BHO

Poll-Tax payers of 1377

Pages 304-313

A History of the County of Wiltshire: Volume 4. Originally published by Victoria County History, London, 1959.

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Table of contents

POLL-TAX PAYERS OF 1377

The poll taxes of 1377, 1379, and 1381 were designed as a supplement to the fifteenths and tenths levied in 1377, 1380, and 1384. In this respect they fall into the same class as the other attempts to supplement revenue by novel devices: (fn. 1) the 'ninth sheaf and fleece' of 1341; the parish levies of 1371 and 1427; the 'income taxes' of 1404, 1411, 1435, and 1449. There is a record of the parliamentary discussion in 1377 when, after rejecting an income tax, a purchase tax, and other novelties, it was decided to levy the flat rate of 4d. a head ('poll') from everyone over the age of 14 who was not a professional beggar. This was a regressive tax, taking in proportion more of a poor man's income than a rich man's, and when Richard II's Parliament granted a second poll tax in 1379 there was an attempt to make the tax more acceptable by grading the payments according to rank. (fn. 2)

Thus, while the poll-tax receipts of 1377 are simply a statement that the collectors have received so many groats from the village representatives, the returns of 1379 have lists of names and occupations usually lacking in 1377. (fn. 3) But wherever there are surviving documents for 1377 and 1379 it is plain that the second collection saw extensive evasion. Although the documents (fn. 4) of 1379 have some use as indicating the minimum range of occupations in a particular place and the minimum number of taxpayers they are useless in preparing population estimates. In 1381 the poll tax was collected for the last time, (fn. 5) with even more marked evasion.

More poll-tax receipts survive for Wiltshire than for any other county. The West Riding of Yorkshire, twice the area of Wiltshire, has 66 fewer, Leicestershire (fn. 6) has only half of Wiltshire's number, and Dorset, Gloucestershire, and Hampshire have none at all. The 529 surviving Wiltshire receipts, probably almost all that were made, are preserved in six files and there are also six loose ones. (fn. 7) They give the names of over 550 places, about the same number of places indeed, though not always the same places, as are to be found in the 1334 assessment.

The receipts in Files 37 and 38, nearly 350 in all, carry their original seals, and there are many endorsements which show that the present arrangement of files has come about by the amalgamation of many smaller files each originally that of one hundred. The endorsement of some receipts and their dirty colour show that they have been the outer membrane or cover of their file, and there are still long runs of successive membranes all from the same hundred. (fn. 8) The amalgamation of files has, however, caused other receipts to be filed unmethodically. The fact that many membranes from one hundred are often grouped together in a file helped solve problems of bad legibility and ambiguous nomenclature.

The geographical unit for which the receipt was given usually appears as 'vill' although there are some 'boroughs' and one 'tithing'. The city of Salisbury has no surviving receipt but its assessment is known from the Great Enrolment of the city and county totals in another class of document. (fn. 9)

Collections were made at Highworth on 5 April, at Ramsbury, Marlborough, and Calne on 6 April, and at Calne again on 8 April and 16 June. The last of these was for two vills only. There were also collections at unspecified places on 1, 4, 5, 6, 8, 10, and 12 April. Each receipt bears the names of the collectors, (fn. 10) the village constables, and probi homines and the date of collection as well as the standard formula of so many shillings and pence from so many heads.

Table 1 printed below is arranged by the hundreds as they are believed to have existed in 1377 together with a category called 'Boroughs and Liberties'. The constitution of nine of the hundreds is known from the hundred-names inscribed or endorsed upon the receipts. These are Blackgrove, Calne, Cricklade, North Damerham, Kingsbridge, Malmesbury, Ramsbury, Staple, and Thornhill. The constitution of the hundreds of Chippenham, Highworth, Kinwardstone, and Selkley is ascertainable with almost equal certainty, for nearly all the receipts are likewise endorsed. There are comparatively few other inscriptions or endorsements, so the hundreds have had to be notionally reconstituted by studying the proximity, within apparently unbroken files, of uninscribed to inscribed receipts, and the constitution of the hundreds as shown in the list of 1334. Where the probability of error in attributing a particular place to a particular hundred (or the category 'Boroughs and Liberties') is small, the place-name has been marked with a single asterisk (*), where greater with a double one (**). A few of the attributions to particular hundreds must be regarded as quite speculative. This is especially true where there are places of the same name in adjacent or almost adjacent hundreds and no distinguishing prefix or suffix has been added to the vill name. Imber (Heytesbury and King's Rowborough), Orcheston (Dole and Heytesbury), Tilshead (Dole and Whorwellsdown), and Winterslow (Alderbury and Amesbury) furnish instances. While it is fairly certain that there was a place bearing one of these four names in each of the four groups of hundreds it is hard to know whether the right vill has been fitted into the right hundred.

