A History of the County of Worcester: Volume 3. Originally published by Victoria County History, London, 1913.
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The parish of Tredington is one of the detached parishes of Worcestershire and lies to the south-east of the county proper. Included in this parish are the township of Tredington and the hamlets of Blackwell, Darlingscott, Newbold-on-Stour and Armscote.
Fosse Way, the old Roman road between Moretonin-Marsh and Leicester, runs through the parish from south to north and crosses the present high road from Stratford to Shipston-on-Stour to the north of the village of Tredington, which is situated on the latter road. Newbold-on-Stour is also on the Stratford road, from which a branch leads south through Armscote, Blackwell and Darlingscott. The River Stour, flowing north, forms the greater part of the eastern and northern boundaries of the parish.
The Stratford-upon-Avon and Moreton-in-Marsh tramway runs through the parish, the Shipston-on-Stour branch joining the main line at Darlingscott. There are brick-fields and lime-kilns near the tramway.
The area of the parish of Tredington is 5,347 acres, (fn. 1) of which 1,639 are arable, 3,430 permanent grass and 17 woods. (fn. 2) The chief crops raised are wheat, beans, barley and oats. The soil is stiff clay and the subsoil is Lower Lias; in Armscote Field white lias lime-stone is obtainable.
The village of Tredington is situated about 2 miles north of Shipston-on-Stour upon the main road to Straford. The church stands on high ground a little to the east of the main road in a churchyard surrounded by old stone wall with a weathered and stepped coping. Between the churchyear and the main road is the rctory; the original building, which must have been a particularly fine example of a large 15th-century house, was unfortunately demolished in the 'forties of the last century, when the present building was erected, a few of the windows of the old house being re-used. In the window of the hall, which is an original 15th-century window of two lights with a square traceried head, is some 17th-century heraldic glass, comprising the following shieds: (1) Gules a bend or between two scallops argent impaling gules a cheveron argent between three cinquefoils argent; (2) Sable a fesse argent between three sheldrakes in their proper colour impaling the first charge of the foregoing shield; (3) Gules two swords argent in saltire impaling sable three crosslerts fitchy on a cheveron or between three stars or with the crest of a mitre, for William Laud, Bishop of London; (4) the Stuart royal arms. The coach-house, to the south-east of the rectory, appears to be a fragment of the original out-buildings. The cottages which compose the village are mostly of stone, with low mullioned windows and stone-slated roofs after the regular Cotswold type. To the east of the church is a good stone farm-house two stories in height, with an attic in the roof, dating from the early 17th century. To the south-west of the village are the Tredington Hills, where the land rises to 300 ft. above the ordnance datum. Armscote is a pituresque hamlet about three-quarters of a mile north-west of the church. The manor-house is a fine L-shaped early 17th-century house of stone, two stories in height with an attic. The windows throughout have moulded labels and ovolo-moulded mullions. The southern or principal front has two gabled bays, extending above the eaves of the roof and lighting the attics. The ground stage of the eastern bay contains the entrance porch. Between the windows of the first and attic floors is a sundial. The interior has been much cut about and modernixed. On a fireback still preserved is inscribed '1631 N/AM.' Armscote House, known locally as the 'Pool House' from the ponds to the south-east, is an early 17th-century building of two stories with an attic. H-shaped on plan, with an original entrance passage on the east side of the central room or hall. The stairs are at the north-west of the hall in the west wing. The fireplaces are mostly of stone, with straight-sided, fourcentred heads. On a beam in one of the rooms in the east wing is carved the date 1606. The front, with its stone-mullioned windows, each with a lable, and its gabled wings at either end, is charateristic of the period. The roofs are stone-slated on the front, but tiled at the back, where the windows have oak frames, mullions and ledges. The chimney stacks are of stone with moulded cappings. The inclosing wall of the garden on the entrance side appears to be of the original date, though the gate-piers, crowned by ball finials, are probably later. The original farm buildings still remain.
The hamlet of Newbold, situated about 1½ miles north of Tredington upon the Stratford road, contains many moder brick cottages and some older work. Opposite the church is a good stone farm-house of the early 17th century, and to the north of this, a little to the east of the main road, is a small stone house of c. 1700, with mullioned and transomed windows of the old type on the principal front, and a large sash-window, apparently contemporary, in the gabled end wall on the south.
Blackwell, about 1 mile west of Tredington, is a hamlet of moderate size, containing some good examples of the Cotswold type of stone cottages. There is a green at the west end of the settlement, where the cottages have been largely rebuilt.
