A History of the County of Wiltshire: Volume 8, Warminster, Westbury and Whorwellsdown Hundreds. Originally published by Victoria County History, London, 1965.
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In 1086 the king, as successor to Queen Edith, held WESTBURY. (fn. 1) It could thus later claim to be ancient demesne of the Crown. (fn. 2) The royal manor was assessed at 40 hides, and was co-extensive with the hundred. (fn. 3) The process of fragmentation of this large manor by royal grant had begun before 1086, for by then William Scudet, the king's cook, held an estate of 4½ hides which was to form later the manor of Dilton. (fn. 4) Several further grants of land in the manor were made in the 12th century. Henry I gave 4 bovates to Salisbury Cathedral which later formed the Rectory manor. (fn. 5) The Empress Maud granted land to Humphrey FitzOdo, (fn. 6) and also made a large grant to William Defuble. A gift by Defuble to the priory of Le Pré (dép. Seine-Inférieur) later formed the manor of Westbury Priory. (fn. 7) The rest of Defuble's land was regranted by Henry II to Joce de Dinan, and by division between his heirs and subinfeudation formed the manors later known as Westbury Mauduits, Leigh Priors, Westbury Leversage, and Bremeridge. (fn. 8) Other unrecorded grants by Henry II or his predecessors gave rise to the manors of Leigh, Penleigh, and Bratton. (fn. 9) What was left after all these gifts was granted away in 1173, and by successive division between coheirs formed the estates later known as Westbury Stourton, Westbury Seymour, Westbury Arundell, and Brook. (fn. 10) Other estates, acquired by religious houses from various gifts, were known as the manors of Godswell and Heywood. (fn. 11)
The capital manor of Westbury, after its reduction by the grants mentioned above, was held at farm by four men from 1170 to 1173, (fn. 12) when it was granted by the king to Reynold Pavely. (fn. 13) He was holding the manor in 1194, (fn. 14) and must have died c. 1200, when the wardship of his heir was given to Ralph de Beauchamp. (fn. 15) In 1209 the Pope threatened to place Westbury under an interdict if it were not restored to Queen Berengaria of whose dower it was then claimed it formed a part. (fn. 16) The outcome of this threat is unknown. On his death in 1256 Walter Pavely was holding Westbury by the service of one knight's fee. (fn. 17) The manor at that time comprised the four estates or hamlets of Brook, Headinghill, Stoke, and Dilton. (fn. 18) It passed from Walter Pavely to his son, Reynold (d. 1280); (fn. 19) from Reynold to his son Walter, who was sheriff of Wiltshire in 1289 and 1296, (fn. 20) and died in 1323; (fn. 21) from Walter it passed to his son Reynold (d. 1347), (fn. 22) and from Reynold to his son John. (fn. 23) Sir John Pavely died in 1361. His heirs were Joan, Elizabeth, and Eleanor, daughters of his daughter Alice by his first marriage, who had married John St. Lo and survived her father by half a day only, and Joan, his daughter by his second marriage. All the girls were under age. (fn. 24)
The wardship of Joan Pavely was granted to the Bishop of Winchester. By the partition of her father's lands Joan received the manor of Westbury, the hamlet of Headinghill, (fn. 25) and half the profits and perquisites of the view of frankpledge, the hundred, fairs, market, and portmote of Westbury. The rest of Sir John's property went to John St. Lo for his daughters. (fn. 26) After Joan's marriage, her husband, Ralph Cheyney, objected that his wife's share was inferior in value to that allotted to the daughters of John St. Lo, and a second partition was made in 1368. (fn. 27) By this Ralph and Joan Cheyney were to hold the manor of Brook, the hamlets of Ditteridge, (fn. 28) and Hawkeridge, and half the profits of the view of frankpledge, the hundred, fair, market, and portmote of Westbury; the manor of Westbury with the hamlets of Headinghill, Stoke, Milborne, and Leigh, the other half of the profits mentioned above, and the whole of the rent of the 'shamelhouse' in Westbury were assigned to John St. Lo for his daughters. (fn. 29) John St. Lo died in 1375 and the manor of Westbury with the hamlet of Headinghill was divided between his two surviving daughters, Joan, wife of Sir John Chidiock, and Eleanor, wife of Thomas of Bradeston. (fn. 30)
Sir John Chidiock died in 1390 and his heir was his son John (II) aged twelve. (fn. 31) Joan, his widow, survived her husband and married secondly John Bache upon whom she settled the manor in 1392. (fn. 32) John Bache died in 1409 and the manor reverted to John Chidiock (II). (fn. 33) John Chidiock (II) died in 1415 and was succeeded by his son John Chidiock (III), also a minor. (fn. 34) On the death of John Chidiock (III) in 1450 his share in the manor of Westbury was divided between his daughters, Katharine, wife of William Stafford, and Margaret, wife of William Stourton (d. 1477). (fn. 35)
William Stourton succeeded to the title of Lord Stourton in 1462 and his share in the manor of Westbury descended with the title until the execution of Charles, Lord Stourton, in 1557 for the murder of Thomas Hartgill, (fn. 36) when it was fortfeited to the Crown. In 1570 this estate, by now known as WESTBURY STOURTON, was granted to Edward Dyer. (fn. 37) Dyer conveyed it in the same year to Stephen Whitaker (fn. 38) on whose death in 1576 it passed to his son Henry. (fn. 39) Henry was succeeded by his second son, William, (fn. 40) who sold it in 1619–20, with the exception of Bitham House, a fulling mill called Bitham Mill, (fn. 41) and a close called Gaston, to Sir James Ley (cr. Earl of Marlborough 1626). (fn. 42) Among the property which comprised the manor at this time was land near Dogget's Lane, a close called Apsleys, presumably near the present Apsley Farm, Stourton's Wood, no doubt to be identified with Stourton Bushes, in Dilton Marsh, (fn. 43) and land scattered throughout the fields of Westbury, Dilton, Leigh, Heywood, Hawkeridge, and Bratton. (fn. 44)
William Stafford, husband of Katharine Chidiock, died in 1450, and his share in Westbury passed to his son Humphrey, who was created Earl of Devon in 1469 and executed the same year. (fn. 45) He left no issue, (fn. 46) and the fee of the manor remained with his mother, who survived him. She married as her second husband Sir John Arundell. The manor, with certain other estates, was mortgaged to raise money for the fine imposed upon Arundell for his part at the battle of Tewkesbury. (fn. 47) He died deeply in debt, and his wife, who married thirdly Roger Lewkenore, died in 1479 leaving as her heir Thomas Arundell her son by her second husband. (fn. 48) Thomas died in 1485 before he had been able to pay off his father's debts, and the manor passed to his son John, who was said to hold it of Sir Robert Willoughby, who was a cousin of Humphrey Stafford. (fn. 49) Thomas's son, Sir John Arundell, sold, in 1549–50, to Thomas Long, clothier of Trowbridge, a mill and various tenements in Westbury, which probably comprised the whole of this part of the manor. (fn. 50) Thomas Long died childless seised of the manor in 1562, (fn. 51) and the manor passed under his will to his nephew Edward Long. Edward and his son Gifford sold the manor in 1613 under the name of Westbury and WESTBURY ARUNDELL to Sir James Ley. (fn. 52) The estate at this date included a mill, and was said to lie in Westbury, Bratton, Imber, and Edington. (fn. 53)
Eleanor of Bradeston, the second daughter of Sir John St. Lo, married secondly Sir Richard Seymour, who died seised of his wife's share of the manor in 1401. (fn. 54) His heir was his son Richard, but Eleanor survived her husband, and in 1408 conveyed the manor to John Seymour, presumably a younger son, and his wife Margaret, a daughter of John Erlegh, and their issue. (fn. 55) After the death of John Seymour, Margaret married Sir Walter Sondes, who held the manor in her right at the time of his death in 1428. (fn. 56) Margaret married thirdly Sir William Cheyney and died in 1443 when the property passed to her grandson, Thomas, son of John Seymour. (fn. 57) Thomas settled the manor upon his son John Seymour and Elizabeth his wife and their heirs. Elizabeth outlived John and married secondly John Biconill and on her death in 1505 was succeeded by her granddaughter Joan, daughter of her son William Seymour who died in 1503. (fn. 58) Joan married William Drewry and died childless in 1517, and her heirs were her cousins John Stawell and Edward Bamfield, sons of her aunts Anne and Margaret, sisters of William Seymour. (fn. 59) Edward Bamfield died in 1528 and was succeeded by his son John. (fn. 60) John Stawell sold his share in 1566 to Thomas Webbe and Margaret his wife, (fn. 61) who also acquired from Richard Bamfield that part of the manor which had belonged to John Bamfield. (fn. 62) In 1574 they settled the two parts upon themselves with remainder in tail to their daughters, Joan, wife of Alexander Chocke, and Elizabeth, wife of Robert Webbe. (fn. 63) Thomas Webbe died in 1585, (fn. 64) and in 1602 Robert and Elizabeth Webbe conveyed their interest, which was the remainder in default of heirs of Joan and Alexander Chocke, to trustees for the queen and her successors. (fn. 65) This interest was granted in 1616 by James I to Sir Francis Popham and Richard Organ. (fn. 66) Between 1605 and 1607 Alexander and Joan Chocke settled the manor on themselves and their heirs, with remainder to their nephew Alexander, son of Alexander the elder's younger brother Francis. (fn. 67) This apparently superseded the settlement of 1574, for on Alexander the elder's death without issue in 1607, the manor, then known as WESTBURY SEYMOUR, passed to his nephew Alexander. (fn. 68) In 1621 this Alexander, his wife, his father, and representatives of Elizabeth and Robert Webbe conveyed the manor to Sir James Ley, who thus became possessed of the whole manor of Westbury. (fn. 69)