A comparison between the lists of 1334 and 1377 shows two differences in the organization of the Wiltshire hundreds in the two periods. First, North Damerham hundred which seems to have begun to separate itself from Chippenham hundred in the later 13th century (fn. 11) is a distinct hundred by 1377, though it was not so treated in 1334. Secondly, Malmesbury hundred, which did not exist eo nomine in 1334, has replaced Chedglow and Startley hundreds by 1377. (fn. 12) Thirdly, the arrangement of receipts on the files suggests that several of the detached parts of Elstub hundred were reckoned to fall within their surrounding geographical hundreds in 1377 rather than in Elstub. They have therefore been distributed, it must be owned, somewhat speculatively. The Liberty of Longbridge Deverill, as it was called in 1334, has similarly been placed in Heytesbury hundred. Endorsements on two receipts (fn. 13) show that there was originally a grouping for boroughs and liberties, and those places, the receipts for which are so endorsed or which cannot readily be assigned to a hundred, have been entered here under that heading. West Bedwyn is inscribed with the name of Kinwardstone hundred but endorsed 'burg' et libert'. It has been left in its hundred, as have Calne, Chippenham, Cricklade, and Downton in theirs.

In constructing this table The Place-Names of Wiltshire has been used in the same way as it was used in constructing Table 1 in the section on Fifteenths and Tenths (see p. 295) and the words in brackets after the names of vills bear the same signification here as there.

There is much difference between the number of taxpayers in the different fiscal areas. A ladder could be constructed leading down from the peak of Salisbury's 3,226 taxpayers to the point very near the ground level where the tax collector recorded the 3 taxpayers whom they found at the vill of Shaw in Selkley hundred or the 5 at Walton in Downton hundred. The head and foot of this ladder are shown in Tables 2 and 3, while Table 4 sets out the percentage of fiscal areas that fall into various categories of size, beginning with those having 10 taxpayers or fewer and ending with those having more than 160. For comparison, similar figures for Devon, the West Riding of Yorkshire, and Oxfordshire are also given. (fn. 14) The distribution in Wiltshire, Devon, and Oxfordshire is surprisingly similar. Poll-tax documents for Dorset and Gloucestershire, the counties used for comparative purposes above when considering the tax quotas of 1334, have not survived.

Table 1: Poll-Tax Payers of 1377

For the explanation of the asterisks (* or **) see above p. 305.

