A History of the County of Worcester: Volume 4. Originally published by Victoria County History, London, 1924.
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PERSHORE, ST. ANDREW, with BRICKLEHAMPTON, DEFFORD, PENSHAM, PINVIN and WICK
The parish of St. Andrew, Pershore, included the chapelries of Bricklehampton and Pinvin and the now separate ecclesiastical parishes of Defford and Wick. The present parish of St. Andrew, exclusive of its chapelries, contains 1,543 acres, of which 31 acres are covered by water. It includes the southern part of the town of Pershore, taking in Bridge Street and part of High Street. The northern part of the parish lies on the right bank of the Avon and the southern part is in a bend of the river which divides it from Birlingham on the south-west. The rest of the southern boundary is formed by the Mary Brook, a tributary of the Avon. The high road to Upton upon Severn branches south-west from the High Street and passes through St. Andrew's parish skirting Tiddesley Wood. The parish with Pensham contains 437 acres of arable land, 684 acres of permanent grass and 224 acres of woodland. (fn. 1) In 1086 the woodland in this manor was 2 leagues long and 3 furlongs in width. (fn. 2) Later, Pershore became part of Horewell Forest, which included the district to the south-east of Worcester, being bounded on the west by the Severn and extending as far south as Strensham. (fn. 3) It was partly disafforested in 1229, (fn. 4) after an attempt had been made by some of the owners of land in the forest to disafforest it in 1218. (fn. 5) Horewell Wood, which seems to have been a survival of the forest, belonged to the Abbot of Westminster (fn. 6) and was granted in 1542 to the Dean and Chapter of Westminster. (fn. 7) At this time Horewell included Strensham Wood, Hill Wood, the three Croomes, Bucknell Wood, Sapyes Wood, Besford and Defford Woods and Severn Stoke. (fn. 8) After the Dissolution the inhabitants of these places sued Sir John Bourne, the lessee under the dean and chapter, for common in the wood. (fn. 9) During the Civil War the timber was cut down, and in 1690 the wood is described as waste or common ground called Harley Wood or Harwell Wood. (fn. 10) It belonged to the dean and chapter until the end of the 18th century. (fn. 11) In 1774 they objected to the allotment of 6 acres on Defford Common to the Earl of Coventry on the ground that it was part of Horewell Wood. (fn. 12)
Tiddesley (Tiddelesca, Tedelee, Tidesle, xiii cent.) Wood, on the Besford boundary, now the largest wood in the parish of St. Andrew, belonged to the Abbots of Westminster. (fn. 13) In 1223 a disagreement arose between the Abbots of Westminister and Pershore as to common there, the Abbot of Pershore claiming it as the right of his church before Pershore was given to the abbey of Westminster. (fn. 14) Not long after the Abbot of Westminister induced various landowners in the surrounding manors to give up their claim to common in this wood in order that he might impark it. (fn. 15) In 1271 William Earl of Warwick gave permission to the abbot to reinclose his park at Tiddesley and promised to give thirty bucks and does to restock it. (fn. 16) The wood or park of Tiddesley passed with the rest of the abbey estates to the Dean and Chapter of Westminster. (fn. 17)
The southern part of the parish is formed by the ancient manor of Pensham. The land here is very low in the Avon Valley and is liable to floods. From the valley of the Avon it rises to a height of 100 ft. above the ordnance datum in the north and west of the parish. The soil is clay, the subsoil Lower Lias, with alluvium near the river. To the north of the hamlet near the river Avon is Pensham House, a late 17th-century building of two stories, consisting of a central block with projecting wings at either end. Tobacco was grown at Pensham in 1643, but the crops were destroyed by order of the council in 1662. Recently the cultivation of tobacco has been revived locally, and a grant given for the culture of the plant. (fn. 18) The hamlet of Pensham was inclosed under an Act of 1810, (fn. 19) the award being dated 4 December 1812. (fn. 20)
The chapelry of Pinvin is some distance to the north of the town of Pershore and is cut off from the mother parish of St. Andrew by part of Holy Cross. It lies between the Piddle and the Bow Brook and is watered by tributaries of those streams. The village lies on a branch from the main road from Worcester to Evesham. To the south of it is a moated inclosure. Pershore station, on the Oxford, Worcester and Wolverhampton branch of the Great Western railway, (fn. 21) is in Pinvin. The land here is about 100 ft. above the ordnance datum. The chapelry contains 1,073 acres. In 1905 it comprised 503 acres of arable land, 328 of permanent grass and 20 acres of woodland. (fn. 22) It was inclosed in 1776. (fn. 23)
The chapelry of Bricklehampton is to the southeast of Pershore, parts of Little Comberton and Wick lying between it and St. Andrew. It is long and narrow, containing 914 acres, lying north and south, the northern boundary being the River Avon. The road from Pershore to Evesham passes through the north of Bricklchampton, and the village lies on a branch from this road. The land in the south is 200 ft. above the ordnance datum; to the north it falls to the Avon Valley. In 1905 Bricklehampton contained 517 acres of arable land, 349 of permanent grass and 9 acres of wood. (fn. 24) An Inclosure Act for it was passed in 1774. (fn. 25) Bricklehampton Hall is built of stone in the Italian style and stands in a small park. It is the residence of Mrs. Robert Hinshaw.
Defford, now forming with Besford a separate ecclesiastical parish, lies to the south-west of St. Andrew on the right bank of the Avon. It contains 1,691 acres, of which, in 1905, the arable land covered 313 acres, permanent grass 659 acres, and woodland 14 acres. The village is in the east of the parish on the road from Pershore to Upton upon Severn. It is mostly modern, but includes a few old black and white cottages. To the south of it is a station on the Bristol and Birmingham Branch of the Midland railway. The village is at about 100 ft. above the ordnance datum, but to the west the land falls slightly, being only 50 ft. high at Defford Common, on the western boundary. The brine springs on the common were worked at one time, but have never been profitable owing to the weak nature of the brine. (fn. 26) Woodmancote is a hamlet to the south-west of Defford. The Plymouth Brethren have a small meeting-house here. Defford was inclosed under an Act of 1774. (fn. 27)
To the east of Pershore, connected with it by Pershore Bridge, is the now separate parish of Wick, formerly a chapelry of St. Andrew. Wick lies in a bend of the Avon, its southern boundary being Mary Brook. The land near the Avon bank is low, but the village is at a height of about 100 ft. above the ordnance datum. It is situated to the north of the high road from Pershore to Evesham. From this road a branch runs south to Little Comberton. At Wick there is a circular dovecote of yellowish grey stone, supported on one side by three buttresses. It has one dormer window in the roof. Wick House is the residence of Lt.-Col. A. H. Hudson, J.P. It contains a handsomely carved mantelpiece. The dining room is an elaborate specimen of 'Adam' decoration. Near the churchyard is an ancient cross, the head of which has been recently restored. In the north of the parish there is a ferry over the Avon connecting Wick with Wyre Piddle. Wick contains 1,682 acres, of which 617 acres are arable and 952 acres permanent grass. (fn. 28) The soil is sand and loam, the subsoil Lower Lias, producing crops of wheat, hops, barley, beans and fruit. An Inclosure Act for Wick was passed in 1806, (fn. 29) the award being dated 29 August 1807. (fn. 30)
The house of William Collins in Pershore, St. Andrew was licensed for Quaker worship in 1689, (fn. 31) but the Quakers have no chapel at Pershore at the present day.
Place-names occurring in Court Rolls and other deeds relating to St. Andrew are Redwall, (fn. 32) le Heyetres, Coppesteresacur (fn. 33) (xiv cent.); Fortheyselme, (fn. 34) Halowe dene, (fn. 35) Netherpattelake, (fn. 36) Derkemedewe and Esyndole (fn. 37) (xv cent.); Chappell Close or Milcroft (fn. 38) (xvii cent.).
