A History of the County of Worcester: Volume 4. Originally published by Victoria County History, London, 1924.
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Hanley Castle, which appears to have been known alternatively as Potters' Hanley, (fn. 1) is a large parish, and until 1894, when the parish of Malvern Wells was formed from it, (fn. 2) stretched from the River Severn on the east to the Malvern Hills on the west.
The parish, exclusive of Malvern Wells, has an area of 4,423 acres, of which 1,098 acres are arable land, 2,860 pasture and 360 woods. (fn. 3) The soil is loam, clay and gravel and the subsoil Keuper Marls. Wheat, barley, oats and beans are grown. The fishpond at Hanley was repaired in 1172–3. (fn. 4) Near the river the land is low and liable to floods, but it rises gradually to the Malvern Hills. The Ashchurch, Tewkesbury and Malvern branch of the Midland railway has a station at Malvern Wells. On the high road from Worcester to Upton are three ancient crosses at distances of about half a mile from each other.
Mere Brook drains the southern part of the parish; it formerly provided the water for the castle moat. As Pool Brook it falls into the Severn near Pool House, a square brick house of the early 18th century, two stories in height with an attic floor in the roof. In the 16th century Pool House was held by the Badger family of the lords of the manor. (fn. 5) From the village Quay Lane leads down to the river, which is here crossed by a ferry. Before the time of railways there was an important wharf here from which all manner of merchandise was supplied to south Worcestershire and a large part of Herefordshire. The Grammar School stands to the northeast of the church and bears an inscription stating that it was founded in 1544, restored in 1733 and enlarged in 1868 and 1909. The oldest part has a picturesque elevation overlooking the churchyard with three gables, the middle one only being original.
Severn End (fn. 6) is situated on a slight elevation about half a mile to the north-east of Hanley Castle village, close to the right bank of the Severn. The house was probably originally built by Richard Lechmere in the latter part of the 15th century, but it was altered in the 16th century, most likely by his grandson Richard, and considerable additions were made between the years 1656 and 1673 by Sir Nicholas Lechmere, as recorded below. From the death of Sir Nicholas in 1701 down to 1896 the house and its surroundings remained almost unaltered, the only changes being the introduction of sash windows in the 18th century and the inclosing of the courtyard on the east side by walls and iron palisading. In 1805 the Lechmeres took up their residence at Rhydd Court, which was built a little before this date, and from that year down to about 1895 Severn End was chiefly occupied as a farm-house, but stood vacant for many years. Sir Edmund Lechmere had been in residence but a short time when, on 24 October 1896, the building was almost destroyed by fire, little more than the brick walls being left standing, but was rebuilt in the following year, nearly all the original features being reproduced. While retaining, therefore, all the picturesqueness of an Elizabethan and Jacobean mansion, the house is largely a modern structure. Internally the building had but little architectural interest, although there were, here and there, bits of good detail. The greater part of the house was occupied by passages and staircases, there being no less than eleven staircases altogether, though many of the rooms were passage rooms. 'There was a high barrier across the landing of the back staircase over which one had to climb or otherwise to descend to the ground level in order to get from one part to another,' (fn. 7) and the chapel was in the roof.
At the time of the restoration, when the débris was removed, many ancient features were revealed showing the various changes that had been effected in the house from the end of the 15th to the middle of the 17th century. As erected at the end of the 15th century the house seems to have followed the usual H-type of plan facing west and east, the end wings, however, having a very slight projection on the west side. The hall occupies the middle wing with the living rooms at the north end and the kitchen and offices at the south. The lower parts of the two chimneys, which form so characteristic a feature of the east front, were found to be constructed of bricks very different in character from those in the later portions of the house, and similar work occurs in the lower part of the north-west chimney. The original hall, which had an open timber roof, may have included both the fireplaces on its east side, between which was a recessed doorway flush with the inner wall of the house. It is, however, possible that this doorway marked the position of the screens, and that the hall only occupied the northern half of the middle wing. However that may be, the alterations in the latter half of the 16th century must have effected a great change in the appearance of the building, the roofs then being raised to allow of new bedrooms both over the hall and end wings. At least four of the chimneys seem to have been altered at this time, additional fireplaces being formed on the first floor, and separate flues where possible obtained, though some did duty for two or more fireplaces.
The chief alterations made by Sir Nicholas Lechmere are the two brick wings on the east side inclosing the Green Court. His diary records that in 1656 he began by building a new kitchen and bake-house with rooms over. These comprise the south end of the house beyond the older kitchen, but it is possible that they were not an entirely new building. When dismantled in 1897 the outer walls seemed to be of older date and those of a one-story annexe. It is possible, therefore, that Sir Nicholas adapted this to a kitchen and bake-house and added rooms above. The walls of the upper story were of timber framing, but had been encased in brick at a later period. In the same year (1656) Sir Nicholas built the north wall of the garden and certain out-offices, and in 1657 he continued the garden wall along the west and south sides of the house. The great barn on the north side was erected in 1658, and in 1659 a wall 'extending from the corner of the stable to the parlour chimney' was built. A pavilion or 'study' was erected in the south-west corner of the garden in 1661, and in 1662 a raised terrace within the east wall of the garden, called the 'Mount Walk,' was finished. More important works, however, were begun about 1668, when a large cellar was formed under the buttery and the two chimneys on the east side were built in their present form, the middle part of the east front then assuming the aspect it has since preserved. (fn. 8) Before this time the doorway stood back about 4 ft. 6 in. from the face of the chimneys. In 1670 Sir Nicholas built a 'new brick gable,' which may have been that at the north-west corner of the house, and about the same time another brick gable was erected in place of the timber work over the east side of the hall, the timber and stucco style being now apparently finally abandoned. The brick wings which form so notable a feature in the east elevation were begun in 1673, and after their completion the house remained, as before stated, with but little alteration down to the time of the fire. A pigeon-house was erected to the east of the barn in 1677 and a brew-house and malt-house in 1681.