Boroughs and Liberties

Place Number of tax-payers Source
Bromham 269 E 179/196/38/300
**Devizes 302 /38/301
**Ludgershall borough 117 /34/24
**Marlborough barton 81 /38/198
**Marlborough borough 462 /38/199
**Rowde liberty 140 /38/197
**Salisbury city 3,226 E 159/8b
**Wilton borough 639 E 179/196/35/46
Alderbury Hundred
Alderbury 95 E 179/196/34/22
*Dean, West 45 /34/36
*Farley 22 /34/34
*Gomeldon (in Idmiston) 21 /34/30
*Grimstead, East 63 /34/37
*Grimstead, West 50 /34/40
*Hurdcott (in Winterbourne Earls) 18 /34/19
*Idmiston 74 /34/32
*Laverstock 63 /34/20
*Milford (in Laverstock) (fn. 15) 20 /34/21
Pitton 50 /34/35
*Plaitford (in Hants) 49 /34/39
*Porton (in Idmiston) 76 /34/31
*Whaddon (in Alderbury) 16 /34/38
*Winterbourne Dauntsey 84 /34/17
*Winterbourne Earls 60 /34/18
*Winterbourne Gunner 40 /34/16
**Winterslow, [West] 72 /34/33
Amesbury Hundred
Ablington. See Knighton.
Allington 35 E 179/196/33/8
**Alton (in Figheldean), 21 /240/259/
Choulston (in Figheldean), unnumbered
and Compton (in Enford) membrane
**Amesbury Countess 152 /196/36/1
**Amesbury, Great 179 /34/15
**Amesbury, West, and Normanton (in Wilsford) 43 /34/8
**Borghfeld' and Biddesden (in Chute) ?30 /33/7
**Boscombe 46 /34/7
**Brigmerston and Milston 55 /34/14
**Bulford and 'Hindurrington' (in Durrington) 125 /34/12
**Cholderton 46 /240/257/10
Choulston. See Alton.
Compton. SeeAlton.
**Diddenham (in Shinfield, Berks.) 13 /196/36/5
**Durnford, Great, with Salterton, Netton, and Newtown (all in Durnford) 123 /33/2
**Durnford, Little 39 /33/4
**Durrington 139 /34/4
**Farley Hill (in Swallowfield, Berks.) 28 /33/3
Figheldean, See Knighton.
'Hindurrington'. See Bulford.
**Hinton Hatch (in Hurst, Berks.) (fn. 16) 27 /34/5
Place Number of tax- payers Source
**Knighton (in Figheldean), with Syrencot and Ablington (both in Figheldean), and Figheldean 145 33/1
Milston. See Brigmerston.
Netton. See Durnford, Great.
Newtown. see Durnford, Great.
Normanton. See Amesbury, West.
**Ratfyn (in Amesbury) 17 /34/6
Salterton. See Durnford, Great.
**Sheepbridge, Great (in Swallowfield, Berks.) 91 /34/11
Syrencot (in Figheldean). See Knighton.
**Wellow, West (in Hants) 79 /240/259/ unnumbered membrane
**Winterslow, (East) 43 /240/257/11
**Winterslow 'of the Prior of St. John of Jerusalem' 12 /257/9
Blackgrove Hundred
Bincknoll (in Broad Hinton) 38 E 179/196/38/79
Eastcott, Westcott, and Walcot (all in Swindon) 45 /38/77
Elcombe (in Wroughton) 86 /38/72
Mannington (in Lydiard Tregoze) (fn. 17) 21 /38/78
Midgehall (in Lydiard Tregoze) 46 /38/72
Overtown (in Wroughton) 63 /38/75
Salthrop (in Wroughton) 27 /38/81
Swindon, High 248 /38/76
Uffcott (in Broad Hinton) 46 /38/158
Vastern (in Wootton Bassett) 207 /38/83
Walcott. See Eastcott.
Westcott. See Eastcott.
Bradford Hundred
**Atworth 57 E 179/196/37/2
**Bradford 237 /37/38
**Broughton Gifford 136 /37/3
**Chalfield 57 /37/9
**Farleigh, Monkton 111 /37/67
**Holt and Leigh (in Bradford) 104 /37/37
**Rowley (in Wingfield) 69 /37/39
**Trowle (in Bradford) 40 /37/4
**Westwood 45 /37/47
**Winsley 101 /33/6
**Wraxall, South 53 /37/49
Branch Hundred
**Avon (in Stratford-subCastle) 21 E 179/196/38/63
**Bathampton (in Steeple Langford) 60 /37/33
**Bemerton 43 /38/62
**Burcombe, [North] 7 /38/64
**Chilhampton (in South Newton) 14 /35/35
**Deptford (in Wylye) 26 /37/42
**Ditchampton 44 /38/66
Place Number of tax-payers Source
Fisherton Anger (in Salisbury) 147 /38/61
**Fugglestone (in Bemerton) 11 /38/125
**Langford, Hanging (in Steeple Langford) 87 /35/43
**Langford, Little 32 /35/42
**Langford, Steeple 83 /35/41
**Newton, South 69 /35/36
**Quidhampton (in Bemerton) 75 /38/124
**Sherrington 37 /35/45
**Stapleford 89 /35/39
**Stockton 140 /37/44
**Stoford (in South Newton) 38 /35/37
**Ugford, [North] 37 /38/65
**Wishford, Great 138 /35/38
**Wishford, Little 18 /35/40
**Wylye 86 /35/44
Cadworth Hundred