Sir James's son Henry, Earl of Marlborough, died in 1638 and his widow married Thomas Wanklin, who compounded for his life interest in the manor in 1651. (fn. 70) Henry's son James, Earl of Marlborough (d. 1665) sold the manor in 1639–40 to Henry, Earl of Danby (d. 1644). (fn. 71) On the death of Danby, Westbury apparently passed to his brother Sir John Danvers, the regicide, who in 1651 was receiving the profits of the hundred. (fn. 72) Danvers died in 1655 and his heirs were his two daughters, Elizabeth, wife of Robert Villiers, who assumed the name Danvers, and Anne, wife of Sir Henry Lee. Anne and Henry Lee had two daughters, Eleanor, wife of James, Lord Norris, and Anne, wife of Thomas Wharton (cr. Marquess of Wharton and Malmesbury 1714–15). (fn. 73) In 1670 a moiety of the manor was settled on Robert and Elizabeth Danvers. (fn. 74) Robert died c. 1675, and his widow, who assumed the title Viscountess Purbeck, married John Duvale. In 1681 they conveyed their share in the manor to James, Lord Norris, (fn. 75) who had married Eleanor, a daughter of Anne and Henry Lee. By a conveyance of the same date the share belonging to Anne and Thomas Wharton was apparently sold to James and Eleanor Norris, (fn. 76) and in 1689 the whole manor was settled on them. (fn. 77) James was created Earl of Abingdon in 1682, (fn. 78) and Westbury descended with the title until 1777 when a large part of it was advertised for sale. (fn. 79) The Abingdon lands were then sold in parts at sales held in 1788, 1790, 1797, 1799, and 1808. (fn. 80) In 1810 the manorial rights were sold to Sir Manasseh Massey Lopes, bt. (fn. 81) The manor then passed with this title until c. 1904 when Sir Massey Lopes conveyed it to his nephew Henry Ludlow Lopes, Baron Ludlow of Heywood (d. 1922). (fn. 82) In 1920 the lordship of the hundred and manor of Westbury were sold to Mr. Frank Parsons, of Westbury. It was said to be worth £3 a year. (fn. 83)
Until 1361 the estate which became the manor of BROOK formed part of the capital manor of Westbury. In 1216 when Ralph de Beauchamp had the wardship of Walter Pavely this property was described as Westbury and Brook, (fn. 84) and in 1256 Brook was named as one of the five estates, or townships, which composed Walter Pavely's manor of Westbury. (fn. 85) Brook was possibly the principal residence of the Pavely family in the 14th century, for Reynold Pavely is styled 'of Brook'. (fn. 86)
Brook was assigned to John St. Lo for his three daughters on the death of Sir John Pavely in 1361, (fn. 87) but on the second partition of Sir John's estates in 1368 the manor was allotted to his daughter Joan, wife of Ralph Cheyney. (fn. 88) Sir Ralph Cheyney died in 1400 holding the manor in right of his wife, and in 1402 (fn. 89) his son, Sir William Cheyney, settled it upon himself and his wife Cecily. (fn. 90) Cecily outlived her husband and their eldest son, Edmund, who had married Alice, daughter and coheir of Sir Humphrey Stafford of Southwick (d. 1442), (fn. 91) and on Cecily's death in 1430–1 her heirs were the three daughters of Edmund, Elizabeth, Cecily, and Anne. (fn. 92) The younger Cecily died shortly after her grandmother, (fn. 93) and the manor was eventually assigned to Anne, who married Sir John Willoughby. (fn. 94) In 1461 a general pardon was granted to Sir John, who was presumably a Lancastrian, for all offences and all forfeitures of lands. (fn. 95) His son Robert also forfeited his lands for his adherence to the Lancastrian cause, and in 1485 Brook was granted to Edward Ratcliffe for his services against the rebels. (fn. 96) Robert Willoughby's estates were restored to him by Henry VII, under whom he held high office, including those of lord steward and admiral of the fleet, and by whom he was created in 1491 Baron Willoughby de Broke. (fn. 97) Brook was presumably the chief residence of Lord Willoughby de Broke and, according to Leland, he rebuilt the house there. On his death in 1502 the manor passed to his son, Robert. (fn. 98) Robert died in 1521 leaving no son, and Brook was settled upon his daughters by his second wife, Dorothy Grey. They were Anne, later wife of Charles Blount, Lord Mountjoy (d. 1544), and Elizabeth, later wife of John Paulet, Marquess of Winchester (d. 1576). (fn. 99) A claim to the manor by Sir Anthony Willoughby of Goreley (Hants) was unsuccessful and in 1542 Anthony released his claim to Charles Blount and John Paulet. (fn. 100) Charles Blount, Lord Mountjoy, died in 1544. (fn. 101) His wife, Anne, then married Richard Broke, (fn. 102) and after his death she apparently married Sir John Bonham, (fn. 103) for in 1574 as Anne Bonham, widow, she alienated her life interest in her moiety of the manor to John Pavy and John Goldwell. (fn. 104) In 1596–7 Lord Mountjoy (d. 1606), grandson of Anne, and William, Marquess of Winchester (d. 1598), son and heir of Elizabeth Paulet, obtained permission by Act of Parliament to divide the property which had come to them from Robert Willoughby, and Brook was allotted to Lord Mountjoy. (fn. 105) On the death of Anne Bonham in 1582 (fn. 106) the park at Brook had been disparked and made into several grounds and portions. (fn. 107) Closes called Rush Lanes, Oxen Leaze, and Bushy Leaze, comprising 45 a., were conveyed in 1599 by Lord Mountjoy to Sir James Ley and thereafter descended as the capital manor. (fn. 108) Another part of the manor was conveyed in 1599 by Lord Mountjoy to Sir Edward Hungerford, (fn. 109) and at Sir Edward's death in 1607 this estate was called the manor of Brook. (fn. 110) The exact extent of the estate is not known, but it seems to have excluded Brook House and included Brook Farm, 'Storadge and Dowesfield', three fulling mills, a grain mill, and Brook Marsh, as well as land and common of pasture in the surrounding hamlets and townships. (fn. 111) It passed in the Hungerford family until 1684 when Sir Edward Hungerford sold it, apparently with the exception of Storridge Pastures, to Sir Stephen Fox. Between 1692 and 1698 Sir Stephen's son, Charles, conveyed it to Robert, Lord Lexinton. From Lord Lexinton it passed in c. 1718 to Sir Edward Desbouverie and descended in the Bouverie family of Longford Castle. In 1785 Jacob Pleydell-Bouverie, Earl of Radnor, sold much of the property to Gaisford Gibbs and John Gawen. (fn. 112) The same year Brook Farm was conveyed to Thomas Phipps of Chalford (d. 1792), who was already lessee of Brook Mill, a grist and fulling mill. (fn. 113) In 1794 Phipps's executors sold the Brook Farm estate, comprising some 150 a., to William Aldridge Ballard of Bratton. (fn. 114) After Ballard's death Brook Farm was sold in 1803 by his executors to Thomas Henry Hele Phipps of Leighton House (d. 1841). (fn. 115)
Storridge Pastures (see above), comprising 160 a., passed in 1688 from Sir Edward Hungerford to John Hall of Bradford, (fn. 116) and descended with Hall's other Wiltshire estates to the Duke of Kingston. (fn. 117) In about 1745 Evelyn, Duke of Kingston, sold the estate to Thomas Phipps (d. 1792), who on the marriage of his son, Thomas Hele Phipps (d. 1790), with Penelope Clutterbuck in 1788 made over the property as part of her marriage settlement. On Penelope's death in 1830 Storridge Pastures passed to her son Thomas Henry Hele Phipps of Leighton House (d. 1841). (fn. 118)
In 1599 Brook House with some land adjoining was sold by Lord Mountjoy to William Jones of Edington. (fn. 119) The estate comprised some 280 a. at this time, of which 58 a. were leased to Peter Polden, and 63 a. to Sir James Ley. (fn. 120) William was succeeded by his son Sefton Jones, (fn. 121) whose granddaughters Anne, wife of Peter Whatley of London, and Elizabeth, wife of Henry Long, styled of Brook, sold the estate in 1651 to Nicholas Greene of Brook, who already had a life interest in the estate by his marriage with the widow of Sefton Jones. (fn. 122) Part of the estate was settled in 1662 by Nicholas Greene upon his son, another Nicholas. Nicholas the younger died c. 1688 and his son, Richard Greene, sold the house and estate in 1689 to Edward Lisle of the Middle Temple, London. From Lisle it was purchased in 1693 by Stephen Blatch of Westbury. Blatch died childless and left Brook House by his will dated 1718 to his brother John Blatch. From John Blatch it passed to Richard Tuck of Rowdford whose mother was an aunt of the brothers Stephen and John Blatch. In 1758, after the death of Richard Tuck, the house, together with the adjoining Lodgewood Farm, was sold to Henry Hele, of Salisbury. Hele's daughter and heir, Jane, brought the house into the Phipps family on her marriage to Thomas Phipps of Chalford and after his death in 1792 it passed to her grandson Thomas Henry Hele Phipps (d. 1841), who also acquired the Brook Farm estate in 1803 and Storridge Pastures in 1830. (fn. 123)
