A History of the County of Wiltshire: Volume 17, Calne. Originally published by Victoria County History, London, 2002.
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MANORS AND OTHER ESTATES.
A large estate called Calne may have belonged to the king in the 9th century, a time at which it may later have been implied that he had a house there. (fn. 1) King Eadred (d. 955) devised Calne to the church of St. Peter and St. Paul, Winchester (the Old minster). (fn. 2) There is no evidence that the church received the estate, which was almost certainly the king's when the witan met at Calne in 978 and 997, (fn. 3) and in 1066 and 1086 the king did hold a large estate called Calne. (fn. 4)
In or before the 10th century the king's estate almost certainly included most of what became Calne parish and the whole of what became Blackland and Calstone Wellington parishes, probably included Beversbrook (later in Hilmarton parish) and what became Cherhill parish, possibly included what became Compton Bassett and Yatesbury parishes, and perhaps included what became Heddington parish; in the 1080s it probably included what became Berwick Bassett parish. Its west boundary may have been the Whetham stream and, between its confluences with the Whetham stream and Cowage brook, the river Marden. It seems that by 1086 large parts of what may have been the estate had been granted away and that on those parts settlements had been planted or reorganized and open fields laid out. (fn. 5) Agricultural land held by Calne church in 1086 was almost certainly granted to it by the king. It lay north and north-east and immediately south-west and west of Calne, and it was laid out mainly as open fields and commonable meadows and pastures, was worked from demesne and customary farmsteads in Eastman Street, and was later the Prebendal (or Eastman Street) manor. (fn. 6) In 1086 there were settlements at Calstone, Whitley, Beversbrook, Compton Bassett, Heddington, and Yatesbury on lands which, if they had been part of the king's estate, had been granted away; the land at Calstone included both the part which became Calstone Wellington parish and most of the part which remained in Calne parish. (fn. 7)
By 1086 the lordship of Calne borough had been divided mainly between the king, of whom 45 burghal tenements were held, and Calne church, of which 25 were held. (fn. 8) It is tempting to think, but cannot be proved, that the 45 stood on the right bank of the Marden, the 25 on the left. (fn. 9) A pasture south-west of the town from what was almost certainly part of the king's estate, and a pasture from the church's land north-east of the town, were assigned to the burgesses jointly. (fn. 10) It is possible that the land west of Calne's open fields and bounded to the west by the Whetham stream and the Marden, land which came to be divided into small freehold estates, was not part of the king's estate in 1086 or earlier and was assarted from Chippenham forest; (fn. 11) the assignment of 63 a. of it to the burgesses of Calne (fn. 12) suggests otherwise.
Besides the lordship of part of the borough, in 1086 the king's estate called Calne evidently consisted of that land west of the open fields, of that part of Calstone's land which became Blackland parish, of Berwick Bassett and Cherhill, and of Quemerford, Stock, and Stockley. Cherhill had been granted away by the mid 12th century, Berwick Bassett by 1172, and what became Blackland parish by 1191. (fn. 13) Although Quemerford, Stock, and Stockley all had open fields and common pastures (fn. 14) none had an organized nucleated settlement comparable to Eastman Street, perhaps because most of their land was not granted away early. An estate at Stock of which the extent is obscure had been granted away by 1144; some holdings at all three places were apparently granted away from the estate called Calne piecemeal, others remained part of it, and the farmsteads were or remained dispersed. (fn. 15) The land west of Calne's open fields was evidently granted or sold as small freehold estates. (fn. 16) It is not certain whether most of the holdings at Quemerford, Stock, and Stockley, and west of the open fields, were granted away before or after c. 1199, when the king alienated the rump of his estate called Calne. (fn. 17)
The rump was probably granted c. 1199 to Fulk de Cauntelo, (fn. 18) who in the early 13th century held it at a fee-farm rent of £15. (fn. 19) It was later called CALNE manor, at Calne apparently consisted of little more than a mill and the right to hold courts and receive customary rents and payments, (fn. 20) and was held with Calstone manor by Fulk from 1201-2. The two manors descended together mainly in the Cauntelo, Zouche, and Duckett families, and from 1763 they were held by successive owners of Bowood House. (fn. 21) Calne manor, unlike Calstone manor, was held in dower by Eve de Cauntelo (fl. 1255), the relict of William de Cauntelo (d. 1254), and was not held by the relicts who held Calstone manor in dower in the late 14th century and the 15th. (fn. 22) The combined estate was often called the manor of Calne and Calstone. (fn. 23)
In 1086 Calne church belonged to Nigel, probably Nigel the physician. (fn. 24) It was acquired by Osmund, bishop of Salisbury, who gave it to the cathedral in 1091. (fn. 25) By 1116 the church's estate had been used to endow Calne prebend in the cathedral, and it was later called the PREBENDAL estate. A grant of the church made between 1107 and 1116 by the king to the cathedral and the prebendary confirmed the endowment and apparently the right to the land held by Calne church in 1086. The prebendary 1107 × 1116 was Nigel of Calne, possibly Nigel (fl. 1086) or a relative. Between 1220 and 1227 the prebend was annexed to the treasurership of the cathedral. (fn. 26) The Prebendal estate consisted of nearly all the great tithes from Calne parish excluding Bowood, tithes arising elsewhere, agricultural land around Calne called Eastman Street manor, and a small amount of land elsewhere. (fn. 27) In 1841 it passed by Act to the Ecclesiastical Commissioners, (fn. 28) whose tithes in Calne parish, including c. £278 in respect of Blackland's and Calstone's land in the parish, were valued at £1,602 in 1842 and commuted in 1843. EASTMAN STREET manor consisted, after inclosure, of 690 a. north and east of the town. (fn. 29) Its principal house, that which was part of the demesne farmstead at the south end of Eastman Street, (fn. 30) was given c. 1822 to the vicar of Calne in an exchange. (fn. 31) In 1856 the Ecclesiastical Commissioners sold 539 a. of the manor to the tenant Henry Petty-Fitzmaurice, marquess of Lansdowne, the owner of Bowood House, and about then the rest of the manor, c. 150 a., was bought by George Walker Heneage, the tenant of that land (fn. 32) and the lord of Compton Bassett manor. (fn. 33) Lord Lansdowne's land descended with Bowood House until the 20th century. Some of it was sold in 1912 and, including Lickhill farm, in 1919, (fn. 34) and by 1999 much of it had been built on or assigned for building. Lickhill farm, 52 a., was bought by W. J. Hillier in 1919, (fn. 35) was sold by him to G. F. Hoddinott in 1948, and belonged to Hoddinott's son Mr. G. R. Hoddinott in 1996, when it consisted of c. 125 a. (fn. 36) Of the land bought c. 1856 by George Walker Heneage some, apparently acquired for the Prebendal estate by exchange, (fn. 37) lay on Bore down, the detached part of Calne transferred to Compton Bassett in 1883; most of the rest was divided between High Penn farm, Hayle farm based in Quemerford, and farms based in Cherhill. (fn. 38)
Several freehold estates shared the agricultural land around Calne with Eastman Street manor. They may have originated in grants by the king, presumably before 1086, to burgesses of Calne or with estates in neighbouring villages. (fn. 39) One, called WITCHAMPTON, later COLEMAN'S farm, may have descended with Heddington Cauntelo manor from the 13th century, and in the earlier 15th century it was the inheritance of Agnes Watkins, a greatgreat-granddaughter of Maud de Cauntelo (fl. 1329). In 1437 Agnes and her husband William Watkins settled it on William Witchampton and his wife Alice in tail. (fn. 40) The estate evidently reverted to Agnes or her heir, her daughter Agnes Watkins (d. 1499), who married Drew Mompesson. It descended in turn to Agnes's son Thomas Mompesson (d. 1560), to Thomas's son Thomas (fn. 41) (d. 1582), and to that Thomas's son Thomas Mompesson, (fn. 42) who in 1607 sold it to George Hungerford, (fn. 43) the owner of Blackland farm. The estate was apparently among the lands which passed on George's death in 1641 to his heir-at-law, (fn. 44) his nephew Edward Hungerford (d. 1667), the lord of Studley manor, who devised it to his son Robert (d. s.p.). On Robert's death it evidently reverted to Edward's eldest son Sir George (d. 1712), whose son Walter (fn. 45) held Coleman's farm, 43 a., in 1728. (fn. 46) The farm descended with Studley manor until 1918, (fn. 47) when Robert Crewe-Milnes, marquess of Crewe, sold it to William Aldrick. (fn. 48) In 1963 it was bought by Calne borough council (fn. 49) and thereafter its land was used for building. (fn. 50)