*Barford St. Martin 156 E 179/196/35/63
*Baverstock. 40 /35/61
*Burcombe, [South] 66 /35/58
*Fovant 150 /35/64
Hurdcott (in Barford St. Martin) 13 /35/62
*Netherhampton 75 /35/60
*Sutton Mandeville 37 /35/65
*Ugford, [South] (in Burcombe) 18 /35/59
Calne Hundred
Berwick Bassett 55 E 179/196/38/163
Beversbrook. See Whitley.
Blackland (in Calne) 41 /38/167
Calne 156 /38/159
Calstone Wellington (in Calne) 79 /38/166
Cherhill 98 /38/165
Compton Bassett 126 /38/162
Eastmanstreet (lost in Calne) 29 /38/149
Heddington 121 /38/169
Quemerford (in Calne) 45 /38/150
Stock Street (in Calne) and 'Wodelond' 27 /38/151
Stockley (in Calne) 31 /38/168
Studley (in Calne) 115 /38/160
Whetham (in Calne) 26 /38/152
Whitley (in Calne) and Beversbrook (in Hilmarton) 32 /38/161
'Wodelond'. See Stock Street.
Yatesbury 55 /38/164
Cannings Hundred
**Bedborough (in Bishop's Cannings) 50 E 179/196/38/4
**Bourton and Easton (both in Bishop's Cannings) 98 /38/9
**'Boreton' (fn. 18) 30 /38/2
**Cannings, Bishop's 74 /38/14
**Chittoe 36 /38/7
Easton. See Bourton.
**Highway (in Hilmarton) 24 /38/5
Hilcott (fn. 19) 47 /38/1
**Horton (in Bishop's Cannings) 103 /38/10
**Nursteed (in Roundway) 23 /33/9
**Roundway 40 /38/8
**Wick (in Roundway) 72 /38/6
Cawdon Hundred
**Britford 205 E 179/196/35/30
**Coombe Bissett 159 /35/33
**Homington 116 /35/66
**Longford (in Britford) 17 /35/31
**Odstock 62 /35/32
Stratford Tony 81 /35/34
**Whitsbury (in Hants) 29 /35/67
Chalke Hundred
**Alvediston 111 E 179/196/35/49
**Berwick St. John and Bridmore (in Berwick St. John) 87 /35/1
**Chalke, Bower 153 /35/51
**Chalke, Broad (fn. 20) 222 /35/53
**Ebbesborne Wake 99 /35/50
**Fifield Bavant (in Ebbesborne Wake) 67 /35/52
**Knighton (in Broad Chalke) 83 /35/54
**Stoke Farthing (in Broad Chalke) 74 /35/55
**Tollard Royal 69 /35/4
Chippenham Hundred
Alderton 59 E 179/196/38/134
Allington (in Chippenham) 48 /38/212
Avon (in Bremhill) 21 /38/210
Biddestone 55 /38/145
Box 175 /38/147
Bremhill 176 /38/213
Chippenham 257 /38/143
? Cocklebury (in Langley Burrell) (fn. 21) 10 /38/207
Colerne 168 /38/147
Combe, Castle 138 /38/130
Corsham 341 /38/146
Easton Grey 30 /38/137
'Ende' (fn. 22) 112 /38/136
Foxham (in Bremhill) 126 /38/209
Hardenhuish 16 /38/129
Hartham (in Corsham) 30 /38/140
Kellaways (fn. 23) 43 /38/138
Kington, West 84 /38/127
Lacock 355 /38/139
Langley Burrell 79 /38/144
*Leigh Delamere 41 /38/215
Littleton Drew 51 /38/128
Luckington 68 /38/133
Sherston, Great 221 /38/131
Sherston, Little [Pinkney] 20 /38/132
Slaughterford 43 /38/142
Sopworth 20 /38/135
Stanley (in Bremhill) 66 /38/211
Surrendell (in Hullavington) 37 /38/214
Tytherton Lucas (in Chippenham) 45 /38/141
Wraxall, [North] 89 /38/126
— [blank] (fn. 24) 58 /38/208
Cricklade Hundred
Ashton Keynes 207 E 179/196/38/291
Cricklade 200 /38/294
Eisey (in Latton) 32 /38/288
Latton 114 /38/249
Leigh 87 /38/289
Poulton (in Glos.) 67 /38/293
Shorncote (in Somerford Keynes, Glos.) 22 /38/292
Somerford Keynes (in Glos.) 81 /38/290
Damerham Hundred
*Bramshaw (in Hants) 20 E 179/196/35/28
*Compton Chamberlayne 141 /35/26
Damerham 276 /35/25
*Martin (in Hants) 179 /35/27
North Damerham Hundred
Grittleton 105 E 179/196/38/303
Kington St. Michael 93 /38/304
Langley, Kington 111 /38/305
Nettleton 138 /38/302
Dole Hundred
**Addeston (in Maddington) 9 E 179/196/38/55
*Asserton (in Berwick St. James) 27 /38/49
Berwick St. James 80 /38/48
**Bourton (in Maddington) 20 /38/52
Elston (in Orcheston St. George) 11 /38/56
**Gore, St. Joan à (in West Lavington) 12 /38/58
Homanton (in Maddington) 25 /38/26