Roman remains have been found at Newbold-on-Stour and at Talton. (fn. 3)
An Inclosure Act for Tredington was passed in 1836, the award being dated 26 April 1878. (fn. 4) The award for Armscote Field is dated 31 July 1865, (fn. 5) that for Blackwell 24 October 1868, (fn. 6) for Darlingscott 27 August 1846, (fn. 7) and for Newbold-on-Stour 20 June 1850 (amended 9 December 1850). (fn. 8)
Humphrey Owen was rector of Tredington from 1744 until 1763, when he became librarian of the Bodleian Library. Peter Vannes, Dean of Salisbury, the well-known Latin secretary to Henry VIII and Edward VI, was rector of Tredington in 1542. Vice-Admiral Sir Hyde Parker was younger son of Hyde Parker, rector of Tredington, and was born there in 1713–14. (fn. 9)
A spurious charter purporting to date from the 8th century relates that Eanbeorht, under-king of the Hwiccas, and his brothers Uhtred and Aldred granted land in TREDINGTON to Milred, Bishop of Worcester. (fn. 13) Tredington was in the hundred of Winburntree, and by the charter of King Edgar of 964 was freed from royal exactions. (fn. 14) In 1086 the Bishop of Worcester held 23 hides in Tredington. (fn. 15) In 1254 the bishop obtained in this manor a grant of free warren, which was confirmed to him in the following year. (fn. 16) In 1351 the bishop complained that though he had infangentheof and outfangentheof in this manor, as in all his other Worcestershire manors, some goods found in the possession of thieves arrested in the manor of Tredington had been taken away by force by other malefactors, so that justice had never been done. (fn. 17) In 1409 he again had reason for complaint, as Richard Wych, parson of the church of Tredington, late farmer of the manor of Tredington, with others broke into the manor-house, dovecot and mill at Tredington, carried off the windows with their iron fastenings, sealed the door of the mill, stole the doves, and assaulted the bishop's servants and Simon Colyns, then farmer of the manor. (fn. 18)
In 1423 the manor of Tredington, with the watermill and fishery, was leased to Richard Cassey, rector of Tredington. (fn. 19)
The manor remained part of the possessions of the see of Worcester (fn. 20) until it was sold by the Parliamentary Commissioners in 1649 to John Baker and William Dyer, (fn. 21) but the bishop recovered it at the Restoration. It remained in the possession of successive bishops until 1860, when it was transferred to the Ecclesiastical Commissioners, (fn. 22) who are at present lords of the manor. (fn. 23)
In 1588 Edmund, Bishop of Worcester, leased the site of the manor of Tredington and other lands to Queen Elizabeth for ninety years, after the expiration of certain leases then running. (fn. 24) A month later she assigned the lease to her physician Roger Lopes, (fn. 25) who was attainted and forfeited it in 1590. In 1635 Charles I granted the remainder to William Warmestry and William Barnes. (fn. 26) In 1633, however, William Sheldon claimed to hold a lease of the site of the manor, supposed to have been granted to Katherine Hornyold, as trustee for the Sheldons, before the lease to the queen in 1588. (fn. 27) This claim resulted in long litigation. Bishop Stillingfleet claimed that the queen's lease began in 1607 and expired in 1697, but Sir Henry Parker, who held the remainder of this lease, said that it began in 1642 on the death of Edward Sheldon, the last life mentioned in Katherine Hornyold's lease, and therefore the bishop had no power to lease the manor as he had done to his son James Stillingfleet. (fn. 28) Bishop Stillingfleet died while the suit was still pending, and between 1699 and 1703 there were various suits between James Stillingfleet and Sir Henry Parker, the matter being apparently decided in 1703–4 in favour of Sir Henry. (fn. 29) In 1710 the bishop granted a lease of the site for three lives to Sir Henry Parker, in whose family it still remained at the end of the 18th century. (fn. 30)
BLACKWELL (Blace Wellan, x cent.; Blacanvella, Blachewelle, xi cent.; Blakewelle, Blacwell, xiii cent.) was included by King Edgar in his charter of 964 granting the hundred of Oswaldslow to the church of Worcester, (fn. 31) and was granted by Oswald, Bishop of Worcester, to his thegn Aelfnoth for three lives in 978. (fn. 32) Within the next few years the monks were deprived of their holding by Earl Leofwine, whose son Earl Leofric also kept Blackwell from the monks for some time, but later he and his wife the Countess Godiva restored the manor in the time of Wulfstan, who succeeded as prior on the eve of the Conquest. (fn. 33) At the date of the Domesday Survey 2 hides were assigned to the support of the monks of Worcester. (fn. 34)
The manor of Blackwell remained with the prior and convent until the dissolution of the priory in 1540, (fn. 35) when it passed to the Crown. In 1542 it was granted to the Dean and Chapter of Worcester, (fn. 36) who continued to hold it until 1654, when it was sold by the Parliamentary Commissioners to Nicholas Lockyer of London. (fn. 37) He seems to have made a bad bargain, for in the following year the Protector's Council ordered that as these lands were charged with payments to charitable uses, whereby he could not have the benefit of his purchase, he should receive the sum of £2,500 out of any discoveries he might make for the Committee for Discoveries, and should then reconvey the manor of Blackwell to the Commonwealth. (fn. 38) A further order was made in 1656 to the same effect, but it was not carried out. (fn. 39) At the Restoration the dean and chapter recovered their estates, and this manor was confirmed to them in 1692. (fn. 40) It is now annexed to the manor of Shipston-on-Stour, and belongs to the Ecclesiastical Commissioners. (fn. 41) In the 13th century a full survey of this manor was taken. (fn. 42)
TALTON (Taetlintune, x cent.; Tatlinton, Tatlington, xiii cent.; Tadlington, Talton, xvi cent.) was probably included in Tredington at the time of its grant to the church of Worcester and at the time of the Domesday Survey. In 991 Archbishop Oswald (fn. 43) gave to his thegn Eadric 3 hides at Talton and Newbold for two lives. (fn. 44)
The manor was held of the Bishop of Worcester of the manor of Tredington (fn. 45) until the 14th century.