HIGH PENN farm may have originated before 1628 in an allotment to the lord of Compton Bassett manor of part of the common pasture called Penn, which earlier was probably shared by the men of Calne, Cherhill, and Compton Bassett. (fn. 51) In 1728, when it was accounted 131 a., the farm was held by William Northey, the lord of Compton Bassett manor, (fn. 52) and it descended with the manor until 1929. About 98 a. of the land formerly part of Eastman Street manor and bought by George Walker Heneage c. 1856 was added to the farm, 265 a. in 1929. (fn. 53) In 1930 High Penn farm was bought from E. G. Harding by Edward, F. C. G., H. E., and W. J. R. Hill, who used part of it for sand extraction. In 1971 the Hill family sold the farm to Hubert Harding, who bought an additional 44 a. c. 1974. In the 1970s Harding sold 53 a. of High Penn farm to Mr. Robin Clark, who in 2001 owned that land as part of Dugdale's farm, Compton Bassett. In 1988 Harding sold the 44 a. to Mr. J. Angell and the rest of High Penn farm in portions. (fn. 54) The farmstead and c. 70 a. were bought by Mrs. E. G. Beckett, who in 2001 owned the farmstead but not most of that land. (fn. 55)
In 1728 Walter Hungerford, the lord of Studley manor, held freely, besides Coleman's farm, 59 a. of agricultural land around Calne. (fn. 56) The land descended with the manor and was added to by his successors in title. (fn. 57) In 1843, after inclosure, Hungerford Crewe, Lord Crewe, held c. 130 a., (fn. 58) and there was c. 230 a. in 1918 when Robert, marquess of Crewe, sold it in portions. C. & T. Harris (Calne) Ltd. bought the largest portion, NEWCROFT farm, (fn. 59) and in 1954 and 1961 sold large parts of it to Calne borough council for building. (fn. 60)
Of the small and several freeholds west of Calne's open fields, probably originating in piecemeal grants or sales of demesne pasture of the king's estate or Calne manor, (fn. 61) seven lay south of the Marden. PINHILLS was held in 1407 by John Formage, to whom it had been conveyed by John Patford, the son and heir of David Patford. (fn. 62) A share in what was probably the estate was acquired from William York by John Cricklade, the lord of Studley manor, in an exchange in 1461. (fn. 63) Pinhills was reputed a manor in 1504, when it was held at his death by John Blake. Although John's heirs were his grandson Richard Dauntsey and his daughter Joan Wroughton, Pinhills apparently passed to his brother Robert Blake (d. 1515) and in the direct line to Roger (d. 1557), Thomas (fn. 64) (d. by 1599), Roger, Henry (will proved 1653), and Henry Blake (d. 1660), who devised it to his grandson Henry Blake (fn. 65) (d. 1731). Henry held Pinhills in 1698, (fn. 66) apparently not in 1728, when it was 157 a. (fn. 67) By 1738 Pinhills had been acquired by B. H. Stiles (d. 1739), and it may have been part of the property sold by his nephew and heir Sir Francis Stiles in 1746. (fn. 68) It was acquired by Daniel Bull (d. 1791), who in 1769 sold the reversion of it after his death to William Petty, earl of Shelburne (cr. marquess of Lansdowne 1784). (fn. 69) Pinhills farm, 135 a., was among lands settled in 1802 by Lord Lansdowne on his son Henry, marquess of Lansdowne from 1809, offered for sale in 1808 by order of Chancery, and bought in 1809 by John, marquess of Lansdowne (d. 1809). (fn. 70) John's successor Henry, marquess of Lansdowne, sold the farm, 87 a., in 1813 (fn. 71) and bought it again in 1816. (fn. 72) Pinhills farm has since belonged to the owners of Bowood House. (fn. 73) Pinhills House, the principal house on the estate, stood on a rectangle enclosed by a moat. (fn. 74) In December 1644 it was captured by a royalist force, rendered uninhabitable, and perhaps partly demolished. (fn. 75) It was probably restored after the Civil War, and in 1728 a large house stood on the moated site. (fn. 76) It was later taken down, possibly c. 1771 after Castle House in Calne was enlarged for Daniel Bull. (fn. 77) Pinhills Farm, south of the moat, is on an L plan with a north-south range built in the 17th century. In the mid 18th century a west wing was added at the north end of that range, and a new gabled north entrance front was formed.
An estate called LAGGUS, 21 a. in 1728, was devised by John Wilson (d. 1725) to his wife Anne for life and in reversion to Clare Hall, Cambridge. Clare Hall entered on it in 1730, (fn. 78) and in 1766 sold it to William, earl of Shelburne. (fn. 79) The house on the estate was built in the mid 17th century and is roughly symmetrical with end chimneys; details in vernacular style are incorporated in fireplaces and timber mouldings.
An estate called MANNINGS HILL, 22 a., belonged to Richard Nutt in 1728. It was sold by Stephen Mead to Lord Shelburne in 1766. (fn. 80)
In 1728 a 91-a. estate near Coombe grove and later called ROGERS'S belonged to Frances Shepherd (fn. 81) (fl. 1743), the relict of Joshua Shepherd (d. 1720) and the owner of part of Heddington Cauntelo manor. (fn. 82) It was acquired by a member of the Rogers family, probably one who owned Rainscombe House in North Newnton (later Wilcot) and the advowson of Heddington church, and was bought from the trustees of a Mr. Rogers by Lord Shelburne in 1765. (fn. 83)
In 1728 a 25-a. estate including COOMBE GROVE, 7 a., was held by Constantia Ernle, the lord of Whetham manor. The estate descended with the manor (fn. 84) and in 1767 was given to Lord Shelburne by James Money in an exchange. (fn. 85)
A 45-a. estate on the east bank of the Whetham stream, west of Pinhills House and including meadows called CEW, was held in the mid or later 17th century by the lord of Studley manor. (fn. 86) A small portion of the estate, part of a field called Clotely, was bought by Lord Shelburne in 1765 from Lumley Keate, the lord of Studley manor, (fn. 87) and was drowned by the lake made in the park of Bowood House in 1766. (fn. 88) The rest of it descended with the manor until 1898, when Robert Crewe-Milnes, earl of Crewe, sold it to Henry PettyFitzmaurice, marquess of Lansdowne. (fn. 89) It has since belonged to the owners of Bowood House. (fn. 90)
The acquisition of Laggus, Mannings Hill, Rogers's, and Coombe Grove estates and of the part of Clotely field by Lord Shelburne 1765-7 made possible the extension of the park eastwards and the making of the lake. (fn. 91) The land has since belonged to the owners of Bowood House. (fn. 92)
An estate called COW AGE lying south of Pinhills House belonged to John FitzJohn, the lord of Cherhill manor, in 1265. (fn. 93) It descended with the manor and passed to the Crown in 1487. (fn. 94) As an estate of c. 110 a., including a house and an 80-a. pasture called Cowage, it was granted in 1528 to Sir Edward Baynton (fn. 95) (d. 1544), whose son Andrew sold it in 1564 to Walter Segar alias Parsons (fn. 96) (fl. 1600). Walter was succeeded by his son Edward Segar alias Parsons (d. 1640), whose heir was his brother William. (fn. 97) In 1672 and 1674 the estate was sold in portions by Walter and Richard Segar, apparently William's son and grandson, to Jonathan Rogers, who in 1697 settled it on the marriage of his daughter Dorothy (d. 1726) and John Holland. In 1728, when it was 106 a., Cowage was held by Dorothy's son Rogers Holland (d. 1761), whose son Rogers sold it in 1765 to William, earl of Shelburne. (fn. 98) Cowage thereafter belonged to the owners of Bowood House. In 1909 Henry, marquess of Lansdowne, gave 37 a. of it to Roger MoneyKyrle, the lord of Whetham manor, in exchange for land at Cuff's Corner. (fn. 99) The rest has remained part of the Bowood estate. Since 1909 the 37 a. has been part of the Whetham estate. (fn. 100) The house which stood in 1999 on the Cowage estate was built in the mid 17th century. It has a two-storeyed and three-bayed east- west main range with ovolo-moulded mullions and mullioned and transomed crosses; a west cross wing with a large chimney stack was added, probably in the earlier 19th century.