As completed by Sir Nicholas Lechmere the buildings are grouped on three sides of a quadrangle called the Green Court, which is open on the east side towards the river. The brick wings project 42 ft. and are 19 ft. in width, and like the rest of the house are three stories in height, the top story having a series of curved gables. The whole of the south wing was gutted in the fire of 1896, the north wing escaping with less damage. All the roofs are covered with red tiles and the general effect of the house with its contrasting colouring in brick, timber and plaster, its numerous gables and clustered chimneys, and its regular yet well broken up plan and skyline, is exceedingly picturesque. The east front between the wings is 65 ft. in length, but the south wing is swung outwards about 2 ft., increasing the width of the court towards the east. The court extends beyond the wings about 30 ft., giving it an area of about 76 ft. by 67 ft. The middle portion of the front is a regular composition of three timber and plaster gables, the middle one over the entrance flanked by the two brick chimneys, each with double shafts. The spout heads bear the arms of Lechmere and the date 1673, but the majority are restorations.
The west side of the house, which was originally the entrance front, is perhaps less picturesque and even more entirely restored. The end wings with their wide gables project only very slightly, but the central portion containing the entrance and staircase stands 12 ft. in front of the main wall and has oversailing stories, the upper one standing well above the main roof and finishing with three small gables. The front is almost entirely of timber and plaster and the composition is very regular, the two wide end gables leading up to the three higher middle ones with a stretch of red roof between broken by dormer windows. All the timber framing is of a constructional character with plain upright and diagonal pieces, but the bargeboards, sills and corbels are all more or less enriched with moulding and carving, carrying out as far as possible the old design. The brick gable at the north end has been reconstructed in timber.
The plan here reproduced shows the house as it was before the fire. The through passage has since been thrown into the hall, which now measures 28 ft. 6 in. by 20 ft. 6 in., and the old buttery (afterwards the servants' hall) is now the drawing room with the passage on its east side. The former kitchen is now the dining room, and the kitchen occupies the place of the dairy in the south wing. The old dining and drawing rooms in the north wing are now respectively the billiard room and library, and other minor alterations have been made in the plan. The principal staircase is that in the north wing, and the room adjoining (the former drawing room) retains its original plaster ceiling divided by moulded beams into sixteen ornamental panels—the only original ceiling left in the house, though others are careful reproductions of the old work. Some of the walls in this part of the house were found to be of heavy timber framing clearly older than Sir Nicholas Lechmere's time and certainly as old as the dining room. The old north wing may therefore have extended some distance eastward, Sir Nicholas, perhaps, only rebuilding its outer walls and extending it another bay. The former dining room—the withdrawing room of the original house—is 28 ft. long by 17 ft. 6 in. wide and had an enriched plaster ceiling in twenty-four panels. The fireplace, like those in other parts of the house, had been altered about 1673, a black marble chimneypiece having been inserted, but the stonework of the old opening was revealed after the fire.
On the first floor the alterations in the plan were more extensive in order to avoid passing from one room to another. Two of the rooms, known respectively as the King's Room and the Duke's Room, are wainscoted their full height. There are now four staircases instead of eleven, each going to the top of the house. Two of these are restorations, while another is a reconstruction in a slightly different position.
The garden pavilion built by Sir Nicholas Lechmere was restored in 1858 and was uninjured by the fire. It is an interesting brick and stone building of two stories, the lower open by two round arches to the north. It has a hipped tiled roof. The barn and pigeon-house are also standing, the former timberframed with brick filling and the latter a rectangular brick building with end gables and central revolving ladder.
A little to the north of Severn End is Rhydd Court, where there is a private chapel built by Sir E. A. H. Lechmere in 1864. Near Rhydd Court is Blackmore Park, the seat of the Duke Gandolfi of the Papal Court, lord of the manor of Hanley Castle. The present house, which is of brick in the late Tudor style, was built in 1881–3, an older house, built in 1862, having been entirely burnt down in 1880. Near the park gates are the remains of a moat. A private chapel adjoining the house, erected in 1878, dedicated to the Sacred Heart, escaped the fire. (fn. 9) Near the entrance to the park is the Roman Catholic church of Our Blessed Lady and St. Alfonsus, designed by A. W. N. Pugin, built by Mr. J. W. Hornyold in 1846.
The greater part of the parish is occupied by farms, most of which have the local termination 'End.' Such are Gilbert's End, Blackmore End, North End, Picken End, Robert's End. Near Gilbert's End is Hanley Hall, now a farm-house, but once a manor, the seat of the Hanley family, the chief foresters of the chase. (fn. 10) It has a simple timber and plaster front with gables at either end, and is probably of 16th-century date, though parts of the walls may be older. The building is not large and consists of two stories with red tiled roofs and brick chimneys. Seen across the large pond on its western side the house groups in a very picturesque way with its surroundings. A panelled room, now much reduced in size, is said to have been where prisoners were tried for offences committed in the forest. (fn. 11) It has a fine carved oak chimneypiece of 16th-century date. At Robert's End is a monastery belonging to the order of Redemptorists, opened in 1846. (fn. 12) Near it there is a pound.
The Shire Ditch, on the ridge of the Malvern Hills, was made about 1287 by Gilbert de Clare Earl of Gloucester to separate his lands from those of the Bishop of Hereford. (fn. 13)
The common lands in this parish were inclosed by Act of Parliament, 1794–5, the award being made in 1797. The Act was amended in 1816–17 and another award was made in 1818. (fn. 14)
Malvern Wells, a flourishing suburb of Great Malvern, lies at the foot of the Malvern Hills. Having been made a separate ecclesiastical parish from Hanley Castle in 1836, (fn. 17) it was in 1894, under the name of South Malvern, formed into a civil parish out of the part of Hanley Castle which lay in Great Malvern Urban District. It was renamed Malvern Wells and extended to include other parts of Hanley Castle in 1896 and 1898. (fn. 18) Here are the famous Holy Well and the Eye Well whose curative properties for diseases of the eye are mentioned in 1622. (fn. 19) The Well House was built by Thomas Charles Hornyold in 1843. Near Malvern Wells station are the Worcestershire Golf Links.