The manor of BINHOLME was the head of the possessions of the Abbots of Westminster in Worcestershire. To its court tenants of all the outlying manors in the hundred of Pershore owed suit. (fn. 39) In 1418–19 the abbot leased the site of the manor with Calcroft for six years to two tradesmen of Pershore, (fn. 40) and during the 15th century the site of the manor seems usually to have been leased. (fn. 41) In 1534 the Duke of Suffolk wrote to Cromwell asking that the lease might be given to one of his servants, (fn. 42) Thomas Nevill being then the lessee. This manor passed with the rest of the possessions of the abbey to the Dean and Chapter of Westminster, (fn. 43) and it remained in their possession with the exception of a few years during the Commonwealth (fn. 44) from that time until 1869, when it was taken over by the Ecclesiastical Commissioners, (fn. 45) who are now lords of the manor. (fn. 46) The site or farm-house of the manor is described in 1690 as being on the west of the town of Pershore (fn. 47). Near it lay Great Calcroft or Calvecroft, a close containing about 7 acres, where the leets for the hundred of Pershore were held. (fn. 48)
After the Dissolution of the abbey of Westminster the manor of PERSHORE PORTSMOUTH, which had formerly been the Abbot of Westminster's part of the borough, followed the same descent as the manor of Binholme.
Ten manses in BRICKLEHAMPTON (Brihtulfingtune, x cent.; Bricstelmestune, xi cent.; Brichaluntun, Britlamton, Brithampton, xiii cent.) are said to have been confirmed by King Edgar in 972 to the abbey of Pershore. (fn. 49) This land was among the estates taken from Pershore Abbey and given to the church of Westminster by Edward the Confessor, and in 1086 10 hides there belonged to the abbey's great manor of Pershore. (fn. 50) The Abbots of Westminster probably held this manor in demesne until Abbot Lawrence (c. 1160) granted it at a farm of £4 yearly to Peter de Wick. (fn. 51) This grant was confirmed to Peter's son Robert, and from that time the manor followed the descent of Wick Burnell (q.v.), of which it became a member, (fn. 52) until about 1745–6, when James Haselwood sold both to the Rev. Bernard Wilson. (fn. 53) Wilson apparently sold Bricklehampton to William Russell, who was dealing with it in 1776, (fn. 54) and with Mary Russell, spinster, conveyed it in 1803–4 to Samuel Oldnall and Benjamin Johnson. (fn. 55) There is no trace of this manor during the 19th century, and it presumably no longer exists. (fn. 56)
The Abbot of Westminster does not seem to have given all his rights in Bricklehampton to Peter de Wick, for annuities from this and other manors were granted by the abbot in the 15th century, (fn. 57) and at the Dissolution the Abbot of Westminster held rents amounting to £17 6s. 0¾d. at Bricklehampton, Elmley and Comberton. (fn. 58) This rent was granted in 1542 to the Dean and Chapter of Westminster, (fn. 59) and in 1556–7, as the manor of Bricklehampton, to the refounded abbey. (fn. 60) On Queen Elizabeth's accession, the abbey being once more dissolved, the manor was again granted to the dean and chapter. (fn. 61) The estate was sold in 1650 by the Parliamentary trustees to Sir Cheney Culpeper, (fn. 62) but was restored to the Dean and Chapter under Charles II and has since remained in their possession. (fn. 63)
DEFFORD (Deopanforda, x cent.; Depeforde, xi cent.) seems to have formed part of the earliest endowments of Pershore Abbey, 10 manses there being confirmed to the abbey by the so-called charter of King Edgar dated 972. (fn. 64) Before the Domesday Survey this estate had passed to the abbey of Westminster, and was included in the great manor of Pershore held by that abbey. (fn. 65) The estate then contained 10 hides, of which two Frenchmen held two; Alcot, a monk, had held a hide in the time of King Edward the Confessor, but this appears to have reverted to the abbey before 1086. (fn. 66) A portion of this manor was held under the Abbots of Westminster from the 12th to the 14th century by members of the D'Abitot family. Brightina D'Abitot held land at Defford at the end of the 12th century, and it was unsuccessfully claimed in 1274 by her great-grandchildren. (fn. 67) Geoffrey D'Abitot, who was sued by the Abbot of Westminster in 1219–20 for suit which he owed for a tenement in Defford, was probably then in possession of the manor. (fn. 68) Defford still seems to have been held by the D'Abitot family in 1330 as part of their manor of Birlingham, but a messuage and land there were then held of them by William Spencer. (fn. 69) The D'Abitots' interest probably passed with Birlingham to the Abbots of Westminster, for in 1431 the abbot was holding Defford. (fn. 70) This estate (fn. 71) was granted in 1541 as parcel of the manor of Birlingham to John Carleton, (fn. 72) and has since followed the descent of Birlingham, (fn. 73) of which it forms part, the Earl of Coventry being lord of the manor at the present day.
The estate held by William Spencer in 1330 seems to have remained in his family until the beginning of the 16th century. (fn. 74) At that time the property was bought of John Spencer by Walter Rowdon. (fn. 75) Walter died seised of a capital messuage in Defford in 1513. (fn. 76) His brother and successor Richard was succeeded in 1517 by a son Henry. (fn. 77) Both Henry and his brother Richard died without issue, and the property passed, on the death of Henry in 1518, to his sister Frances, who married Maurice Berkeley, second son of the ninth Lord Berkeley. (fn. 78) She married as a second husband Richard Danvers, who was holding the manor in 1555. (fn. 79) Her son Edward died without issue (fn. 80) and his sisters and heirs, Frances wife of George Matthewe and Eleanor wife of James Morris, sold the manor in 1579 to Sir Richard Berkeley. (fn. 81) It was bought of Sir Richard in 1581 by John Richardson, jun., (fn. 82) who sold it seven years later to Dorothy Wilson, (fn. 83) widow of the Rev. Thomas Wilson, D.D., Dean of Worcester. It was probably she who, as the wife of Thomas Stonehall, made conveyances of the manor in 1596 and 1612. (fn. 84) She was succeeded by a son Samuel, (fn. 85) and Samuel Wilson, perhaps his son, was in possession of the manor in 1656 (fn. 86) and conveyed it in 1664 to John Wilmot, clerk. (fn. 87) Three years later it was in the possession of Sir Edward Scbright, (fn. 88) to whom it was confirmed in 1674 by Humphrey Forster and Mary his wife, Richard Pace and Judith his wife, and John Butler. (fn. 89) His son Sir Edward was in possession in 1694, (fn. 90) and his descendant, Sir John Saunders Sebright, held land at Defford in 1774, when the commons were inclosed. (fn. 91)
COPPIN'S COURT, (fn. 92) in Defford, may have been a virgate and a half of land granted in 1365 by John Coppin, rector of Evesbatch, co. Hereford, to William Harley of Defford. (fn. 93) In 1562 Anthony Carleton granted it with the manors of Birlingham and Defford to Sir Thomas Russell. (fn. 94) From that time it followed the descent of Birlingham (q.v.) until 1654, when it is mentioned for the last time. Habington says of this place that it 'bore anciently a show of greatness; but after ruinated is now reedifyed in a homely manner.' (fn. 95) The place had disappeared before the end of the 18th century, and its supposed site was occupied by a farm-house. (fn. 96)
A grange and tithe barn in Defford belonged at the Dissolution to the abbey of Pershore, being valued at that time at £4. (fn. 97) In 1606–7 the grange and tithes were granted to Henry Stanley and Robert Morgan. (fn. 98) Before 1670 they had passed into the possession of Thomas Turvey, (fn. 99) and subsequently descended as the grange and rectory of Defford with Turvey's manor of Wadborough. (fn. 100) This property is not mentioned after 1710.
