in the later 18th century several other buildings stood beside the road. (fn. 29) A house standing in 1999, partly of stone, partly timberframed, and partly of brick, was possibly of 17th-century origin, as was a timber-framed cottage at the west end of the village. The rectory house was rebuilt south of the road in 1824-5, (fn. 30) a school was built beside the road c. 1833, (fn. 31) and a workmen's club was built near the rectory house in 1881. (fn. 32) In 1899 the club had a reading room, a coffee bar, a fives court, and a quoit ground; the building was later used as a post office. (fn. 33)
The village was extended eastwards when, between 1773 and 1820, Yew Tree Farm was built beside Hampsley Road. (fn. 34) In 1999 the farmhouse, of red brick and slate, was in use as two cottages and a residential home for the elderly.
In the 20th century c. 75 houses and bungalows were built in Heddington village. At the west end 12 council houses were built between 1950 and 1952, (fn. 35) and 12 houses of polychrome brickwork were built in terraces and pairs on an adjoining site in 1996; (fn. 36) 12 private houses were built in 1980 on the site of the rectory house built in 1824-5, (fn. 37) and 7 private houses were built on an adjoining site in 1988. (fn. 38) Most of the other houses and bungalows were detached and built on individual sites; they included a new rectory house built near Manor Farm. A village hall was built beside the school in 1966-7. (fn. 39)
In 1412 Heddington Wick was an address. (fn. 40) The buildings of the hamlet were erected at the edges of a long rectangular commonable pasture which has never been inclosed; horses were tethered, and sheep penned, on the pasture in 1999. In 1773 and 1999 there were buildings scattered on all sides of the rectangle, (fn. 41) and in 1841 there were c. 15 cottages and houses there. (fn. 42)
There was a small farmstead at the west end of Heddington Wick. In 1841 the farmhouse was the house called Wick Farm in 1999. (fn. 43) It is a red-brick and stone house of the later 18th century. Wick Cottage, which stands near it, may have been the farmhouse before the later 18th century. It was built in the 15th century as a cruck-framed hall of two or more bays and with a two-storeyed chamber end incorporating an arch-braced collar truss; a south wing incorporating tie-beam trusses was added, probably in the 16th century.
The only building on the south side of the rectangle in 1841 was, near the east end, a pair of cottages, (fn. 44) possibly the apparently 19thcentury cottages which were part of a house on the site in 1999. Nearby a house was built in the 19th century and a house and stables in the late 20th century. On the north side of the rectangle a row of early 19th-century red-brick cottages survived in 1999.
On the east side of the rectangle and of the old Calne-Devizes road several cottages were standing in 1841. (fn. 45) In the late 19th century a building was in use as a workmen's club, and a mission room was built. (fn. 46) In 1999 several 19thand 20th-century cottages and houses stood there.
Beside the Calne road a little north of the commonable pasture Marsh End Farm is apparently a timber-framed house on which a new east front, of red brick with stone dressings, was built in the early 19th century.
The buildings of the hamlet called the Splatts were erected around what was apparently a small rectangle of commonable pasture off the road between Heddington and Heddington Wick. (fn. 47) In 1841 the hamlet consisted only of Splatts House and farm buildings at the north end of the rectangle and of several cottages on the east side and nearby on the north side of the road. (fn. 48)
Splatts House, built c. 1729, (fn. 49) was bought in 1979 by the Sayagyi U Ba Khin Memorial Trust, a Buddhist foundation, which in 1989 built the Light of the Dhamma pagoda in the garden. The pagoda consists of a ring of seven meditation cubicles surrounding a central teaching space; its roof was gilded in 1999. (fn. 50) In 1998 some of the farm buildings were altered or replaced to provide accommodation for students attending meditation courses at the house. (fn. 51)
On the east side of the rectangle a timberframed thatched cottage of the 17th or 18th century survived in 1999, and a small earlier 19th-century brick house standing beside the Heddington to Heddington Wick road may also have survived from 1841. Two or more of the other cottages were replaced by Norton Lodge, a large house probably built shortly before 1915. (fn. 52)
North of Heddington village Paddock Farm was built in the 17th century. (fn. 53) The farmhouse is box-framed with square panels, re-used timbers being part of the frame; it is of two storeys and attics, has a through-passage plan, and was formerly thatched. North-east of the village buildings called Eyre Farm stood beside Stockley Road in the 19th and 20th centuries; (fn. 54) three houses were built on an adjacent site in the mid 20th century. Beside the course of the Roman road north-east of the village a small farmstead, in the 20th century called Harley Farm, and a pair of cottages had been built by 1841; (fn. 55) a few cottages and houses stood on or near their sites in 1999. West of the village a cottage was standing beside the Heddington Wick road in 1773 and 1841; (fn. 56) a small farmstead, Box Farm, was built there later (fn. 57) and the cottage was replaced by a house built in the early 20th century.
From the 17th century or earlier, cottages and small houses were built beside the roads and lanes in the parish, some of them on the verges. The rector considered that squatting on the common, presumably at Heddington Wick, remained a problem in 1866. (fn. 58) A trio and a pair of 19th-century cottages and a 19th-century nonconformist chapel stood beside the Heddington to Heddington Wick road in 1999. Beside a road west of the village Field Cottage is timber-framed and probably 16th- and 17thcentury; (fn. 59) from the 18th century to the 20th it was three cottages held by the parish to benefit the unrelieved poor. (fn. 60) By 1841 seven cottages had been built on the old Bath road near the former toll house and one beside Hitchin Lane. (fn. 61) Several houses and a bungalow were built beside Stockley Road in the 20th century.