North of the Marden an estate called CHILVESTER, then reputed a manor, was held by Thomas Norris at his death in 1489. Norris's heir was his grandniece Alice Littlecott (fn. 101) (d. by 1522), the wife of Robert Thornborough (d. 1522), and the estate passed in turn to her son William Thornborough (fn. 102) (d. 1535) and William's son John, (fn. 103) who sold it c. 1594 to William Foreman. (fn. 104) From Foreman's death in 1609 the estate was held in dower by his relict Henrica (fl. 1632), who married Richard Ernle, (fn. 105) and it passed in turn to William's son William (d. 1636) and that William's son William Foreman. (fn. 106) The legend IN 1669 on a weathervane on a stable range of Chilvester House (formerly Chilvester Hill House) (fn. 107) suggests that Israel Noyes (fl. 1672) (fn. 108) held the estate, which in 1728, consisting of the house and 32 a., belonged to that or another Israel Noyes. (fn. 109) The estate belonged to Israel Noyes until 1739 or earlier and to a Mr. Noyes until 1770. By 1771 it had been acquired by Richard Gale, and in 1784-5 it passed, presumably by sale, from Gale to Hugh Beames (d. 1807-8). Hugh was succeeded by his son George, who held the estate until 1833 or later. (fn. 110) In 1843 it belonged to William Gundry (fn. 111) (d. 1853), whose trustees sold it to Henry, marquess of Lansdowne, in 1853. (fn. 112) The estate has not been traced further. Chilvester House was largely rebuilt in the earlier 19th century. The new house, which was on an L plan and has a main five-bayed south front of ashlar with restrained neoclassical details, apparently incorporates part of the old house as its north-west wing. In the mid or later 19th century the house was extended westwards by one bay and large ground-floor canted bays were added on the main front.
A pasture called Bury hill, lying south of the Chilvester estate and the London-Bristol road, c. 1520 belonged to the guardians of Robert Hungerford, the lord of Studley manor. (fn. 113) It descended with the manor in the Hungerford family and in the mid or later 17th century was part of BERHILLS farm. (fn. 114) The farm, 141 a. in 1728 and 200 a. in 1843, also included land in Calne's open fields or land allotted to replace it. (fn. 115) The farm descended with Studley manor in the Hungerford, Crewe, and Milnes families and to Raymond O'Neill, Lord O'Neill. In 1999 Lord O'Neill owned the land south of the London-Bristol road but not the other land. (fn. 116)
Land including a warren, worked as CONIGRE farm, and lying west of the Chilvester estate was held with Studley manor in the mid or later 17th century, (fn. 117) and SWERVES farm, north-west of the Chilvester estate, was held with the manor in 1728. In 1728 Conigre farm was of 80 a., Swerves of 26 a. (fn. 118) Both descended with Studley manor and in 1999 their land belonged to Lord O'Neill. (fn. 119)
The MARSH, a pasture north-east of the town, and the ALDERS, a pasture south-west of the town, were held jointly by the burgesses of Calne (fn. 120) until 1818. By an award under an Act the Alders was then allotted to Henry, marquess of Lansdowne, the owner of Bowood House, and the Marsh was divided and a close of it allotted to each individual burgess. (fn. 121) The Alders has since belonged to successive owners of Bowood House. (fn. 122)
By 1198 Stanley abbey in Bremhill had been given a burgage and 4 messuages in Calne, (fn. 123) by 1227 it had been given another 4 messuages by John of Avebury, (fn. 124) and later it acquired other premises in the town. (fn. 125) At the Dissolution the abbey had 11 tenements, 2 gardens, and 28 a. of meadow in Calne. (fn. 126) A small estate in Calne parish held by Bradenstoke priory in Lyneham in the 13th century consisted mainly of land, and rent from buildings, in the town. (fn. 127) The priory retained all or part of it at the Dissolution. (fn. 128) About 1242 Galiena, the relict of Herbert of Calne, gave 4 messuages in the town and 10 a. near it to Lacock abbey. (fn. 129) The abbey seems to have held little of the estate at the Dissolution. (fn. 130) A messuage in Calne was conveyed to the Hospitallers by Walter son of Roger in 1202 (fn. 131) and belonged to them until the Dissolution. (fn. 132) In 1447 John St. Lo gave land in Calne to the chantry of St. Mary Magdalene in Calne church, which, at the Dissolution, held 62 a. in Calne. The chantry of the Blessed Virgin Mary held c. 32 a. in Calne at the Dissolution. (fn. 133)
Before the Conquest the land of QUEMERFORD was almost certainly part of the king's estate called Calne, and as part of the rump of that estate, later called Calne manor, most of it was probably granted to Fulk de Cauntelo c. 1199. (fn. 134) The rest evidently lay in holdings which were granted away piecemeal from the king's estate or from Calne manor. (fn. 135)
Presumably as part of what was probably granted to Fulk de Cauntelo c. 1199 the lord of Calne manor held 4 yardlands in Quemerford which in 1274 was described as bureland, (fn. 136) perhaps suggesting that it was demesne land converted to customary tenure; it was later called BOWERS manor. (fn. 137) Much of Quemerford's land, including Bowers manor, descended with Calne and Calstone manors and from 1763 with Bowood House. (fn. 138) From the 13th century or earlier land in Quemerford was part of Calstone Wylye manor. When, in 1585, the lord of Calne manor bought Calstone Wylye manor (fn. 139) it was presumably added to his other land in Quemerford. In 1728 Calne and Calstone manor included c. 450 a. and pasture rights in Quemerford; the land lay mainly in six farms, of which the largest were Sands, Lower Sands, Quemerford, and Quemerford Common. In 1776 William, earl of Shelburne, the owner of Bowood House, bought a farm of 58 a. from Henry Vince, and in 1790, then marquess of Lansdowne, he bought a farm probably of 64 a. from Daniel Bull; the farmstead of the farm bought in 1790 was in 1728 that on the site of Wagon and Horses Cottages. (fn. 140) In 1919 Henry, marquess of Lansdowne, sold Sands farm, 267 a. including Calne (formerly Calstone) Low and land in Abberd mead, and Lower Sands farm, 78 a., to W. A. Higgs. (fn. 141) Apparently in the same year Sands farm was bought by H. K. Henly, who in 1942 sold 37 a. to the state for R.A.F. Compton Bassett and in 1947 bought Lower Sands farm. In the early 1950s Henly sold both farms, except a small part of Lower Sands farm, to E. H. Bradley & Sons Ltd., and in 2001 the land belonged to Aggregate Industries Ltd. (fn. 142) In 1919 Lord Lansdowne sold Quemerford farm, 117 a., to W. A. Higgs, who sold it in 1923 to Thomas Davis (d. 1962). In 1979 Davis's sons and trustees H. W. and N. G. Davis sold the farm, then 107 a., to Mr. Anthony Whinney, the owner in 1996. (fn. 143) In 1919 Lord Lansdowne sold Quemerford Common farm, 131 a., to M. L. Bodman. (fn. 144) It passed to J. F. Bodman (d. 1969) and, 58 a., was offered for sale in that year. (fn. 145)
In 1198 and until 1226 or later Maurice of Calne held a small estate at Quemerford by serjeanty. (fn. 146) In 1231, then assessed at ½ yardland, it was settled by John son of Ellis on John son of Robert for the grantee's life; (fn. 147) in 1255 it was held by John son of Ellis, in 1275 it was held for service as bailiff of Calne hundred by that John's son Thomas of Swindon, (fn. 148) and in 1294 it passed on Thomas's death to his brother John Ellis. (fn. 149) By 1289 Millicent de Montalt, the lord of Calne and Calstone manors and of Calne hundred, had successfully claimed that the land was held of her. (fn. 150) It has not been traced further than 1294.