A rent of £4 reserved by the Crown on the grant of 1606–7 was sold in 1675–6 to Sir Walter Wrottesley, Richard Congreve and John Gifford. (fn. 101)
Five manses in PENSHAM (Pedneshamme, x cent.; Pendesham, xi-xiv cent.; Pensham, xvi cent.) were confirmed to the abbey of Pershore by the socalled charter of King Edgar. (fn. 102) This land formed part of the manor of Pershore which Edward the Confessor took from Pershore Abbey and gave to the abbey of Westminster, and in 1086 it contained 2 hides which the abbot held in demesne. (fn. 103) At the end of the 12th century Pensham is called an appendage of the Abbot of Westminster's court of Pershore. (fn. 104) It seems to have been always held by the abbots in demesne, being leased to farmers from time to time, (fn. 105) until at the Dissolution it came to the Crown. (fn. 106) In 1542 it was granted to the Dean and Chapter of Westminster, (fn. 107) and remained in their possession (fn. 108) until 1650, when it was sold with many other of their manors to Sir Cheney Culpeper. (fn. 109) It was restored to the dean and chapter at the Restoration, and in 1688 was leased for twenty-one years to Edmund Baugh. (fn. 110) It now belongs to the Ecclesiastical Commissioners.
The manor of PINVIN (Pendefen, Pyndeven, xiv cent.; Pynfyn, xvi cent.) apparently originally formed part of the manor of Pershore held by the abbey of Westminster. It is mentioned as a member of that manor at the end of the 12th century. (fn. 111) It appears as a separate estate about the middle of the 14th century, (fn. 112) and rents from it were valued in 1535 at £12 3s. 4d., while pleas and perquisites of court amounted to £2 3s. 6d. (fn. 113) After the dissolution of Westminster Abbey this manor was granted with most of the rest of the abbey estates to the Dean and Chapter of Westminster, (fn. 114) in whose possession it remained (fn. 115) until their property was taken over in 1869 (fn. 116) by the Ecclesiastical Commissioners, who are the present owners of the manor.
A second estate at Pinvin, afterwards known as a manor, was held in the 14th century by the Rivers family. In 1372 Edmund Rivers gave to Sir Niel Loryng a rent of 100s. yearly from his land at Pinvin. (fn. 117) Catherine daughter of Edmund Rivers married William Lokhull or Leekhull, (fn. 118) and her son John, who had assumed the name of Rivers, died in 1439 holding a messuage and 2 carucates of land in Pinvin and Peopleton. His cousin, William Bulkeley, of Eaton in Davenham, co. Cheshire, was returned as his heir (fn. 119) and sold the manor in the same year to John Vampage and Thomas Horton. (fn. 120) Three years later Thomas Leekhull alias Rivers, brother of John Rivers, who claimed the manor as John's heir, confirmed it to John Vampage. (fn. 121) It then seems to have passed with Wick near Pershore to Giles Greville, (fn. 122) who conveyed it in 1515 to trustees. (fn. 123) They were, perhaps, acting for Sir John Nevill Lord Latimer, for he left this manor by his will, dated 1542, to his son John. (fn. 124) The younger John died in 1577, leaving co-heirs, (fn. 125) and Pinvin fell to the share of Lucy wife of Sir William Cornwallis. They sold the manor in 1580 to William Childe. (fn. 126) William Childe, or another owner of the same name, sold it eleven years later to John Waldegrave alias Fleet, (fn. 127) of whom it was purchased in 1601 by Richard Eadon. (fn. 128) Richard died in 1616 seised of tithes in Pinvin. His heir was his brother Roger, (fn. 129) who must have died without issue, for the tithes afterwards passed to his niece Anne wife of Edward Hayward, (fn. 130) who had livery of them in 1622. (fn. 131) The manor had probably been sold by Richard Eadon before his death, though he died at Pinvin, and in 1637 the capital messuage was settled by Margaret widow of John Maltby on her daughter Anne Roberts on her marriage with Richard Rogers. Richard died without issue, and the right to the reversion after Anne's death was disputed by his two brothers William and Thomas, the latter claiming it under Richard's will. In 1661 William gave up his claim to Thomas, who sold the manor in 1670 to William Acton of Wolverton. (fn. 132) The further descent of this estate has not been traced.
In 1086 WICK formed part of the abbey of Westminster's great manor of Pershore. At Wick there were 6 hides, one of which Urse held as successor to Tor, and half a hide was held by Gilbert as successor to Osward. (fn. 133) The rest of the estate was apparently held by the abbot in demesne. In the 12th century 3 virgates from the manor were given to Peter de Wick, but the rest seems to have been held by successive abbots until the Dissolution, (fn. 134) when it passed to the Crown. With the rest of the abbey's estates it was granted in 1542 to the Dean and Chapter of Westminster. (fn. 135) It was restored to the refounded abbey by Queen Mary, (fn. 136) but on the accession of Elizabeth, the abbey being again dissolved, Wick was granted once more to the dean and chapter. (fn. 137) They remained in possession until 1650, when the manor was sold by the Parliamentary trustees to Sir Cheney Culpeper of Hollingbourne, co. Kent. (fn. 138) At the Restoration the manor returned into the possession of the dean and chapter. (fn. 139) This estate has long been merged in Binholme manor, and now belongs to the Ecclesiastical Commissioners. (fn. 140)
Lawrence Abbot of Westminster, c. 1160, gave to Peter de Wick with the vills of Upton Snodsbury and Bricklehampton 3 virgates of land in Wick, one of the demesnes of the abbey, one which belonged to Lefward and one which belonged to Gunter and Swen. (fn. 141) This estate seems to have been the origin of the manor afterwards known as WICK BURNELL. The grant to Peter de Wick was confirmed to his son Robert, (fn. 142) and the manor apparently remained in this family until about the middle of the 13th century. Peter de Wick, who seems to have been the last of the Burnell. Argent a lion sable with a golden crown in a border azure. name to own Wick, was a man of some consequence in Worcestershire, acting as one of the collectors to raise an aid in 1237 (fn. 143) and as a collector of a thirtieth in 1240. (fn. 144) He died before 1258, when his widow Christine granted her manors of Snodsbury and Upton to William Beauchamp. (fn. 145) Wick seems to have been acquired by William Beauchamp at the same time, and it apparently passed from him to a younger son Walter, (fn. 146) whose widow Alice still held a life interest in the estate in 1281–2, when Peter de Lench and his wife Margery sold the manor to Robert Burnell, Bishop of Bath and Wells. (fn. 147) The manor was evidently held in right of Margery, who may have been the heir of Walter Beauchamp. The sale was possibly necessitated by Peter's financial difficulties, for in 1290 he was pardoned 200 of the 300 marks which he owed the king, a debt which he had perhaps incurred while acting as justice of the forest. (fn. 148) Though the manor is not mentioned in the inquisition taken on the death of Robert Burnell, possibly because it was then still held by Alice Beauchamp, (fn. 149) it evidently followed the same descent as Kidderminster Burnell to Sir Hugh Burnell, (fn. 150) who in 1417 sold the reversion after his death to Joan widow of William Lord Bergavenny. (fn. 151) Though Lady Bergavenny was distrained in 1429 for suit at Binholme due for this manor, (fn. 152) the estate does not seem to have passed to her heirs, but reverted with many other of Sir Hugh Burnell's estates to the Lovels, descendants of Maud sister and heir of Edward Burnell by her first husband John Lovel. (fn. 153) John Lord Lovel in 1461 obtained a ratification of his estate in the manor. (fn. 154) He died in 1465, (fn. 155) and on the death of his widow Joan in the following year the estate passed to his son Francis Lord Lovel. (fn. 156) Francis fought at Bosworth on behalf of Richard III, and was attainted by Henry VII in 1485 and lost all his estates. (fn. 157) The manor of Wick Burnell was granted in 1486 to John Mortimer and his heirs