It was possibly held by the Bishops of Worcester in demesne until early in the 12th century, when Bishop Theulf (1115–23) gave it to William de Armscote. (fn. 46) William was holding the estate in 1166, (fn. 47) and his son Auger was in possession towards the end of the 12th century. (fn. 48) He was probably an ancestor of William son of Auger, who held the manor at the beginning of the 13th century. (fn. 49) In 1226–7 Thomas son of William gave the manor of Talton to Clemencia de Broc, widow of William de Talton, in dower. (fn. 50) Clemencia had two sons, Auger and Simon, (fn. 51) and in 1255 William son of Thomas de Talton, who evidently represented the elder branch of the family, gave the manor to Auger. (fn. 52) The latter subinfeudated it to Robert Waleraund, who died seised of it about 1272–3, leaving as his heir his nephew Robert son of William Waleraund. (fn. 53) The manor of Talton was, however, assigned to his widow Maud. (fn. 54) Robert apparently died without issue and was succeeded by his brother John, on account of whose idiocy the manor was taken into the king's hands. (fn. 55) The custody was delivered in 1303 to Adam de Harvington, (fn. 56) but John Waleraund died about 1308–9. (fn. 57) His heir of the whole blood was found to be his cousin Alan Plogenet. (fn. 58)
The interest of the Taltons in the manor passed to Walter de Gloucester, who died seised of it in 1311, being succeeded by his son Walter. (fn. 59) The manor was assigned to Walter's widow Hawisia, (fn. 60) and she in 1323 obtained licence from the king to grant it to the Abbot and convent of Evesham to find two chaplains to pray in the abbey church for the souls of Walter and Hawisia and their family. (fn. 61) In 1329–30 the abbot's right to the manor was disputed by Sybil widow of Alan Plogenet, then wife of Henry de Penbridge, who claimed a third of the manor as dower. The abbot appealed to Hawisia de Gloucester to uphold his claim, but the suit was decided in Sybil's favour. (fn. 62) The abbot seems to have recovered the manor shortly after, being in possession in 1332, (fn. 63) and his successors held until the dissolution of the abbey in 1540, (fn. 64) when the manor passed to the Crown. In 1535 the manor, with its members in Darlingscott, Armscote and Newbold, was valued at £30 7s. 7d. The site and demesne land of the manor and a water-mill were leased at a rent of £7 13s. 4d. (fn. 65) In 1544 the manor was granted to William and Francis Sheldon, (fn. 66) and they in the same year sold the site to William Barnes. (fn. 67)
William died in 1562, (fn. 68) leaving the manor to his widow Alice for life with reversion to his son William. (fn. 69) William seems to have entered into possession before 1584, (fn. 70) and died in 1621, having settled the manor on William Barnes, son of his brother Richard. (fn. 71) William Barnes, apparently the grandson of this William, sold the manor in 1663 to Henry Parker. (fn. 72) Henry died in 1670 and was followed by his son Henry of Honington, co. Warw., (fn. 73) who succeeded in 1696–7 to the baronetcy granted to his uncle Hugh, a merchant of London, (fn. 74) in 1681. He died in 1713 and was succeeded by his grandson Sir Henry John Parker, (fn. 75) who held the manor in 1729. (fn. 76) and in 1741. (fn. 77) He died in 1771 without male issue, and the baronetcy passed to his cousin Sir Henry Parker. It is not known when Talton passed from this family, but it ultimately came into the hands of Georgica Hawkes, on whose death in 1878 it passed to one of his daughters, Mrs. George Lainson Field, the present owner. (fn. 78)
Two hides of land at ARMSCOTE (Edmundescote, xiii cent.; Admundescote, xiv cent.; Advescott, Admyscote, Armyscote, xvi cent.; Armescott, Armscoate, xvii cent.) were granted in 1042 by Lyfing, Bishop of Worcester, with the consent of King Harthacnut, to his thegn Ægelric for three lives. (fn. 79) Mr. Stenton points out that the original text of this grant has been preserved and is of high importance. The gift is attested by the king and his mother, the 'hired' of Worcester, Evesham and Winchcomb, Bishop Lyfing of Worcester, Ælfweard Abbot of Evesham and Bishop of London, Earl Leofric, 'and all the thegns in Worcestershire both English and Danish.' The latter phrase is of extreme interest, for it shows that under the house of Cnut Danish settlers formed a recognized element among the magnates of Worcestershire, a county placed under a Danish earl. It is also remarkable as an anticipation of the phrase 'all faithful people French and English,' which is common in post-Conquest grants. It thus shows that already in 1042 men were accustomed to the presence of alien settlers in the country, a fact which must have gone far to make for the acceptance of Norman lords after 1066.
The hamlet of Armscote was at an early date divided into two moieties. Both were held under the manor of Tredington, one by the owners of Talton, (fn. 80) the other by the Croome family. (fn. 81) The first manor, which included 2 hides of land, followed the same descent as Talton (with which it seems to have become incorporated in the 14th century) from the 12th century, when it first makes its appearance, (fn. 82) until 1544. (fn. 83) It was granted as part of Talton in that year to William and Francis Sheldon, (fn. 84) and they sold various parcels of land there in the same year to Thomas Smith, (fn. 85) William and Richard Morres (fn. 86) and Robert Dave. (fn. 87) In 1587 Stephen Halford died seised of tenements in Armscote which had belonged to his father Robert, and had formerly been parcel of the manor of Talton. He was succeeded by his son John. (fn. 88)
The second manor of Armscote, which also consisted of 2 hides of land, was given to Adam de Croome with Tidmington by Bishop Samson (fn. 89) (1096–1112). It followed the same descent as Tidmington, (fn. 90) being granted with that manor in 1365 to the Abbot and convent of Evesham. (fn. 91) The manor seems to have retained its separate identity until about 1428, (fn. 92) but probably became merged soon after in the abbot's other estate at Armscote.