In the west corner of the parish two adjacent inns, the Bell, open in 1706, and the Bear, open in 1728, were used by travellers on the old Bath road. (fn. 62) Each had been converted to a farmhouse by 1841. (fn. 63) The Bear ceased to be part of a farmstead in the 20th century. It is a two-storeyed house mainly of the late 17th or early 18th century and stands on an irregular U plan. The north-west wing is mainly of stone, has two-light mullioned windows under linking hoodmoulds, and may be the remains of a house of the earlier 17th century. The rest of the present house is of red brick with stone dressings. Its main range has a basement, a principal six-bayed south front with continuous moulded stringcourses and two-light windows with ovolo mullions, and a hipped roof. A doorway in the east elevation was the main entrance until it was blocked and replaced by one in the south front; a gabled brick porch was added to the south front in 1905. (fn. 64) The north-east wing of the house may have originated as a separate building. The Bell was still a farmhouse in the later 20th century. The house, which may have originated in the 17th century, has been much altered. It is of coursed rubble and, like the Bear, it stands on a U plan. Its main south range is taller than the Bear's and has a steep hipped roof. It is of four bays, of which the western has been partly rebuilt and contains the chimney stack.
Two new farmsteads, each with a pair of cottages, were built in the east part of the parish between 1841 and 1885, Hill Farm on the downs beside the old Bath road, and New Farm beside Hampsley Road. (fn. 65) Most of the farm buildings had been removed from Hill Farm by 1999, and New Farm was then the site of Hampsley Hollow Riding Centre. Each pair of cottages had been converted to one house.
MANORS AND OTHER ESTATES
Because it was already part of Calne hundred in 1084, and because it lay within what may have been an obvious boundary of the large estate called Calne, which was held by the king in the 10th century or earlier and on which the hundred was based, Heddington was perhaps an early part of the estate. (fn. 66) In 1066 it was held by Earl Harold, in 1086 by Edward of Salisbury. (fn. 67) It apparently passed to Humphrey de Bohun (d. c. 1129) on his marriage to Edward's daughter Maud, and in turn to Humphrey's and Maud's son Humphrey (d. c. 1165), that Humphrey's son Humphrey (d. c. 1187), and that Humphrey's son Henry de Bohun (cr. earl of Hereford 1200, d. 1220). (fn. 68)
Henry, earl of Hereford, claimed to hold all or part of Heddington in 1201, (fn. 69) and he held it all in 1212, when his title to that and other land was challenged by Edward of Salisbury's greatgreat-granddaughter Ela Longespee, countess of Salisbury. (fn. 70) HEDDINGTON manor was apparently among Henry's estates forfeited to the Crown for his opposition to King John and was held by the Crown in 1216. (fn. 71) It was restored and, with the assent of Ela and her husband William Longespee (d. 1226), was held as dower from 1222 by Henry's relict Maud, countess of Hereford and from 1227 suo jure countess of Essex (d. 1236), later the wife of Roger of Dauntsey. (fn. 72) In 1229, as part of the settlement of the dispute between Edward of Salisbury's descendants, the reversion was divided between Humphrey, earl of Hereford (d. 1275), the son of Maud and Henry de Bohun, and Ela, countess of Salisbury, (fn. 73) and from 1236 the manor descended in moieties.
The moiety held by Ela, countess of Salisbury, was itself often called HEDDINGTON manor. In 1236 Ela gave it to Lacock abbey, (fn. 74) to which was also given what was probably a small part of the other moiety. (fn. 75) The abbey kept the manor until 1539, when the abbey was dissolved and the manor passed to the Crown. (fn. 76) In 1543 the Crown sold Heddington manor to John Lambarde. (fn. 77) On John's death in 1554 it descended to his son William, (fn. 78) a lawyer and historian and the author of Eirenarcha, (fn. 79) who in 1570 sold it to William Partridge (d. 1578) and Partridge's son Robert. (fn. 80) From Robert (d. 1600) the manor may have passed to his son John, who sold property to his brother Anthony and died leaving Anthony as his heir, (fn. 81) or directly to Anthony. In the early 17th century the manor was sold in portions, which for long descended separately.
In 1611 Anthony Partridge sold the demesne and other land of his manor to Henry Rogers (fn. 82) (d. 1614), who was succeeded by his son John, (fn. 83) and in 1618, 1620, and 1623 John sold portions of that estate. (fn. 84) John Rogers (d. by 1624) was succeeded by his son John. (fn. 85) By 1627 the main part of the demesne, later called Church farm, had been sold to John Grubbe (fn. 86) (d. 1649), and from 1631 to 1795 the farm descended in the Grubbe family like part of Cherhill manor. (fn. 87) In 1795 William Hunt Grubbe sold it to George Stagg (will proved 1802), from whom it passed to his son John. In 1817 John Stagg sold the farm, 287 a., to Brice Pearse, who acquired other parts of what had been Lacock abbey's manor and other land in the parish; in 1835 Pearse (d. 1842) owned 629 a. in Heddington. (fn. 88) He was succeeded by his son Brice (d. 1866), whose representatives sold the estate in 1873 to J. W. G. Spicer (fn. 89) (d. 1883) of Spye Park in Bromham. Spicer bought much other land in the parish and was succeeded by his son J. E. P. Spicer, (fn. 90) who in 1911 sold Church farm, 722 a., to L. B. Beauchamp. (fn. 91) The farm was sold by Beauchamp in 1921 to Florence Money-Kyrle (d. 1930), the relict of Audley Money-Kyrle (d. 1908). It descended to her son Roger MoneyKyrle (d. 1980), the owner of Whetham House in Calne, and, like Whetham House, was owned by Whetham Estates Ltd. on behalf of the Money-Kyrle family in 1999. (fn. 92)
A small estate called SPLATTS originated in the sale by John Rogers to Robert Child of c. 10 a. and pasture rights in 1620 and of c. 24 a. and pasture rights in 1623; (fn. 93) both holdings were probably former parts of Lacock abbey's manor. (fn. 94) From Robert (d. 1639) the estate descended in the direct line to Robert (fn. 95) (d. 1688) (fn. 96) and Thomas Child (fn. 97) (d. 1719). On Thomas's death it passed to his grandson Francis Child (d. 1780), (fn. 98) whose heir was his son John (will proved 1807). (fn. 99) In 1808 John Child's trustees sold the estate, Splatts House and c. 36 a., to James Pepler (fn. 100) (d. 1827), whose relict Sarah Pepler sold it in 1837 to trustees of William Gundry (fn. 101) (d. 1853). In 1853 Gundry's trustees sold it to Richard Osmond, (fn. 102) who in 1858 sold it to Isaac Clark (d. 1892) and his daughter Anne Hayward Clark (d. 1897) as tenants in common. Isaac sold his interest to his daughters Mary Clark (d. 1898) and Elizabeth Clark (d. 1902), and Anne devised hers to Mary and Elizabeth as tenants in common. (fn. 103) In 1902 Elizabeth Clark's heirs sold Splatts farm to F. J. Aldrick, (fn. 104) who in 1905 sold it to L. B. Beauchamp, from 1911 the owner of Church farm. (fn. 105) In 1918 Beauchamp sold Splatts farm to Laura Brown (d. 1926). From 1926 to 1941 the farm belonged to Annie, Alice, and Maria Brown, spinsters who in 1941 sold it to Harold Stiles (d. 1949) and his brother S. S. Stiles (d. 1950). In 1950 S. S. Stiles's executors sold the farmland, then 105 a., separately from Splatts House. (fn. 106) The descent of neither has been traced further.