The following place-names occur: Caldefordebridge, Combecross, Le Squabbe, Houghleyesfurlong, Rammeshurst, Bedeleshattes, Baldeyattewey, Merebrook, Eldehadewey, Baldernggestele, Le Hillestale, Le Slade, Le Overlaunde, Boturwelles Medowe, (fn. 20) Bedelleslonde, Shiremedeshorttes, Rothergate, le Gorde, Lachemore, Erlesmore or Blakemore, Bishoppesendesell, (fn. 21) Derefalwood, Blakdenhale, (fn. 22) Honygate, Pykenhed, Churchwey, Oldlandys or Shortlandys (fn. 23) (xv cent.), Baillyshome, Overley, (fn. 24) Le Groves, (fn. 25) Snaykes Tayles, (fn. 26) Shripyllfelde (fn. 27) (xvi cent.).
The castle at Hanley, which stood to the south of the village in the south-east corner of the parish, about half a mile from the right bank of the Severn, was built by King John. (fn. 28) The work was probably begun about 1210, for from that date until 1212 sums are entered on the Pipe Rolls as having been expended in work at the king's houses of Hanley. (fn. 29) King John stayed here in July 1209 and November 1213. (fn. 30) In 1211–12 assizes were held at the castle. (fn. 31) It was excepted from the grant of the manor (see-below) to Geoffrey de Mandeville in 1214, (fn. 32) and its custody was granted in 1216 to Roger Clifford, jun. (fn. 33) It was given by Henry III to Gilbert de Clare, (fn. 34) and then followed the descent of the manor (fn. 35) until it was surrendered by Hugh le Despencer to King Edward II, who appointed Malcolm Musard and William Payn wardens in 1321. (fn. 36) A letter written by Edward I from Hanley is preserved, (fn. 37) and from 1291 to 1327 there are accounts for work done at the houses of Blackmore and Hanley. (fn. 38) During the rebellion against the Despencers Hanley Castle was attacked and damaged. (fn. 39) The king appointed wardens till 1328. (fn. 40) A schedule dated 1327 gives a list of arms and ammunition in the castle and includes 'nails and wood prepared for raising a chapel' there. (fn. 41) The castle was granted with the manor in 1330 to Roger Earl of March, (fn. 42) and apparently restored in 1331 to William la Zouche and his wife, though it is not mentioned in the Patent, for Eleanor died seised of it in 1337. (fn. 43) Some extensions were apparently made about 1349, when houses are mentioned as having been lately built there. (fn. 44) The castle was at that time assigned to Elizabeth widow of Hugh le Despencer as her dwelling-place. (fn. 45) In 1416 Eleanor widow of Richard le Despencer had a third of it assigned to her in dower, viz., a great room at the end of the hall to the west with two towers of stone and a third of the pantry and buttery under the said room, two rooms called 'les Guestenchambres,' three towers in the south with a fourth in the corner of the castle towards the south, a third part of the bakehouse and kitchen also in the said corner, and a third of the palisade and moat adjacent to the said four towers towards the south. She was also to have free access to the chapel. (fn. 46) Henry, afterwards Duke of Warwick, was born here in 1425 and died here twenty-one years later. (fn. 47) Constables of the castle were appointed by the Crown during the minority of Edward son of George Duke of Clarence. (fn. 48) In 1480–1 the gate-house, drawbridge, pool, mill and floodgate were repaired, the sum spent amounting to £4 17s. 10d. (fn. 49) The chapel is again mentioned in the next year, when it and the kitchen were repaired. (fn. 50) The castle was surrendered with the manor to the Crown in 1487, (fn. 51) and the last entry of repairs occurs in the following year. (fn. 52) Constables were appointed until 1512, (fn. 53) but soon after this the castle must have fallen into decay. Leland describes it as much dilapidated. Hanley, he says, 'is an uplandisch Towne. The Castelle standith in a Parke at the Weste Parte of the Towne. Syr John Savage and his Fauther and grauntfather lay much aboute Hanley and Theokysbyri as Keepers of Hanley. The Erles of Gloster were owners of this castel and lay much there. Mr. Cometon clene defacid it yn his tyme beyng keeper of it after Savage.' (fn. 54)
Habington writes of the castle in the middle of the 17th century, 'This Castell where the Earls of Gloucester lived, and the Duke of Warwick dyed, is so vanished as there appearethe nothinge in that place but a littell rubbyshe and a seelly barne.' (fn. 57) No traces of the building now remain. Nash states that it was a large square structure with four towers, surrounded by a moat, with the keep in the north-west corner. (fn. 58) The masonry of the only remaining tower is said to have been removed in 1795 by Thomas Hornyold to repair the bridge at Upton upon Severn. The line of the moat is still visible. A modern house which stood on some portion of the site was destroyed by fire in January 1904.