A hide of land at DARLINGSCOTT (Derlingiscote, Berlingescote, Derlyngescot, xiii cent.; Darlingascote, Derlescote, Derlyngscott, xiv cent.) was held with Talton by William de Armscote, in the time of Henry II, of the manor of Tredington. (fn. 93) It followed the same descent as the manor of Talton, (fn. 94) passing with it to the Abbot of Evesham, (fn. 95) and was in 1535 a parcel of that manor (fn. 96) (q.v.).
Another estate at Darlingscott belonged to the Bishop of Worcester. In 1284 he granted to William de Westhill a messuage and land in Darlingscott, (fn. 97) which had formerly belonged to Simon de Throckmorton, at a rent of 1d. (fn. 98) William sold the estate in 1292 to Matthew Checker. (fn. 99) At the same date Matthew transferred his interest in the estate to Godfrey, Bishop of Worcester. (fn. 100) This land was afterwards acquired by William Chiriton, Abbot of Evesham (1317–44), (fn. 101) who doubtless added it to his other estate at Darlingscott. In 1331 the abbot acquired land in Darlingscott of Henry de Ombersley. (fn. 102)
LONGDON (Longedun, xi cent.; Langeton, xiii cent.; Longdon Travers, xiv cent.; Longdon Travers, Longdon Parva, xvii cent.) was held of the manor of Tredington, this overlordship being mentioned for the last time in 1629. (fn. 103)
In 969 Oswald, Bishop of Worcester, granted 4½ manses there to one Byrnicus for three lives. (fn. 104) Before the Conquest Leofric the reeve held 4 hides at Longdon at the will of the bishop. In 1086 this estate was held by Gilbert son of Turold. (fn. 105) Ralph Travers held it in 1166, (fn. 106) having received it from Bishop Theulf (1115–23), (fn. 107) and he or a descendant of the same name was in possession in 1174–5. (fn. 108) Towards the middle of the 13th century it belonged to William Travers. (fn. 109)
It was probably this William who was succeeded by a son William and a grandson Alexander. The last going to Ireland and marrying there a daughter of Reginald de Hanwood, gave to Reginald his land at Longdon for life in exchange for land in Ireland. (fn. 110) Reginald paid a subsidy at Longdon in 1280 (fn. 111) and died about 1297, (fn. 112) and Maurice Travers son of Alexander gave the Bishop of Worcester 6 marks for an acknowledgement that he was Reginald's heir to this land. (fn. 113) The manor, however, passed to Geoffrey Spenser, (fn. 114) who paid a subsidy of 6s. 8d. at Longdon in 1327, (fn. 115) and had been succeeded before 1346 by Sir William Spenser. (fn. 116) In 1367–8 John son of Sir William conveyed the manor to Alina widow of Thomas de Newynton. (fn. 117) The next mention of the manor occurs in 1398, when Robert Walden of Warwick granted it to the chaplain of a chantry which he had founded in the previous year in the church of Tredington. (fn. 118)
In 1487 John Brown, John Smith, Humphrey Coningsby and Richard Palmer recovered a manor of Longdon Travers against Richard Burdet. (fn. 119) In 1533 an estate called the manor of Longdon Travers was assured to Elizabeth widow of Sir William Compton, then the wife of Walter Walshe, (fn. 120) and two years later Edward Conway and Anne his wife conveyed the manor to Thomas Burdet and others, (fn. 121) but this does not seem to have been the same estate as that held by the chantry priest of Tredington, as that still belonged to the chantry in 1535, (fn. 122) and was granted in 1547 to Sir Philip Hoby, who had married Elizabeth widow of Walter Walshe. (fn. 123) In 1551–2 Sir Philip sold the manor to Thomas Andrews of Charwelton, co. Northants, (fn. 124) who was knighted before 1555 (fn. 125) and died about 1564. (fn. 126) He was followed by a son Thomas, who settled the manor in 1603 upon his son John on his marriage with Anne daughter of John Reade. John succeeded on his father's death in 1609, (fn. 127) and, as Sir John, he obtained livery of a third of the manor in 1610, probably on the death of his mother. (fn. 128) Sir John continued to hold the manor until 1634, when he and his wife Mary conveyed it to William Loggin and others. (fn. 129) In 1705 and 1715 the manor belonged to William and Thomas Baldwin, (fn. 130) and in 1743 Thomas Baldwin and William Baldwin and his wife sold it to Joseph Townsend. (fn. 131) In 1809 Gore Townsend and Thomas Townsend conveyed it to William Waltham Atkinson. (fn. 132) The later descent of this estate is not known, and it is believed that the manorial rights have now lapsed.
A hide of land at NEWBOLD-ON-STOUR (Neoweboldan, x cent.; Neubolde, Neubolt, xiii cent.; Nuwebolde, xiv cent.) was granted with Talton by Oswald, with the consent of the monks of Worcester, to Eadric for two lives in 991, (fn. 133) and like Talton was probably included in 1086 in the 23 hides in Tredington held by the Bishop of Worcester. (fn. 134)
Two hides at Newbold were granted with Talton to William de Armscote. (fn. 135) The estate followed the same descent as the manor of Talton, to which it seems at an early date to have become annexed, until 1544. (fn. 136) It was granted as part of the manor of Talton to William and Francis Sheldon, (fn. 137) but they in the same year sold some land there to Henry Sych or Such. (fn. 138) The Such family continued to hold land in Newbold-on-Stour for many years, (fn. 139) the last mention of their estate being in 1714, when Robert Such was the owner. (fn. 140)
In 1086 there were three mills in the bishop's manor of Tredington (fn. 141); one of these was probably at Talton (see below). There seems to have been only one mill in Tredington Manor in 1291, and it was worth £1. (fn. 142) The mill was broken into by thieves in 1409. (fn. 143) It is not mentioned in the valor of the manor in 1535, but a water corn-mill was sold by the Parliamentary trustees in 1649 as a parcel of the manor of Tredington to Sir Edward Estopp. (fn. 144) Later in the same year another mill at Tredington was sold with the manor to John Baker and William Dyer. (fn. 145) At the present day there are two corn-mills on the Stour, one to the north, the other to the south of the town.