Splatts House was built c. 1729 for Francis Child on his marriage to Priscilla Brooke. (fn. 107) It is a single-pile house of two storeys and five bays. (fn. 108) It has an elaborate south-east façade of chequered brick with rusticated stone quoins and simple Baroque stone window surrounds linked by continuous stringcourses. That façade has sashed windows, but may formerly have had windows with stone mullions and transoms like two windows which survive in the rear elevation. In the 19th century the original staircase was reset and the house was otherwise refitted. In the 20th century the south-east façade was given a parapet and a two-storeyed porch, and a two-storeyed rear wing was built. An apparently 18th-century barn and later farm buildings stand immediately north of the house.
Three holdings which had almost certainly been part of Lacock abbey's manor were bought by Henry Rogers (d. 1687), one in 1674, one in 1681, and one in 1686. The combined farm descended in turn to Henry's son Henry and that Henry's daughter Joan, the wife of Joseph Marshman. In 1723 the Marshmans sold it to George Willy (d. 1733), who devised it to his sons George and William as tenants in common. William (d. 1765) devised his interest to George (d. 1770 or 1771), who devised the farm to his nephews Willy Sutton (d. s.p. and intestate) and James Sutton as tenants in common. Willy's heir at law was James, who in 1800 sold the farm, 142 a., to Nicholas Pearse. (fn. 109) The land thereafter descended with Pearse's other land in the parish. (fn. 110)
By 1722 another holding which had almost certainly been part of Lacock abbey's manor had been acquired by Nicholas Pearse (fn. 111) (d. 1739). It descended in the direct line to Nicholas (d. 1775) (fn. 112) and Nicholas (d. 1795), who increased it with 35 a. which he bought in 1770. The combined holding, 70 a., included the buildings later called Home Farm. It passed from the youngest Nicholas to his son Nicholas Pearse (will proved 1825), who bought other land and devised the estate, 278 a., for life to his wife Sarah with remainder successively to his brother Brice, the owner of Church farm, and Brice's son Brice. (fn. 113) In 1826 Sarah leased her life interest to the elder Brice Pearse, (fn. 114) and Home farm thereafter descended with Church farm until, in 1911, it was sold as a farm of 184 a. by J. E. P. Spicer to W. A. Higgs. (fn. 115) In 1918 Higgs sold Home farm to H. J. Furnell, in 1919 Furnell sold it to H. J. Perrett, (fn. 116) and Perrett's son L. H. W. Perrett sold it in 1966, when the farmstead and c. 80 a. were bought by W. S. Tyler (d. 1987). Home farm descended to Tyler's son Mr. D. R. Tyler, who in 1987 bought another 80 a. of the 184 a. and in 2000 owned that farm and other land in the parish, a total of c. 300 a. (fn. 117)
The main part of the moiety of Heddington manor which passed to Humphrey de Bohun, earl of Hereford, in 1236 was later called HEDDINGTON CAUNTELO manor. It was subinfeudated in 1238. (fn. 118) The overlordship descended with the earldom of Hereford like the overlordship of Newton Tony manor. (fn. 119) In 1384 it was allotted to Mary, the daughter of Humphrey de Bohun, earl of Hereford, of Essex, and of Northampton (d. 1373), and the wife of Henry of Lancaster, earl of Derby (from 1399 Henry IV). (fn. 120) Thereafter it was part of the duchy of Lancaster. (fn. 121)
In 1238 Humphrey, earl of Hereford, gave the main part of the moiety to Roger de Cauntelo in an exchange, (fn. 122) and conveyed what was probably a small part to John Rivers. (fn. 123) Evidently after 1242 Rivers gave his land in Heddington to Lacock abbey for the maintenance of two chaplains, (fn. 124) and the abbey presumably added it to Heddington manor. The main part of the moiety descended in the Cauntelo family. Robert de Cauntelo held it in 1316, (fn. 125) and in 1329 it was held for life by Maud de Cauntelo with remainder to another Robert Cauntelo and his wife Joan. (fn. 126) It passed to Robert and was held for life by his later wife and relict Maud (d. 1402). In 1402 the estate reverted to Robert's and Maud's granddaughter Elizabeth Cauntelo, the wife of Richard Cheddar, (fn. 127) and in 1428 Richard (fl. 1431) held it by the courtesy. On Richard's death the estate reverted to Agnes, the great-great-granddaughter of Maud de Cauntelo (fl. 1329) and the wife of William Watkins. (fn. 128) The Watkinses may have held it in 1437, (fn. 129) and it passed to their daughter Agnes, the wife of Drew Mompesson (d. by 1488). (fn. 130) On Agnes's death in 1499 the estate passed to her son John Mompesson, (fn. 131) and on his death in 1511 it passed to his son Edmund, a minor (fn. 132) (d. s.p. 1553). (fn. 133) At the partition of Edmund Mompesson's land in 1556 Heddington Cauntelo manor was allotted to his nephew Gilbert Wells (fn. 134) (d. 1598). It descended in the direct line to Thomas (d. 1630), Gilbert (fn. 135) (d. c. 1643), and Charles Wells (fn. 136) (d. c. 1698), who devised it to his son Henry. (fn. 137) In 1717 Henry Wells sold the manor to Stephen Child, and in 1719 Stephen sold it to Anthony Brooke and Joshua Shepherd and they divided it. (fn. 138)