CHASE AND PARKS
The lords of Hanley Castle were chief lords of Malvern Chase, for which they held a court. They had a customary rent called 'Wodepeny.' (fn. 59) The woods in this parish were Hanley Park, Blackmore (or Erlesmore) Park, Cliffy Wood (fn. 60) and four smaller woods, Baldenhall, (fn. 61) Cleres, Bruerne (or Brewarne) and Southwood. (fn. 62) The following is the description of the 'Wood of Hanley' in 1086: 'The wood is 5 leagues in length and (as much in) breadth. It is separated from the manor. There is a hawk's eyrie there, and a forester holds half a virgate of land.' (fn. 63) Another entry refers to 'the wood in which there is a haia.' (fn. 64) The woods followed the descent of the manor. In 1291 an agreement was made between the Bishop of Worcester and the Earl of Gloucester, by which the bishop allowed the earl to maintain the Shire Ditch in return for a gift of deer from the chase of Malvern, to be received annually at the gate of the castle of Hanley. (fn. 65)
In 1315 Hanley Park was worth 10s. a year in herbage for the game. (fn. 66) It was broken into in 1347 and many of the deer were carried away. (fn. 67) It was enlarged about 1472 by the inclosure of certain of the tenants' lands. (fn. 68) Under Henry VII and Henry VIII the office of master of the parks was held by the constable of the castle, (fn. 69) but the office of keeper of the separate parks and woods was a different appointment. (fn. 70) In 1545 Hanley Park was 250 acres in extent; it was granted with the manor to Lord Clinton. (fn. 71) It was not included in the grant to John Hornyold, but is said to have belonged to the Badger family. (fn. 72) In 1606 Sir Francis Clare was appointed keeper of Hanley Park for life. (fn. 73) Hanley Park is not, however, marked on Speed's map, and when Malvern Chase was sold in 1631 the park seems to have been included as that part of the chase which lay in Hanley. (fn. 74)
Blackmore Wood is mentioned in 1262. (fn. 75) It was imparked shortly before 1349. (fn. 76) Henry VIII gave Blackmore Park to John Hornyold, (fn. 77) who in 1548, and again in the reign of Mary, had disputes with the keepers of the Chase of Malvern. He accused them of breaking into the park, overthrowing ditches and hedges and wasting and spoiling the woods, breaking open the pound and letting loose the animals. (fn. 78) In 1545 Blackmore Park was 290 acres in extent. It was granted to Lord Clinton, (fn. 79) and has since descended with the manor. (fn. 80) Cliffy Wood is first mentioned in 1315. (fn. 81) It was cut down in that year and again in 1347 (fn. 82) and 1359. (fn. 83) In 1545 it was 20 acres in extent (fn. 84) and was granted to Lord Clinton. Blackmore Park and Cliffy Wood still survive.
In the 18th century there was a small deer park at Severn End. It was disparked about 1790 and the deer sent to Ludford, the Charltons' seat in Shropshire. (fn. 85) There was a warren in Hanley Park called Blyndehey (fn. 86) in the 15th and 16th centuries.
HANLEY originally belonged to the lordship of Tewkesbury, (fn. 87) which was acquired by Brictric son of Algar, a great English thegn. (fn. 88) He is said to have been sent on an embassy to Flanders, where he met Maud daughter of the Count of Flanders, who wished to marry him. He refused the alliance, and Maud, in 1053, married William Duke of Normandy, afterwards William I. (fn. 89) According to the legend, Brictric was arrested at his manor of Hanley, where Bishop Wulfstan was consecrating a chapel, (fn. 90) on the day Queen Maud was crowned, and his lands granted to the queen for life. (fn. 91) This is not, however, borne out by the Domesday Survey, which states that the manor had belonged to William Fitz Osbern. (fn. 92) All Fitz Osbern's estates were forfeited in 1074 by his son Roger, (fn. 93) and in 1086 Hanley, which was gelded at 4 hides, was in the hands of the king. (fn. 94) William II gave Brictric's lands to Robert son of Hamon, who married Sybil (fn. 95) sister of Robert of Belesme. (fn. 96) Fitz Hamon died in 1107, leaving four daughters co-heirs, and Henry I, 'unwilling to divide so great an honour,' made two of the daughters abbesses and married the youngest to the Count of Britanny, reserving Mabel, the eldest, for his own son Robert, (fn. 97) whom he created Earl of Gloucester in 1121–2. (fn. 98) Robert died in 1147, and, though he left a son William, Hanley seems to have passed to the king. (fn. 99) The earldom was bestowed by the king about 1186 on William's youngest daughter and co-heir Isabel, who in 1189 married Prince John, (fn. 100) but Hanley was not included in the grant, for though John claimed the manor of Hanley in right of his wife, (fn. 101) by an inquiry held in the reign of Richard I it was proved that the manor belonged to the Crown. (fn. 102) This is borne out by many references on the Pipe Rolls. (fn. 103) In 1194 it is returned among the escheated lands formerly belonging to the Count of Mortain. (fn. 104) At the death of Richard, Hanley passed to King John, (fn. 105) who in 1200 gave it at fee farm to Geoffrey D'Abitot, (fn. 106) and in 1205 it was granted to Hugh de Nevill. (fn. 107) In 1214 John gave his divorced wife Isabel in marriage to Geoffrey de Mandeville, and bestowed on them the honour of Gloucester, including this manor. (fn. 108) Geoffrey and Isabel died without issue, and Hanley was given by Henry III, 'in the year of his coronation,' to Gilbert de Clare, nephew and heir of Isabel, in free marriage with the daughter of William Marshal. (fn. 109) Gilbert was recognized as Earl of Gloucester in 1218. He died in 1230 (fn. 110) and his son Richard died