The water-mill at Talton is first mentioned in 1308–9, when it formed part of the possessions of John Waleraund. (fn. 146) It passed with the manor to the abbey of Evesham, (fn. 147) and was repaired several times by Abbot Roger Zatton (1379–1418). (fn. 148) In 1535 the mill was leased with the site of the manor and demesne lands. (fn. 149) It passed with the manor into the possession of the Barnes family. (fn. 150) The present Talton Mill is on the Stour in the north of the parish.
A mill at Armscote is mentioned in 1328–9, when Simon de Croome excepted it from a grant of the manor to his son John. (fn. 151)
In 1240 the Prior and convent of Worcester had a mill at Tredington belonging to the manor of Blackwell which was leased to W. the miller at a rent of 16s. (fn. 152) In 1291, however, the mill brought in only 8s. (fn. 153) Another mill at Tredington was purchased by the prior in 1259 of William de Tredington. (fn. 154) Possibly this last was the water corn-mill at Tredington sold in 1654 by the Parliamentary trustees with the manor of Blackwell. (fn. 155) There is no mill at Blackwell at the present day.
The mill at Newbold-on-Stour, which was leased for 26s. 8d. in 1299, (fn. 156) is a corn-mill on the Stour on the northern boundary of the parish.
The church of ST. GREGORY consists of a chancel 45 ft. by 21½ ft., with a north vestry 16½ ft. by 12½ ft., nave 58 ft. by 21 ft., north aisle 16 ft. wide, south aisle 17 ft. wide, north porch, and western tower 16½ ft. square; these dimensions are internal.
The remains of the Saxon church consist of the ranges of windows above the nave arcades, which were discovered at the last restoration of the church. Of this building a unique feature was the high gallery at the west end, the doorways to which still exist in part, and could only have been approached by external staircases or ladders. A window in either wall at a higher level than the others lighted this gallery.
Late in the 12th century (c. 1170–80) aisles were added on both sides, the arcades being inserted in the earlier walls and the Saxon windows and doorways closed up. In the beginning of the 14th century the chancel was lengthened and entirely rebuilt, beginning with the east wall. The dedication of the high altar (and a chapel), which cannot now be located, at Tredington (Trediton) is recorded in 1315. (fn. 157) The west tower was erected about the same time. About 1360 both aisles were rebuilt and widened, the 12th-century doorway being reset in the later south wall. A block of masonry west of the porch marks the west wall of the north aisle, which was doubtless re-erected partly on the old 12th-century foundations, but both aisles were extended westwards to the tower about thirty years later, an additional half-bay being added to either arcade to match the rest. The clearstory, north porch and vestry are all additions of the 15th century, but the two latter appear to have been altered in the 17th or 18th century. The west wall of the south aisle also appears to have undergone a later rebuilding. Several restorations have taken place during the past century, the last and most extensive being in 1899.
The east window of the chancel is of five lights under a two-centred head filled with modern tracery; the jambs have shafts on the inner face with foliated capitals and with the arch are of 14th-century date. Internally on either side of the window are contemporary niches with moulded ogee heads. Both the window and the niches show traces of red colour. In the north wall are three tall 14th-century windows, each of two lights with a quatrefoil above in a pointed head having a moulded drop rear arch. The easternmost window now looks into the vestry. The 15th-century doorway into the vestry has a two-centred arch of a single chamfered order. The vestry is lighted by an east window of three lights under a square head, the moulded label of which has been reset with the vertical parts reversed, the return ends being turned inwards. In the north wall near the west angle is a small blocked window of two lights under a square head, set low down in the wall, its iron bars remaining inside. Above it is a modern window of two lights, and in the west wall a modern door. The three south windows of the chancel are contemporary with those opposite and of similar detail. Below the middle one is a 14th-century priest's doorway with a pointed head, and west of the third window is a small low-side window of lancet form. There was also one opposite, but this is now blocked and is not visible outside. Stone benches stopping at the low-side windows are built against the side walls in the western part of the chancel. The walling of the chancel is of ashlar; the two east and the south-east buttresses are of two stages, the lower with a gableted offset, but the other side buttresses are without the gablet. The chancel arch is sharply pointed and of two chamfered orders, the inner continuous from the floor, the outer dying on the jambs; the stonework is perhaps of the 13th century, but the arch has been subsequently widened, probably when the chancel was rebuilt.