An estate in Quemerford was conveyed in 1500 by John Blake (d. 1504) to William Reynold and in 1504 by Reynold to Richard Fynemore (fn. 151) (d. 1522), the lord of Whetham manor. The estate descended with the manor in the Fynemore family and to Sir John Ernle (d. 1648). Another estate was conveyed by Thomas Blake (d. by 1599) to Henry Chivers in 1560. It passed from Chivers (d. 1587) in turn to his son Roger (d. 1602) and Roger's son Henry, who by 1639 had bought Ernle's estate. (fn. 152) The younger Henry Chivers's estate presumably passed to his son Seacole Chivers, whose son Henry (d. 1720) devised it to his wife Bridget for life with reversion to his grandson Henry Vince (d. 1748). (fn. 153) In 1728 Vince held c. 187 a. at Quemerford including a home farm, the farm later called Hayle farm, and another farm. (fn. 154) His heir was his son Henry, a minor; by order of Chancery his estate was vested in trustees in 1757, and most of it was sold in portions in 1758-9. (fn. 155)
In 1759 the trustees sold the principal house on the estate, c. 11 a., and the mill at Quemerford later called Lower mill to John Gaby, and c. 21 a. and Upper mill to Stephen Heale. (fn. 156) By 1764 Gaby's estate had been acquired by Ralph Heale. (fn. 157) Neither estate has been traced further. (fn. 158) The principal house, later called Quemerford House, was apparently rebuilt in the late 18th century or early 19th; it is two-storeyed and has an east entrance front with two full-height canted bays. (fn. 159)
In 1758 the trustees sold Hayle farm, c. 91 a. and pasture rights, to William Northey, (fn. 160) the lord of Compton Bassett manor, who evidently sold it with Compton Bassett House to John Walker in that year. Hayle farm descended with Compton Bassett House, and from 1768 with Compton Bassett manor, until 1929-30, in the Walker Heneage family until 1918. (fn. 161) In 1929 it was of 111 a.; (fn. 162) in 1930 or later it was sold in portions. (fn. 163)
A 58-a. farm held by Henry Vince (d. 1748) passed to his son Henry, who sold it in 1776 to William, earl of Shelburne. (fn. 164) It thereafter descended with Lord Shelburne's other land at Quemerford. (fn. 165)
In 1728 and until c. 1758 a 48-a. farm, later Quemerford Gate farm, belonged to Stephen Street, and from c. 1758 to the early 1770s it was held by a Mrs. Street. By 1774 it had been bought from a Street by James Mayo (d. 1788), vicar of Avebury, who devised it in trust to benefit his family. The trustees may have held it until 1799 or later. (fn. 166) From 1821 or earlier Quemerford Gate farm, 64 a. in 1843, belonged to Thomas Poynder (d. 1856), the lord of Hilmarton manor. (fn. 167) The farm, 172 a. in 1910 including 101 a. in Blackland, (fn. 168) descended with Hilmarton manor and Upper Whitley farm in the Poynder family until 1914, when it was sold by John Dickson Poynder, Lord Islington, to R. E. Rawlings. In 1932 it was offered for sale as a farm of 146 a. by the mortgagee in possession, (fn. 169) and was afterwards divided into Quemerford Gate farm north of the London-Bristol road and Gate farm south of the road. In 1974 Quemerford Gate farm, 45 a., was sold by Aubrey Cove to Mr. P. W. Candy, who in 1991 sold it to Mr. P. Godwin, the owner in 1997. (fn. 170) Gate farm, 132 a. including 80 a. of Blackland, was bought by L. T. Bell in 1948, passed to his son H. L. T. Bell (d. 1998), and in 2001 belonged to members of the Bell family. (fn. 171)
In 1728 c. 43 a. in Quemerford belonged to William Smith, (fn. 172) the lord of Blackland manor. It may have descended with the manor, and in 1843 probably c. 30 a. of Quemerford belonged to William Tanner as part of the park of Blackland House. (fn. 173) The land remained part of the park in 1999.
By 1764 John Walker, later John Walker Heneage, from 1768 the lord of Compton Bassett manor, had acquired part of Bore down, (fn. 174) presumably with Hayle farm; his successor in title George Walker Heneage received 63 a. of Bore down as an allotment at inclosure in 1821, (fn. 175) bought other land there c. 1856, (fn. 176) and received 21 a. there from Henry, marquess of Lansdowne, in an exchange in 1865. (fn. 177) In 1929 the Co-operative Wholesale Society Ltd. owned the whole of Bore down as part of the Compton Bassett estate and sold it to E. G. Harding. In 1929 or 1930 Harding sold Bore down and other land to Guy Benson, (fn. 178) who in 1948 sold his estate, and evidently Bore down, in portions. In 2001 part of Bore down lay in the park of Compton Bassett House and belonged to Mr. P. Cripps, part lay in Upper farm, Cherhill, and belonged to members of the Pickford family, and most lay in West Nolands farm, Compton Bassett, and belonged to Mrs. S. Summers. (fn. 179)
Three crofts in Quemerford were granted by Bartholomew of Quemerford to Pershore abbey (Worcs.) in the early 1230s. (fn. 180) The abbey is not known to have held land there later.
Before the Conquest and in 1086 the land of STOCK was almost certainly part of the king's estate called Calne. Some of it was probably granted to Fulk de Cauntelo c. 1199 with the rump of that estate, (fn. 181) and land in Stock descended with Calne and Calstone manors and from 1763 with Bowood House. (fn. 182) In 1728 the land, 78 a., lay as Hollow (later Holly) Ditch farm and a farm with buildings on the west side of the Calne-Devizes road near Quobbs Farm. (fn. 183) As part of the Bowood estate the land of those two farms, and other land at Stock, a total of c. 350 a., belonged to Charles, marquess of Lansdowne, in 1999. (fn. 184)
An estate in Stock, almost certainly granted away from his estate at Calne after 1086 by the king, was held by Everard of Calne and was afterwards confirmed by the Empress Maud to Humphrey de Bohun in 1144. (fn. 185) It was presumably that held in chief for ½ knight's fee by Andrew of Stock in 1242-3, (fn. 186) and was possibly held by Herbert of Stock in 1256. (fn. 187) Andrew's estate, later called STOCK manor, was held in 1275 by Thomas de St. Vigeur and of Thomas by Henry de Montfort; (fn. 188) it is not known that either Henry or his heirs had an interest in the estate later. From Thomas (d. c. 1295) the estate passed to his son Thomas de St. Vigeur, (fn. 189) who conveyed it to Adam of Stock (d. c. 1313) and Adam's wife Gena (d. c. 1335) and son Patrick. A third of the estate was held for life by Maud (fl. 1335), the relict of, presumably the elder, Thomas de St. Vigeur; c. 1313 the two thirds, and the reversion of the rest, passed to Gena, who married Robert Hungerford, and c. 1335 to Adam's grandson Edward Stock (fn. 190) (d. 1361). Edward's heir was his son John, (fn. 191) at whose death in 1376 his lands were divided between his aunt Margaret Stock, the wife of John Weston, and his cousin Nicholas Danvers (d. by 1387), a chaplain. Nicholas's moiety reverted to Margaret (d. 1413), who settled the estate on herself for life with remainder to her daughter Margaret and Margaret's husband John Cumberwell. (fn. 192) Under a settlement of 1415 the estate passed on John's death in 1427 to the remaindermen William Wykewyke, William Hull, and John Hull, (fn. 193) who jointly conveyed it to Thomas Poyntz and his wife Joan in 1437. (fn. 194) What may have been the same estate and was called the manor of Stock and Stockley may have been held in 1499 by Thomas Long (knighted 1501, d. 1508), and c. 1530 was held by his son Sir Henry Long (d. 1556). (fn. 195) Sir Henry was succeeded by his son Sir Robert (d. 1581) (fn. 196) and he by his son Sir Walter, who in 1587 sold the estate to George Mortimer. (fn. 197) By 1605 the estate had passed to Andrew Mortimer (will proved 1611), who devised what was called Stock manor to his wife Lucy for life and to his nephews Andrew Mortimer and Anthony Mortimer, rector of Binegar (Som.). (fn. 198) Andrew and Anthony may have sold that estate to Alexander Staples, on whose death in 1633 it passed from him to his son Samuel (fn. 199) (fl. 1685). (fn. 200)
The precise content and later descent of Samuel Staples's estate is uncertain and, besides what descended with Calne and Calstone manors, (fn. 201) the land of Stock lay in about seven freehold farms in 1728. (fn. 202) The earlier a separate descent of a farm is known to have started, the less likely is the farm to have been part of Stock manor, and the more likely to have been one of the estates apparently granted piecemeal out of the king's estate called Calne or out of Calne manor. (fn. 203)
What became Stock Street farm was held in the late 14th century by Sir John Roches (d. 1400) and his wife William (d. 1410). (fn. 204) It apparently descended in the Beauchamp and Baynton families like the estate later called Nuthill farm, (fn. 205) and in 1728 Stock Street farm, 39 a., belonged, as Nuthill farm did, to Lucy Baynton. (fn. 206) It passed from Lucy to a Mr. Baynton, possibly her son, and, between 1771 and 1774 and presumably by sale, from a Mr. Baynton to Thomas Singer; from c. 1799 to c. 1816 it belonged to Richard Singer. It passed to Richard Seager, who apparently sold it to George Gundry c. 1823-4. (fn. 207) In 1837 Gundry sold the farm, 49 a. in 1843, to Robert Henley. It was apparently bought in 1889 by John Dickson Poynder (cr. Baron Islington 1910), who owned it in 1910 and sold it c. 1914 to W. N. Perrett. (fn. 208) In 1937 J. and W. Perrett offered it for sale, (fn. 209) and in 1967 it was bought from T. E. Dolman by Charles Petty-Fitzmaurice, earl of Shelburne, (fn. 210) who, as marquess of Lansdowne, owned its land in 1999. (fn. 211)