**Maddington 61 /38/53
Net Down (in Shrewton) 40 /38/50
**Orcheston [St. Mary] 26 /38/57
**Shrewton 49 /38/54
**Tilshead (fn. 25) 99 /38/58
Winterbourne Stoke 93 /38/25
Downton Hundred
*Barford (in Downton) 23 E 179/196/35/14
Bishopstone 47 /35/19
*Bodenham 44 /35/9
*Charlton 114 /35/8
*Croucheston (in Bishopstone) 73 /35/22
Downton 214 /35/6
*Downton foreign 106 /35/12
*Faulston (in Bishopstone) 60 /35/24
*Flamston (in Bishopstone) 75 /35/20
*Hamptworth (in Redlynch) 36 /35/11
*Netton (in Bishopstone) 44 /35/21
*Nunton 43 /35/10
*Pensworth (in Redlynch) 53 /35/13
*Standlynch 18 /35/18
*Throope (in Bishopstone) 26 /35/23
*Walton (in Downton) 5 /35/16
*Wick (in Downton) 43 /35/15
*Witherington (in Standlynch) 34 /35/17
Dunworth Hundred
Ansty 58 E 179/196/35/29
**Chicklade 69 /35/69
**Chilmark 136 /35/70
**Donhead 359 /39/1
**Fonthill Gifford 70 /35/2
**Hatch, East and West (in Tisbury) 152 /35/71
**Swallowcliffe 93 /35/57
**Teffont Evias 34 /35/56
**Tisbury 281 /35/72
Elstub Hundred
Chisenbury 96 E 179/196/34/29
Coombe. See Fittleton.
*Enford 32 /34/25
Fifield. See Littlecott.
*Fittleton, and Coombe (in Enford) 60 /34/28
*Fifield (fn. 26) 40 /34/27
*Littlecott and Fifield (both in Enford) 49 /34/26
**Netheravon 111 /34/13
Liberty of Everleigh
**Collingbourne Ducis 127 E 179/196/34/2
**Everleigh 99 /34/3
**Haxton (in Fittleton) 68 /34/1
Frustfield Hundred
**Abbotstone (in Whiteparish) 28 E 179/196/37/61
**Alderstone (in Whiteparish) 56 /37/59
**Cowesfield (in Whiteparish) 55 /37/20
**Landford 48 /37/79
**Whelpley (in Whiteparish) 63 /37/58
**Whiteparish 10 /37/62
Heytesbury Hundred
**Addeston (in Maddington) (fn. 27) 82 E 179/196/37/43
**Ansty (in Knook) 9 /37/32
**Ashton Giffard (in Codford St. Peter) 28 /37/35
**Baycliff (in Horningsham) 9 /37/22
**Boyton and [East] Corton (in Boyton) 79 /33/5
**Chitterne 186 /37/21
**Codford 171 /37/31
Corton, East. See Boyton.
**Corton, West (in Boyton) 75 /37/17
**Deverill, Brixton 89 /37/77
**Deverill, Hill 63 /37/12
**Deverill, Longbridge 322 /37/92
**Heytesbury 164 /37/24
**Horningsham 65 /37/34
**Imber (fn. 28) 64 /37/16
**Knook 67 /37/6
**Orcheston [St. George] 56 /37/42
**Tytherington (in Heytesbury) 48 /37/87
Highworth Hundred
Blunsdon, Broad 80 E 179/196/38/232
Blunsdon Gay 11 /38/234
*Blunsdon St. Andrew 24 /38/236
?Burton Hill (in Malmesbury) (fn. 29) 74 /38/243
Burytown (in Blunsdon) 28 /38/217
Eastrop (in Highworth) 62 /38/237
Eaton, Castle (fn. 30) 68 /38/220
Fresden (in Highworth) 8 /38/248
Groundwell (in Blunsdon) 11 /38/228
Hampton (in Highworth) 29 /38/233
Hannington 140 /38/221
Haydon (in Rodbourne Cheney) 33 /38/287
Haydon Wick (in Rodbourne Cheney) 45 /38/223
Highworth 134 /38/287
Inglesham 32 /38/229
Lus Hill (in Castle Eaton) 41 /38/222
Lydiard Millicent 72 /38/218
Marston Meysey 51 /38/285
Marston, South 93 /38/226
Moredon (in Rodbourne Cheney) 16 /38/286
Rodbourne Cheney 44 /38/230
Sevenhampton (in Highworth) 105 /38/284
Shaw (in Lydiard Millicent) 40 /38/216
Stanton Fitzwarren 50 /38/247
Stratton St. Margaret (fn. 31) 160 /38/225
Stratton, Upper (in Stratton St. Margaret) 60 /38/227
Swindon, Even 27 /38/231
Westrop (in Highworth) 56 /38/224
Widhill (in Cricklade) 36 /38/283
Widhill, West (in Cricklade) 9 /38/219
Kingsbridge Hundred
Broad Town 44 E 179/196/38/84
Clevancy and Littlecott (both in Hilmarton) 30 /38/306
Clyffe Pypard 54 /38/105
Corton (in Hilmarton) 18 /38/105
Draycot Foliat (in Chisledon) 47 /38/74
Hilmarton 92 /38/99
Hinton, Broad 106 /38/192
Littlecott. See Clevancy.
Lydiard Tregoze 65 /38/80
Lyneham 227 /38/101
Thornhill (in Broad Town) 42 /38/106
Tockenham, East 64 /38/85
Tockenham, West 24 /38/102
Witcomb (in Hilmarton) 20 /38/100
Woodhill (in Clyffe Pypard) 21 /38/104
Wroughton, Nether 160 /38/193