male. (fn. 158) In 1507 it was granted to Giles Greville for thirty-one years, (fn. 159) the reversion being given in 1515 to Sir William Kingston, (fn. 160) and confirmed to him and his son Anthony in 1528 apparently for their lives. (fn. 161) In 1556–7 William Babington obtained a grant of the manor for forty years, (fn. 162) and in 1575–6 it was granted to John Fleming, as a late possession of John Duke of Northumberland, for twenty-one years from March 1596. (fn. 163) In the following year the site of the manor was granted to Richard Williams for nineteen years. (fn. 164) This grant was cancelled in 1580 and a lease for sixteen years made to Peter Lockey. (fn. 165) In 1590–1 the manor was granted in fee to Fulk Haselwood. (fn. 166) He died about 1597, (fn. 167) and his son Thomas had livery of the manor in 1606. (fn. 168) Thomas, his wife Elizabeth and his son Francis were brought before the Council in 1622 as rebels, they having resisted apprehension by the serjeant-at-arms. (fn. 169) Thomas was succeeded in 1624 by Francis, (fn. 170) who was fined in 1630–2 for not taking knighthood. (fn. 171) He complained in 1651 that, though he had always adhered to Parliament, he had been accused of going to Worcester and sending there a horse and provisions while it was the king's garrison and of going with the king's forces to Evesham, and that his estate had therefore been sequestered. (fn. 172) He was Sheriff of Worcestershire in 1663, (fn. 173) and had been succeeded before 1675 by his son Thomas Haselwood, (fn. 174) who was knighted in 1681 (fn. 175) and acted as Sheriff of Worcestershire in the following year. (fn. 176) The manor passed with that of Bengeworth to the Rev. Bernard Wilson, (fn. 177) who died in 1772. It was sold in 1776 by Wilson's nephew Robert Wilson Cracraft to Richard Hudson of Wick House, (fn. 178) and passed on his death in 1804 to his son Richard. The latter was succeeded in 1850 by a son Richard who sold the manor in that year to his father's nephew Alfred Ricketts Hudson. Lieut.-Col. Alfred Henry Hudson, son of the latter, is the present lord of the manor. (fn. 179)
The hide of land held by Urse and the half-hide held by Gilbert in the manor of Wick apparently afterwards became the manors of WICK PIDDLE and WICK WARREN. Urse's grandson William Beauchamp was holding 3 hides at 'Wicha Inardi' in the Abbot of Westminster's fee early in the 12th century. (fn. 180) The Gilbert who held the half-hide at Wick was probably Gilbert Fitz Turold, for an estate at Wick afterwards belonged to the Fitz Warins, to whom many of Gilbert's estates seem to have passed. The Fitz Warins seem also to have acquired the tenancy of the Beauchamps' estate at Wick, as there is no mention of the Beauchamps holding an estate here except as overlords until they acquired the Fitz Warins' property in the 14th century. William Fitz Warin held Wick in 1193–5, (fn. 181) and William son of William Fitz Warin was holding the 'vill' of Piddle early in the 13th century when he gave Piddle Mill to the Abbot of Pershore, (fn. 182) Walter Beauchamp confirming the gift as overlord of the fee. (fn. 183) William son of the grantee confirmed the gift to the succeeding abbot (fn. 184) and in 1256–7 settled 5 carucates of land in Wick, Comberton, Piddle and elsewhere on himself for life with reversion to his son William. (fn. 185) It was probably the younger William who granted all his land in Wick, Piddle and Comberton early in the 14th century to Guy Earl of Warwick. (fn. 186) He evidently retained some interest in the manor, for on the death of Guy in 1315 William's widow Joan 'lady of Wick' was holding 'Wyrpidele and Wykmed' and the advowson of a chantry at Wick. (fn. 187) Both manors remained with the Earls of Warwick (fn. 188) until the forfeiture of Thomas Earl of Warwick in 1396.
The manor of WYKE PIDDLE had been given by Thomas Earl of Warwick to John de Atherston for life, (fn. 189) and the rent which John paid was granted by the Crown in 1398 to John Asplion, a clerk of the Chancery. (fn. 190) The manor must have been restored to Thomas with the rest of his possessions in 1399, for he died seised of it in 1401. (fn. 191) His son Richard apparently granted the manor for life to Robert Hugford, as he confirmed a grant whereby Robert transferred his interest to John Shipston in 1403. (fn. 192) This lease ended on the death of Robert Hugford in 1411. (fn. 193) The manor from that time followed the descent of Elmley Castle, passing to the Crown in 1487, (fn. 194) and it is not mentioned after that date.
The manor of WICK NEAR PERSHORE, or WICK WARREN, (fn. 195) was also given by Thomas Earl of Warwick to John de Atherston and the rent from it was granted in 1397 to John Russell. (fn. 196) The Russells continued to make conveyances of the manor until 1401–2, (fn. 197) but it had probably been restored to Thomas Earl of Warwick with Wick Piddle, his son Richard holding courts there in 1414 and 1420. (fn. 198) This manor seems to have been held by John Shipston for life, for about 1430 Richard Earl of Warwick granted the reversion after his death to John Vampage and his wife Elizabeth. (fn. 199) John was succeeded in 1452 by a son William, (fn. 200) who sold the manor and household goods in 1475 to Thomas Brugge. (fn. 201) Vampage, however, recovered the manor before 1480 on payment of a sum of money to Jane widow of Thomas Brugge. (fn. 202) William Vampage was knighted in 1487 (fn. 203) and sold the manor before 1492 to Giles Greville. (fn. 204) Giles, who was afterwards knighted, was succeeded in 1528 (fn. 205) by a daughter Elizabeth, who married firstly Richard Wye, and secondly William Nevill, second son of Richard Lord Latimer. (fn. 206) William Nevill, who was a poet of some note, (fn. 207) involved himself in considerable difficulties owing to his dealings with one Richard Jones, an astrologer, who induced him to believe that he would one day become Earl of Warwick. On the strength of this prophecy he built a new gallery at Wick 'that he might keep there 100 or 200 men, with drawdoors and other privy doors to convey them at his pleasure. (fn. 208) In 1530 Wick was settled on William and Elizabeth and William's heirs. (fn. 209) Richard Nevill, who was perhaps the son of William and Elizabeth, sold the manor to Edward Haselwood in 1545, (fn. 210) and in the following year Giles Wye, son of Elizabeth by her first husband, (fn. 211) confirmed this sale. (fn. 212) Fulk Haselwood, who succeeded his father Edward in 1558, bought Wick Burnell in 1590–1, (fn. 213) and the two manors have since followed the same descent.
HOREWELL GRANGE, or Horwell Chippel, was probably in the neighbourhood of Horewell Wood in Defford, but its site is now lost. In 1291 the Prior of Little Malvern had a carucate of land at Horewell, (fn. 214) and in 1322 he obtained protection in his manor of Horewell. (fn. 215) The estate remained in the possession of the priory until the Dissolution, (fn. 216) and was granted in 1542 to Richard Andrews and Leonard Chamberlain. (fn. 217) It must have passed shortly after to Robert Burgoyn, for he sold it in 1543 to Nicholas Clifton. (fn. 218) It then followed the descent of Clifton in the parish of Severn Stoke (fn. 219) until 1636, when it is mentioned for the last time.
In 1086 the Abbot of Westminster had three mills in his manor of Pershore. (fn. 220) They followed the descent of the manor, (fn. 221) but had been reduced in number to two before the end of the 15th century. (fn. 222) They passed with Binholme Manor to the Dean and Chapter of Westminster. (fn. 223) Thomas Nevill, the last lessee under the Abbots of Westminster, built a new mill of freestone at a cost of 40 marks. (fn. 224) The three mills were sold by the Parliamentary trustees in 1650 to Sir Cheney Culpeper. (fn. 225) They were afterwards restored to the dean and chapter, and in 1690 there were four mills under one roof. (fn. 226) These mills were on the River Avon near Pershore Bridge, and a cornmill there belonging to the Ecclesiastical Commissioners is still in existence.