When Leland visited Brook House in c. 1541 part of a much older manor house was still to be seen, but the main building was that newly erected, according to him, by the 1st Lord Willoughby de Broke (d. 1502). The windows, Leland remarked, were full of rudders, which he suggested were Lord Willoughby de Broke's badge as admiral of the fleet. (fn. 124) The park he described as fair, although not large, and with a great number of fine-grained oaks. (fn. 125) Aubrey, writing just over a hundred years later, described the house as very large and stately. The hall, which was large and open at that time, contained, according to him, very old windows with the coat of arms of the Pavelys. Other shields of arms were then to be seen in windows in the 'canopie chamber', the dining room, the parlour, and the chapel. Aubrey also records a tradition that Edward III was at Brook, and that a bridge there, called Kingbridge, was built at the time. (fn. 126) In 1872 it was said that only one wing survived of the 'newly erected' house which Leland saw. (fn. 127)
In 1960 this wing, which may well have been built in the late 15th century by Lord Willoughby de Broke (d. 1502), as suggested by Leland, was used as a farm building and formed one side of a farmyard. It is a two-storied structure of 7 bays with stone-rubble walls with freestone dressings. The west gable-end and south side have stepped buttresses. On the south side there are 3 moulded stone doorways with arched heads and several two-light windows with uncusped arched lights. The range was always two-storied and the upper floor consisted of at least 3 rooms, each of which had an external door in the north wall. The central room has a blocked stone fireplace. The open roof of the wing is of the arch-braced collarbeam type with 3 tiers of wind braces. At right angles to this wing, at its east end, a farmhouse was built in the 17th century, probably soon after Aubrey's visit (see above). It is built of stone-rubble with mullioned and transomed windows, and has a steeply pitched roof covered with stone slates. Early-19thcentury Gothic windows have been inserted in its east front. The medieval hall, part of which Leland saw, was probably demolished at the time of the building of the farmhouse, but at the junction of the house with the late-15th-century wing, a short length of steeply pitched roof may have formed part of this earlier hall. A fire at this point in 1958 has destroyed the old roof timbers. (fn. 128)
The 4½ hides held by William Scudet in Westbury in 1086 possibly lay partly in Dilton and partly in Bratton. (fn. 129) It was probably this estate, then comprising 4 carucates, which in 1210–12 William Dauntsey held in chief, in Bratton and Dilton by the serjeanty of keeping the king's larder. (fn. 130) William died c. 1221 and was succeeded by his son Richard, (fn. 131) who held 4½ hides in Bratton and Dilton in 1236 and 1242 in chief by service in the king's army. (fn. 132) By 1250 Richard Dauntsey had alienated a number of holdings in Bratton and Dilton to various persons, (fn. 133) but on his death that year 4 carucates in those places passed to his heir, Richard, aged twelve. (fn. 134) Richard (II) died c. 1266 and the wardship of his heir, Giles, was granted to William de Aete. (fn. 135) In 1288–9 the manor of DILTON was in the possession of Richard Dauntsey (III), (fn. 136) possibly a brother of Giles, and identical with the Richard, son of Richard Dauntsey, who died in 1315 holding the manor of Dilton. (fn. 137) This he held by the service of ½ knight's fee, and the payment of 10 marks annually to the castle guard of Old Salisbury. Richard (III)'s son, Richard (IV), died holding the manors of Bratton and Dilton in 1348 and was succeeded by his grandson, John Dauntsey. (fn. 138) On John's death in 1355 the manor, at this time called of Dilton only, together with one carucate in Bratton, passed to his brother William, (fn. 139) and William appears to have been succeeded before 1362 by another brother Walter. (fn. 140) Walter died seised of the manor of Dilton in 1369, leaving as his heirs his sister, Margaret, wife of Sir Ralph Norton, and his nephew John St. Manifee, son of his sister Joan. (fn. 141) St. Manifee conveyed his share in the manor to trustees for Sir Ralph and Margaret. (fn. 142) Maud, wife of Thomas de Cantesangre, and presumably widow of Walter Dauntsey, held a life interest in a third of each share. (fn. 143) In 1380 the entire manor was conveyed to the Rector and Bonhommes of Edington. (fn. 144) In the following year the rector regranted to Sir Ralph Norton and Margaret and their issue their share in the manor with reversion to Edington. (fn. 145) Margaret died childless in 1388 and the manor thus reverted to the Bonhommes, and formed part of the property of that community until the Dissolution. (fn. 146)
In 1540 the manor was granted to John Bush, probably brother of Paul Bush, the last Rector of Edington. (fn. 147) John's son, another John, mortgaged it in 1566 for £500 to Jerome Hawley, who ten years later entered into possession. (fn. 148) Hawley then sold the manor in 1587 to Sir Walter Hungerford. (fn. 149) It descended in the Hungerford family until 1684 when Sir Edward Hungerford sold it to Sir Stephen Fox. (fn. 150) In 1689 Fox conveyed it to two persons, (fn. 151) presumably trustees for Thomas Phipps and Bridget his wife, who were in possession of the manor in 1693. (fn. 152) Thomas Phipps died c. 1715 and in 1721–2 his son, also called Thomas (d. 1724), conveyed the manor to Paul Phipps of Chalford (d. 1722), and to Paul's sons John (d. 1739), and Thomas (d. 1747). (fn. 153) It passed from Paul's son Thomas (d. 1747) to his son, another Thomas, who devised it in 1792 to his younger grandson, Charles Lewis Phipps. (fn. 154) Charles Lewis Phipps styled himself of Dilton Court after the house which he built on the estate. (fn. 155) From Charles Lewis, who died without issue in 1862, the estate passed to his nephew Paul Phipps. (fn. 156) Paul Phipps sold it to a cousin, Charles Paul Phipps, who also acquired Chalcot House and died in 1880. (fn. 157) From then on the Dilton Court estate followed the same descent as Chalcot House which became the residence of this branch of the Phipps family. Dilton Court later came to be called Chalcot Home Farm. (fn. 158)
The manor of the RECTORY of Westbury, sometimes called the Parsonage or Chantry manor, comprised in 1086 1½ hide of land held by the church of Westbury. (fn. 159) Henry I gave the church to Salisbury Cathedral and it came to be appropriated to the office of precentor. (fn. 160) A virgate of land which had belonged to Richard Dauntsey was added to the manor in the 13th century. (fn. 161) Apart from a sale by the Parliamentary trustees in 1652, (fn. 162) the manor was held by the precentors until 1842 when, on the death of the then precentor, it passed under the Cathedrals and Ecclesiastical Commissioners Act (1840–1) to the Ecclesiastical Commissioners. (fn. 163) Authority for the sale of the property was given in 1863, (fn. 164) and the bulk of it was sold in 1899 to Lord Ludlow of Heywood (d. 1922). (fn. 165)
In 1574 William Benett, nephew of Thomas Benett, Precentor of Salisbury (d. 1558), bequeathed the lease of the rectory manor, which he had presumably obtained from his uncle, to his son, Thomas Benett. (fn. 166) Thomas died without issue in 1605, and the lease probably passed to his brother, William Benett of Norton Bavant. It was renewed to William's son, Thomas, in 1641, (fn. 167) and descended in the same way as Norton Bavant to William Benett who died without issue in 1781. (fn. 168) The Benetts' connexion with the manor then ceased and it was leased until the end of the 18th century by William Parry. (fn. 169) In 1800 the lessees were Richard White, of London, and John Gale, of Stert. (fn. 170) White also leased the manor of Westbury Priory. (fn. 171) In 1851 Richard White was replaced by William White and from this date until 1874 the Rectory Manor was leased by William White in partnership with two or three other lessees, who sub-let the property to 'persons resident in the tithing of chantry'. (fn. 172)
The farmhouse and buildings of the rectory manor lay just south of Westbury Church within the tithing of Chantry. Much of the land of the manor lay in Bratton. (fn. 173) In 1614 besides the 'mansion house' there were three pastures called Chantry Lease (26 a.), a pasture called Parson's Croft (6 a.), and 45 a. in the common fields. There were also numerous other parcels of land all let out, including 28 a. in the arable fields of Bratton. (fn. 174) In 1642 the estate was described as the 'manor of Westbury be longing to the Rector', and included the Parsonage House with Bittumes Close, the Chantry Leases, Parsonage Croft, and a cottage adjoining the church house. (fn. 175)
William Defuble gave 10 out of the 30 librates of land in Westbury which he received from the Empress Maud to the priory of Notre-Dame du Pré (dép. Seine-Inférieur). (fn. 176) The grant was confirmed by Henry II. (fn. 177) When Defuble's property was regranted by Henry to Joce de Dinan it must have included the overlordship of the priory's property, for in 1242–3 Walter Plucknet and Fulk FitzWarin, to whom Defuble's property had descended, (fn. 178) were the chief lords under the king. (fn. 179) Nothing more of their overlordship is known.