Kinwardstone Hundred
Bedwyn, Great (fn. 32) 87 E 178/196/38/200
Bedwyn, Little 33 /38/89
Burbage 107 /38/118
Buttermere 6 /38/87
*Charlton (in Hungerford, Berks.) 75 /38/91
Chilton Foliat 87 /38/90
Chisbury (in Little Bedwyn) 87 /38/112
Chute and Conholt (in Chute) 110 /38/107
Collingbourne Kingston 58 /38/95
Collingbourne Vallance 74 /38/96
Conholt. See Chute.
Crofton (in Great Bedwyn) 25 /38/114
Easton 66 /38/116
'Ford' 32 /38/113
Fosbury (in Tidcombe) 37 /38/86
Froxfield 13 /38/93
Fyfield (in Milton Lilbourne) 40 /38/123
Grafton, East 45 /38/121
Grafton, West 19 /38/120
Ham 119 /38/98
Henset (in Little Bedwyn) 35 /38/111
Marten (in Grafton) 37 /38/108
Milton Lilbourne 67 /38/115
Pewsey 267 /38/94
Shalbourne 90 /38/88
Standen, North (in Hungerford, Berks.) 19 /38/92
Sunton (in Collingbourne Kingston) 32 /38/97
Tidcombe 50 /38/109
Wexcombe (in Grafton) 68 /38/110
Wilton (in Grafton) 71 /38/122
Wolfhall (in Grafton) 14 /38/119
Wootton Rivers 51 /38/117
Bishop's Knoyle Hundred
**Fonthill, Bishop 77 E 179/196/35/5
**Hindon 77 /35/47
Knoyle, East 146 /35/7
**Upton (in East Knoyle) 37 /35/48
Malmesbury Hundred
Ashley (in Glos.) 33 E 179/196/38/253
'Aston' (fn. 33) 15 /38/272
Bradfield (in Hullavington) 21 /38/268
Bremilham (in Foxley) 31 /38/265
Brinkworth 123 /38/241
Brokenborough 120 /38/258
Charlton 152 /38/270
Chedglow (in Crudwell) 20 /38/269
Chelworth (in Crudwell) 14 /38/278
Cleverton (in Lea) 55 /38/255
Cloatley (in Hankerton) 33 /38/281
Corston (in Malmesbury) 46 /38/242
Crudwell 60 /38/277
Dauntsey 90 /38/24
Draycot [Cerne], Lower 39 /38/261
Draycot [Cerne], Upper 24 /38/262
Eastcourt (in Crudwell) 57 /38/280
Ewen (in Kemble, Glos.) 32 /38/195
Filands (in Malmesbury) 17 /38/245
Foxley 12 /38/260
Garsdon 55 /38/254
Grittenham (in Brinkworth) 69 /38/239
Hankerton 61 /38/279
Hullavington 119 /38/276
Kemble (in Glos.) 57 /38/194
Lea 40 /38/256
Malmesbury 402 /38/246
Milbourne (in Malmesbury) 39 /38/257
Moredon (in Rodbourne Cheney) 20 /38/282
Newton, Long 57 /38/259
Norton 23 /38/251
Oaksey 86 /38/271
Poole Keynes (in Glos.) 53 /38/196
Rodbourne (in Malmesbury) 69 /38/267
Seagry, Lower 65 /38/264
Seagry, Upper 45 /38/252
Smithcot (in Dauntsey) 21 /38/238
Somerford, Great 92 /38/273
Somerford, Little 77 /38/250
Stanton St. Quintin, Lower 18 /38/275
Stanton St. Quintin, Upper 31 /38/274
Startley (in Great Somerford) 10 /38/266
Sutton Benger 125 /38/263
Thornhill (in Malmesbury) 12 /38/244
Melksham Hundred
**Bulkington 160 E 179/196/37/7
**Erlestoke 136 /37/60
**Hilperton 80 /37/86
**Melksham 511 /37/18
**Poulshot 120 /37/13
**Seend 149 /37/1
**Studley, [Little] Trowle (both in Trowbridge), Staverton, and Wyke (in Trowbridge) 112 /37/70
Mere Hundred
**Bradley, Maiden 245 E 179/196/37/11
Chaddenwick (in Mere) 32 /37/76
**Kingston Deverill 37 /37/28
Knoyle, West 60 /37/80
**Mere 489 /37/29
**Stourton 73 /37/75
**Zeals 147 /37/57
Ramsbury Hundred
Axford, Park Town, and Eastridge (fn. 34)(all in Ramsbury) 133 E 179/196/38/205
Baydon 59 /38/202
Bishopstone 169 /38/203
Eastridge, See Axford.
'Forde'. See Whittonditch.
Knighton. See Whittonditch.
Park Town. See Axford.
Preshute 18 /38/201
Ramsbury 161 /38/206
Whittonditch (in Ramsbury), 'Forde' and knighton (in Ramsbury) 60 /38/204
Bishop's Rowborough Hundred
*Fiddington (in Market Lavington) (fn. 35) 24 E 179/196/38/24
*Lavington, West 56 /38/24
Marston 88 /38/23
*Potterne 220 /38/30
Worton 82 /38/21
King's Rowborough Hundred
*Cheverell, Great 73 E 179/196/38/33
*Cheverell, Little 56 /38/31
**Imber (fn. 36) 68 /38/32
*Lavington, Market 252 /38/27
Littleton Pannell (in West Lavington) 56 /38/29
Selkley Hundred
Aldbourne 253 E 179/196/38/170
Avebury 134 /38/183
Barbury (in Wroughton) 13 /38/177