The Abbots of Westminster also had a fulling-mill at Pershore in the 14th and 15th centuries. (fn. 227)
In the 12th century there was a mill at Pinvin which Simon Abbot of Pershore (1175–98) purchased of Adam son of Edric de Pershore and demolished for the improvement of his fish-pond of Lugebruge. (fn. 228) Another mill had, however, been built at Pinvin before 1242, but it is not mentioned after that date. (fn. 229)
In 1086 the Abbot of Pershore held half a mill at Piddle worth 10s. and 20 stiches of eels. (fn. 230) William son of William Fitz Warin with the consent of his wife Lucy gave to Gervase Abbot of Pershore (1204– 34) all his mill of Piddle (probably meaning half the mill) with the meadow called La Mue (fn. 231) and the fishery from the mill to the vill of Piddle. (fn. 232) This was confirmed by his son William to Abbot Roger (1234–50). (fn. 233) Walter de Beauchamp also confirmed to Abbot Gervase half the mill of Piddle and the meadow of La Mue, (fn. 234) evidently as overlord of the manor of Wick Piddle. Piddle Mills remained with the Abbots of Pershore until the Dissolution. (fn. 235) 'Pedill Mille Meadow' was granted with Allesborough Manor to Sir Ralph Sadleir in 1547, (fn. 236) but there is no mention of any mill in the grant, and in 1577 John Richardson held Piddle Mills. (fn. 237) In 1622, however, when Ralph Sadleir sold the manor to Richard Shilton, three water-mills called Piddle Mills were included, (fn. 238) and they afterwards followed the descent of Allesborough Manor. A mill now called Wyre Mill still exists on the river near Piddle Brook, and some of the foundations are ancient.
The mill of Abblewell is first mentioned early in the 13th century, when it evidently belonged to William Fitz Warin. (fn. 239) In 1256 it was settled on William for life with reversion to his son William. (fn. 240) It was probably the younger William who granted to the abbey of Pershore all the spring called Abblewell to provide water for the monastery. He also gave licence for the monks to mend the conduit leading the water to the monastery where it lay on his lands and gave free passage for carts with stone from Mulcombe to Pershore. (fn. 241) From the fact that it belonged to the Fitz Warins it seems probable that Abblewell Mill was in Wick. The mill evidently passed with the manors of Wick Warren and Wick Piddle to the Earls of Warwick, for in 1338–9 Thomas Earl of Warwick granted the mill, pond and fishery for his life and 100 years after his death to the Abbot of Pershore. (fn. 242) The abbot was still holding this mill in 1397, (fn. 243) but it is not mentioned after that time.
The church of ST. ANDREW consists of a chancel 26 ft. 6 in. by 17 ft. with north chapel and vestry, nave 51 ft. by 12 ft. with north aisle 7 ft. 9 in wide, and south aisle 42 ft. by 21 ft., tower at the west end of the south aisle 12 ft. square, and south porch. The measurements are all internal.
The earliest portion of the existing building is the north arcade, which dates from the close of the 12th century. The west wall is also of this date, and the nave at that period was evidently of the same size as at present. In the 14th century the north aisle was rebuilt and perhaps widened, and at the same time the west window was inserted. Early in the following century the south arcade was rebuilt and the outer walls of the north chapel reconstructed. At the close of the 15th century an extensive rebuilding was undertaken. The east and south walls of the chancel were rebuilt, making that limb some 4 ft. 6 in. wider than its predecessor. The old south aisle was removed and an unusually wide aisle substituted with a tower at the west end. It was evidently intended to rebuild the south arcade and make the nave equal in width to the chancel, but this was never accomplished, and the old arcade still stands, terminating towards the east in a rough end connected to the south aisle end by a temporary arch. The north vestry was also added at this period. The south porch was built in the 18th or early 19th century and a considerable amount of restoration and renewal to the south arcade and windows has been done in recent years.
The east window has one modern pointed light, but the jambs and elliptical rear arch are of the late 15th century. In the north wall is a rather earlier door to the vestry with a four-centred arch under a square head. The south wall contains three squareheaded windows, each of two trefoiled lights, with flat pointed rear arches. They are of the late 15th century, and all are blocked by a modern outbuilding adjoining the chancel on the south. There is no chancel arch, and the plain roof is of wagon form and open to the ridge. The late 15th-century vestry is conterminous with the chancel at the east end and has a two-light square-headed east window with a four-centred rear arch. In the north wall is a modern door. The roof is original and the embattled parapet has been much broken.
The nave has a late 12th-century north arcade of five bays; the arches are of one chamfered order with a chamfered label on the north face and rest on cylindrical columns with scalloped capitals of bell form and moulded bases on square plinths; the responds have half columns attached. The eastern bay of this arcade must have been included in the ritual quire. The early 15th-century south arcade is of four bays, and except for the western pier and bay has been largely rebuilt; the arches are pointed and rest on octagonal columns with moulded and embattled capitals. In the original work the piers become square at the base and rest on chamfered plinths. Beyond the eastern bay is a narrow archway built up to just below the level of the capitals and in this filling is the lower part of a spiral rood stair. This feature is exceedingly puzzling and its complete restoration makes a satisfactory explanation almost impossible. The arcade wall is connected at the east end to the east wall of the adjoining aisle by a rough pointed arch opening into the chancel. In the west wall is a tall threelight window of the 14th century with restored tracery. The roof is of the 15th century and of wagon form.
The north aisle forms a chapel in the east bay, gabled externally towards the north and having an ogee-headed piscina with a shelf in the east respond of the arcade. In the north wall is a pointed 15thcentury window of three lights with modern tracery. In the east jamb is a canopied niche gabled and crocketed, the bracket resting on an angel with spread wings. The second window in this wall is of the 15th century, and has three lights, a depressed pointed head and restored tracery, the third a single modern light with old jambs, and the fourth which has two lights with modern tracery are probably of the 14th century. The pointed north door, which appears to be of the same date, is blocked. The aisle roof has been raised and in the arcade wall are a series of corbels in the form of bell capitals with square abaci.
The south aisle has a recess in the east wall with a four-centred arch and a square embattled head; the jambs and sill project and it was apparently a reredos. It would have been central had the south arcade reconstruction been completed. High in the wall is a single trefoiled light. In the south wall the first window is of two lights and similar to these on the south of the chancel; below it is a small ogee-headed piscina with a shelf. The second window is similar, but of three lights, and west of it is a pointed south door, probably of the 14th century and refixed in its present position. Higher up in the wall are three blocked windows at the clearstory level. The aisle roof is original and has curved ribs and tie-beams apparently cut for a shorter span.
The tower opens to this aisle by a moulded twocentred arch with moulded capitals and bases, and on the east face to the north are remains of a moulded respond to the proposed new south arcade. In the south wall is a doorway with a four-centred head and in the west a four-light pointed and traceried window, all of late 15th-century date.
The tower is three stages high and faced with ashlar; it has diagonal buttresses and an embattled parapet with the panelled bases of pinnacles at the angles, and below them are large grotesque gargoyles much weathered. On the south face of the first stage is a tall niche with the canopy destroyed and below it are two large stone scrolls cut on the ashlar but uninscribed. The second stage has a two-light opening in the south and a loop in the west wall. The bell-chamber has a threelight opening with a four-centred and slightly ogee head in each face.
The font is modern, and under the tower are painted half-length figures of Moses and Aaron of early 18th-century date. In the vestry is preserved a portion of the base of a 15th-century screen of oak, the panels having cusped heads and some fragments of Jacobean panelling. Here also is a fragment of a carved figure subject in alabaster, evidently from a reredos; it has traces of colouring and is probably of the 14th or 15th century.