Anthony Brooke's share of Heddington Cauntelo manor was by far the larger, and in 1729 he divided it between himself and his son John. (fn. 139) The holding retained by Anthony (d. 1741) was later Manor farm and Marsh End farm, a total of 335 a. It descended to his son Anthony (d. 1778), under whose will it passed in turn to his nephew Walter Brooke (d. 1808) and grandnephew Henry Maundrell (d. 1847). The estate was held for life by Henry's relict Anne Maundrell (d. 1854) and passed on her death to his own grandnephew R. J. Maundrell. In 1854 Maundrell sold it to Isaac Clark. In 1876 J. W. G. Spicer bought 218 a. of Manor farm from Clark, (fn. 140) in 1911 J. E. P. Spicer sold that land as part of Church farm, (fn. 141) and the land remained part of Church farm in 1999. (fn. 142) Marsh End farm and the reduced Manor farm passed from Isaac Clark to his daughter Elizabeth, whose estates were offered for sale in 1902. (fn. 143) Manor farm, 73 a. in 1910, was bought by G. S. Ruddle; (fn. 144) in 1940 it was sold by W. J. Brown to W. S. Tyler, whose son Mr. D. R. Tyler owned the land, but not the farmhouse, in 2000. (fn. 145) Marsh End farm, 49 a. in 1910, was bought by Adam Wragg in 1902; (fn. 146) its later descent has not been traced.
In 1729 Anthony Brooke settled the land which later formed Court and Paddock farms on the marriage of his son John (fn. 147) (d. by 1767). By 1765 the estate had passed to John's son Henry (d. 1791), whose heir was his brother Walter (d. 1808). From Walter it passed with Manor and Marsh End farms to Henry Maundrell, (fn. 148) who sold 76 a. of it to Nicholas Pearse in 1810 or 1811. (fn. 149) The 76 a. passed with Nicholas's other land in the parish and was later part of Church farm. (fn. 150) The rest of the estate, c. 350 a., was bought, probably from Maundrell c. 1823, by Ralph Heale (fn. 151) (d. 1859), whose daughter, executor, and devisee Mary Ann Heale sold it to Thomas Dyke in 1864. (fn. 152) Dyke (d. 1881) was succeeded by his son Joseph, (fn. 153) who in 1882 sold land, almost certainly Court and Paddock farms, to J. W. G. Spicer. Apart from the farmstead of Court farm, including Heddington (later Manor) House, J. E. P. Spicer later owned those farms, and in 1911 he sold them with, or as parts of, Church farm and Home farm. (fn. 154) The land sold as part of Church farm remained part of it in 2000. (fn. 155) Paddock farm, sold with Home farm in 1911, (fn. 156) was sold as a separate 97-a. farm by W. A. Higgs in 1918; (fn. 157) c. 55 a. of it was bought in 1979 by W. S. Tyler, whose son Mr. D. R. Tyler owned that land in 2000. (fn. 158)
The share of Heddington Cauntelo manor bought in 1719 by Joshua Shepherd (fn. 159) (d. 1720) (fn. 160) was held in 1722 by Germanicus Shepherd, (fn. 161) presumably in trust. In 1743 Frances Shepherd, Joshua's relict, held c. 72 a. in the west part of the parish. (fn. 162) The Shepherds' estate has not been traced further, and in the earlier 19th century it was apparently one of the several small estates, besides Splatts, in that part of the parish. (fn. 163)
Edward of Salisbury's daughter Maud, her husband Humphrey de Bohun (d. c. 1129), or her son Humphrey de Bohun gave Heddington church and the tithes from the demesne of Heddington manor to Farleigh priory at its foundation c. 1130. (fn. 164) In the late 13th century, and possibly long before, the church was served by a rector presented by the priory, (fn. 165) and the priory's estate in Heddington later consisted of a tenement and land, probably no more than 1 yardland, and tithes from the demesne of Heddington and Heddington Cauntelo manors. (fn. 166) That estate passed to the Crown in 1536, when the priory was dissolved. In 1544 the Crown sold the tithes through agents or speculators to John Lambarde, (fn. 167) the lord of Heddington manor. The tithes descended with the manor until the early 17th century, (fn. 168) and thereafter descended with Church farm, (fn. 169) from which about half of them arose. The tithes from Church farm were merged with the land by Brice Pearse in 1841. (fn. 170) The rest of the tithes formerly held by Farleigh priory, in the earlier 19th century arising from 200-250 a. mainly in Court farm, were retained by John Stagg (will proved 1827) when in 1817 he sold Church farm and its tithes. (fn. 171) They were sold c. 1828 by Stagg's executors to James Rogers (d. 1831), the rector of Heddington, passed to Rogers's son F. J. N. Rogers (d. 1851), were valued at £48 in 1840, and were commuted in 1841. (fn. 172)
In 1086 Heddington had land for 6 ploughteams and was half demesne and half tenantry land. There were 3 teams and 4 servi on the demesne, and 3 teams were held by 9 villani, 24 coscets, and 2 cottars. There were 10 a. of meadow and 8 a. of pasture. (fn. 173)
Heddington's open fields lay in the east part of the parish, bounded to the west by the road leading west and south from Church Farm to the parish boundary, by the same road leading north-east as Hampsley Road from Church Farm as far as its elbow, and by a roughly straight line running north from the elbow to the parish boundary. In the 18th century there was 788 a. of open fields. That land included Beacon Hill, only the steepest slopes of which were not ploughed, the flat downland southeast of the London-Bath road, and other downland north of the road. (fn. 174) The open-field land on Beacon Hill and the downland, c. 225 a. in all (fn. 175) and known to have been arable in the 17th century, (fn. 176) may have been set out later than that on the gently sloping lands between Heddington village and the scarp face. There were apparently two open fields, usually called East and West; (fn. 177) North and South fields, referred to in the 17th century, (fn. 178) were probably the same fields under different names rather than additional fields. In the 18th century only the steepest slopes of the scarp, and King's Play Hill immediately above them, were rough pasture. (fn. 179) The lowland west of the open fields included commonable meadow land (fn. 180) and almost certainly extensive commonable pasture.