The arcades to the nave are of three and a half bays on each side; the columns are round with moulded bases, square scalloped capitals, and chamfered abaci. The arches are pointed and of two square orders with chamfered labels on both sides. The half-round west responds of the original arcades were completed to form circular piers when the western half-arches were inserted in the late 14th century. Over the arcades and partly cut away for the arches are the remains of the Saxon clearstory windows. There are three main windows on each side, visible both in the nave and the aisles; the easternmost on the south has been opened out and shows the jambs to be splayed on both sides of the wall. The arches are of lias rubble and are chamfered like the jambs, and although they are roughly semicircular the voussoirs do not radiate from the centre, necessitating the insertion of wedge-shaped keystones in the crowns of the arches. The eastern jambs and part of the arches of both Saxon doorways to the western gallery remain in position immediately west of the third windows over the second piers from the east. They are of oolite stone with hollowchamfered jambs and semicircular arches, the continuity of the chamfer being broken by projecting square blocks or imposts at the springing level of the arch. This springing level is 18ft. above the ground floor and the heads of the windows 20½ ft., the outer arrises being about 2½ ft. apart. The windows to the west of the doorway on either side are higher than the others and apparently of slightly less width. The 15th-century clearstory has five windows a side, each of three lights under a square head. In the eastern respond of the south arcade is a corbel which supported the former rood-loft. The square-headed entrance to the loft is through the wall above the north-east respond, being approached by a stairway from the north aisle; the lower doorway in the east wall of the aisle retains its wood door, but the stair has been removed.
The late 14th-century east window of the north aisle has three lights with tracery above in a pointed arch and the north-east window is similar. To the north of the window in the east wall is a small square recess, probably once a locker, and near it in the north wall, to the east of the north-east window, is a large plain niche for a figure with a trefoiled segmental arch. (fn. 158) The north doorway is contemporary with the aisle; it has a two-centred arch and a richly moulded segmental rear arch. The wood door is old and has vertical ribs studded with square nailheads. To the west of it is the 15th-century doorway to the stair leading up to the chamber over the porch. It has a four-centred arch and a wood door with a traceried head. The north-west window has two lights with a quatrefoiled spandrel within a two-centred arch, and is probably mainly a restoration. The west window has three lights and three quatrefoils above of a late 14th-century form under a two-centred head.
There is no east window to the south aisle. The first south window is very close to the east wall; it is original and has three lights under a pointed head filled with flowing tracery. Below it is a trefoiled piscina with an ogee head, a shelf and a multilated basin. (fn. 159) The second window is old and of similar design to the east window of the north aisle. The south doorway is of late 12th-century date reset; it has two orders, the outer with modern shafts in the angles, the capitals of which are original and crudely carved with foliage. The arch is semicircular with a roll between the cheveron enrichment on the face and soffit, the cheverons being carved with foliage. The south-west window is of two lights with a quatrefoil above in a two-centred head, and the west window of this aisle is similar to the corresponding window of the north aisle. This wall has apparently been rebuilt and has not been reset on the former plinth, the northern part of the wall being moved more to the east.
The tower is of three stages with square buttresses to the north and south flush with the east face, and diagonal buttresses to the western angles. The two-centred tower arch has plain splayed jambs, on to which die the three chamfered orders. The stair turret recess is in the south-west angle and the west window has two lights with cusped tracery above in a pointed head. Below the first string-course on the north and south sides are small trefoiled loops, and on the west face a disused diamond-shaped clock dial.
The marks of the old steep gabled roof of the nave show on the east external face of the tower. The belfry is lighted in each wall by a window of two sharply pointed lights with a quatrefoiled spandrel in a two-centred arch. The parapet is pierced with quatrefoils and at the angles are square pinnacles with embattled cornices and plain pointed finials. Above the tower rises a tall stone spire divided by string-courses into three stages; at the foot are four gabled spire lights of two openings with a quatrefoil over. There are also diminutive lights near the top of the spire, which terminates in a carved finial.
The north porch is lighted on either side by windows; the western has two lights under a square head, the eastern was originally similar, but has been altered into three lights. Both have shouldered rear arches, the eastern having shields carved on the jambs in addition. The archway of the outer entrance has moulded jambs and head, with a wide hollow containing carved flowers with angels at the apex. Over the archway is a canopied niche with the remains of the figure of the patron saint. The bracket has three pointed corbels below. Above the niche is a blocked square-headed window formerly lighting the parvise. The porch has a plain moulded parapet and the roof is flat below and panelled with moulded ribs and carved bosses. The chancel roof is gabled and modern. The nave roof is of very low pitch and retains most of its 15th-century timbers; the tie-beams are moulded and are strengthened with curved braces and moulded jacks resting on stone corbels carved with grotesques. The roof of the south aisle is of the same low pitch and has a moulded stone wall-plate, the tie-beams being supported by braces and jacks on moulded wood corbels. The north aisle has old moulded tie-beams, wall-plates and purlins.
The 15th-century font is octagonal with traceried sides to the bowl. Across the chancel arch is a low stone wall faced with modern wood panelling towards the west, and above it is the remaining portion of the traceried 15th-century rood screen. The pulpit with its canopy is a good example of 17th-century work. The oak lectern is also old; the chains were formerly attached to the copy of Jewell's Apology, which now rests upon it. The church contains many 15th-century bench ends and pew fronts with traceried panels and moulded top rails.
In the chancel is a brass effigy of a priest with a marginal inscription incorrectly fitted together, the date and name being lost. This is given by Nash as Richard Cassey, rector, who died c. 1427. There is also a brass, with a kneeling effigy and inscription in Latin to Henry Sampson, rector, died 1482, and a figure of a lady in ruff, full skirt and puffed sleeves, with a fragment of an inscription, the only remains of a brass to William Barnes, died 1561, and Alice his wife.