The estate was known as the manor of WESTBURY PRIORY. Notre-Dame du Pré was one of the French priories dependent in certain respects upon the abbey of Bec (dép. Eure), (fn. 180) so that the ½ hide said to be held in Westbury by Bec in 1193–4 refers to the same holding. (fn. 181) In 1238 Thomas of Clopton conveyed 5 a. in Westbury to the Prior of Pré. (fn. 182) In 1242–3 the priory of Steventon (Berks.), an English cell of Bec, assigned to the maintenance of the monks of Pré, (fn. 183) held the land in Westbury. (fn. 184)
A final grant of land in Westbury to Bec was made in 1248 when Henry III granted ½ a. of assart in Selwood Forest. This had been assarted at the instigation of William de Guineville, the Prior of Ogbourne, the representative of the Abbot of Bec in England. (fn. 185)
In 1389 the prior and convent of Le Pré conveyed to Hugh de Calvyley the holding in Westbury, then called 'a manor' and described as 'parcel of the possessions of their priory of Steventon'. (fn. 186) The grant was confirmed by the Abbot of Bec and royal licence for the transaction was subsequently obtained. (fn. 187) Hugh de Calvyley conveyed the manor to Thomas Chalumley and others, who after Hugh's death, granted it in 1394 to John Waltham, Bishop of Salisbury, and Roger Walden. (fn. 188) Roger Walden, consecrated Archbishop of Canterbury in 1398, survived Waltham and sold the manor in 1399 to the king. (fn. 189) In the same year it was granted by the king to Westminster Abbey with the same liberties, including the return of royal writs, which the abbey enjoyed on its other estates. (fn. 190) In 1400 John de Calvyley, as guardian of David de Calvyley, heir of Hugh de Calvyley, claimed the estate then described as a member of the manor of Steventon. (fn. 191) The claim was unsuccessful and the Abbot of Westminster obtained an exemplification of the grant from Archbishop Walden to the king, and the abbey remained in possession. (fn. 192)
After the Dissolution the manor was granted in 1542 with the former abbey's other possessions to the newly created Dean and Chapter of Westminster. (fn. 193) During the Interregnum the manor was sold by trustees in 1649 to John Sibley and John West, (fn. 194) but it was returned to the chapter at the Restoration and remained part of its property until 1869 when it was transferred to the Ecclesiastical Commissioners. (fn. 195) The estate was then disposed of bit by bit by the commissioners, the bulk of it being sold in 1899 to Lord Ludlow of Heywood (d. 1922). (fn. 196)
In 1522–3 the manor was leased to William Lovell, and later to John Whitaker, but in 1551 the chapter made another lease to Jerome Reynolds, causing considerable friction between the lessees. (fn. 197) In 1640 the manor was leased to William Wheler of Westbury Leigh (fn. 198) and it continued to be leased by members of the Wheler family until c. 1776. (fn. 199) In 1778 Edward Moore held the manor court as lord of the manor, and from 1792–1810 the courts were held by Peter and Stephen Moore. (fn. 200) Between 1810 and c. 1848 the manor was leased to Richard White, of London, and from c. 1848 until 1862 it was leased to William White. (fn. 201)
The lands of this manor lay scattered all over the area of the ancient parish. (fn. 202) In 1840 the demesne lands, which lay north of Leigh Road near its junction with Warminster Road, (fn. 203) comprised some 29 a. The rest of the manor, totalling just under 200 a., was made up of copyhold lands. (fn. 204) On the demesne land there was a barn built of stone in which the manorial courts were held. In 1840 this had recently replaced an old building which had fallen into decay. (fn. 205)
The 30 librates of land granted by the Empress Maud to William Defuble (fn. 206) must have passed into the hands of Henry II, who granted land, still reckoned at 30 librates in 1274, to Joce de Dinan. (fn. 207) Joce died c. 1166 leaving two daughters. One, Sybil, married Hugh Plucknet, and received a half share of the inheritance. (fn. 208) Of this, five librates already formed half of the manor of Westbury Priory. (fn. 209) The remainder had been subinfeudated to the Pavely family, lords of the capital manor, by 1210–12, when it was held by Ralph de Beauchamp, who had the wardship of the heir. (fn. 210) In 1242–3 it was held as ½ fee by Walter Pavely of William Plucknet. (fn. 211) In 1280 Reynold Pavely held the land of Jocelin Plucknet and it was said to be worth £10. (fn. 212) No more is heard of the Plucknet overlordship, and the land was probably merged into the Pavely inheritance. (fn. 213)
Hawise, Joce de Dinan's other daughter, married Fulk FitzWarin ( d. c. 1198). Her share of the inheritance also included the overlordship of half the manor of Westbury Priory. She was still living in 1226; (fn. 214) before her death she is said to have given the part of Westbury which she held herself to her son Fulk. By c. 1219 he had given the land which his mother gave him to his brother Eudo, who soon after gave it to their sister Eugenia. She married William Mauduit, lord of Warminster c. 1244–64, (fn. 215) and took her Westbury property into that family, from which it was called the manor of WESTBURY MAUDUITS. A grant of free warren in his demesne lands made in 1317 to Thomas Mauduit described these as lying in Westbury, Westbury Leigh, and Chalcot. (fn. 216) In 1562 Chalcot alone was described as a manor. (fn. 217) But no evidence of any independent manorial organization has been found and Chalcot was probably only a part of the Mauduit lands in Westbury.
These lands followed the same descent as Warminster (fn. 218) until 1585 when George Tuchet, Lord Audley (d. 1617), sold them to the brothers Henry and Nicholas Phipps. (fn. 219) Henry and Nicholas apparently conveyed some part of the property to Sir James Ley (cr. Earl of Marlborough 1626), and this became annexed to the earl's manor of Brook under the name of Westbury Brook cum Mauduits. (fn. 220) Henry and Nicholas also added to their estate by the purchase in 1599 of a fulling mill at Westbury Leigh from Charles, Lord Mountjoy (d. 1606), (fn. 221) and by lands bought at an unknown date from Thomas Saunders. (fn. 222) Henry Phipps died in 1600 leaving his house at Westbury, his mill at Chalford, and his new house at the 'sheep-washing' at Chalford to his nephew Henry, son of Nicholas, with remainder to Nicholas in default of male issue of Henry. (fn. 223) Nicholas Phipps died in 1615 seised of the manor of Westbury Mauduits, (fn. 224) which presumably represented the bulk of the property he and his brother had acquired from Lord Tuchet (see above). Livery of this manor was made to Nicholas's son Henry in 1618. (fn. 225)
Henry Phipps, the younger, died in 1620 leaving an infant daughter Christine who later married William Bishop of Mere. (fn. 226) In 1639–40 livery of the manor of Westbury Mauduits was made to Christine and her husband and to Margaret Phipps, Christine's sister. (fn. 227) In the same year these three with Christine, widow of Henry Phipps, sold the manor to John and Edward Ash. (fn. 228) It seems to have remained in the Ash family (fn. 229) until sold by them to Zachary Bayly, a West India merchant, who owned it in 1689 and 1713. (fn. 230) It passed from Zachary to his son, another Zachary, who sold it to his nephew Bryan Edwards, author of the History of the British Colonies in the West Indies, who married Maria, daughter of Thomas Phipps of Leighton House (d. 1792). (fn. 231) Before his death in 1800 Edwards sold the estate to his younger brother, Zachary Bayly Edwards, who also died in 1800, and was succeeded by his son another Bryan Edwards. (fn. 232) The estate was bought from Edwards some time after 1842 (fn. 233) by Charles Paul Phipps (d. 1880), who was the first member of the Phipps family to be styled of Chalcot and Dilton Court. (fn. 234) From Charles Paul the Chalcot estate passed to his son Charles Nicholas Paul Phipps (d. 1913), and from him to his son Charles Bathurst Hele Phipps (d. 1960). (fn. 235)
Chalcot House is a mid-18th-century building of 3 stories on the site of an earlier one, which Hoare suggests may have been the manor house of the manor of Westbury Mauduits. (fn. 236) Extensive alterations were made in 1870, leaving only the south-east front unaltered. This front has 5 bays with pilasters flanking the windows. The first, central, and fifth bays have panels with swag ornaments. A central niche on the first floor contains a large urn.
The property at Chalford and Westbury, which Henry Phipps (d. 1600) devised to his nephew Henry (see above) passed on the death of the younger Henry in 1620 without male issue to a younger brother. (fn. 237) Paul Phipps (d. 1722), a descendant of this brother, added largely to the property which lay mostly in Chalford and Westbury Leigh. (fn. 238) He probably did not, however, occupy Leigh House, which at this date was leased from the Earl of Abingdon, lord of the manor of Westbury, by Thomas Phipps of Heywood. (fn. 239) Thomas Phipps of Heywood died in 1724 without issue and the lease was assigned to John Phipps (d. 1739) eldest son of the above Paul of Chalford and Westbury Leigh. (fn. 240) The house continued to be leased by members of this branch of the family until 1791 when it was bought by Thomas Phipps (d. 1792), grandson of Paul, from the Earl of Abingdon. (fn. 241) By 1773 there was, besides Leigh House, another house in Leighton Park to the north of the road which cut the park in two and apparently somewhat to the west of the present Leighton House. That year Leigh House was apparently occupied by Thomas Phipps, and the one to the north by his brother Paul. (fn. 242) Paul died in 1785 and Thomas in 1792, and the Leighton estate, to which Thomas had added much property, (fn. 243) descended to Thomas's grandson. This was Thomas Henry Hele Phipps, who abandoned Leigh House for a new one which he built in 1800 in the northern part of the park. (fn. 244) Thomas Henry Hele Phipps died in 1841 and was succeeded by his son of the same name. This Thomas Henry Hele Phipps died in 1847 leaving a son Thomas Henry Leckonby Phipps who died without issue. His uncle, John Lewis Phipps, succeeded to the estate and died in 1870. Richard Leckonby Hothersall Phipps, son and heir of John Lewis, sold the house and estate in 1888 to William Henry Laverton (d. 1925). (fn. 245) In 1911 some 1,700 a. of the estate including Storridge, Brook House, Hawkeridge, and Lodge Wood farms were sold in lots, (fn. 246) and in 1921 Laverton sold the rest of the estate, including Leighton House, Madbrook, Beresmere, and Skye or Hill farms. (fn. 247) Leighton House was sold to the proprietors of a school for boys called Victoria College. (fn. 248) The school closed in 1936 (fn. 249) and about three years later the property was taken over by the War Department. Since then it has been the headquarters of the Permanent Commissions Board.