The moieties into which Heddington manor was divided in 1236 each included demesne and customary holdings, (fn. 181) and the arable of both demesnes and of all the customary tenants apparently lay intermingled in the open fields. (fn. 182) About 1260 Lacock abbey had 3 yardlanders, a tenant who held five sixths of a yardland and one who held three quarters, 16 halfyardlanders, and 4 quarter-yardlanders. About 1280 its customary holdings were assessed at 13¾ yardlands and were in the hands of 3 yardlanders, 17 half-yardlanders, and 9 quarteryardlanders. Labour services were apparently onerous and holdings apparently small. (fn. 183) About 1300 a yardland consisted of nominally c. 13 a. in East field, c. 8 a. in West field, 2½ a. in commonable meadows, and presumably feeding in common for animals. (fn. 184) By the 16th century the customary holdings had apparently increased in size by accretion, although at 18 yardlands they were then more highly assessed. In 1540 what had been Lacock abbey's manor comprised a demesne farm and the 18 yardlands, then in the hands of only 12 copyholders; there were three copyholds of 3-3½ yardlands and only two of less than 1 yardland. (fn. 185)
King's Play Hill, 62 a., may have been several demesne pasture before 1236, the year in which Heddington manor was divided, and later half of it lay in severalty in each of the two demesne farms. (fn. 186) Of the lowland west of the open fields some had apparently been inclosed by the 16th century: a small farmstead, perhaps incorporating the house called Wick Cottage in 1999, was apparently in existence at Heddington Wick in 1540, (fn. 187) and in 1574 an 18-a. holding included 6 a. in severalty. (fn. 188) Most of the lowland had apparently been inclosed by the 17th century, when all the holdings of which the contents are known included closes there, (fn. 189) and the demesne later called Church farm included closes called Whetham north-east of the village and Hayes west of the village. (fn. 190) In 1640 Splatts estate consisted of a newly built house and 42 a. in about eight closes, (fn. 191) and Paddock Farm and possibly Marsh End Farm were built in the 17th century. The rectangles around which Heddington Wick and the Splatts stood, (fn. 192) c. 6 a. and c. 1 a. respectively, survived as vestiges of the common pastures. (fn. 193) Commonable meadows called Broad mead, Row mead, and Wick mead were inclosed between 1618 and 1680. (fn. 194) In 1681 a holding consisted of 34 a. of openfield arable and 24 a. in closes, (fn. 195) and both demesne farms and other holdings probably had land in roughly similar proportions. The second demesne farm, later called Court farm, in 1719 consisted of 37 a. of pasture in closes, including some called Whetham and Hayes, 22 a. of King's Play Hill, and nominally 137 a. in the open fields. (fn. 196) An agreement of 1722 to inclose parts of the open fields, and to separate the animals of the two demesne farms feeding on the open fields from those of the other farms, (fn. 197) was apparently void, and the fields were inclosed by an agreement of 1765 ratified by Act in 1767. (fn. 198)
In the late 18th century there were in Heddington possibly 12-15 farms, of which c. 7 had farmsteads in Heddington village and c. 6 on the lowland north and west of it. (fn. 199) By 1841 several had been merged. Church farm, Home or Lower farm, and another farm, 598 a., were worked together, as were Court, Manor, and Paddock farms, 571 a. In the west part of the parish Heddington Wick, Marsh End, and Splatts farms, and land held with Wick Cottage, 169 a. in all, were also worked together. Yew Tree farm, 32 a., was almost certainly worked in conjunction with a large farm based in Bishop's Cannings parish. In Heddington three other holdings, of 50 a., 37 a., and 21 a., may have been separate farms. In 1841 most of the former open fields remained arable, and most of the land west of them remained meadow or pasture. The two large composite farms included nearly all the arable, and both included pasture closes on the lowland. (fn. 200)