There are six bells: the treble by Matthew Bagley, 1683; the second by Mears, 1858; the third and fourth by George Purdye (Purdue), 1622; the fifth dated 1624, and tenor (undated) by George Purdye with the inscription 'Drawe neare to God.'
The communion plate includes a silver cup with a cover paten, large paten and two flagons, all except the cover bearing the inscribed date of 1638. The hall mark on the large paten is for the same year, but the others have the hall mark for 1591; there is also a second modern cup.
The registers before 1812 are as follows: (i) baptisms and burials 1541 to 1781 and marriages 1541 to 1784; (ii) baptisms 1781 to 1812 and burials 1782 to 1812; (iii) marriages 1754 to 1788; (iv) the same 1789 to 1812.
The chapel or church of ST. GEORGE at Darlingscott consists of a chancel, nave, north porch and a western bell-turret containing one bell. There is also a south transept, used as a schoolroom, which opens into the church by folding doors. The style is of the 13th century, and the material stone, with the exception of the transept, which is of brick The earlier pre-Reformation chapel may have been demolished as early as the 16th century.
The church of ST. DAVID at Newbold-on-Stour consists of a chancel, north vestry, nave, north aisle and north-west tower. The design is in the style of the 13th century, and the tower is surmounted by an octagonal lead-covered spire.
The advowson of Tredington belonged to the Bishops of Worcester, (fn. 160) and remained in their hands until 1328. (fn. 161) In January of that year a collation to the rectory made by Wulstan, Bishop-elect of Worcester, was confirmed by the king, (fn. 162) but in March of the same year this presentation was revoked, and the king presented Master Adam de Harvington, (fn. 163) giving as his reason that Tredington was in his gift because of the late voidance of the see. (fn. 164) The king, having again presented in 1339 (fn. 165) during a vacancy of the see, seems to have claimed the advowson as his right, but this was disputed by Wulstan, Bishop of Worcester. He was, however, unable to prove the right of the see of Worcester to the advowson, which the king recovered by a judgement in the courts. (fn. 166)
In 1345 a writ was issued against certain persons who had assaulted Thomas de Baddeby, whom the king had presented to the living. (fn. 167) In the following year the appointment of Thomas de Baddeby was ratified, (fn. 168) and in 1347 a commission was appointed to arrest all those who prosecuted appeals contrary to the judgement of the Bench. (fn. 169) In May of the same year the king, being informed that certain persons meant to induct one Thomas Dunclent, (fn. 170) who had been appointed by the pope, (fn. 171) issued a commission to arrest them. (fn. 172) In June a band of men entered the house of the king's nominee, Thomas Baddeby, collected the tithes, (fn. 173) and prevented the holding of the sessions. (fn. 174) There were probably further proceedings in the courts, and finally the king had to give way, for in January 1348 Thomas Dunclent, (fn. 175) the nominee of Rome, was appointed parson, the presentation by the king to Thomas de Baddeby was revoked, (fn. 176) and in August 1348 all those concerned in the riots were pardoned. (fn. 177)
From this time the advowson of the church of Tredington remained in the hands of the successive Bishops of Worcester (fn. 178) until 1549, when it passed by exchange to John Earl of Warwick. (fn. 179) He was created Duke of Northumberland in 1551, but was attainted and executed in 1553, (fn. 180) when all his estates were forfeited. In 1558–9 the advowson was granted to Bridget Morrison, (fn. 181) but the queen presented in 1581 by a lapse. (fn. 182)
The advowson afterwards passed to the Sheldons, the grantee of Ralph Sheldon presenting in 1606 and 1607. (fn. 183) Though the king presented in 1620 and again in 1660, (fn. 184) the advowson seems to have remained in the Sheldon family until 1702, when Ralph and Edward Sheldon sold it to Sir Henry Parker. (fn. 185) The presentation was made in 1703 by John Verney and Richard Freeman, (fn. 186) and in 1706 by John Verney. (fn. 187)
The advowson was purchased in 1713 from Sir Thomas Cooke Winford of Astley, Robert Hyde of Hatch (co. Wilts.), Harry Parker of the Inner Temple and Nathaniel Pigot for £1,540 by the Principal of Jesus College, Oxford, with whose successors it still remains. (fn. 188)
During the 18th century it appears to have been the practice to present two clerks to the church of Tredington, one being called the senior and the other the junior portionist. (fn. 189) The latter was probably a perpetual curate.
The pope in 1399 (fn. 190) granted an indulgence to those who should visit the chapel of St. Mary the Virgin in the church of Tredington, where there was great devotion to an image (ymaginem) of our Lady of Pity (Pietatis) holding a figure of Christ crucified. (fn. 191)
In 1415 Richard Cassey, rector of Tredington, obtained licence to have a portable altar. (fn. 192)
In 1397 Robert Walden of Warwick founded a chantry of one chaplain in the parish church of Tredington to pray for the king and his progenitors and Thomas Dunclent, late rector of Tredington. (fn. 193) The chantry, later called Walden Chantry or St. Nicholas Chantry, was dedicated to St. Nicholas, (fn. 194) and the chantry priest was bound every year on the day of the anniversary of Thomas Dunclent to celebrate Requiem Mass and say the full office of the dead, i.e. Placebo and Dirige (Sarum Use), and on all other high days and feasts to say service according to the Sarum Ordinal. (fn. 195) The advowson of the chantry was vested in Robert and his heirs, (fn. 196) and probably passed from him to John Walden of Warwick, for in 1465 John Upton of Warwick, who had married Agnes, one of the daughters and heirs of John Walden, presented to the chantry. (fn. 197)
Isabel daughter and heir of John Upton married as a second husband Hugh Dalby, and in 1507–8 sold the advowson of Walden chantry to John Spenser. (fn. 198) The advowson remained with the Spensers until the chantry was dissolved in 1547. (fn. 199) At that time the clear yearly revenue of the chantry was £14 4s. 7½d. (fn. 200) The chantry with the capital messuage and endowment was granted in 1547 to Sir Philip Hoby, (fn. 201) who sold it in 1551–2 to Thomas Andrews. (fn. 202) Land in King's Norton belonging to the chantry was granted in 1571–2 to William James and John Grey, (fn. 203) and in 1582–3 the chantry and lands belonging were granted to Theophilus and Robert Adams. (fn. 204) It may afterwards have passed to the Sheldons, for the Chantry Farm House in Tredington was among the estates forfeited by William Sheldon and discharged from sequestration and bought of the treason trustees in 1653. (fn. 205) The name of the purchaser of the estate is not given.