Beckhampton (in Avebury) 31 /38/155
Clatford (in Preshute) 30 /38/182
Fyfield 22 /38/157
Hinton, [Little] 71 /38/188
Kennett, East 30 /38/153
*Kennett, West (in Avebury) 24 /38/154
Lockeridge (in West Overton) 41 /38/190
Manton (in Preshute) 28 /38/180
Mildenhall 72 /38/178
Ogbourne Maizey (in Ogbourne St. Andrew) 50 /38/189
Ogbourne St. Andrew 69 /38/174
Ogbourne St. George 157 /38/173
Overton, East (in West Overton) 63 /38/156
Overton, West 37 /38/191
Poulton (in Mildenhall) 8 /38/181
Rabson (in Winterbourne Bassett) 21 /38/186
Richardson (in Winterbourne Bassett) 31 /38/175
Rockley (in Ogbourne St. Andrew) 40 /38/176
Shaw (in West Overton) 3 /38/185
Snap (in Aldbourne) 19 /38/172
Stitchcombe (in Mildenhall) 42 /38/179
Upham (in Aldbourne) 40 /38/171
Winterbourne Bassett 35 /38/187
Winterbourne Monkton 69 /38/184
Staple Hundred
Calcutt (in Cricklade) 23 E 179/196/38/295
Chelworth, Great (in Cricklade) 38 /38/297
Chelworth, Little (in Cricklade) 15 /38/296
Eaton, Water 64 /38/298
Purton 318 /38/299
Studfold Hundred
**Allington 68 E 179/196/38/13
**Cannings, All 192 /38/11
**Chirton 73 /38/17
**Conock (in Chirton) 59 /38/16
**Eastcott (in Urchfont) 36 /38/15
**Etchilhampton 62 /38/60
**Patney 90 /38/3
**Stert 65 /38/18
**Urchfont 209 /38/19
**Wedhampton (in Urchfont) 65 /38/20
Swanborough Hundred
*Alton Barnes 20 E 179/196/38/40
*Beechingstoke 62 /38/42
*Charlton 86 /38/47
*Huish 22 /38/37
*Manningford Bohun 43 /38/34
Manningford Bruce 37 /38/51
*Marden 69 /38/43
*Newnton, North 51 /38/35
*Oare 20 /38/38
*Rushall 91 /38/44
*Stanton St. Bernard 76 /38/39
**Stowell (in Wilcot) 114 /38/28
*Upavon 127 /38/46
*Wilcot 86 /38/36
*Wilsford 77 /38/45
Woodborough 47 /38/41
POLL-TAX PAYERS OF 1377
Thornhill Hundred
Place Number of tax-payers Source
Badbury (in Chisledon) 78 E 179/196/38/71
Broom (in Swindon) 16 /38/73
Bushton (in Clyffe Pypard) (fn. 37) 40 /38/67
Chisledon 145 /38/69
Liddington 174 /38/70
Wanborough 201 /38/68
Underditch Hundred
Heale. See Woodford.
Lake. See Wilsford.
**Milford (in Laverstock) (fn. 38) 119 E 179/196/36/3
**Salisbury, Old 10 /34/23
**Stratford-sub-Castle 109 /36/2
**Wilsford and Lake (in Wilsford) 53 /240/259/ bdle. 1
**Woodford, [Lower] 69 196/36/4
**Woodford, [Upper], and Heale 76 /37/14
Warminster Hundred
**Bapton (in Fisherton de la Mere) 74 E 179/196/37/30
**Bishopstrow 87 /37/5
**Boreham (fn. 39) 91 /37/56
**Bugley (in Warminster) 16 /37/54
**Corsley 128 /37/91
**Crockerton (in Longbridge Deverill) 14 /37/55
**Dinton 156 /37/90
**Fisherton de la Mere 68 /37/51
**Middleton (in Norton Bavant) 18 /37/15
**Newnham (in Sutton Veny) 33 /37/65
**Norridge (in Upton Scudamore) 16 /37/64
**Norton Bavant 76 /37/8
**Smallbrook (in Warminster) 13 /37/89
**Sutton, Little 36 /37/50
**Sutton Veny 82 /37/52
**Teffont Magna 75 /37/84
**Thoulstone (in Upton Scudamore) 22 /37/27
**Upton Scudamore 85 /37/53
**Warminster 340 /37/40
**Whitbourne (in Corsley) 49 /37/88
Westbury Hundred
**Bratton, and Melbourne (in Bratton) 149 E 179/196/37/73
**Brook (in Westbury) 39 /37/71
**Chapmanslade (in Dilton) 30 /37/46
**Dilton 20 /37/74
**Dilton Marsh and Bremeridge (both in Dilton) 36 /37/84
**Hawkridge (in Heywood) 27 /37/45
**Penleigh (in Dilton) 22 /37/72
**Westbury 184 /37/78
**Westbury Leigh (fn. 40) 101 /37/82
Whorwellsdown Hundred
**Ashton, Steeple 260 E 179/196/37/25
**Ashton, West 81 /37/66
**Bradley, North 82 /37/26
**Coulston, and Baynton (in Edington) 114 /37/19
**Edington 109 /37/36
**Heywood 43 /37/48
**Hinton, Great 62 /37/10
**Keevil 200 /37/68
Littleton (in Semington) 43 /37/63
**Semington 54 /37/83
**Southwick 96 /37/69
**Tilshead (fn. 41) 26 /37/81
**Tinhead (in Edington) 119 /37/23
Uncertain
(fn. 42) 111 E 179/196/35/3
(fn. 43) 165 /35/68