Later in the 19th century dairy farming seems to have increased, sheep-and-corn husbandry to have decreased, and the number of farms to have reverted to c. 12. In 1886 farms based in the parish included 1,024 a. of permanent grassland, of which 390 a. was cut for hay. (fn. 201) Church farm, from which Home farm was separated and to which the rough downland and much of the former open-field land of Court farm and Manor farm was added, was the only farm to increase in area, and on its upland Hill Farm was built between 1841 and 1885. It was a mixed farm of 712 a. in 1910. (fn. 202) About 1900 all the others were presumably dairy farms. (fn. 203) Home farm, to which Paddock farm was added, was of 191 a. in 1910. (fn. 204) Probably in the late 19th century the farm buildings of Court farm, of which Heddington (later Manor) House was formerly the farmhouse, were converted to, or replaced by, stables. (fn. 205) In the early 20th century Manor farm was a dairy farm of 73 a., and in 1910 the tenant also held another 65 a. and the buildings erected beside Hampsley Road between 1841 and 1885. In 1910 the tenant of Heddington Wick farm held 90 a., the tenant of Marsh End farm 101 a.; Splatts farm, 35 a., and several other holdings of 50 a. or less were apparently separate farms. (fn. 206)
Church farm, 722 a. in 1911, (fn. 207) remained large throughout the 20th century and was of 685 a. in 2000. (fn. 208) Former open-field land in the northeast corner of the parish was added to Home farm in 1911, when it had 295 a., (fn. 209) but Paddock farm, 97 a., had been detached from it by 1918, when it had 182 a. (fn. 210) There were small dairy farms in the parish until the later 20th century: Splatts farm had c. 104 a. in 1941, (fn. 211) Turnpike farm, worked from buildings adjacent to the former toll house beside the old Bath road, was 110 a. in 1946, (fn. 212) and Paddock farm was 74 a. until 1979. (fn. 213) From 1934 the tenant of Church farm was W. S. Tyler, (fn. 214) who thereafter bought Manor farm, part of Home farm, and much of Paddock farm. (fn. 215) In 2000 Church farm was part of an arable, dairy, and beef holding of 1,450 a. including nearly all of Heddington parish east of the Splatts and, in Calne Without parish, 113 a. of Whetham farm and 184 a. at Calstone. The holding was worked from Church Farm until 1987, and until 2000 included a dairy near Church Farm; in 2000 it was worked from Home Farm by Mr. D. R. Tyler and included a new grain store in Hampsley Road. In 2000 the land in the west part of the parish remained mainly in pasture closes of 5-10 a. Small herds of cattle were kept on Bell farm, 82 a. including land in Calne Without parish, Yew Tree farm, c. 50 a., and a farm worked from Heddington Wick. Marsh End Farm, Splatts Farm, Paddock Farm, and New Farm in Hampsley Road were no longer in use as farmsteads. The land of Splatts farm was worked from Calne Without parish as part of Willowbrook farm. In the north-east corner of Heddington parish c. 40 a. was part of a golf course. (fn. 216)
Heddington's woodland was assessed at 8 a. in 1086, (fn. 217) and there has never been much woodland in the parish. Lacock abbey's manor included a wood of 3 a. (fn. 218) In the 18th century part of a plantation grown to embellish the surroundings of Whetham House in Calne stood on c. 5 a. in the west corner of Heddington parish; (fn. 219) it had been grubbed up by 1820. (fn. 220) The only woodland in 1841 was Smallgrain plantation, 3 a., at the north-east corner of the parish, and a plantation of 1 a. near Heddington village. (fn. 221) Smallgrain plantation was possibly the wood standing in the Middle Ages and was standing in 1999. In the 19th and 20th centuries trees also grew on parts of the scarp face. (fn. 222)
There was a mill at Heddington when the manor was divided in 1236. In the later 13th century the miller owed half his service to Lacock abbey and presumably half to the lord of Heddington Cauntelo manor. (fn. 223) There is no later evidence of a mill at Heddington.
From c. 1850 to the earlier 20th century members of the Hunt family were wheelwrights and builders of carts, vans, and wagons. A baker and bacon curer in Heddington village in the late 19th century and early 20th included soda bread among his products. In the 1930s horses were slaughtered at premises on the west side of Stockley Lane. (fn. 224) In the 1950s George Keen & Sons, coach proprietors, built a coach garage in the west part of the village; (fn. 225) in 1999 the premises were used by Heddington Coachworks, vehicle bodywork repairers. Also in 1999 converted farm buildings at Paddock Farm were used as offices by a company exporting cheese and by Autoguide Equipment Ltd., designers and manufacturers of power equipment. (fn. 226)
No part of either Heddington manor or Heddington Cauntelo manor is known to have been held by copy of court roll from the earlier 17th century, (fn. 227) and no direct record of a court held for either manor survives. From the early 17th century lords of Heddington manor claimed the right to hold view of frankpledge for Heddington, (fn. 228) but there is no evidence that any of them exercised it.