in 1262 seised of the manor of Hanley. (fn. 111) Richard's heir Gilbert was then a minor, and his lands were in the king's care. (fn. 112) He married Joan daughter of Edward I and died in 1295. (fn. 113) Joan held the manor until her death in 1307. (fn. 114) Her son Gilbert, who succeeded her, was slain at Bannockburn in 1314, (fn. 115) his estates devolving on his three sisters Eleanor, Margaret and Elizabeth. (fn. 116) Eleanor wife of Hugh le Despencer the younger succeeded to Hanley. (fn. 117) Hugh was executed in 1326 and his widow married William Lord Zouche of Mortimer. (fn. 118) In 1329 Eleanor was convicted of a theft of jewels and other treasures from the Tower, for which she and her husband pledged their manors of Hanley, &c., to the extent of £50,000, (fn. 119) and Hanley was granted for life to Queen Isabel, this grant being transferred to Roger Mortimer in 1330. (fn. 120) William and Eleanor having paid £10,000 of the fine, their lands, including Hanley, were restored in 1331. (fn. 121) Eleanor died in 1337 (fn. 122) and was succeeded by her son Hugh le Despencer. (fn. 123) He died without issue in 1349, (fn. 124) and after the death of his widow Elizabeth, who held in dower, (fn. 125) the manor of Hanley passed to his nephew Edward le Despencer, (fn. 126) who died in 1375, (fn. 127) Hanley being assigned in dower to his widow Elizabeth. (fn. 128) Edward's son Thomas was beheaded in 1400 and his son Richard le Despencer died without issue in 1414, (fn. 129) his widow Eleanor receiving a third of Hanley in dower. (fn. 130) Richard's sister and heir Isabel married as her second husband Richard Beauchamp Earl of Warwick, (fn. 131) who held in right of his wife two fees in Hanley and Bushley in 1428 and 1431. (fn. 132) Isabel died in 1440, (fn. 133) and from this time until 1487 this manor followed the descent of Elmley Castle. (fn. 134) It was surrendered in 1487 by Anne Countess of Warwick to the Crown, (fn. 135) and under Henry VII and Henry VIII stewards of the lordships of Hanley and Bushley were appointed. (fn. 136) Henry VIII granted Hanley in 1545 to Lord Clinton, (fn. 137) who sold it in 1547 to Edward VI. (fn. 138) It was held by John Hornyold in the reign of Philip and Mary, (fn. 139) but he was evidently only a lessee, for the lordship of Hanley remained in the Crown till the reign of Elizabeth, (fn. 140) who in 1560 granted it to John Hornyold and Katherine his wife. (fn. 141) John died in 1575, (fn. 142) and his son Ralph in 1581 settled Hanley on his wife Margaret daughter of Richard Lygon of Madresfield. (fn. 143) Ralph was killed by a falconer at Gloucester in 1588, (fn. 144) and was succeeded by a son John, (fn. 145) a devoted Royalist, who was convicted of recusancy in 1610. (fn. 146) He is described in a petition by General Monck to the king as the greatest sufferer by the rebellion in Worcestershire. He is said to have died in 1643, (fn. 147) and his son Thomas dealt with the manor of Hanley in 1649. (fn. 148) Thomas, who was among the officers whose last stand in Sidbury Street after the battle of Worcester in 1651 did much to secure Charles II's escape, was taken prisoner on that occasion (fn. 149); he was found guilty of treason against the Parliament and all his estates were sequestrated, (fn. 150) £600 worth of timber being felled on his estate at Hanley and Blackmore to repay the losses of Alderman Elvyns of Worcester. (fn. 151) His estates were only restored in part at the Restoration. (fn. 152) He and his son Robert dealt with this manor in 1681. (fn. 153) The latter died in 1712 and was buried at Hanley. (fn. 154) John (fn. 155) his son died in 1771, at the age of ninety-two, (fn. 156) and was followed by his younger son Thomas, (fn. 157) who died in 1799, leaving a son Thomas, one of the leading Roman Catholics of his time. (fn. 158) His son Thomas Charles Hornyold, (fn. 159) who succeeded in 1814, (fn. 160) died without issue in 1859, when the estates passed to his nephew John Vincent Gandolfi, who assumed the name and arms of Hornyold. (fn. 161) He was Marquess and Count Gandolfi of the Genoese Republic, and was created by Pope Gregory XVI a knight of the Grand Cross of the Order of Christ. He died in 1902, (fn. 162) and his son Thomas Charles GandolfiHornyold, Duke and Marquess Gandolfi, knight of the Sovereign Order of Malta (1874) and knight of the Grand Cross of the Order of the Holy Sepulchre (1875), died in 1906, leaving a son Alfonso Otho Gandolfi-Hornyold Duke Gandolfi, the present lord of the manor. (fn. 163)
A mill was included in the manor in 1086. (fn. 164) Frequent entries of a windmill pertaining to the manor are made in the 13th and 14th centuries. (fn. 165) A water-mill is mentioned in 1359 and 1375, (fn. 166) and in 1416 the widow of Richard le Despencer had a third part of two mills assigned to her. (fn. 167) During the 15th century there are various references to a mill (unspecified). (fn. 168) In 1521 and 1534 Burley Mills, 'two water-mills under one roof,' are mentioned, (fn. 169) and there is reference to a water-mill in 1545. (fn. 170) Burley Mills were leased in 1544 for twenty-one years to William Pinnock and Richard Webb, (fn. 171) and were granted with the manor in the following year to Lord Clinton, (fn. 172) who sold them in 1546 to William Pinnock. (fn. 173) There is now a corn-mill standing at the south-east corner of the castle moat.
By ancient custom the vicar of Hanley received from the manor an annual rent of 20s. (fn. 174) In 1219 Henry III changed the market day at Hanley from Tuesday to Thursday. (fn. 175) This is the only reference to a market here.