Leighton House as built in 1800 by Thomas Henry Hele Phipps comprised 3 stories and 5 bays. It was built of stone ashlar and had a central Roman Doric porch. In 1888 the house was bought by William Henry Laverton and was altered and extended in the taste of that time. A wing was added to the east, a conservatory to the west, and a billiard room to the north. The interior was remodelled and completely redecorated. The architect for these alterations was Frank Willis of Bristol. (fn. 250) A threesided stable block approached by a bridge over the Warminster road dates from c. 1800. A coat of arms and a bell cupola, which form the central features, were added in the late 19th century. Nearby is an avenue of araucaria trees. William Henry Laverton also built a private theatre in the park and made a cricket pitch there.
In 1274 it was said that the land given by the Empress Maud to William Defuble amounted to 30 librates. (fn. 251) The descent of these has been described above; 10 formed the holding of the Prior of Le Pré and 10 that of the Mauduit family, and the remaining 10 seem to have been merged into the capital manor. (fn. 252) It appears, however, that Defuble's holding was larger than the 30 librates assigned to it in 1274, and in 1210–12 it was definitely said to amount to 50 librates. Of this, part was clearly the land held by the heirs of Joce de Dinan, to whom Defuble's land had been regranted by Henry II. The remainder, presumably 20 librates, was held by Ralph de Lanvaley and William de Lanvaley. (fn. 253) This family was associated with a holding of Joce de Dinan at Lambourn (Berks.) (fn. 254) and he may have given land at Westbury to it before his death. The first member of the family certainly holding land here was Thomas de Lanvaley, whose estate at Leigh was in the hands of the sheriff in 1190. (fn. 255) His relationship to the later members of the family is not known, but he evidently was related to the family that held land at Lambourn, and the honor of Walkern (Herts.). William de Lanvaley of that family died c. 1215, leaving a daughter and heir Hawise, who married John de Burgh (d. 1275). (fn. 256) He was overlord of land at Westbury in 1274, (fn. 257) the last time the overlordship of the Lanvaley estates is mentioned.
The fragmentation of those estates by subinfeudation began in 1204 with the gift of land at Leigh from Ralph de Lanvaley to the priory of Monkton Farleigh, in return for a life pension of 2 marks. (fn. 258) This formed the largest part of the manor of LEIGH PRIORS. In 1242–3 it was said to be held in chief, (fn. 259) and in 1274 it was reckoned at ½ fee. (fn. 260)
Subsequent acquisitions show the priory following a policy of augmenting and consolidating its property in Westbury Leigh. In 1226 Henry III confirmed among the other possessions of the house in Westbury, half the vill of Westbury Leigh and a tenement (mansura) there. (fn. 261) In 1249 the prior exchanged with William and Eve Mauduit the wood of Holt for 15 a. in Westbury Leigh next to the wood which Walter of Brookway held. (fn. 262) Another exchange was made by the prior in 1285 with Stephen the tanner of land in 'Buricrofta' and 'Cumputte' in Westbury Leigh for other land in the same place. (fn. 263) More land was acquired in Leigh and Westbury in 1320–1 by an exchange with Walter Pavely. (fn. 264) In 1294 the Westbury Leigh estate along with the priory's other possessions was temporarily taken into the king's hands. (fn. 265) In 1331 the manor was leased to John Bradford, parson of the church at Bishopstrow, and Thomas de Croume for their lives. In 1368 licence was granted for John Mareys and Thomas Jordan to grant some 50 a., which they held of the Prior of Farleigh in Westbury Leigh, to the Bonhommes of Edington. (fn. 266) The manor, then leased out, was among the property of Monkton Farleigh when the priory was dissolved in 1536. (fn. 267)
In 1545 the manor, with its capital messuage, and the lands leased with it to John Whatley, Leigh Common, and all appurtenances were conveyed to John Adlam, clothier, of Westbury, who also received other rents due to the priory from lands in Westbury. (fn. 268) John died seised of the manor in the same year leaving as his heirs his daughters Edith, wife of John Lambe, and Alice, wife of Robert Cogswell. (fn. 269) Edith married secondly John Westwell, who, after Edith's death in 1577, held the manor for life. (fn. 270) It then passed to John Lambe, Edith's son by her first marriage. (fn. 271) John Lambe died in 1615 holding half the manor and was succeeded by his son, John. (fn. 272) This John sold his half of the manor to Sir James Ley (cr. Earl of Marlborough 1626) in 1615. (fn. 273) The other half, which passed on the death of Alice Cogswell in 1606 to her grandson, Roger, (fn. 274) had been sold by him to Sir James Ley in 1611. (fn. 275) Ley thus acquired the entire manor of Leigh Priors, which thenceforth followed the same descent as the capital manor.
The half of the township of Leigh which remained after the grant to the priory of Monkton Farleigh in 1204 was by 1242–3 divided into two parts, each reckoned at 1/6 fee. (fn. 276) Robert de Maners held one directly of the heirs of William de Lanvaley, but the other had been three times subinfeudated, and was held by Eve de Bassingburn of Eve de Tracy of Fulk FitzWarin of the heirs of de Lanvaley. (fn. 277) Eve de Bassingburn had acquired her part of Eve de Tracy in 1241. (fn. 278) By 1274 the two parts had been united, for John de Maners held ¼ fee directly of the tenant-in-chief. (fn. 279) John probably subinfeudated it before the Statute of 1290. By 1316 it was held by John Rous; (fn. 280) at his death in 1330 Rous was said to hold it jointly with his wife Ela of Robert de Maners by the gift of John of Lavington. (fn. 281) It descended in the Rous family in the same way as the manor of Baynton in Edington (fn. 282) to John Rous, who was holding it in 1412. (fn. 283)
The descent of this estate during the next 50 years cannot be traced. By 1464 it had passed to Robert and Agnes Leversage, for that year they were sued by the Chaplain of Baynton for a rent of 40s., (fn. 284) which Richard Rous had granted him from his land in Leigh. (fn. 285) Agnes was the daughter of William of Westbury (d. 1482) and among the estates which went to make up the manor of WESTBURY LEVERSAGE were lands which she inherited from her father in Heywood, Hawkeridge, and Westbury Leigh. (fn. 286) Agnes's lands passed by a settlement of 1475 to her heirs Edmund and John Leversage. (fn. 287) Edmund died seised of the property in 1469 and was succeeded by his nephew, Edmund, son of William Leversage. (fn. 288) At this date the Leversage estate in Westbury was called the manor of Heywood and it is not known whether the land in Westbury Leigh still formed part of it. The younger Edmund died in 1508 and was succeeded by his son Robert. (fn. 289) Robert died in 1549 (fn. 290) and was followed by his son William who died in 1582, at which date the estate was sometimes called the manor of Westbury Leversage. (fn. 291) Grace, widow of William Leversage, married secondly Anthony Williams, (fn. 292) and in 1612–13 they conveyed the manor, then called Westbury Heywood, to Sir James Ley (cr. Earl of Marlborough in 1626). (fn. 293) From this time the Leversage manor followed the same descent as the capital manor of Westbury, with which it became merged. (fn. 294)
The manor of BREMERIDGE is represented in modern times by Bremeridge Farm lying some three miles to the south-west of Westbury. The estate probably originated in the grant to Philip Marmium by Joce de Dinan (d. c. 1166) of 3 hides out of the land which the king had granted Joce in Westbury. (fn. 295) The grant was confirmed to Marmium's son, Roger, by Walter Pavely, by then lord of the manor of Westbury. (fn. 296) In c. 1276 Philip Marmium, possibly Roger's son, died seised of a virgate held of Richard Dauntsey in Bratton and Dilton, 12 virgates in the manor of Westbury, of which 6 were held of Reynold Pavely, lord of the capital manor, and 6 of Thomas Mauduit, lord of the manor of Westbury Mauduits, 11 librates in Bremeridge, as well as other smaller holdings in Westbury, Brook, and Bremeridge. For all these lands he seems to have held a single court. (fn. 297) Philip Marmium was succeeded by a grandson, Roger, whose legitimacy was questioned by his aunt Eve, elder daughter of Philip Marmium. (fn. 298) This was apparently of no avail, and Roger added to his holding a wood called Huddesgrove acquired from John of Leigh, (fn. 299) and a rent from a tenement in Leigh together with the advowson of the chantry of Heywood, which were granted him by Reynold Pavely. (fn. 300) In 1335–6 he settled his entire estate upon himself and his wife Maud. Roger was succeeded by his grandson, William, (fn. 301) who in 1350–1 conveyed a messuage and two carucates of land in Bremeridge to his grand mother, Maud, and her second husband William FitzWarin. (fn. 302) This seems to have been a settlement of the manor upon the heirs of Maud and FitzWarin, for it passed to Sir Philip FitzWarin of Great Chalfield, (fn. 303) who in 1366, with his wife Constance, exchanged Bremeridge with the Bonhommes of Edington for the manor of Highway. (fn. 304) The manor of Bremeridge was at this date held of Gillian Mauduit as of her manor of Westbury by the service of a knight's fee. (fn. 305) The manor remained among the possessions of Edington until the dissolution of that house in 1539. (fn. 306)