There are six bells inscribed as follows: (1) 'When we do ring, I sweetly sing A.R. 1715'; (2) 'Peace and good neighbourhood A.R. 1715'; (3) 'John Wilkes C.W. A.R. 1715'; (4) 'Abe. Rudhall of Gloucester cast us all 1715'; (5) 'God preserve the church of England A.R. 1715'; (6) 'Simon Beverton vicar, Thos. Ashfeild Gt Ed. Dimmock Ch. wardens 1715.'
The plate includes a modern cup and a paten (London, 1719) inscribed 'St. Andrews Pershore Worcestershire Henry Chappell, John Wilks Church wardens.'
The registers before 1812 are as follows: (i) all entries 1641 to 1697; (ii) all entries 1695 to 1742; (iii) all entries 1742 to 1812, marriages to 1754 only; (iv) marriages 1754 to 1812.
The church of ST. JAMES at Defford consists of a chancel measuring internally 19 ft. by 17 ft., nave 45 ft. by 17 ft. south porch and west tower 8 ft. square.
The main walls of the church are perhaps as old as the 13th century, but practically no original details remain. The west tower is apparently a 14th-century addition and the porch belongs to the succeeding century. The south nave windows are probably of late 17th-century date and the church has been drastically restored in modern times, when the north wall was largely refaced, several windows renewed, and the top stage added to the tower.
The chancel has a modern three-light east window and two modern lancets in each side wall; the chancel arch is also modern, but the original moulded wallplates of the roof remain. The nave has two modern windows in the north wall and three similar windows, probably of the late 17th century, in the south wall, each having two lights with segmental heads. The south door has a segmental head, a re-used chamfered label over, perhaps of the 12th century, with the key voussoir carved with a crowned head. Traces of a blocked north doorway are visible in the north wall. The nave has a gallery at the west end and a wagon roof plastered internally and having a massive cambered tie-beam moulded on the soffit. The tower is of three stages, the two lower of stone and the third of modern timber surmounted by a broached pyramid; the angles have diagonal buttresses two stages high. The 14th-century west window is of two lights with a quatrefoil in the head. In the south wall of the second stage is a square-headed light. The south porch is of timber with a brick base; the plates, archway, uprights and roof are original, but the lide framing is modern. In the gallery is some 17thcentury panelling from the old pulpit.
There are four bells: the first and fourth cast in 1903, the second by Henry Farmer dated 1604, and the third inscribed 'William Baldwin Gent. and John Jones C.W. 1689, M. B.' (for Matthew Bagley), now recast.
The plate includes a cup and cover paten, the former chased and the latter dated 1571, a plated flagon and paten and a pewter flagon.
The registers previous to 1812 are as follows: (i) all entries 1540 to 1682; (ii) baptisms 1683 to 1812, marriages 1687 to 1753, and burials 1687 to 1812; (iii) marriages 1754 to 1812. Preserved in the church are deeds relating to the parish property and going back to the 15th century.
The church of ST. BARTHOLOMEW (fn. 244) at Wick consists of chancel 26 ft. by 12 ft. 10 in. with north organ chamber and vestry and a shallow recess 2 ft. 6 in. deep on the south side, nave 40 ft. 6 in. by 17 ft. 3 in., north aisle 12 ft. wide, and north porch. There is also a modern oak bellcote over the west gable containing one bell by Abraham Rudhall dated 1722.
The church is substantially of 12th-century date, but has been much altered. There were restorations in 1861 and 1893. The 12th-century structure consisted of a chancel measuring 18 ft. 6 in. by 12 ft. 6 in. and nave the same size as at present, but very little of the actual walling remains in situ, and the only architectural features are a window on the north side of the chancel, another on the south side of the nave, and the south doorway. The north aisle was added c. 1195 and the arcade of three pointed arches remains unaltered. Windows of two lights were inserted in the chancel and nave probably in the 14th century, but the 19th-century restorations have had the effect of almost entirely modernizing the exterior of the building. In 1861 the aisle was rebuilt and the porch added, and in 1893 the chancel was entirely reconstructed and lengthened 7 ft. 6 in. and a new organ chamber added on the north side with a vestry on its east side. The south wall of the nave was also rebuilt on its former lines, the 12th-century window and doorway being then opened out and reset in the new wall.
Externally the church is faced with yellow stone dating from one or other of the restorations and the roofs are covered with modern red tiles overhanging at the eaves. The chancel roof is slightly lower than that of the nave and the aisle is under a separate gabled roof.
The chancel has a modern east window of three lights with tracery of 14th-century character. The small round-headed 12th-century window already mentioned has been reset about 5 ft. from the east end on the north side above the roof of the vestry and has a deep sloping sill inside and widely splayed jambs. Externally the head is in one stone, but inside has a radiating splay in twelve stones. On the south side are two windows, one a single trefoiled light and the other a square-headed opening of two lights, both restorations of original features, but the sills and jambs alone are old. The altar rails are of 17thcentury date with turned balusters and carved rail with knobs. They were lowered in the restoration of 1893. The rest of the fittings, the roof, the chancel arch and oak screen are modern. All the walls of the church are plastered internally.
The nave arcade consists of three pointed arches springing from circular piers and semicircular responds with moulded bases and shallow capitals with square abaci of two plain members. The arches consist of a single square order with chamfered hood mould towards the nave. The south doorway has a semicircular rear arch, but the outer opening has a square head in five stones built as an arch, the middle one shaped to a segment on the extrados. This feature appears to be original, all the headstones as well as those of the jambs being ancient. The 12th-century window in the south wall is taller than that in the chancel, being 4 ft. 1 in. in height; the width of the opening, which splays internally in the usual manner, is 5 in. and the head is in one stone without hood mould. The sill is new. In addition to this the nave is lighted by three square-headed windows, each of three trefoiled lights, the middle one of which is modern. The others are partly restored and differ slightly in detail. There is also a modern circular window at the west end. The nave retains an ancient roof of framed spars with a single plain tie-beam in the middle. The aisle windows are all modern and the porch is of timber on a stone base.
The font appears to be an ancient one, rechiselled and has a modern inscription cut round the top. It consists of a plain circular tub-shaped bowl on a moulded base. The old square pews were replaced in 1893 by open seats and the oak pulpit dates from the same period. There is a small modern west gallery approached by a stair from the end of the aisle through the wall of the west respond.
The plate consists of a cup and cover paten of 1571 with the usual floral band, a paten of 1882, another of 1889, and a plated paten and flagon, the former given in 1868 and the latter in 1882.
The registers before 1812 are as follows: (i) baptisms and marriages 1695 to 1783; burials 1695 to 1724; (ii) baptisms 1745 to 1812; (iii) marriages 1777 to 1811.
The churchyard at Wick is entered from the road on the north side through a modern lych-gate. To the north-west of the church is an ancient cross restored in 1911. It consists of a tapering octagonal shaft with shaped base on three steps. The head, with canopied niches containing figures of our Lord crucified and the Blessed Virgin and Child, dates from the restoration.
The chapel of ST. MICHAEL, Bricklehampton, consists of a chancel 28 ft. 6 in. by 17 ft., nave 37 ft. by 18 ft. 9 in., west tower, north vestry and south porch. The measurements are internal.
The church has been so extensively restored and altered as to leave few traces of its history. It is probably a 12th-century building largely reconstructed in the following century; there are also traces of 14th-century work. The chancel is largely rebuilt, and the vestry, west tower and timber south porch are modern.
The chancel has a modern three-light east window, three lancets in the south wall and one lancet and a vestry on the north. On the south side is an old piscina and west of it three stone arms of the old sedilia. The nave is divided into three bays on the north by later buttresses, two of which are modern. The north wall has two modern windows and in the third bay a 13th-century lancet, restored externally. At the east end of the south wall is a 14th-century window of one light with a trefoiled head, and further west a modern window and a small blocked lancet, probably of late 12th-century date. The round-headed south door of the same date is recessed in two orders, both ornamented with cheverons and having a label over with billet ornament and head stops; the side shafts have slightly foliated capitals. Just east of this doorway is a holy-water stoup. The west tower, set within the nave, is modern and has a saddle-back roof. The nave roof is open and ancient; it is of wagon form below the collars, with one moulded tie-beam. The 12th-century font is a massive circular stone bowl tapering towards the base; on two sides are crosses in circles and on the other two are raised stars. On the north wall of the nave is a tablet with shield of arms to Francis Palmer, died 1715.