The estate afterwards known as the manor of HANLEY HALL belonged in early times to the Hanleys. Gilbert de Hanley is mentioned as a forester in Worcestershire in 1176. (fn. 176) In 1210–12 he held a virgate of land in Hanley by serjeanty of keeping the forest of Malvern. (fn. 177) Robert son of Robert de Hanley occurs in 1234–51. (fn. 178) By 1240– 50 his lands had passed to Thomas de Hanley. (fn. 179) In 1280 Thomas de Hanley appears to have been one of the chief landowners in the place. (fn. 180) He is again mentioned as a person of some importance in 1296. (fn. 181) Roger de Hanley was custodian of the castle 1291– 1327. (fn. 182) In 1357 John son of Roger de Hanley had licence to have divine service celebrated in his dwelling at Hanley. (fn. 183) In 1369 a writ was directed to the Sheriff of Worcester to elect a coroner in place of Thomas de Hanley, who was dead. (fn. 184) In 1416 William de Hanley owed rent and service to the Despencers. (fn. 185) Nicholas de Hanley in 1480 conveyed to Sir Richard Lord Beauchamp the manor of Halle in Hanley, to which the chief forestership of the Chase of Malvern still appertained. (fn. 186) Thomas and Roger de Hanley, however, enfeoffed 'the Lord Richard,' Sir Richard Croft and others of the same manor. Thomas in 1483 quitclaimed his right to Lord Beauchamp, but Croft and the others refused to give up their claim. (fn. 187) The Crofts appear to have kept possession, for in 1541 John Croft mortgaged to Thomas Adyngton a capital messuage called the 'Hall Place' in Hanley Castle, (fn. 188) and in 1543 the same John sold his manor in Hanley to Sir John Russell of Strensham, (fn. 189) who in 1547 recovered it against Richard son of Sir Edward Croft. (fn. 190) The manor of Hanley Hall descended with Strensham (q.v.) till the death of Sir William Russell in 1669. (fn. 191) It then passed to his younger son George, who sold it in 1684 to Sir Edward Dineley. (fn. 192) It followed the descent of Charlton in Cropthorne until 1745, when it belonged to John Dineley alias Foote. (fn. 193) It was afterwards sold by John or his brother Samuel Foote, the actor, to Mr. Case, (fn. 194) and it is now the property of the Lechmeres. (fn. 195)
The estate of SEVERN END was formerly known as Lechmere's Place or Lechmere's Field, and according to tradition was given by William I to a Lechmere, (fn. 196) whose family is said to have come either from the Low Countries or Britanny. The family was certainly established at Hanley before 1276, in which year Reginald, Philip and Richard Lechmere were taxed. (fn. 197) In 1296 Adam Lechmere, son of Reginald, (fn. 198) with Thomas de Hanley is referred to in an inquisition as to the lands of the Earl of Gloucester, (fn. 199) and in 1307 Adam is mentioned as a socman of the earl. (fn. 200) Robert or Wilkyn Lechmere of Hanley occurs in 1309–10 (fn. 201) and Henry, Alice, John and William in the reign of Edward III. (fn. 202) William was the father of Robert Lechmere, (fn. 203) a tenant in Hanley in 1416, (fn. 204) who had a son John Lechmere of Lechmere Place. (fn. 205) His son Richard (fn. 206) was witness to a deed in 1473–4. (fn. 207) He married Joan, co-heir of John Whitmore of Hanley, in the reign of Henry VI (fn. 208) or VII, (fn. 209) and was alive in 1484–5, (fn. 210) but was dead by 1503–4. (fn. 211) He probably built the house at Severn End, of which part still remains. (fn. 212) His son Thomas, (fn. 213) whose name occurs in 1486 (fn. 214) and 1520–1, (fn. 215) married Eleanor daughter of Humphrey Frere, and their eldest son Richard, (fn. 216) mentioned in 1538–9, (fn. 217) who was collector of a subsidy in 1547–8, (fn. 218) married Margaret Rooke. 'In their time,' writes their descendant Judge Lechmere, 'the estates of our family were very much increased, my great-grandmother Margaret Lechmere bringing a fair inheritance, but chiefly by the friendship of Edmund Bonner, Bishop of London, who being born at Hanley Quay (fn. 219) of mean parentage was maintained at school and Oxford by the liberality of Thomas Lechmere, which the Bishop greatly requited by granting to Richard Lechmere a lease of Bushley Park.' (fn. 220) Richard died in 1568 and was buried in Hanley Church. (fn. 221) His son Edmund (1550–1616) married Anne Dineley. (fn. 222) 'In their days the estate received much diminution, partly by their religion (he was a Roman Catholic), partly by tedious suits in law, but chiefly by their superfluous housekeeping.' (fn. 223) Their son Edmund (1577–1650) married Margaret daughter of Sir Nicholas Overbury. They had numerous children, their eldest surviving son being the famous lawyer Nicholas Lechmere, (fn. 224) who greatly extended and partly rebuilt Severn End. (fn. 225) He was made a baron of the Exchequer in the reign of William and Mary. (fn. 226) During the Civil War he had both Parliamentarian and Royalist troops frequently quartered at Severn End, (fn. 227) notably Massey before the battle of Worcester. He was a Parliamentarian, but made his peace with Charles II before the Restoration. (fn. 228) He married Penelope daughter of Sir Edwin Sandys and died in 1701, aged eighty-seven. (fn. 229) His son Edmund was succeeded two years later (fn. 230) by his son Anthony, who died of apoplexy in 1720, (fn. 231) leaving a son Edmund, who married Elizabeth Charlton. By her he had a son Nicholas, who succeeded to his mother's property and was known as Colonel Lechmere Charlton. (fn. 232) Severn End passed to him. By his second wife, Elizabeth Whitmore, Edmund had another son Anthony, who succeeded his father in all the unentailed property in Worcestershire in 1805. He took up his residence at the Rhydd, (fn. 233) and was created a baronet in 1818. Edmund Lechmere Charlton, eldest son of Colonel Lechmere Charlton, died unmarried, having sold the Severn End estate in 1830 to a Mr. Paget. It was, however, repurchased by Sir Edmund Hungerford Lechmere, (fn. 234) son of Sir Anthony Lechmere, who succeeded his father in the baronetcy in 1849 and who died in 1856. (fn. 235) His son Sir Edmund Anthony Harley Lechmere died in 1894, and was succeeded by his son Edmund Arthur, the fourth and present baronet. (fn. 236)
The church of ST. MARY consists of chancel and nave with tower between, wide north aisles and north and south porches. The chancel aisle extends westward in front of the tower and is continuous with the nave aisle, but is under a separate gabled roof. The internal dimensions of the building are: chancel 22 ft. 2 in. by 17 ft. 10 in., tower 16 ft. 8 in. by 16 ft. 3 in., chancel aisle 43 ft. by 19 ft. 9 in., nave 62 ft. 6 in. by 21 ft., and north aisle 18 ft. wide. The aisle walls at either end are in the same face with those of the chancel and nave, the building being thus a parallelogram measuring internally about 109 ft. 6 in. by 42 ft.