In 1541 the manor was leased by the Crown to Thomas Charde, and in 1543 the reversion after the expiry of this lease was granted to Charles Blount, Lord Mountjoy (d. 1544). (fn. 307) James Blount, Lord Mountjoy (d. 1581), son of Charles Blount, conveyed it in 1574 to the queen. (fn. 308) In 1609–10 James I sold the manor to John Eldred, James Collymore, and others, (fn. 309) but the sale was apparently ineffective, for the following year the king sold it to George and Thomas Whitmore of London. (fn. 310) George and Thomas Whitmore sold Bremeridge in 1612 to Sir James Ley (cr. Earl of Marlborough 1626), (fn. 311) and it thus became part of the large estate in Westbury, which Ley was acquiring during the first quarter of the 17th century. (fn. 312)
In 1631 Henry Ley, Earl of Marlborough (d. 1638), son of Sir James Ley, and lord of the manor of Westbury, sold the capital messuage and farm of Bremeridge with 'Rookesgrove' and 'Knawbone' to Edward Windover, but not, apparently, the manorial rights which remained with the lords of the manor of Westbury. (fn. 313) The earl retained certain hunting rights on the estate, and Windover was bound to do suit at the court of the manor of Bremeridge. (fn. 314) No more is known of this estate until 1655 when it was sold by John Stedman to William Lant. (fn. 315) Lant, a London merchant, died in 1671, and his widow Anne remarried Sir Edward Bromfield, and held Bremeridge until her death in 1696. She was succeeded by her son Thomas Lant, (fn. 316) who held the farm in 1709, but by 1727 it was the freehold property and residence of John Watts. (fn. 317) After the death of Watts and his wife it passed to a son also called John. The Revd. John Watts, son of the second named John, died unmarried, and the farm passed to the children of his sister, the Thrings of Sutton Veny. (fn. 318) They sold the estate in 1825 to Frederick Seagram of Warminster. In 1830 it was bound to pay 'lord's rent' to Sir Manasseh Massey Lopes, lord of the capital manor of Westbury. (fn. 319) Subsequently the farm passed into the possession of Charles Paul Phipps of Chalcot House and Dilton Court (d. 1880). (fn. 320)
The farmhouse dates largely from the 19th century, but there are indications, such as a 17thcentury doorway, that there may have been an earlier house on the site. A hoard of gold coins of the time of Edward III and Richard II was found buried outside the backdoor in 1877. (fn. 321)
In the 12th century two members of a family calling themselves of Leigh (de Lya), and thus presumably holding land there, (fn. 322) were wardens of Selwood Forest, within which Leigh then lay: Walter in 1189, and his son, Philip, in 1193–4. (fn. 323) In 1210–12 Philip of Leigh held land in Westbury valued at 10s. by the serjeanty of supplying one archer for the royal service. (fn. 324) Philip died c. 1226 when his son and heir, James, paid homage for his holding, which he held in chief of the king. (fn. 325) John of Leigh, possibly son of James, was holding a virgate in Westbury in 1274–5, (fn. 326) and in 1349–50 John Mauduit conveyed a mill, tenement, and garden in Leigh to Joan Huggin to hold during the minority of Thomas, son of John of Leigh. (fn. 327)
The estate in WESTBURY LEIGH descended in the family of Leigh until the death of Robert Leigh in 1525–6 when it was divided between his daughters. (fn. 328) One of these, Margaret Harvey, died in 1527 (fn. 329) and her son and heir, Nicholas, sold his share in the manor of Westbury Leigh to Thomas Webb. (fn. 330) Robert Webb, son of Thomas, sold his share in the manor to Alexander Staples of Yate (Glos.), (fn. 331) who died seised of it the same year having devised it to his younger son Thomas. (fn. 332) In 1631–2 Thomas Staples sold the manor to Humphrey Lee, (fn. 333) and six years later Lee sold it to William Wheler. (fn. 334)
From Henry Hussey and Cecily, another daughter of Robert Leigh, part of the manor of Westbury Leigh passed to John Hussey and from him in 1581 to his son, Thomas Hussey. (fn. 335) In the following year Thomas Hussey sold his half of the manor to James Powton, (fn. 336) of whom it was purchased in 1591–2 by Edward and Jeremy Horton. (fn. 337) The capital messuage of the estate was Ludborne House. (fn. 338) In 1639–40 the estate was sold by Sir John Horton, son of Jeremy Horton to William Wheler, who thus acquired both parts of the manor. (fn. 339) By his will proved in 1667 Sir William Wheler devised the manor to his wife Elizabeth with remainder to George, son of Charles Wheler of Charing (Kent). George Wheler died in 1723, one year before his eldest son, and the estate passed first to his second son Granville Wheler, and on Granville's death in 1770 to Granville's son of the same name. (fn. 340) In 1772 some land within the manor was sold to Thomas Phipps, (fn. 341) and the rest was sold to Thomas, Viscount Weymouth. (fn. 342) This descended to the Marquesses of Bath, and was sold by Lord Bath sometime between the two world wars. (fn. 343)
Another share in Robert Leigh's manor (see above) passed to his daughter Anne, wife of William Beckett, and this estate became known as Leigh Becketts. It belonged in 1558 to Henry Beckett, (fn. 344) and appears to have descended in the family until 1612–13 when William Beckett and his wife Elizabeth sold it to Sir James Ley (cr. Earl of Marlborough 1626), lord of the capital manor of Westbury. (fn. 345)
Land in Westbury held by William Burnel had escheated to the Crown in 1168. (fn. 346) It was probably another William Burnel who in 1194 paid 2 marks to have seisin of 1½ hide of land there. (fn. 347) From that time until at least 1214 he paid a yearly farm for it to the king. (fn. 348) At first the farm was 30s. but from 1200 he began to pay only 10s. out of the 30s. charged on him, and from 1207 his farm was reduced to 10s. at the Exchequer. (fn. 349) This was a belated recognition of the fact that the Prior of Monkton Farleigh was overlord of 2/3 of Burnel's fee. He put forward his claim in 1194, (fn. 350) when the land was first said to lie in PENLEIGH, and by 1199 it had been established that 2/3 of Burnel's rent should be paid to the prior. (fn. 351) The overlordship of Farleigh is regularly mentioned thereafter, (fn. 352) and the 20s. rent was still paid at the Dissolution. (fn. 353) In 1236 William Haket held the land de elemosina domini regis, paying the rents to the prior and the king, (fn. 354) but by 1242–3 Eudo Burnel held it by the same rents. (fn. 355) Eudo was succeeded by his brother William in c. 1243. (fn. 356) William's heir was William the chaplain, (fn. 357) and it seems likely that he relinquished his right in Penleigh, for no more is heard of the Burnel overlordship.
William Burnel had subinfeudated his land before his death. In 1256 Walter Pavely was holding land in Penleigh of him by a rent of 10s. (fn. 358) Walter's son, Reynold, held it in 1274, when it was said to be ⅓ of the Burnel fee, (fn. 359) but by 1288–9 it was described as ⅓ of Penleigh held directly of the king. (fn. 360) This land probably became merged into the larger Pavely estate, and is not heard of again. The other part of the Burnel fee, held of the monks of Farleigh, was perhaps subinfeudated by 1243, when Alan FitzWarin seems to have exerted some claim to part of it. (fn. 361) In 1260 Eudo FitzAlan, presumably his son, granted the land which Alan had held to Thomas de Tetteburn and Joan his wife for their lives. (fn. 362) They still held it in 1274, (fn. 363) but by 1288–9 it had reverted to Peter FitzWarin. (fn. 364) It was held by William FitzWarin who forfeited it as a rebel in 1322; (fn. 365) it was soon restored to his widow Joan and their son William, who were in possession in 1327. (fn. 366)
By 1340 Penleigh had passed to Sir Adam de Shareshull and Alice his wife, for that year these two settled it upon themselves and their heirs. (fn. 367) How it came to them is not clear; Alice may have been the heir of the FitzWarins. Ten years later they conveyed it for life to Sir Thomas, son of Maurice Berkeley, and his wife Katharine, with remainder to John de Veel and his sister Joan, children of Katharine by her first husband Sir Peter de Veel. (fn. 368) John de Veel died without issue and Katharine's heir was Sir John Moigne, son of Joan de Veel. (fn. 369) From Sir John Moigne the manor passed to his daughter, Elizabeth, who married William Stourton. Their son, John (cr. Baron Stourton 1448), (fn. 370) died seised of the manor in 1462. (fn. 371) William Stourton (d. 1477) succeeded his father and married Margaret, daughter of Sir John Chidiock, and in her right became possessed of part of the capital manor of Westbury. Penleigh thenceforth followed the same descent as the part of the capital manor called Westbury Stourton until it was forfeited in 1557 by Charles, Lord Stourton. (fn. 372) In 1580 Penleigh was granted by Elizabeth I to Lord Burleigh and others. (fn. 373) This grant was apparently made with the purpose of restoring it to John, Lord Stourton, son of Charles, for that year he conveyed it to the same grantees for a settlement upon himself and his wife, Frances, and their issue, with remainder to the heirs of his grandfather, William, Lord Stourton. (fn. 374) The manor descended with the title until c. 1704 when Lord Stourton sold it to George Turner, on whose death it passed under his will to his widow Martha Turner. (fn. 375) Martha Turner left it to her nephew, Gilbert Trowe Beckett, who was in possession in 1791. (fn. 376) He afterwards assumed the name Turner, and it passed from him to his brother, the Revd. Thomas À Beckett Turner, incumbent of Wootton Underwood (Bucks.). (fn. 377) The estate remained in the a Beckett Turner family until the last decade of the 19th century. (fn. 378) Since the beginning of the 20th century Penleigh House has had various occupiers.