The three bells are all by T. Mears & Son, 1807.
The plate includes a cup and cover paten (London, 1571), the latter dated 1571, a paten (London, 1700) and a small paten and silver-mounted cruet, both modern.
The registers before 1812 are as follows: (i) baptisms and burials 1785 to 1812; (ii) marriages 1756 to 1812.
The chapel of ST. NICHOLAS, Pinvin, consists of a chancel 20 ft. by 14 ft., nave 44 ft. 9 in. by 16 ft., south porch and north vestry. The measurements are internal.
Both the chancel and nave are probably of the 12th century, but there is no detail remaining in the former of that date. Various windows were inserted in the 15th century and the south porch was probably added in the 17th century. The chancel was refaced in brick and the buttresses added in the 18th century. The church has undergone a complete restoration, when the nave was slightly lengthened, the west bellcote built and a vestry added north of the nave.
The chancel has an early 15th-century east window of two lights with a pointed and traceried head. In the north and south walls are small 18th-century rectangular windows, and near them are two rectangular recesses, one in each wall, with heads formed of oak boards of doubtful date. The chancel arch is modern and replaces an early 12th-century arch with a round head 8½ ft. high and 4½ ft. wide. The roof is plastered with wooden ribs; only the moulded tie-beam and wall-plates appear to be ancient.
The nave has a modern or restored 15th-century window in the north wall of three lights under a square head, and to the west of it an early 12thcentury light, round-headed and deeply splayed. The north door is of the same date, round-headed and plain; it now opens into the modern vestry. Further west is a modern window. At the east end of the south wall is an original 15th-century window, uniform with the restored one opposite. The 12thcentury south door is recessed in two rounded orders and has a much damaged external label and traces of red masonry lines; set in the wall above it are three carved and mutilated human heads. Further west is a modern window. The west wall and window are entirely modern, as is the bellcote on the west gable. The nave has been almost entirely refaced externally. The south porch has an arched entrance made up of old work, with a graceful foliated capital of the 13th century built in above the crown; in the east wall is a broken stoup. On the south wall of the nave, on either side of the eastern window, are some interesting paintings. They appear to be of the 13th century, but have considerably decayed since they were uncovered at the restoration of the church. The first group apparently consisted of eight subjects, including one quite obliterated: a Virgin and Child; a saint with a palmer's staff and plague spot, probably St. Roche, with an angel at the side and a border of red dragons; the Annunciation; the Salutation; the Adoration of the Magi; the Crucifixion and Resurrection in one panel; and perhaps the Ascension. Of these only the lower part of the second and most of the Adoration of the Magi and the next subject are at all clear. Of the second group there are only traces of a large seated figure much damaged, and over it has been painted the Apostles' Creed in black letter, perhaps of the late 16th century. A painting of the Trinity surrounded by angels formerly existed on the south of the chancel arch.
The 12th-century font is octagonal with shallow round-headed panels in each face, a circular stem and a modern base. The pulpit apparently incorporates the materials of an old communion table, with turned legs and rails, of c. 1630. On the south side of the chancel are a few worn slip tiles of mediaeval date.
The bell is inscribed 'Come away make no delay. T.R. 1768.'
The plate includes a cup and cover paten (London, 1571), the latter dated 1571.
The registers previous to 1812 are as follows: (i) all entries 1559 to 1713; (ii) baptisms 1714 to 1799, marriages 1749 to 1788, burials 1714 to 1779.
The church of St. Andrew is said, but not on the best authority, to have been built by Edward the Confessor for the use of the tenants of the abbey of Westminster when he gave the manor to the abbey. (fn. 245) It was in existence in 1086, (fn. 246) and the advowson must have been given by the Abbot of Westminster to the priory of Great Malvern, for it belonged to the monks in 1147, when Simon Bishop of Worcester dedicated a new church of St. Andrew, which had been built at the joint cost of Athelhard, who held the 'personatum' of the church, and Edwin the vicar. (fn. 247) It seems possible that this new church may have been erected on a different site from the old one, for in 1086 the church was in the manor of the Abbot of Westminster, but the new church was built in the cemetery of the monastery, (fn. 248) and at the present day St. Andrew's Church is in the parish of Holy Cross. The patronage of St. Andrew's was confirmed to the priory of Great Malvern by the pope in 1217, (fn. 249) but shortly after (before 1218) they gave it, with all the tithes belonging to it, to the Abbot of Westminster. (fn. 250) About 1241 the Abbot of Westminster gave the advowson to the Abbot and convent of Pershore. (fn. 251) In 1306, and again in 1321, the Abbot of Pershore obtained licence to appropriate the church. (fn. 252) The appropriation was not, however, made until August 1327, the abbot, William de Harvington, having in that year granted the advowson for life to Adam de Harvington. (fn. 253) The vicarage was ordained in the same year, a portion of 12 marks being assigned to the vicar. (fn. 254) In 1329 an inquiry was made by the bishop's mandate as to the value of the rectory, (fn. 255) and this resulted in another ordination of the vicarage in 1331. (fn. 256) The Abbots of Pershore remained in possession of the rectory and advowson until the Dissolution. (fn. 257) In 1541 the rectory was granted to Conan Richardson, (fn. 258) but in the following year it was granted, with many other of the possessions of the abbey, to the Dean and Chapter of Westminster. (fn. 259) The advowson is not mentioned in this grant, but it was given with the rectory in 1556–7 by Queen Mary to the refounded abbey of Westminster. (fn. 260) On the accession of Queen Elizabeth the abbey of Westminster was again dissolved, and the advowson and rectory of St. Andrew's were granted once more to the dean and chapter, (fn. 261) with whom they have since remained. (fn. 262)
The dean and chapter leased the rectory from time to time. A lease granted in 1554–5 to Sir John Bourne was sold by his son Anthony to Thomas Hanford and Thomas Cocks. John Hanford bought the moiety belonging to the Cocks family and left the whole to his widow, who sold it to Thomas Browne, her son by a former husband. He sold it in 1635–6 to William Sandys. (fn. 263) The dean leased the parsonage of St. Andrew's for twenty-one years ending in 1653 to William Steed. (fn. 264)
In the 12th century the chapels of Besford, Defford, Wick and Bricklehampton were dependent on the church of St. Andrew, Pershore. (fn. 265) The first three are now parochial, but Bricklehampton is still a chapel of St. Andrew's. Defford-cum-Besford became a separate ecclesiastical parish in 1865, (fn. 266) and the living was declared a vicarage in 1866. (fn. 267)
About 1218 Andrew, rector of St. Andrew's, was accused of burying the dead at the chapel of Wick instead of at the mother church of Pershore. (fn. 268) In 1362 the Bishop of Worcester gave licence to the parishioners of St. Andrew's living at Wick to have service celebrated in Wick Chapel by a fit priest. (fn. 269) In 1868 Wick was declared a vicarage, (fn. 270) and the living has since been in the gift of the vicar of Pershore.
The chapel of Pinvin is not mentioned as a chapelry of St. Andrew's in the 12th century, but must then have existed. The earliest reference to it is in 1331. (fn. 271) It is still a chapel to St. Andrew's.
There was a second chapel at Wick, sometimes called a chantry, sometimes a free chapel, which may have been in the manor-house of Wick Warren. The advowson, which is mentioned for the first time about 1315, (fn. 272) belonged to the lords of Wick Warren, and followed the descent of that manor until 1546, when it is mentioned for the last time.