The high altar in the church of Hanley was dedicated by the Bishop of Worcester in 1290. (fn. 237) The oldest part of the structure is the head of the south doorway, which is the upper part of an arch of 12th-century date, but no other portion of the fabric is of this period, and the Norman church appears to have been entirely rebuilt in the 14th century, to which period the nave and its aisle belong. The chancel, tower and chancel aisle date from the year 1674, but the nature of the work they displaced cannot now be stated. The 17th-century work is constructed in red brick with red stone dressings, and is interesting as an example of Caroline Gothic. The church was repaired in 1750 and in 1858 was restored by Street, when the roofs were renewed and new seating inserted.
The nave and its aisle are constructed of yellow rubble masonry and are under separate gabled roofs, but the west gable of the aisle has been rebuilt in brick and brick buttresses have been added at the north-west corner on either side of the original diagonal buttress. This was probably done when the east end of the church was rebuilt. All the roofs are now eaved and covered with modern red tiles.
The chancel has a modern Gothic east window and a similar window on the south side. At the east end of the chancel aisle is an original 17th-century squareheaded window of three lights with double transom and hood mould. The smaller upper lights are divided into two and the middle openings have trefoiled heads. There are diagonal stone buttresses of three stages at the angles of the chancel and aisle with a square buttress between, and the walls rest on a red stone base. The bricks vary in thickness from 2 in. to 2¼ in. and have weathered a rich deep colour. The chancel opens to the aisle by a pointed arch of two chamfered orders and the fittings and roof are all modern. The ritual chancel includes the tower, which is open to the east, west and north by pointed arches of two chamfered orders springing from moulded imposts, which are continued as a string round the inside of the tower and chancel. Below the string the wall is faced with ashlar, but the upper part is plastered as in the remainder of the building. Externally the tower is a very picturesque structure, sturdy, massive and of excellent proportion. It consists of three stages marked by string-courses and has a projecting vice in the south-west corner, originally entered from the east end of the nave, but now by a modern doorway from the outside. At the southeast angle are double buttresses weathering back above the chancel roof in a series of sets-off to below the second string, and the tower terminates in an embattled parapet and low hipped roof. The belfry windows are square-headed and of two lights, and in the lower story there is a modern window of two trefoiled lights on the south side copied from those in the nave. On the north side, facing the village, is a clock dial.
The arches opening from the chancel and tower to the north aisle are filled in with modern oak screens, and the aisle is divided by wooden partitions into clergy and choir vestries and organ chamber, the organ being to the north of the tower. The aisle is lighted on the north side by two original squareheaded windows, each of three lights with transoms and hood moulds, both series of lights being foiled. Between the windows is a square-headed doorway, above which, high up in the wall, is a lozenge-shaped panel dated 1674. The roof is slightly lower than that of the nave aisle, and the structural division is marked externally by a massive stone buttress of 17th-century date.
The nave has three 14th-century pointed windows on the south side, each of two trefoiled lights, the easternmost being rather earlier than the others, which have hood moulds and a quatrefoil opening in the head. The west window is of three lights, but only the jambs and head, which may be of the late 14th century, are old. The buttresses at the southwest corner, which are set some distance from the angle, may have been introduced in the 17th century, when the west window seems to have been altered or a new one introduced, the square label of which remains in the lower part of the gable. The south doorway, as already mentioned, preserves part of a 12th-century semicircular arch, but the springers are gone and modern angle shafts with cushion capitals have been introduced to carry what is now a segmental arch. The porch is modern and of stone.
The nave arcade consists of four pointed arches of two chamfered orders springing from half-round responds and alternate circular and octagonal piers, the middle one being octagonal. The piers and responds have moulded capitals and bases following their respective sections, and the detail of the middle capital differs from that of the others, but all are of good 14th-century type. The west respond is about 2 ft. in length, but that at the east includes about 7 ft. 6 in. of walling pierced by a pointed trefoiled opening with moulded sill. There is, however, no trace of any mediaeval ritual arrangements at the east end of the aisle. On the north side the aisle is lit by three two-light windows, two to the east and one to the west of the doorway, similar to those opposite, but the westernmost only is original. The west window is of three lights with modern 14th-century tracery in an original opening. The north doorway has a pointed arch of two orders, each with the characteristic wave moulding and a roll and fillet between. The jambs have angle shafts with moulded capitals and bases set between the two wave mouldings. The oak door is original. The porch is modern and of timber on a stone base.
Habington (fn. 238) notes some heraldic glass, but this had all disappeared in Nash's time. (fn. 239) The positions of many of the monuments were changed in the alterations of 1750. Nash describes some which have since disappeared, and those that remain are plain mural tablets. There are also many 18thcentury stones in the floor, some now hidden by the organ. The north chancel aisle was the burial-place of the Lechmeres and contains memorials to members of the family from the 16th to the 19th century. On the north wall, 'under an image,' is a tablet to Mrs. Winifred Lechmere, 'whose effigies this is.' There are also tablets to Colonel William Dineley and his son, who both died in 1653, to Captain Edmund Lechmere, (fn. 240) and to Thomas Astbury of Swynnerton, gent. (d. 1716). The Hornyold family were buried in the chancel.
There is a ring of six bells, all originally cast by Abraham Rudhall of Gloucester in 1699. In 1858 the fifth was recast by G. Mears and the treble in 1895. The 'ting-tang' is older, the date being apparently 1600. (fn. 241)
The plate is all modern and consists of a chalice, silver paten and flagon given in 1846. A chalice of 1571 was sold and was in use in 1883 by Sir Edmund Lechmere in his private chapel. (fn. 242)
The registers before 1812 are as follows: (i) baptisms and burials 1538 to 1636, marriages 1539 to 1632; (ii) baptisms, burials and marriages 1653 to 1753; (iii) baptisms and burials 1754 to 1812, marriages 1754 to 1773.
The church of ST. GABRIEL, Hanley Green, was built in 1872 on a site given by Sir E. A. H. Lechmere, bart., from the designs of Sir Gilbert Scott. It is built of stone in early 14th-century style, and consists of chancel, nave of four bays, north and south aisles, north porch and tower with spire at the east end of the north aisle. It serves as a chapel of ease to the parish church.