Land at Stock was held at his death in 1504 by John Blake, (fn. 212) the owner of Pinhills, and was probably the land there which in 1560 his grandnephew Thomas Blake conveyed with an estate at Quemerford to Henry Chivers. (fn. 213) The land at Stock, 112 a. in 1728, (fn. 214) descended in the Chivers family with that at Quemerford. (fn. 215) Daniel Bull bought some of it, presumably from Henry Vince, c. 1755 (fn. 216) and the rest from Vince's trustees in 1758-9. (fn. 217) In 1790 he sold it all to William Petty, marquess of Lansdowne (d. 1805), (fn. 218) who in 1802 settled it with other land on his son Henry, marquess of Lansdowne from 1809. (fn. 219) In 1808 the land was offered for sale by order of Chancery. It was bought by John Merewether, who c. 1817-18 sold it to Thomas Poynder (d. 1856). (fn. 220) As Rookery farm, 158 a. in 1843 including Stock Orchard farm, (fn. 221) it thereafter descended with Hilmarton manor and Upper Whitley farm in the Poynder family and was sold by John Dickson Poynder, Lord Islington, c. 1914. (fn. 222) In 1919 Rookery farm was bought by Jane Woodward and in 1931 was again offered for sale. In 1931 or later the farm was acquired by G. R. Bodman, who in 1962 sold 111 a., the whole farm except the farmhouse. In 1999 Charles, marquess of Lansdowne, owned c. 55 a. of it. (fn. 223)
Quobbs farm originated in the earlier 17th century. Two closes called Quobbs, 18 a., were sold by John Woodroffe to Andrew Mortimer (will proved 1611), who held two other closes so called, 32 a., possibly as part of Stock manor. Andrew devised all four closes, subject to temporary tenures, to his nephews Andrew and Anthony Mortimer, in 1631 Andrew and Anthony sold them to their brother George Mortimer, (fn. 224) and in 1641 George sold them to Robert Chivers as part of a 58-a. holding on which a house had recently been built. (fn. 225) Robert Chivers (d. 1646-7) devised Quobbs farm, charged with annuities devised to his sisters by his father Henry Chivers (fl. 1639), to his brother Seacole Chivers. (fn. 226) By 1660 the farm had passed to Robert's sister Mary, the relict of Walter Norborne (d. 1659), (fn. 227) the lord of Hilmarton manor. It descended with the manor to her son Walter Norborne (d. 1684), whose relict Frances Norborne held it, 127 a., in 1728. Quobbs farm passed to Walter's daughter Elizabeth Norborne (d. 1742), the wife of Edward Devereux, Viscount Hereford (d. 1700), and of John Symes Berkeley (d. 1736), and with Hilmarton manor descended in turn to Elizabeth's son Norborne Berkeley, from 1764 Lord Botetourt (d. 1770), and daughter Elizabeth Berkeley (d. 1799), the wife of Charles Somerset, duke of Beaufort (d. 1756). Elizabeth's heir was her son Henry Somerset, duke of Beaufort (d. 1803), (fn. 228) who in 1799 sold the farm, 84 a., to Samuel Viveash, a clothier of Calne. (fn. 229) In 1837 Viveash sold it to Henry, marquess of Lansdowne, (fn. 230) who added it to his other land at Stock. (fn. 231)
In 1699 the land of Knight's Marsh farm may have belonged to John Mitchell, the owner of Blunt's estate in Calstone. (fn. 232) The farm, 49 a., belonged to a John Mitchell in 1728, (fn. 233) and to a Mrs. Mitchell in 1732. It passed to Mitchell Newman (will proved 1755), who devised it to his son Mitchell, and it descended in the Newman family. (fn. 234) In 1843, 75 a., it was held by the executors of Edward Newman. (fn. 235) Its descent has not been traced further.
Rough Leaze farm, 30 a., belonged in 1728 to John Burchel. (fn. 236) About 1754-5 it was bought from a Mr. Burchel by Daniel Bull, who sold it in 1770 to William, earl of Shelburne. (fn. 237) Lord Shelburne added it to his other land at Stock. (fn. 238)
Stock Orchard farm, 46 a., belonged to Anne Scott in 1728. (fn. 239) It passed from her to a Mr. Scott c. 1732-3 (fn. 240) and from him and presumably by sale to George Button c. 1734-5. In 1751 Button sold the farm to Edmund Pitts, whose son Edmund sold it in 1781 to John Bleadon. (fn. 241) Bleadon owned the farm until c. 1819 and was probably John Bleadon (will proved 1819) of Ipswich (Suffolk), an executor of whom was Thomas Poynder. From c. 1822-3 Poynder owned the farm, (fn. 242) which was part of Rookery farm from 1843 or earlier. (fn. 243)
In 1728 the farm later called Mile Elm, 20 a., belonged to John Aishley. (fn. 244) About 1779-80 it was bought from him or a namesake by William Money, (fn. 245) from 1785 the lord of Whetham manor, and it has since belonged to the owners of Whetham House. (fn. 246)
In 1256 Andrew of Stretton and his wife Beatrice gave 20 a. at Stock to the hospital of St. John the Baptist and St. Anthony at Calne. The land apparently remained part of the hospital's endowment at the Dissolution. (fn. 247)
Before the Conquest and in 1086 the land of STOCKLEY was almost certainly part of the king's estate called Calne. Some or all of it was probably granted to Fulk de Cauntelo c. 1199 with the rump of that estate, (fn. 248) and land in Stockley descended with Calne and Calstone manors and from 1763 with Bowood House. (fn. 249) In 1728 Calne and Calstone manor included six farms at Stockley with a total of c. 180 a. (fn. 250) That land descended with Bowood House until 2001, when Charles, marquess of Lansdowne, sold most of it, mainly lying south of the Stockley Green to Broad's Green lane, to Mr. N. R. Cole. (fn. 251) Other land at Stockley may have been granted piecemeal out of the king's estate or out of Calne manor. (fn. 252)
From the earlier 15th century land at Stockley apparently descended as part of the estate which came to be called the manor of Stock and Stockley. (fn. 253) Andrew Mortimer (will proved 1611), who held that estate, devised what was called Stockley manor to his father George and brother Ambrose. (fn. 254) In 1633 Ambrose sold the estate at Stockley, apparently no more than the farm later called Scott's, to Alexander Staples (d. 1633). It descended to Alexander's son Samuel, who in 1685 sold it to Richard Phelps alias Bromham. The farm later called Scott's, 78 a. in 1728, passed before then to John Phelps (fn. 255) (d. 1731) and afterwards to his son Richard Phelps, whose heirs were his sisters Mary, the wife of John Phelps, Elizabeth, the wife of the Revd. John Taylor, Joanna, the wife of Richard Tuckey, and Eleanor (d. by 1756), the wife of John Savage. In 1756 the surviving sisters and John Savage sold the farm to Daniel Bull. (fn. 256) In 1770 Bull sold it to William, earl of Shelburne, (fn. 257) who added it to his other land at Stockley. Most of the land of Scott's farm was part of the Bowood estate in 2001. (fn. 258)
A pasture at Stockley called Tossels, later Tossels farm, belonged in 1659 to Edward Hungerford, the lord of Studley manor, (fn. 259) who in 1665 settled it on the marriage of his son Sir George and Frances Seymour. (fn. 260) About 1680 Sir George evidently sold Scrope farm in Froxfield to Sir James Long, Bt. (d. 1692). Scrope farm, and almost certainly Tossels farm, apparently passed with Draycot Cerne manor in turn to Sir James's grandsons Sir Robert Long, Bt. (d. 1692), Sir Giles Long, Bt. (d. 1697), and Sir James Long, Bt. (d. 1729), (fn. 261) who owned Tossels farm, 69 a., in 1728. (fn. 262) Sir James devised the farm to his wife Henrietta (d. 1765), who devised it to their grandson Charles Long (d. 1783). It was held by Charles's relict Hannah, the wife of James Dawkins, and passed to his daughter Emma, the wife of William Scrope; (fn. 263) in 1843 Scrope owned it as a 76-a. farm. (fn. 264) The farm was bought by a Poynder, descended with Hilmarton manor and Upper Whitley farm, and was sold by Lord Islington c. 1914. (fn. 265) In 1920 J. P. Garland sold it to F. J. Freeth (fn. 266) (d. 1964), and in 1964 it was bought by Charles, earl of Shelburne (marquess of Lansdowne from 1999), who added it to his other land at Stockley and retained it in 2001. (fn. 267)
In 1336 Robert Hungerford was licensed to grant land said to be at Stock but almost certainly at Stockley to the hospital of St. John the Baptist and St. Anthony at Calne to provide a chantry chaplain in Calne church. (fn. 268) In 1442 the chantry was united to St. Mary's chantry in Heytesbury church, (fn. 269) and apparently from then its endowment was transferred from the hospital at Calne to support a hospital and a school at Heytesbury. The endowment was apparently settled on Heytesbury hospital in 1472, (fn. 270) and in 1728 that hospital owned a 44-a. farm with buildings at what was later called Stockley Green. (fn. 271) In 1962 the hospital sold 32 a. to George, marquess of Lansdowne, and 26 a. of that land remained part of the Bowood estate in 2001. Heytesbury hospital sold its other land at Stockley in 1961 and 1962. (fn. 272)
In 1494 Sir Richard Beauchamp, Lord St. Amand, and his wife Anne were licensed to give land accounted c. 80 a. at Stockley to the Tocotes chantry in Bromham church. (fn. 273) Land at Stockley was among the endowments of the chantry concealed from the Crown at the Dissolution and granted to Edward Carey in 1564. (fn. 274) Its later descent has not been traced.