There may have been a second chantry in the church of Tredington, for in 1487 John Upton presented to the chantry of our Lady and St. Michael, a pension of 4 marks from the revenues of the chantry being assigned to the retiring chaplain. (fn. 206)
The chapel of Blackwell was in existence before 1240. It was a demesne chapel (dominica capella) of the Prior of Worcester, but belonged to the church of Tredington. Service was celebrated there by a chaplain of Tredington on the day of dedication (26 January), on the day of the deposition of St. Wulfstan (19 January) and on the feast of St. Anne (26 July). (fn. 207)
There were other chapels belonging to the church of Tredington at Newbold, Armscote and Darlingscott, (fn. 208) but the date of their foundation is not known. The four chapels were granted in 1549 to Richard Field and others, (fn. 209) and were probably demolished.
In 1833 Newbold and Armscote were constituted a separate ecclesiastical parish, and a church, parsonage-house and churchyard were built at Newbold. (fn. 210) The living is a rectory in the gift of Jesus College, Oxford.
Shipston-on-Stour and Tidmington were chapelries of Tredington until 1719, when they were formed into a separate parish and endowed with a third of the rectory of Tredington. (fn. 211)
The Society of Friends hold a meeting at Armscote on the first Sunday in August. The Quakers seem to have been established there at an early date, for George Fox and his friend Thomas Lower were arrested there in 1673 and imprisoned at Worcester Gaol for more than a year. (fn. 212) In 1689 the house of John Bennett at Tredington was licensed for Quaker worship. (fn. 213)
In 1831 John Jordan by a codicil to his will, proved in the P.C.C. 25 November, bequeathed (among other things) such a sum of money as would purchase sufficient Government stock to produce £50 a year to be applied towards the support of a day school. A sum of £1,666 13s. 4d. 3 per cent. consols was purchased, and the endowment is now represented by a like amount of 2½ per cent. consols, producing £41 13s. 4d. yearly, with the official trustees. Threefifths of the income is applied in aid of the National school of Tredington and two-fifths for the National school in the hamlet of Newbold.
In 1859 the Rev. William Hopkins, by his will proved at London 8 September, gave a sum of money, now represented by £314 18s. 10d. consols with the official trustees, the dividends to be applied for the benefit of the poor. The annual dividends, amounting to £7 17s. 4d., are distributed in coal and money doles. In 1909 coal was distributed among fifty-three families.
This parish is entitled to a twenty-first part of the dividends arising from several sums of stock forming the endowment of Richard Badger's charity founded by will, proved at London, 7 December 1907. A moiety of the proportion due to this parish is applicable for church purposes and the other moiety for the poor. In 1910 a sum of £37 4s. 2d. was received. (See under Shipston-on-Stour.)
Hamlet of Newbold.
—In 1773 Thomas Eden by deed provided for the instruction of poor children in three several parishes in the county of Gloucester, in one parish of the county of Warwick, and in the hamlet of Newbold. An annual payment of about £8 a year is made by the trustees of the charity at Pebworth, Gloucestershire, and applied in aid of the National school.
Henry Eden, a son of Thomas Eden above mentioned, by his will dated in 1788, and by a codicil dated in 1791, proved in the P.C.C., made certain bequests for schools and the support of the Methodist cause which do not appear to have come into operation.
In 1859 the Rev. William Hopkins, by his will proved at London 8 September, bequeathed £200, now represented by £209 14s. consols with the official trustees, the annual dividends, amounting to £5 4s. 8d., to be distributed in coal.
This hamlet with Armscote is entitled to receive one twenty-first part of the dividends from the endowment of Richard Badger's charity, founded by will proved 7 December 1907. In 1910 a sum of £37 4s. 2d. was so received and applied as to one moiety for church purposes and the other moiety in the distribution of coal. (See under Shipston-on-Stour.)
Hamlet of Darlingscott.
—In 1872 T. Edwin Gibbs, by his will proved at London 22 April, bequeathed £294 6s. 10d. consols with the official trustees, the annual dividends, amounting to £7 7s., to be applied towards the salary of a mistress and maintaining a preparatory school at Darlingscott for younger children unable to attend the school at Tredington.
This hamlet with Blackwell is entitled to receive one twenty-first part of the dividends from the endowment of Richard Badger's charity, founded by will proved 7 December 1907. In 1910 a sum of £37 4s. 2d. was so received, of which £10 was applied for church purposes and £27 4s. 2d. distributed in coals to the poor on St. Thomas's Day.