Penleigh House faces east and consists of two ranges of different heights. That on the south has stone mullioned and transomed windows and may be the older of the two. The other, and higher range has a two-storied front of 7 bays. This front has a deep parapet surmounted by four vases and the roof has a central bell-turret with a weather cock. In the gable-end is a stone inscribed '1710 G.T.'. The sash windows in this portion of the house are not the original ones and other alterations, such as the addition of a central porch, seem to have been made. The central stone doorway, surmounted by a broken pediment and a shield of arms, possibly those of the Turner family, may be original, or alternatively the stone doorway which now forms the gateway in the garden wall may have been transferred from the house. The walls of the house are cement-rendered giving the appearance of ashlar, but they were originally wholly or in part of brick. The house contains two staircases of c. 1710. The principal one is lit by a Venetian window. A red-brick stable block to the west is of much the same date as the house, and the farmhouse to the north is of red brick with stone mullioned and transomed windows and has the inscription '1716 G.T.'.
Ernulf de Mandeville, the disinherited eldest son of Geoffrey de Mandeville, Earl of Essex, had received land in Wiltshire by royal grant as early as 1156, and it is quite possible that he had been given it by the Empress Maud. (fn. 379) He was apparently dead by 1178, when the sheriff accounted for £3 9s. 9d. for the farm of his lands for half a year. (fn. 380) Ernulf was succeeded by his eldest son Geoffrey. (fn. 381) In 1201 and in 1210–12 a Geoffrey de Mandeville, probably this son, was holding land in BRATTON. (fn. 382) Either this Geoffrey, or his son of the same name, (fn. 383) borrowed money from Jews, and the property of the de Mandevilles in Highworth and Bratton was seized for payment of the debt. In 1232 the justices dealing with matters relating to the Jews were ordered to make reasonable terms for Geoffrey de Mandeville for debts owed by him to three Jews. Part of the profits from the two manors was to be assigned every year for payment of the debts, and the rest was to provide for the maintenance of Geoffrey, his wife and children. (fn. 384) In 1236 Geoffrey de Mandeville held one fee in Bratton and Highworth. (fn. 385) In 1242–3 he held ⅓ knight's fee in Bratton by castle-guard service to Devizes Castle. (fn. 386) Geoffrey de Mandeville, grandson of Ernulf, died in 1246 and was succeeded by his son Ralph. (fn. 387) Ralph died in 1280 holding 20 librates of land in Bratton and Highworth of the king in chief. For this he paid £1 a year to Devizes Castle in time of peace, and in time of war owed 40 days service there for himself and a horseman. (fn. 388) Thomas, son and heir of Ralph, apparently died soon after his father, for in 1288–9 Amice, widow of Ralph de Mandeville, and wife of Robert de Saucey, was holding part of the estate in dower, of the heritage of Robert de Mandeville. (fn. 389) Robert may have been a younger brother of Thomas. He appears to have been succeeded by another Ralph de Mandeville, for in 1299 William de Mandeville was holding the inheritance of Ralph his father in Bratton. (fn. 390) William died in 1333, when the estate passed to his brother John. (fn. 391) John died c. 1336, and Bratton was settled on his widow Benedicta. (fn. 392) In 1361 she conveyed her interest in it to the house of Bonhommes at Edington. (fn. 393) This grant was confirmed in 1362 by Nicholas atte Hoke and Joan his wife, kinswoman and heir of John de Mandeville, (fn. 394) and in 1372 by Walter Maryner de Langecote and Isabel his wife, (fn. 395) possibly another heir of John de Mandeville.
A number of lesser estates in Bratton were also acquired by the Bonhommes soon after the foundation of the house in 1358. (fn. 396) In 1401 the property belonging to the community in Bratton and Dilton was described as ½ knight's fee in Bratton late belonging to Walter Dauntsey. (fn. 397) Bratton continued to form part of the Edington lands until the Dissolution.
In 1543 Bratton was granted to Sir Thomas Seymour of Sudeley Castle (Glos.), brother of the Protector, who had already acquired the bulk of the Edington property. (fn. 398) After Seymour's execution in 1548–9, (fn. 399) Bratton appears to have remained with the Crown until 1591 when it was granted by the queen to Richard Knollis and Richard Swale. (fn. 400) In the same year these grantees sold it to Sir Christopher Hatton, the Lord Chancellor. (fn. 401) Sir Christopher died seised of it in 1591, leaving as his heir Sir William Newport, son of his sister Dorothy, who had married Sir John Newport. (fn. 402) Sir William assumed the name Hatton and in 1595 he and his wife Elizabeth conveyed the manor with four watermills to Richard Beconsawe and Francis Shrimpton. (fn. 403) Four years later in 1599 it passed from Gerard Fleetwood and Jane his wife to William Lambert. (fn. 404) Shortly after this it passed to William Paulet, Marquess of Winchester (d. 1628/9), who already held the Bratton Grange or Farm estate, (fn. 405) and in 1620 Paulet sold it to Sir James Ley (cr. Earl of Marlborough 1626), (fn. 406) in whose possession it was at the time of his death in 1629. (fn. 407) The manor then presumably descended for a time with the capital manor of Westbury but shortly after the death of James Ley, 3rd Earl of Marlborough, in 1665, it apparently passed to William Bromwich, owner of the grange and farm, for he was admitting tenants on the manor in 1667. (fn. 408) In 1669 Arthur Bromwich sold the manor to Sir James Thynne, (fn. 409) from whom it eventually descended to the Marquesses of Bath. Shortly before the Second World War Lord Bath sold his estate in Bratton. (fn. 410)
The 'mansion' house of Bratton is described in a 17th-century survey as a good, tiled house consisting of kitchen, hall, 2 parlours, a pantry, a cellar, brewhouse, and other offices. There was also a tiled barn, stables, outhouses, gardens, orchards, and a homeclose comprising in all about 4 a. (fn. 413) It is not possible to identify this house with any in Bratton now. Grange Farm, in Lower Road, the farmhouse of Lord Bath's former estate in Bratton, dates from 1739 and later. (fn. 414).
After the execution of Sir Thomas Seymour, lord of the manor of Bratton, an estate known as BRATTON GRANGE, or FARM, was conveyed in 1550 to Sir William Paulet (cr. Marquess of Winchester 1551, d. 1571). This estate comprised some 346 a. of arable and 62 a. of meadow or pasture with lands called Little Broadmead, Broadmead, Opencrofts, and Great Opencrofts, and lay in the south of the parish. (fn. 415) It passed with the Winchester title (fn. 416) until 1600 when William Paulet, Marquess of Winchester (d. 1628/9), mortgaged the estate for 1,000 years to mortgagees, who sold the lease to Thomas Hutchins and William Bower. After the death of Hutchins in 1607 the reversion was granted by the marquess to Sefton Bromwich, who probably redeemed the mortgage. (fn. 417) Sefton Bromwich died a few months later and was succeeded by his son William, a minor, to whom livery was made in 1629. (fn. 418) William Bromwich, Rachel, his wife, and Arthur Bromwich sold the Grange to Sir Walter Ernley of Etchilhampton. (fn. 419) In 1695 it was settled upon Anne, widow of Edward Ernley, son of Sir Walter Ernley, with remainder to her second son Sir Edward Ernley. (fn. 420) Elizabeth, the only daughter and heir of Sir Edward Ernley, married Henry Drax in 1720 and died in 1759. She was succeeded by her eldest son Thomas Erle Drax, on whose death in 1789 the property passed to his brother Edward. Sarah Frances Drax, daughter and heir of Edward, married Richard Grosvenor, who assumed the name of Erle Drax. (fn. 421) Richard Erle Drax Grosvenor died in 1819 and his widow in 1822. In 1829 the whole estate was sold in lots. (fn. 422) The manor house and a part of the estate were bought by George Watson-Taylor of Erlestoke Park. (fn. 423) This still belonged to Watson-Taylor in 1842, (fn. 424) but before the end of the 19th century it had passed to Charles Nicholas Paul Phipps. (fn. 425)
In 1815 part of the estate, comprising nearly 1,000 a., and including Lower and Upper Garston, and Garston Orchard was leased by Richard Erle Drax Grosvenor to Philip Whitaker. (fn. 426) In 1842 the same Philip Whitaker occupied the manor house and another part of the estate was leased to his son, Joshua Whitaker. (fn. 427) Members of the Whitaker family continued to farm the estate until well on into the 20th century. When John Saffery Whitaker retired in 1913 Grant's Farm, lying on Salisbury Plain, and the largest farm on the estate, had been farmed by the Whitaker family for some two hundred years. (fn. 428)
The manor house of this estate, and still called the Manor House in 1960, stands at the corner of Court Lane and the high road to Westbury. It is partly of the late 17th century and has stone mullioned windows with drip moulds and a stone slated roof.