In 1728 a 30-a. farm with buildings at Stockley Green was held by Henry Hungerford (fn. 275) and in 1732 and until c. 1748-9 by a Mrs. Hungerford. From c. 1748-9 the farm apparently belonged to Walter Hungerford, (fn. 276) the lord of Studley manor, and it afterwards descended with Studley manor in the Hungerford, Crewe, and Milnes families (fn. 277) and to Raymond O'Neill, Lord O'Neill, who sold it in 1961. Most of the farm was bought from Lord O'Neill by George, marquess of Lansdowne, (fn. 278) and some of its land remained part of the Bowood estate in 2001. (fn. 279)
In 1728, besides those which were part of Calne and Calstone manor, and Scott's, Tossels, Heytesbury hospital's, and Henry Hungerford's, there were about six farms at Stockley with a total of c. 225 a. The largest, Broad's Green farm, 65 a., then belonged to Mary Scott. (fn. 280) It descended in the Scott family and in the late 18th century and early 19th in the Bailey family. (fn. 281) In 1840 it was bought from a Miss Bailey by Henry, marquess of Lansdowne. (fn. 282) Most of its land remained part of the Bowood estate until 2001, when, with other land at Stockley, it was sold to Mr. N. R. Cole. The descent of the other farms has not been traced. In 2001, after the sale to Mr. Cole, Charles, marquess of Lansdowne, owned c. 200 a. of Stockley's land. (fn. 283)
The land of Studley was probably assarted from Chippenham forest. (fn. 284) About 1230 STUDLEY manor was possibly held by Alexander of Studley, (fn. 285) and in 1240 and 1242-3 it was held by Alexander's son Roger. In 1242- 3 the overlords were said to be the heirs of John le Scot, earl of Chester (d. 1237), and the mesne lord Margery Marshal, suo jure countess of Warwick: (fn. 286) no later earl of Chester or heir of Margery is known to have had an interest in the manor. In 1243 the manor was probably held by Ellis of Studley (fn. 287) and c. 1280 was held by Alexander of Studley. (fn. 288) In 1296 it was settled by John, son of Roger of Studley, on Laurence of Studley and Laurence's wife Anne in tail, (fn. 289) and in 1341 it was settled by John Studley and his wife Alice on themselves for life with successive remainder to that John's sons Ralph, Geoffrey, and Nicholas. (fn. 290) Another John Studley possibly held the manor in 1405, (fn. 291) and Walter Studley (fl. 1419) held it in 1407. (fn. 292) By 1421 the manor had passed to Alice (d. c. 1457), the daughter of John Studley and the wife of Thomas Cricklade. On Alice's death it passed to her grandson John Cricklade. (fn. 293)
In 1468 John Cricklade sold Studley manor to his brother-in-law Edward Hungerford, (fn. 294) whose title was disputed c. 1470 by John Cricklade, John Cricklade's uncle and feoffee, and in the earlier 16th century by other descendants of Thomas Cricklade. (fn. 295) Hungerford (will proved 1507) retained the manor. It descended with Great Durnford manor in the direct line to Robert (d. 1517), Robert (will proved 1558), Walter (d. 1601), John (d. 1636), Edward (d. 1667), Sir George (d. 1712), and Walter Hungerford (d. 1754). (fn. 296) Under Walter's will it passed to his nephew George Hungerford (d. s.p. 1764), whose relict Elizabeth held Studley House and Norley farm, c. 60 a., for life, and in turn to Walter's grandnephews Lumley Keate (d. s.p. 1766), who took the surname Hungerford, and John Luttrell. (fn. 297) By 1770 the part of the manor not held by Elizabeth Hungerford had passed, perhaps by sale or exchange, to George Walker (d. by 1792), the husband of Lumley's sister Henrietta Keate (d. 1803); George also took the surname Hungerford. On Henrietta's death that part of the manor passed to her daughter Henrietta Hungerford (d. 1820), (fn. 298) from 1807 the wife of John Crewe (Lord Crewe from 1829, d. 1835). (fn. 299) In 1777 Luttrell sold Studley House and Norley farm, and Elizabeth Hungerford surrendered her life interest, to William Petty, earl of Shelburne. (fn. 300) The house and the farm descended to Lord Shelburne's son John, marquess of Lansdowne, who sold them to Henrietta Hungerford in 1807. (fn. 301) Henrietta's heir was her son Hungerford Crewe (Lord Crewe from 1835), (fn. 302) who in 1843 held c. 175 a. at Studley and c. 545 a. elsewhere in Calne parish. (fn. 303) Studley manor passed from Lord Crewe (d. 1893) to his nephew Robert Milnes, Lord Houghton (from 1894 Robert Crewe-Milnes, cr. earl of Crewe 1895, cr. marquess of Crewe 1911, d. 1945), and from Robert to his great-grandson Raymond O'Neill, Lord O'Neill, who in 1996 owned c. 475 a. in Calne Without parish including c. 160 a. at Studley. (fn. 304)
Roger of Studley had a manor house at Studley in 1240. (fn. 305) Studley House, north of Norley Lane and probably on the same site, was a manor house lived in by members of the Hungerford family in the 18th century. (fn. 306) It stood in a small park, and a formal garden and a canal, presumably ornamental, lay east of it. (fn. 307) The house was replaced by a farmhouse, Studley House Farm, probably between 1773 and 1800. (fn. 308)
A small estate in Studley was probably held by John Norborne in 1596, (fn. 309) and was held by him in 1602 (fn. 310) and until his death in 1635. It passed in turn to his son Humphrey (fn. 311) and Humphrey's son William. In 1692 William and his son Humphrey sold the estate, then consisting of a house and 75 a., to Benedict Browne. (fn. 312) In 1728 Browne (d. 1737) owned c. 158 a. at Studley including Rumsey's farm, 72 a., with buildings south-east of Studley village and south of the London-Bristol road, and a home farm of 68 a. with buildings nearby north of the road. The whole estate, later called RUMSEY'S, passed in turn to Browne's sons William (d. 1749) and Benedict (d. 1766) and descended in the direct line to Benedict (d. 1786), who apparently took the surname Angell, and Benedict Browne, who took the surname Angell in 1800. From Angell (d. 1856) Rumsey's passed to his son J. C. B. Angell (fn. 313) (d. 1878), whose son J. B. O. Angell (fn. 314) sold it to Henry Petty-Fitzmaurice, marquess of Lansdowne, in 1912. (fn. 315) The estate thereafter descended with Bowood House and, except Rumsey House which was sold in 1981, belonged to Charles, marquess of Lansdowne, in 1999. (fn. 316)
The house on Benedict Browne's home farm in 1728 had formal gardens north and east of it in 1773 (fn. 317) and was called Studley House in 1785. (fn. 318) The house on its site in 1996 was a farmhouse, Rumsey Farm, in the 19th century. (fn. 319) It incorporates a 16th-century doorway in a rear wing, incorporates a 17th-century stone-mullioned window, and is mainly later 18th-century. Around the house there are outbuildings and walled enclosures including, to the east, a walled garden with mid 18th-century doorways and a clairvoyé. About 1800 Rumsey House, of stone and with a main three-storeyed north front, was built on or near the site of the farmstead south of the London road for Benedict Angell. (fn. 320) Soon afterwards a two-storeyed block was built on the south, and north-south wings, overlapping the south block, were added on the east and west. In the later 19th century the south block was extended eastwards and a verandah was built along its south front. A single-storeyed classical gatehouse and a stable block of brick with ashlar dressings, both of c. 1800, stand beside the road.
A small estate called BUCKHILL may have belonged to Robert Foreman in 1687, (fn. 321) and in 1728 a 21-a. estate there belonged to Arthur Foreman. (fn. 322) The estate descended in the Foreman family and on the death of Rachel Foreman and George Foreman in 1808 passed to Ruth Foreman. About 1810-11 it was acquired by John Merewether, (fn. 323) presumably by purchase, and in 1818 Merewether gave it to Henry, marquess of Lansdowne, in an exchange. (fn. 324) The land has since belonged to the owner of Bowood House. (fn. 325) Buckhill House stood on the estate. It is a two-storeyed stone house built in the late 18th century or early 19th on an L plan with a main three-bayed north front and a mansard roof; rear wings were added later.