An agreement was made in 1204 between the Prior of Great Malvern and the vicar of St. Andrew's on one part and the Abbot of Pershore on the other by which the prior and vicar were to receive all the tithes of Wick, Birlingham and St. Andrew, of which the monks of Pershore formerly received half, while the abbot was to have tithes of Bricklehampton, Pensham, Pinvin, Besford and Defford. (fn. 273) In 1256 a dispute arose between the rector of St. Andrew's and the Abbot of Pershore as to tithes from newly tilled land in Besford and Defford, and it was settled according to the above agreement. (fn. 274)
In 1548 tenements given for the maintenance of obits in the church of St. Andrew were valued at 11s. 2d., of which 5s. was given to the poor. (fn. 275) In 1615 this estate was granted to George Low, (fn. 276) and in 1637 to Thomas Dalmahay. (fn. 277)
An acre of land given for lights in the chapel of Bricklehampton was valued in 1548 at 8d. (fn. 278)
Pershore, Holy Cross and St. Andrew.—Eleemosynary Charities: These parishes participate in the charity of Henry Smith, founded by will 24 April 1627. In 1909 a sum of £52 10s. was received out of the rents of the Longney Estate, co. Gloucester, and applied in bonuses to members of the coal club and in gifts of 2 cwt. of coal to about 220 recipients.
Unknown donor's charity mentioned in the Parliamentary Returns of 1786, consists of about 18 acres of land situate at Baughton in Hill Croome, let at £30 a year. The net income is distributed to poor widows in sums of 2s. 6d. each and in aid of the clothing and other provident clubs subsisting in the parish.
In 1812 Charles Oldaker, by his will, gave £100, the interest to be applied in bread for the poor; trust fund, £116 13s. 3d. consols, producing £2 18s. 4d. yearly.
In 1818 Susannah Tovey, by her will, gave £100, the interest to be distributed amongst the poor; trust fund, £97 19s. 2d. consols, the annual dividends, amounting to £2 9s., being distributed in groceries.
In 1863 Ann Wilson, by her will proved at London, bequeathed £50, now represented by £55 13s. 4d. consols, the annual dividends, amounting to £1 7s. 8d., to be applied in aid of the provident clubs of the parish of St. Andrew.
In 1869 Francis Davies, by his will proved at Worcester, bequeathed £100 for the benefit of the poor, subject to the repair, &c., of a tomb in the churchyard; trust fund, £107 19s. 3d. consols, producing £2 14s. yearly, which is applied in aid of the Dorcas Society and the provident clubs.
In 1880 Captain Jeffery Reid Amherst, by his will proved at Worcester, bequeathed £1,000 consols, the income, amounting to £25 yearly, to be distributed in coal and bread.
In 1878 Sarah Sophia Bedford, by her will proved at London, bequeathed £333 6s. 8d. stock, now a like sum of consols in the names of the Rev. W. Walters and two others, producing £8 6s. 8d. yearly, one moiety of which is distributed in coal and the other moiety in flannel or clothing.
In 1903 Alfred Ricketts Hudson by deed gave £100 consols, the dividends to be applied in supplying tea and tobacco for the old women and men in Pershore Workhouse. The dividends amount to £2 10s. yearly.
The several sums of stock, except as otherwise stated, are held by the official trustees.
Pershore Cottage Hospital and Nursing Home.— Charles Ganderton, by his will proved at Worcester 21 April 1893, gave £500 for the benefit of a cottage hospital to be established within twelve months after his decease. A suitable building was erected on land comprised in deed 15 March 1894. The institution is supported mainly by voluntary donations. It has, however, an income from endowment of about £60 a year from stocks and shares held by the trustees.
The above-mentioned Alfred Ricketts Hudson also gave £100, the interest to be applied in supplying special comforts to the patients at Christmastide. The gift was invested in £108 Watney, Combe, Reid & Co. 3½ per cent. debenture stock, producing £3 15s. 6d. yearly.
The Pershore Baptist Chapel, comprised in trust deed, 6 June 1815, is possessed of the following trust funds, namely: £210 5s. consols, the gift of Mary Haigh for the minister, producing £5 5s. yearly; £124. 8s. 2d. India 3½ per cent. stock and £85 3s. 8d. Bank of England stock, producing together about £12 8s. yearly, applicable for the minister and church expenses. The sums of stock are held by the administering trustees, who also hold £200 stock of the San Paulo Railway Co., the gift of Anne Mancell Bedford, also for the minister and church expenses.
By indenture 10 June 1907 Alfred Ricketts Hudson gave an annual rent-charge of £20 issuing out of lands in the hamlet of Chivington to be applied in the first place to defray the cost of lighting the interior of the lantern tower of the abbey church of Holy Cross and the residue to defray the cost of any important and substantial repairs to the fabric of the church.
Mrs. Bridget Grewcock, by declaration of trust dated 24 August 1909, settled a sum of £286 India 3½ per cent. stock upon trust that the income should be applied towards the cost of winding the clock and carillons in the abbey church of Holy Cross. The stock is held by the official trustees, producing £10 yearly.
Chapelry of Bricklehampton.—This chapelry has been in possession from time immemorial of about 1½ acres of land which was formerly waste, but is now let in allotments producing about £6 yearly, which is applied towards general church expenses.
In 1856 Francis Woodward, by his will proved with a codicil 13 December of this year, left a legacy for bread for the poor. It was invested in £50 4s. 2d. consols, and produces £1 5s. yearly.
In 1860 Mrs. Susannah Phipps by deed gave a sum of £105 12s. 5d. stock for the benefit of the Sunday school, and in 1861 Mrs. Elizabeth Woodward by deed gave £32 9s. 7d. stock for the education of poor children in the principles of the Christian religion according to the Established Church.
These gifts are represented by £138 2s. consols, the annual dividends of which, amounting to £3 9s., are applied for the benefit of the Sunday school.
The several sums of stock are held by the official trustees.
Defford.—The church and poor's land consists of 27 a. 2 r. known as Cow Leasow, allotted under the Inclosure Act, 1774, in lieu of property which had been in the possession of the chapelry from time immemorial, and £173 2s. 4d. consols, arising from the sale of some cottages and timber, producing £4 6s. 4d. annually. The land is let at £50 a year.
By a scheme of the Charity Commissioners of 22 May 1891 three-fifths of the net income was made applicable in the maintenance of the fabric of the church and the remaining two-fifths for the benefit of the poor.
In 1810 George Packwood, by his will proved in the P.C.C., bequeathed £188 4s. 8d. consols for the distribution of bread and meat at Christmas, and in 1860 the Rev. Thomas Whitaker, by his will, bequeathed £100 2s. 10d. consols for the same purpose. The annual dividends, amounting together to £7 4s., are distributed in beef to over 300 recipients.
In 1837 Martha Porter, by a codicil to her will, proved in the P.C. of the Archbishop of Armagh, among other charitable bequests, bequeathed £10 yearly for the poor of Defford. A sum of £333 6s. 8d. consols was in 1838 set aside by an order of the Court of Chancery in satisfaction of the legacy, now producing £8 6s. 8d. yearly, which is distributed in meat, bed-clothing and tea.
The same testatrix bequeathed £2 2s. yearly for the Sunday school, which is represented by £70 0s. 4d. consols, now producing £1 15s. yearly.
Miss Priscilla Arabella Attwood, by her will proved at Worcester, 6 April 1875, likewise bequeathed £47 13s. 3d. consols, the annual dividends, amounting to £1 3s. 8d., being also applicable for the benefit of the Church of England Sunday school.
In 1877 Miss Anne Porter, by her will proved at London, bequeathed £51 9s. 8d. consols for the benefit of the poor. The annual dividends, amounting to £1 5s. 8d., are expended in gifts of money and flannel, and on books for the library.
The several sums of stock are held by the official trustees.