Table 2: The Smallest Fiscal Units, 1377

Number of taxpayers Place Hundred
3 Shaw Selkley
5 Walton Downton
6 Buttermere Kinwardstone
7 Burcombe, North Branch
8 Fresden Highworth
8 Poulton Selkley
9 Addeston Dole
9 Ansty Heytesbury
9 Baycliff "
9 Widhill, West Highworth
10 ? Cocklebury Chippenham
10 Whiteparish Frustfield
10 Startley Malmesbury
10 Salisbury, Old Underditch
11 Fugglestone Branch
11 Elston Dole
11 Blunsdon Gay Highworth
11 Groundwell "
12 Winterslow 'of the Prior of St. John of Jerusalem' Amesbury
12 St. Joan à Gore Dole
12 Foxley Malmesbury
12 Thornhill "

Table 3: The Largest Fiscal Units, 1377

Number of taxpayers Place
3,226 Salisbury
639 Wilton
511 Melksham
489 Mere
462 Marlborough
402 Malmesbury
359 Donhead
355 Lacock
341 Corsham
340 Warminster
322 Longbridge Deverill
318 Purton
302 Devizes
281 Tisbury
276 Damerham
269 Bromham
267 Pewsey
257 Chippenham

Table 4: Fiscal Units of 1377 Classified According to the Number of Taxpayers

Number of taxpayers Percentage of fiscal units in each size group
Wiltshire Devon Yorkshire W.R. Oxfordshire
1–10 2 4 0 1
11–20 8 11 3 8
21–30 10 11 8 8
31–40 11 13 9 12
41–50 10 9 15 13
51–60 8 5 11 10
61–70 10 10 11 6
71–80 7 5 10 8
81–90 6 6 6 6
91–100 4 3 7 6
101–110 2 2 3 3
111–20 4 2 2 4
121–30 2 3 3 2
131–40 2 2 1 1
141–50 2 1 2 3
151–60 2 2 1 0
Over 160 10 11 6 9
100 100 100 100
Total number of fiscal units 528 368 462 280
Average number of taxpayers in fiscal units 80 81 73 85
Median number of taxpayers in fiscal units 61 52 61 58

Footnotes

  • 1. For these taxes there is a convenient list in Deputy Keeper of the Public Records, 1st Report, App. 2, 6 sqq. (1838) and 3rd Report, App. 2, 134 sqq. (1840).
  • 2. G. S. Oman, The Great Revolt of 1381; J. C. Russell, British Medieval Population. The latter has a number of errors of transcription, identification, and calculation.
  • 3. Oman, op. cit. 183–5; C 66/309/mm. 8d, 16d, 33d; E 179/158/29, 32, 34; E 179/161/38.
  • 4. The 1379 returns for Wiltshire are: E 179/196/42A, 44–5, 52 and probably E 179/240/308 and E 179/239/193.
  • 5. The returns for 1381 are E 179/196/42, 369.
  • 6. V.C.H. Leics. iii. 132–40, 163–5. The maps and tables omit Leics. receipts for 1377 in E 179/240/256–9.
  • 7. The sources used in Table 1 are: E 179/196/33–9: E 179/240/257, mm. 9–11; /240/259, bdle. 1 unnumbered. E 179/196/34, mm. 9, 10 do not relate to Wiltshire.
  • 8. e.g. E 179/196/35, mm. 8–24, all Downton hundred; E 179/196/38, mm. 34–47, all Swanborough hundred.
  • 9. E 359/8b, mm. 1–5.
  • 10. The following collectors' names appear on receipts: William Don, Henry Gilberd, Henry Haversham, William Heycroft or Hopcroft, Thomas Waryn, and Thomas Thames. Don gave all but two of the receipts in E 179/ 196/37.
  • 11. V.C.H. Wilts. v. 3.
  • 12. Ibid. for the evolution of Malmesbury hundred.
  • 13. E 179/196/38/200 (Bedwyn), /300 (Bromham).
  • 14. These figures are based upon the tabulated data in M. W. Beresford, Lost Villages of England, 251–3, 407–9.
  • 15. See also Underditch hundred.
  • 16. 'Hatch'.
  • 17. 'Messhendon'.
  • 18. Thomas Freyn, constable. John Briccher and John Ledehale, probi homines. 'Boreton' was not separately taxed in 1334. Bupton was taxed as part of Cannings hundred in 1428 (V.C.H. Wilts. vii. 177) and as part of Potterne and Cannings hundred in the 16th cent. (Taxation Lists (W.A.S. Rec. Brch.), 16, 90). P.N. Wilts. (E.P.N.S.), however, plausibly derives the name from the surname Bubbe. Bowden (in Lacock, Chippenham hundred), which borders upon Chittoe, is hardly a more likely possibility than Bupton.
  • 19. There is a duplicate of this receipt E 179/196/38/12. There is a Hilcott in N. Newnton (Swanborough hundred), but it is doubtful whether this 'Hulcote' is the same. The constable was John Lovelecher and the probi homines Robert Holdfast and William Cotes.
  • 20. Since the receipts were first examined in order to prepare these tables this file has been repaired. The name Broad Chalke is no longer visible. The names of John Alwyn, constable, and of Walter Monek ..., a probus homo, appear.
  • 21. '. . . bergh'. MS torn.
  • 22. Nicholas Drew, constable. Robert Caynes, John Holder, and Walter Hakekyns, probi homines. (Probably a part of Chippenham.)
  • 23. 'Tyderyngton Cayleweye'.
  • 24. The place-name is torn away. Nicholas Drew was constable and Henry Swahyn and John Rateler probi homines. Possibly the place is Yatton Keynell, which was a fiscal unit in 1334.
  • 25. See also Whorwellsdown hundred.
  • 26. 'Little Fyfield'.
  • 27. See also Dole hundred.
  • 28. See also King's Rowborough hundred.
  • 29. 'Berghton'.
  • 30. Eaton Meysey.
  • 31. Lower Stratton.
  • 32. 'West' Bedwyn. Endorsed 'burg' et libert'.
  • 33. Probably Easton Piercey in Kington St. Michael.
  • 34. 'Aschrugges'.
  • 35. 'Fifhyde Verdon'.
  • 36. See also Heytesbury hundred.
  • 37. 'West Bysshupeston'.
  • 38. See also Alderbury hundred.
  • 39. 'Boryton'.
  • 40. Lye.
  • 41. See also Dole hundred.
  • 42. Blind. Filed between receipts assigned to Dunworth and Chalke hundreds. John Alwyn, constable; Walter Sampson and Thomas . . ., probi homines. Possibly Semley, in Chalke hundred in 1334.
  • 43. Torn. Filed between receipts assigned to Cawdon and Dunworth hundreds. William Gereberd, John Cansepe and John . . ., probi homines. Possibly Harnham, in Cawdon hundred in 1334.