A grove beside a road said to run between Studley and Devizes, possibly at Studley, was given to Stanley abbey in Bremhill by Reynold de Paveley in the later 12th century, (fn. 326) and a meadow possibly at Studley had been given to the abbey by Robert Norman by 1230. (fn. 327) At the Dissolution the abbey was said to receive £4 2s. 4d. from its lands at Studley, (fn. 328) a statement which is inexplicable because there is no evidence that other land had been acquired. The rent from 2 a. at Studley was given to Bradenstoke priory in Lyneham by William de Chinnok in the early 13th century (fn. 329) and may have been kept by the priory until the Dissolution. (fn. 330) Bicester priory (Oxon.) had acquired a rent from land at Studley by 1421, probably by 1405; (fn. 331) at the Dissolution its claims to a rent of 7s. from a tenement at Studley were disputed by the lord of Studley manor. (fn. 332)
The great tithes from the demesne of Studley manor were confirmed to Kington St. Michael priory in 1243, when the treasurer of Salisbury cathedral, the owner of the other great tithes arising in Calne parish, resigned his claim to them in return for 2 lb. wax to be paid to him by the priory. (fn. 333) A site at Studley on which the nuns had built a grange was given to the priory by Alexander of Studley c. 1280. (fn. 334) At the Dissolution the tithes passed from the priory to the Crown and in 1538 were granted to Sir Richard Long (fn. 335) (d. 1546). They descended to Sir Richard's son Henry (d. 1573) and to Henry's daughter Elizabeth (d. 1611), the wife of Sir William Russell (cr. Lord Russell 1603, d. 1613). In 1598 the title to the tithes of Studley farm was disputed between the Russells and the tenant of the farm, John Norborne, who claimed to hold the tithes by a lease from the treasurer, (fn. 336) and in the earlier 19th century the only owners of tithes from Studley were the treasurer and the vicar of Calne. (fn. 337) The Russells' right or claim to the tithes may later have been acquired by a lord of Studley manor, and it may have been represented by the exemption from tithes which in 1728 the lord of the manor enjoyed in respect of part of his farm called Berhill. (fn. 338) The exemption was not recognized in the earlier 19th century. (fn. 339)
The land of Whetham was probably assarted from Chippenham forest. (fn. 340) WHETHAM manor may have been held by Richard de Fynemore and was probably held in the 1230s by his son William. (fn. 341) In the 1270s it was held by Gilbert de Fynemore and his son Geoffrey, (fn. 342) in the 1320s by Gilbert de Fynemore (fl. 1332) and his son John (fl. 1344). (fn. 343) In 1384 the manor was settled on William Fynemore and his wife Agnes, (fn. 344) who were living in 1409. (fn. 345) It apparently passed to William Fynemore (fl. 1424), (fn. 346) whose relict Margery had an interest in it in 1440, (fn. 347) and in 1436 it was settled on John Fynemore and his wife Joan. (fn. 348) In 1465 the manor was settled on Roger Fynemore (fn. 349) (d. 1502), who was succeeded by his son Richard (fn. 350) (d. 1522). It passed to Richard's brother Walter (fn. 351) (d. 1557), (fn. 352) whose title was unsuccessfully contested by his brother Thomas, (fn. 353) and to Walter's son Roger Fynemore (d. 1574 or 1575). (fn. 354) Roger's heir was his daughter Mary (d. by 1587), the wife of Michael Ernle (d. 1594), and hers was her son Sir John Ernle (d. 1648). Sir John was succeeded by his son John (d. 1685), he by his son Sir John Ernle (d. 1697), (fn. 355) Chancellor of the Exchequer 1676-89, (fn. 356) and he by his grandson John Kyrle Ernle (d. 1725), whose heir was his daughter Constantia, the wife of Thomas Hay, Viscount Dupplin (from 1758 earl of Kinnoull, d. 1787). On Constantia's death in 1753 Whetham manor passed, despite a claim to it by her relict husband, to her kinsman James Money (d. 1785). It passed in turn to James's son William (d. 1808) (fn. 357) and William's son James (from 1809 James Money-Kyrle, cr. a baronet 1838, d. 1843), (fn. 358) who in 1843 owned 453 a. at Whetham and elsewhere in the south-west corner of Calne parish. (fn. 359) On Sir James's death the manor passed to his brother the Revd. William Money-Kyrle (d. 1848), and it passed in turn to that William's sons William (d. 1868) and John (d. 1894), to John's son Audley Money-Kyrle (d. 1908), and to Audley's son Roger (fn. 360) (d. 1980). (fn. 361) In 2001 the estate was owned by Whetham Estates Ltd. on behalf of the MoneyKyrle family. (fn. 362)
William Fynemore had a house at Whetham in which an oratory was licensed in 1409. (fn. 363) In the 17th century Whetham House was built on the manor and probably on the site of Fynemore's house. It is of limestone rubble and consists of four single-pile ranges of two storeys and attics enclosing a central courtyard. In 1728 it had an L plan, and three smaller buildings stood east of it. (fn. 364) The oldest surviving part of the house is apparently the west range, which was standing in the later 17th century, may incorporate earlier fabric, and on its west front has mullioned and transomed cross windows and a reset armorial panel. The main, south, range, to which the west range became a wing, was probably built in the 1680s or 1690s (fn. 365) and possibly for Sir John Ernle, who had a large house at Whetham at his death in 1697. (fn. 366) It was probably of five bays and was later of six. Its south front had two principal storeys divided by band courses and had two gables; there were cross windows in the principal storeys and mullioned windows in the gables. The two south ground-floor rooms contain a chimneypiece of the late 17th century in situ and reset panelling and doors of that date. The sixth, entrance, bay was apparently added in the early 18th century and contained a staircase hall. The entrance doorway had a segmental pediment, the scar of which survives, and a large sashed window on the first floor. A north range, projecting west by a bay to match the entrance bay, had been built by c. 1800. As part of alterations of c. 1800 a new staircase hall was made at the south end of the west range, the staircase was moved to it, and rooms were added in the angle of the L; (fn. 367) the staircase was replaced in the late 19th century by another in late 17th-century style. In the earlier 19th century battlements, a onebayed, single-storeyed, west block, and a porch at the west end may have been added to the south front; (fn. 368) if so they have been removed. Later in the 19th century hoodmoulds were added to the windows of the south front; the windows were replaced, perhaps in the early 20th century when a two-storeyed gabled wing was built at the west end of the south range and a south porch was built or rebuilt. Also in the early 20th century the west front of the west range was apparently refaced and the north range was altered and extended eastwards. Slightly later a north addition at the east end of the south range was extended northwards to meet the north range and thus enclose the central courtyard.
In 1728 Whetham House stood in extensive formal gardens laid out in the late 17th century or early 18th on an undulating site. (fn. 369) Immediately around it lay a south entrance court, west and north gardens, and a north-east court apparently a service court associated with the three buildings which then stood near the house. East of the house a north-south body of water, which had been formed by damming the Whetham stream, served as both an ornamental lake for the house and as a pond for the mill at its north end. (fn. 370) An axial walk led north and south of the house. To the north it lay parallel to the Whetham stream, passed through woodland and crossed the waters of a south-west to north-east tributary, (fn. 371) and rose to end at a circular grove. West of the house the tributary was dammed in two places to make ponds, and from the south-western pond, north of which there was a vineyard, a water carriage took the water north-west of the natural stream to other ponds. North-west of the house the carriage fed waterworks, at the top of which lay a pond partly enclosed by a building with ranges forming three attached sides of a hexagon. From that pond water fell through woodland in canals or over water stairs to a pond on the axial walk and to the Whetham stream. South of the house the axial walk led through woodland to a park of c. 75 a. It entered a long rectangular enclosure, and there was a geometrical figure of 5 a. called the Ring which was presumably marked out by lines of trees. Linking the long enclosure and the Ring there was 4½ a. of other ponds and gardens. The formal garden west of the house survived until the early 19th century or later. (fn. 372) The axial walk south of the house was crossed by the turnpike road built in 1790-1, (fn. 373) by 1843 the building partly enclosing the pond north of the house had been demolished, (fn. 374) and in 2001 the axial walk north of the house, and the ponds, water carriage, and canals or water stairs fed by the tributary stream, were overgrown.