In the early 18th century two overseers of the poor were elected annually. (fn. 229) In 1775-6 £99 was spent on relieving the poor, and from 1782-3 to 1784-5 an average of £147. In 1802- 3, when at 2s. 6d. Heddington's poor rate was low for Calne hundred, £225 was spent. Relief was given to a quarter of the parishioners, to 18 adults and 45 children regularly, to 9 adults occasionally. In the three years to Easter 1815 the cost of poor relief averaged £283 and on average 35 adults were relieved regularly and 14 occasionally. (fn. 230) Expenditure reached a peak of £387 in 1818-19 and a low point of £137 in 1823-4. In the later 1820s and early 1830s it averaged c. £190. (fn. 231) Heddington joined Calne poor-law union in 1835 (fn. 232) and became part of North Wiltshire district in 1974. (fn. 233)
Heddington church was standing c. 1130, when it was given to Farleigh priory. (fn. 234) From the late 13th century, and possibly from long before, it was served by a rector. (fn. 235) In 1962 the rectory was united to Calstone Wellington rectory, (fn. 236) and in 1973 the united benefice was united to other benefices to form Oldbury benefice. (fn. 237) In 1887 Stockley was transferred from Calne ecclesiastical parish to Heddington ecclesiastical parish. (fn. 238)
The advowson of the rectory belonged to Farleigh priory from 1298 or earlier to 1536, when it passed to the Crown on the dissolution of the priory. (fn. 239) The king presented in 1355 and 1370 while he held the temporalities of the priory, which as Cluniac was regarded in the 13th and 14th centuries as alien. (fn. 240) In 1412 the bishop collated iure devoluto. (fn. 241) The advowson was sold by the Crown with Heddington manor to John Lambarde in 1543 (fn. 242) and descended with the manor and Church farm to John Grubbe (d. 1649), (fn. 243) who in 1639 sold it to Henry Rogers (d. 1670), rector from 1642. From Henry it descended to his son Henry (d. 1721), whom by grant of a turn Sir Wilfred Daniel presented in 1670. (fn. 244) From 1721 the advowson apparently descended with Rainscombe House (then in North Newnton parish and later in Wilcot) in turn to the younger Henry Rogers's sons Henry (d. 1735) and Robert (d. c. 1758), rector from 1740, and from Robert in the direct line to the Revd. Benjamin Rogers (d. 1802), James Rogers (d. 1831), rector from 1800, and possibly F. J. N. Rogers. In 1740 Briant Walton presented by grant of a turn, as did the Revd. Francis Rogers in 1752. (fn. 245) Either James Rogers or, in 1831, F. J. N. Rogers apparently sold the advowson to J. T. du Boulay (d. 1836), who in 1831 successfully petitioned the bishop for his own institution. Trustees under du Boulay's will presented between 1836 and 1853 (fn. 246) and in 1853 transferred the advowson to his son F. H. du Boulay, rector 1853-98, (fn. 247) who in 1905 sold it to Audley Money-Kyrle (fn. 248) (d. 1908). It was held for life by Money-Kyrle's relict Florence (d. 1930) and passed with Church farm to his son Roger Money-Kyrle (d. 1980). (fn. 249) From 1962 to 1973 Money-Kyrle shared the right to present for the united benefice, (fn. 250) presented in 1964, (fn. 251) and from 1973 was a member of the patronage board for Oldbury benefice. (fn. 252)
At £6 13s. 4d. in 1291, (fn. 253) c. £9 in 1535, (fn. 254) and c. £240 in 1830 (fn. 255) the rectory was of average value for Avebury deanery. In the earlier 14th century and later the rector received great tithes from the whole parish except the demesne of the two manors, tithes of hay, and small tithes. (fn. 256) The tithes were valued at £269 in 1840 and commuted in 1841. (fn. 257) Before c. 1130 the clerk serving the church held a house and 1 yardland at Heddington. That estate was given with the church to Farleigh priory. (fn. 258) In the early 17th century the rector held as glebe 8 a. of inclosed pasture, 5 plots in the commonable meadows, and nominally 10 a. in the open fields, probably ½ yardland. (fn. 259) After all the land had been inclosed he held the rectory house with 4 a. and a further 16 a. (fn. 260) The 16 a. was sold in 1953. (fn. 261) The rectory house standing in 1611 comprised a hall, a kitchen, two under rooms, three rooms on the first floor, and a cock loft (fn. 262) and was possibly built in the 14th century or the 15th. In 1783, presumably the same house, it had a roof partly thatched and partly tiled and included a cellar and three garrets. (fn. 263) It was then in poor repair, (fn. 264) and in or shortly before 1824 the bishop complained that it was in a disgraceful and dilapidated state. (fn. 265) It had been demolished by 1824 and a new house was built in 1824-5. (fn. 266) That house was sold in 1954 (fn. 267) and demolished in 1980 or shortly before. (fn. 268) A new rectory house was built in 1963. (fn. 269)
Roger of Chippenham, rector from 1307 possibly to 1355, was in 1307 and 1313 licensed to be absent to study. (fn. 270) From 1605 to 1615 and from 1642 to 1831 all the rectors were members of the Rogers family. Henry Rogers, rector 1642-70, and Henry Rogers, rector 1670-1721, who was also rector of Leigh Delamere and prebendary of Yatesbury, were probably resident. (fn. 271) In 1783 Francis Rogers, rector 1752-1800, lived at Stanton St. Bernard, where he was curate, and at Heddington held one service each Sunday and celebrated Holy Communion four times a year; there were usually c. 13 communicants. (fn. 272) James Rogers, rector 1800-31, a pluralist who lived at Rainscombe, (fn. 273) reserved a bedroom and a sitting room in the rectory house, which he leased, for his own use on Sundays. (fn. 274) He proposed to the bishop that an Anglican chapel should be established in Paris: the bishop's response was that Rogers should take more care of his parishioners at Heddington, restore the rectory house there, and either reside or appoint a resident curate. (fn. 275) On Census Sunday in 1851 the rector held two services; 70 attended in the morning, 85 in the afternoon. (fn. 276) The rector 1853-98 seems normally to have resided. (fn. 277) In 1864, however, he lived in Calne and a curate held two services each Sunday with a congregation averaging c. 100, held services every Wednesday and Friday and on many other days, and administered Holy Communion c. 17 times; there were 67 communicants. (fn. 278) A mission room was built at Heddington Wick in 1894; (fn. 279) services in it ceased apparently in the mid 20th century. (fn. 280) From 1973 the rector of Oldbury benefice or the team vicar lived at Heddington. (fn. 281)