In the Middle Ages this manor was usually called GODSWELL. Later it became known as GODSWELL AND CHAPMANSLADE and eventually as Chapmanslade only. The name Godswell survives in Godswell Grove Farm, a small 19th-century farmhouse, about ¾ mile north-east of Chapmanslade village. During the 12th and early 13th centuries Stanley Abbey received a number of grants of land in Godswell and Chapmanslade: land at Godswell was granted by Hugh Plucknet, one of the abbey's earliest benefactors; (fn. 429) Walter of Brookway and Peter of Scudamore also granted lands in the same place; (fn. 430) among the gifts of Hugh of Raden was pasture for 400 sheep at Godswell; (fn. 431) Philip Marmium granted land there formerly held by Edric, and some land once belonging to Bartholomew his father, lying between 'bellus quercus' and the Brookway; (fn. 432) Thomas de Lanvaley granted 2 a. of land in Chapmanslade and some land once held by Alfric Ches; (fn. 433) a holding in Chapmanslade belonging to the Prioress of Studley (Oxon.) was at an unknown date conveyed to Stanley. (fn. 434)
In 1242–3 the estate belonging to Stanley in Godswell comprised a carucate held in free alms. (fn. 435) Licence was granted in 1324 for the manor to be leased for 20 years. (fn. 436) It remained among the possessions of Stanley Abbey until that house was dissolved in 1536, by which time the manor of Godswell seems to have been annexed to Heywood, another Stanley Abbey estate. (fn. 437)
After the Dissolution the manor, then described as Godswell near Chapmanslade, alias Godswell and Chapmanslade, was granted with Heywood and most of the rest of the Stanley Abbey property to Sir Edward Baynton, of Bromham. (fn. 438) Sir Edward died in 1545 (fn. 439) and the following year his son, Andrew, conveyed the manor to his brother, Edward. (fn. 440) In 1561 Edward Baynton conveyed it to Thomas Long. (fn. 441) Thomas Long died in 1562 and his heirs were his nieces Martha, wife of William Meredith, and Magdalen, wife of Roger Sadler, daughters of his brother Robert Long, and his great-nephew Henry, son of Henry Viner and Mary, a third daughter of Robert Long. (fn. 442) William and Martha Meredith sold their ⅓ of the manor in c. 1578 to Lionel Duckett, (fn. 443) and in 1579 John, son of Roger and Magdalen Sadler, conveyed his ⅓ to Lionel Duckett's nephew Stephen. (fn. 444) Henry Viner, however, appears to have acquired these 2/3 from the Ducketts, for on his death in 1626 he was seised of the manor of Chapmanslade and Godswell. (fn. 445) Richard Viner, Henry's son and heir, died childless in 1649, and his heirs were the daughters of his sister Mary, Mary, wife of John Minshull, and Anne, wife of the Revd. Oliver Chivers. (fn. 446) Mary Minshull died without issue and her share in the manor passed to the daughters of her sister, Anne Chivers, Susan, wife of John Lewis, and Mary, wife of Thomas Bythesea. (fn. 447) By a partition of 1667 the manor of Chapmanslade was assigned to Susan, (fn. 448) who apparently married secondly George Morgan, (fn. 449) while Mary Bythesea received Wyke House, Trowbridge. (fn. 450) Susan died childless, and the manor passed to her nephew John, son of Thomas and Mary Bythesea. (fn. 451) John Bythesea was succeeded in 1747 by his son, another John. (fn. 452) This John died in 1782 and Chapmanslade passed to his third son, William. (fn. 453) In c. 1801 the manor was sold either by William Bythesea or his son George, to Thomas Thynne, Viscount Weymouth, (fn. 454) and it then descended in the family of the Marquess of Bath until sold by Lord Bath just after the Second World War. (fn. 455)
The manor of HEYWOOD originated in a grant of 1½ virgate of land by Geoffrey Burnel to Stanley Abbey some time about the beginning of the 13th century. (fn. 456) Geoffrey had acquired the land by gift of Hugh Plucknet, (fn. 457) and in 1224–5 William Burnel confirmed the grant of his uncle Geoffrey to the abbey. (fn. 458) Another virgate in Heywood was granted to the abbey by Hawise Pavely, and confirmed by her son Walter in 1240–1. (fn. 459) The estate in Heywood belonging to the abbey was leased c. 1327 to Peter of Berwick, and Joan de Bouches, and to John and Simon, Joan's sons, for their lives. (fn. 460) In 1451 Heywood Grange, which probably represented the whole estate, was let for 20 years at £3 a year. (fn. 461) A rent derived in part from Heywood was granted by the abbey in 1460–1 to the chaplain of the chantry of St. Nicholas in Highworth church. (fn. 462) At the Dissolution Heywood, still held by Stanley, seems to have been annexed to Godswell, later called Chapmanslade, another of the abbey's manors. (fn. 463) It was acquired by Sir Edward Baynton in 1537 along with much of the rest of the Stanley Abbey property. (fn. 464) Sir Edward was succeeded in 1545 by his son Andrew, who conveyed the manor, then called Heywood, alias Temmys Leys, to Henry Long. (fn. 465) From Henry Long it descended to his son, Thomas, who died seised of it in 1592–3 and was succeeded by his son Edward. (fn. 466) Edward sold the manor, which included other land in Heywood to James Ley (cr. Earl of Marlborough 1626), and upon 'Temes Leaze' the earl built a new residence for himself. (fn. 467) The manor of Heywood descended to James's son and heir, Henry, Earl of Marlborough (d. 1638), (fn. 468) but was sold, as was most of the earl's property in Westbury, in 1639–40 by Henry's son James, Earl of Marlborough (d. 1665) to Henry, Earl of Danby (d. 1644). (fn. 469) Henceforward it descended with the capital manor of Westbury. (fn. 470)
Some time in the later 17th century Heywood House was acquired by the Ash family, and in c. 1700 it passed to Thomas Phipps, mercer (d. c. 1715), who acquired the manor of Dilton in c. 1693. (fn. 471) The son of Thomas Phipps, another Thomas, died in 1724 without issue and left Heywood by his will to his mother, Bridget, for life, and after her death to his brother William. (fn. 472) William Phipps, Governor of Bombay, died at Heywood House in 1748 and was succeeded by his son Thomas. (fn. 473) Thomas's son, Thomas Peckham Phipps, sold the house in 1789 to the clothier Gaisford Gibbs. (fn. 474) Gaisford Gibbs died two years later and his widow, Elizabeth, daughter of William Matravers, another Westbury clothier, married secondly Abraham Ludlow, M.D., of Bristol. Susan, daughter and heir of Gaisford Gibbs, then married the son of Abraham Ludlow, also called Abraham, and brought to him her father's property, including Heywood House. (fn. 475) Abraham Ludlow, the younger, died in 1822, and his son Henry Gaisford Gibbs Ludlow succeeded him at Heywood House. (fn. 476) Susan, daughter of Abraham and Susan and sister of Henry Gaisford Gibbs Ludlow, married Ralph Franco, nephew of Sir Manasseh Massey Lopes, who bought the manor of Westbury in 1810. (fn. 477) On the death of his uncle (Sir Manasseh Massey Lopes) in 1831, Ralph Franco assumed the name of Lopes and succeeded to the baronetcy as Sir Ralph Lopes, and to the lordship of the manor of Westbury. (fn. 478) On the death of Henry Gaisford Gibbs Ludlow in 1876, Heywood House passed to the third son of Sir Ralph Lopes. (fn. 479) This was Henry Charles Lopes, who was created Baron Ludlow of Heywood in 1897. (fn. 480) A life interest in part of the estate was also devised by H. G. G. Ludlow to his sister's son, Endymion Porter. (fn. 481) Lord Ludlow died in 1899, (fn. 482) and was succeeded by his son Henry Ludlow Lopes, who acquired the manor of Westbury in c. 1904 from his uncle Sir Massey Lopes (d. 1908), eldest son of Sir Ralph Lopes. (fn. 483) Henry Ludlow Lopes, Lord Ludlow of Heywood, died in 1922 when the peerage became extinct. (fn. 484) Since then Heywood House has had a number of owners.
Heywood House was built in Jacobean style by Henry Gaisford Gibbs Ludlow in the mid-19th century. (fn. 485) It possibly stands on or near the site of the house built by Sir James Ley in the early 17th century (see above). The present house stands on the east side of the main Westbury-Trowbridge road and commands a wide view over the park and lake towards the northern escarpment of Salisbury Plain. There are two lodges to the park in Yoad Lane dated 1896. Two more on the main road and the stable block near the house are probably of early-19th-century date.