Part of Whetham manor at Cuff's Corner, 45 a. and a farmstead, was given in 1909 by Roger Money-Kyrle to Henry Petty-Fitzmaurice, marquess of Lansdowne, in exchange for land at Cowage. (fn. 375) The land belonged to Charles, marquess of Lansdowne, in 1999. (fn. 376)
In the later 14th century land called NUSTERLY, 33 a. on the west bank of the Whetham stream, north of Whetham manor, and probably assarted from Chippenham forest, may have belonged to the lord of Studley manor, as it did in the mid or later 17th century. (fn. 377) It descended with the manor until 1765, when Lumley Keate sold it to William, earl of Shelburne. The land was taken into the park of Bowood House, was afterwards called Clark's hill and Wires plain, (fn. 378) and in 1999 belonged to Charles, marquess of Lansdowne. (fn. 379)
In the late 14th century land lying northwest of Whetham manor, probably assarted from Chippenham forest, and later called Nuttall's or NUTHILL farm, was held by Sir John Roches (d. 1400), who also held adjoining or nearby land at Chittoe, then in Bishop's Cannings parish. (fn. 380) Sir John's estate was held for life by his relict William, at whose death in 1410 his heirs were his daughters Elizabeth, the wife of (Sir) Walter Beauchamp (d. 1430), and his grandson (Sir) John Baynton. (fn. 381) What became Nuthill farm was apparently assigned to Elizabeth, (fn. 382) presumably passed to her son Sir William Beauchamp (from 1449 Lord St. Amand, d. 1457), and may have been held by Sir William's relict Elizabeth, Baroness St. Amand (d. 1491), who married Sir Roger Tocotes. It passed to Sir William's son Sir Richard Beauchamp (Lord St. Amand from 1491), (fn. 383) on whose death in 1508 it probably reverted, with Roches manor in Bromham, to Sir John Baynton's grandson John Baynton (fn. 384) (d. 1516). The younger Baynton was succeeded by his son Sir Edward (d. 1544), and what became Nuthill farm presumably descended with Bromham Battle manor and other estates in turn to Sir Edward's sons Andrew (d. 1566) and Sir Edward (d. 1599) and in the direct line to Sir Henry Baynton (d. 1616), Sir Edward (d. 1657), and Sir Edward (d. 1679). It was presumably settled on the marriage of the youngest Sir Edward's daughter Lucy and Edward Baynton, (fn. 385) and in 1728, after Edward's death, Lucy held the farm, 113 a. and a farmstead near Sandy Lane. (fn. 386) About 1739 the farm was bought, probably from a son of Lucy, by Ralph Broome (fn. 387) (d. 1768), who devised it to his son Ralph (fn. 388) (d. c. 1805). It may have been held for life by the younger Ralph's relict, and it passed to his nephew R. P. Broome (d. 1836), whose relict Maria Broome held it in 1843. (fn. 389) Nuthill farm passed to R. P. Broome's nephew C. E. Broome, who probably sold it in 1860 to C. H. Wyndham (d. 1891) of Wans House near Sandy Lane. (fn. 390) In 1892 Wyndham's trustees sold it to Henry, marquess of Lansdowne, (fn. 391) and the land has since belonged to successive marquesses of Lansdowne as part of their Bowood estate. (fn. 392)
In 1494 Richard, Lord St. Amand, and his wife Anne were licensed to give 11 a. at Whetham to the Tocotes chantry in Bromham church with the land at Stockley which they gave to it. (fn. 393) It is not clear whether the chantry held the land at the Dissolution. (fn. 394)
What was later WHITLEY manor, assessed at 1 hide, was held by Appe in 1066 and by Gunfrid Mauduit in 1086. (fn. 395) It probably descended in the Mauduit family with Little Somerford manor and the estate in Calstone later called Blunt's, (fn. 396) and in 1242-3 it was held by John Mauduit as tenant in demesne. (fn. 397)
In 1254 John Mauduit was granted free warren in his demesne at Whitley; (fn. 400) he was possibly the Sir John Mauduit who died seised of Whitley in 1302. Sir John was succeeded by his nephew John Mauduit (knighted 1306, d. 1347), (fn. 401) who was granted free warren in his demesne at Whitley in 1345. (fn. 402) Whitley manor was held for life by the younger Sir John's relict Agnes (d. 1369), the wife of Thomas Bradeston, Lord Bradeston, and passed to that Sir John's grandson Sir William Moleyns (fn. 403) (d. 1381). It descended in the direct line to Sir Richard (fn. 404) (d. 1384), Sir William (fn. 405) (d. 1425), and Sir William Moleyns (fn. 406) (d. 1429), who granted it to his mother Margery Moleyns (d. 1439) for her life. In 1439 the manor reverted to Eleanor (fn. 407) (d. 1476), the daughter of Sir William (d. 1429) and from 1440 or earlier the wife of Sir Robert Hungerford, Lord Hungerford and Moleyns (d. 1464). It was among lands conveyed to trustees by Robert and Eleanor in 1460 to raise money to ransom him from Aquitaine, but was held by Eleanor and Sir Oliver Manningham, her husband, in 1472. (fn. 408) It probably descended like Little Somerford manor, which was apparently held for life by Sir Oliver (d. 1499), reverted to Eleanor's granddaughter Mary Hungerford, suo jure Baroness Botreaux, Hungerford, and Moleyns (d. c. 1533), the wife of Edward Hastings, Lord Hastings (d. 1506) and Sir Richard Sacheverell (d. 1534), and passed to Mary's son George Hastings, Lord Hastings (cr. earl of Huntingdon 1529, d. 1544), and George's son Francis, earl of Huntingdon (d. 1560). (fn. 409) In 1568 Francis's son Henry, earl of Huntingdon, sold Whitley manor to William Jordan (fn. 410) (d. 1602). It descended from Jordan to his son Sir William (fn. 411) (d. 1624) and to Sir William's son William. (fn. 412) The descent between 1624 and 1728 is obscure.
In 1728 Whitley manor, then c. 475 a. and consisting of Upper Whitley farm and Lower Whitley farm, was held by William Infield or Enfield, (fn. 413) and from c. 1736-7 was held by a Mrs. Enfield, (fn. 414) presumably his relict. It passed in 1739, presumably by purchase, to Thomas ApReece and c. 1750-1, again presumably by purchase, from ApReece to John Delmé (fn. 415) (d. 1768), whose heir was his brother Peter. On Peter's death in 1789 the manor descended to his son John Delmé (of age from 1793), from whom it was acquired, c. 1794 and presumably by purchase, by Henry Stiles (d. 1817), until then the tenant. It passed to Robert Stiles, who apparently sold Lower Whitley farm c. 1826 and held Upper Whitley farm until 1833 or later. (fn. 416)
Upper Whitley (later Whitley) farm, 430 a. in 1843 and 345 a. in 1911, was bought in or after 1833 by Thomas Poynder (d. 1856), the lord of Hilmarton manor. (fn. 417) It descended with the manor and land elsewhere in Calne parish in turn to Poynder's sons Thomas (d. 1873) and William (d. 1880) and grandson John Dickson (John Dickson Poynder from 1888, cr. Baron Islington 1910). Lord Islington evidently sold it c. 1914, as he did his land in Hilmarton and elsewhere in Calne. (fn. 418) The farm was apparently bought by C. H. F. Vines, (fn. 419) who after 1936 sold most of it to W. E. Mowlem, the owner of Lower Whitley farm and the tenant of Whitley farm from 1936. Mowlem was succeeded by his sons Mr. J. E. Mowlem and Mr. G. Mowlem, who together owned both farms until 1995. From 1995 and in 2001 Whitley farm, c. 145 a., belonged to Mr. G. Mowlem. (fn. 420)
Lower Whitley farm was acquired, apparently by purchase, by Nathan Atherton c. 1826. (fn. 421) In 1841 Atherton sold the farm, 137 a., to Henry, marquess of Lansdowne, (fn. 422) and it descended with Bowood House until 1919, when Henry, marquess of Lansdowne, sold it to F. G. Freeth. (fn. 423) On Freeth's death in 1928 it passed to his relict Mrs. M. E. Freeth, and shortly after 1936 Mrs. Freeth sold it to W. E. Mowlem, who afterwards bought Whitley farm. Lower Whitley farm was owned with Whitley farm until 1995, and from then and in 2001, c. 145 a., belonged to Mr. J. E. Mowlem. (fn. 424)
From 1650 or earlier a nominal 55 a. at Whitley was part of Cowage farm based in Compton Bassett (later Hilmarton) parish. The land, later 60 a., descended as part of the farm, (fn. 425) and, probably in the late 1930s, c. 125 a. of Upper Whitley farm was bought by the owner of Cowage farm. All the land, c. 185 a., remained part of Cowage farm in 2001, when it belonged to Mr. B. A. Maynard and members of his family. (fn. 426)