The church of ST. ANDREW, so called in 1491, (fn. 282) consists of a chancel with north chapel, a nave with north and south aisles and north porch, and a west tower. The chancel and the south aisle are of rubble, most of which has been rendered, and the rest of the church is faced with ashlar. The church was apparently rebuilt in the 13th century, the date of an arch between the chancel and the chapel and of the double-chamfered arches and circular piers of the south arcade. The north aisle, which has an arcade with octagonal piers, was built in the 14th century. In the 15th century the porch and the tower, which is of three stages and has an embattled parapet, crocketed pinnacles, and a north-east stair tower, were built and the chancel was refenestrated. The church was much altered in the 17th century. The chancel arch was made taller and wider, the aisles and the chapel were refenestrated with round-headed lights, and the roofs of the aisles were reconstructed to admit two large dormers in each. The dormers presumably lit galleries, and there was a singers' gallery in 1783. (fn. 283) A circular window level with the dormers had been inserted in the east wall of the nave by 1806. (fn. 284) In 1840- 1 the church was repaired and reseated and its font was recut in Romanesque style. (fn. 285) The gallery or galleries, the north dormers, and the circular window have been removed, and a timber hoodmould decorated with dog tooth has been added to the chancel arch; all that work may have been done then, and a tower screen made from early 18th-century altar rails was erected later. The chapel was in use as a vestry in the 19th century. (fn. 286) In 1934 the church was repaired under the direction of Sir Harold Brakspear (fn. 287) and in 1976 it was reroofed. (fn. 288) Inside the church in 1999 there was a copy of the 'treacle' bible printed in 1565. Where the churchyard is entered from the north a lych gate was built in 1894. (fn. 289)
In 1553 plate weighing 1 oz. was confiscated and the church retained a chalice of 6 oz. In 1783 it had a silver chalice with paten dated 1578, and in 1830 a flagon made in 1602, and in 1838 a paten made in 1703, were given to it. (fn. 290) The chalice and the paten of 1703 were stolen in 1973 (fn. 291) and the flagon was sold in 1976 to pay for the reroofing. (fn. 292) In 1999 the church had a chalice with paten hallmarked for 1974. (fn. 293)
Three bells hung in the church in 1553, five from 1741 or earlier. Two of the five were cast by John Wallis, one in 1605 and one in 1618, and three by Abel Rudhall of Gloucester in 1741. (fn. 294) In 1939 the bells were rehung and that of 1618 was recast. A new treble was added to the ring in 1953. (fn. 295) Those six bells hung in the church in 1999. (fn. 296)
The registers survive from 1538 and are almost complete. (fn. 297)
One papist lived at Heddington in 1676. Quakers lived there from the late 17th century to the early 19th, were probably the majority of the 16 protestant nonconformists at Heddington in 1676, (fn. 298) and by 1681 had a burial ground west of the church. (fn. 299) The burial ground had probably gone out of use by 1818, when a Quaker of Heddington was buried at Bromham. (fn. 300) It was sold c. 1930. (fn. 301) A few Methodists lived at Heddington in the later 18th century. (fn. 302) A meeting house for Primitive Methodists was certified in 1832, (fn. 303) and in 1851 a room at Heddington Wick was in use by Wesleyan Methodists, the meetings of whom were attended on Census Sunday that year by 45 in the morning and 58 in the evening. (fn. 304) A small red-brick Methodist chapel had been built between Heddington and Heddington Wick by 1864, when its Sunday school was more popular with parents than the Anglican Sunday school. (fn. 305) In 1870 some parishioners attended Heddington church in the morning and the Methodist chapel in the evening. (fn. 306) The chapel apparently went out of use in the mid 20th century and was converted to a scout hall in 1962. (fn. 307) In 1819 a house was registered for meetings of Baptists. (fn. 308)
There was no school in the parish in 1808, (fn. 309) and in 1818 there was only a dame school at which 10 children were taught. (fn. 310) A day school was started in 1829 and was attended by 35 children in 1833. (fn. 311) A schoolroom and schoolhouse, standing in 1841, (fn. 312) was said in 1858-9 to have been built in 1833; 32 children were taught in the schoolroom in 1858-9. (fn. 313) The school was united with the National society in 1860. (fn. 314) In 1864 the boys left aged c. 10, the girls c. 12; a night school was held in winter. (fn. 315) The school was attended by c. 45-50 children in the 1870s. (fn. 316) Both the schoolroom and the schoolhouse were altered and enlarged in 1893. (fn. 317) Average attendance fell from 49 in 1906 to 36 in 1910, and between 1910 and 1936 it fluctuated between 37 and 65. (fn. 318) In 1999 the school had 48 pupils aged between 5 and 11. (fn. 319)
CHARITIES FOR THE POOR
Two benefactions for the poor of the parish not receiving parochial relief, £20 probably given by Nicholas Pearse (d. 1739) and £10 given by Anthony Brooke (d. 1741), were given to the parish in 1742, (fn. 320) and in 1744 were used to buy the mortgage of a house, then called Sheep House, west of the church. The interest was given to the unrelieved poor. The equity of redemption was transferred to the parish in 1767 and the house was enlarged and converted to three cottages, later called Field Cottages. The cottages were let and the net income was distributed, in the 19th century with the income of four other charities. (fn. 321)
By will proved 1825 Nicholas Pearse gave £50 to the unrelieved poor of Heddington, and in 1834 the income from that, £1 15s., and from the cottages, £7 16s., was given away in cash doles of 5s.-12s. By deed of 1837 Sarah Pepler gave £300 stock to benefit the poor of Heddington from her death, Brice Pearse (d. 1842) gave £50, and Isaac Clark (d. 1855) also gave £50, and the income from those gifts, a total of £10 19s., was given away with that of the other two charities. Rules for distributing the income of the five charities, which were nondenominational, were adopted in 1896. (fn. 322) Most gifts were of small amounts of cash, from the 1920s to the 1940s usually of 8s.; in 1932, when the income of the five charities was £23, 32 families received doles. Field Cottages were sold in 1948 and the proceeds invested, and in 1953-4 £25 was given in doles. (fn. 323) In the 1990s the income of the charities was allowed to accumulate. (fn. 324)
By will proved 1875 Susannah Majendie, the relict of J. T. du Boulay, gave £300 to the Anglican poor of the parish. Between then and 1901 small gifts of cash were made each year and money was occasionally given to the school and the church. (fn. 325) In the 1930s the income from the du Boulay charity was £7 4s., which was distributed as it had been in the late 19th century. (fn. 326) In the 1990s the income was allowed to accumulate. (fn. 327)