The church of ST. PETER, Malvern Wells, was built in 1836 from the designs of Mr. Garrard of Clifton. It is of stone in a modern adaptation of 13th-century style, and consists of chancel, nave, north and south transepts and north porch. The vicarage was in the patronage of Rev. P. Boissier from 1836 until 1859. The Rev. F. Hopkinson was patron from 1859 to 1869, the Rev. F. Kewley from 1869 to 1871, the Rev. F. S. Perfect from 1871 to 1892, and Mrs. Finnie, who provided an endowment, from 1892 to 1898, when the advowson was vested in the Bishop of Worcester. (fn. 243)
The church of Hanley was given by William Fitz Osbern to the abbey of Lire, and his grant was confirmed by Henry II (fn. 244) and by William Earl of Gloucester. (fn. 245) In 1236 the Abbot and convent of Lire granted at a fee-farm rent of 16 marks to the priory of Little Malvern whatever they had in the church of Hanley, saving the vicar's portion in the church. (fn. 246) The Prior and convent of Little Malvern presented to the vicarage in 1285, (fn. 247) 1304, (fn. 248) and in 1349. (fn. 249) In 1345 the king made the presentation 'by reason of the lands of the Abbot of Lire being in his hands on account of the war with France.' (fn. 250) In 1374 the possessions of the abbey of Lire fell to the Crown and were subsequently granted to the priory of Sheen, (fn. 251) but the Priors of Little Malvern retained the patronage of the church till the Dissolution. (fn. 252) The advowson was granted to the Bishop of Worcester in 1558, (fn. 253) but forfeited by him on the accession of Elizabeth and granted with the manor in 1560 to John Hornyold (fn. 254); it followed the descent of the manor till 1672, (fn. 255) when it was purchased from the Hornyolds by Judge Lechmere, whose family still retains it. (fn. 256)
The rectorial tithes of Hanley were evidently granted with the advowson by William Fitz Osbern to the abbey of Lire, (fn. 257) and leased with it to the Prior of Little Malvern, (fn. 258) who was still paying a rent of £10 from the rectory to the priory of Sheen at the Dissolution. (fn. 259) In 1561 a moiety of the rectory was granted to Edwin Bishop of Worcester. (fn. 260) The other half seems to have passed in due course to the bishopric, for in 1650 the site of the rectory or parsonage-house of Hanley, belonging to the bishopric of Worcester, was granted with the tithes to Thomas Crompton of the City of London. (fn. 261) The bishop was impropriator of the great tithes till 1794–5, when they were extinguished, and in lieu of them an allotment was made to the bishop. (fn. 262)
In 1326 the Abbot and convent of Evesham, for benefits done to them and their house by Sir Hugh le Despenser, undertook to find a secular chaplain to sing mass and celebrate divine service daily in his castle of Hanley and to find for the chaplain and a clerk assisting him reasonable sustenance, with books, vestments, chalices and other things pertaining to the chantry, except houses for their dwelling. (fn. 263) In the following year there is an entry of 'nails and wood prepared for building a chapel in the castle.' (fn. 264) The chapel is again mentioned in 1416 (fn. 265) and 1481–2, in which latter year it underwent repair. (fn. 266) It is not mentioned at the time of the dissolution of chantries, and probably fell into decay with the castle.
William Pinnock in the reign of Edward VI held a messuage in Hanley called 'le chauntrey prieste's chamber' and another called the 'almeshouse.' (fn. 267) The former passed to his brother John Pinnock, and on his death in 1555 to his son William. (fn. 268)
The grammar school, which existed in the 15th century, was rebuilt in 1733 at the cost of Sir Nicholas and Sir Edmund Lechmere. The foundation is now regulated by a scheme of the Board of Education, 25 May 1910, whereby the school is constituted a day and boarding school for boys between the ages of eight and seventeen as a public secondary school.
The endowment consists of the school site and buildings, a cottage and 13 a. at Forty Green, 11 a. 3 r. at Gilbert's End, 44 a. at Ayler's End, and a cottage and garden at Picken End, producing a gross rental of £90 a year, also £4,133 15s. 7d. consols with the official trustees, producing £103 6s. 8d. yearly, and £727 5s. 6d. consols as a repairs and improvement fund, producing £18 3s. 8d. yearly. The official trustees also hold £1,610 15s. 8d. consols on an investment account, formed to replace the cost of certain works of addition and alteration to the school buildings in 1894 and 1896, until a sum of £1,673 14s. 1d. stock shall have been attained. The county council provided a large part of the sum for the rebuilding and made an annual grant.
Thomas Herbert by his will gave 4 bushels of munkorn (a mixture of wheat and rye) and 4 tons of coal to be distributed amongst the poor at Christmas, to be paid out of the yearly rent of a certain ground called Hooper's Close.
The Church Estate, the origin of which is unknown, is now represented by a sum of £1,948 4s. 10d. consols with the official trustees, producing £48 14s. yearly, arising from sales in 1877 and 1880 of the real estate belonging to the charity, with the exception of a cottage and garden which are let at £6 a year. A distribution of bread is made to the poor in respect of the foregoing charities, and subject thereto the net income is applied in sustentation of the fabric of the church, church furniture and bread and wine for the holy communion.
In 1875 Mrs. Elizabeth Cale, by her will proved at Worcester 27 April, bequeathed £100 for the poor of Hanley Castle, exclusive of St. Peter's District. The legacy, less duty, with accumulations is now represented by £135 8s. 11d. consols with the official trustees, producing £3 7s. 8d. yearly.
In 1901 Miss Eliza Warrington, by her will proved at Worcester 28 June, left a legacy, which was invested in £497 9s. 9d. Birmingham Corporation 3 per cent. stock with the official trustees, the annual dividends, amounting to £14 18s. 6d., to be applied for the benefit of such poor inhabitants as were in the habit of attending the ancient parish church or St. Gabriel's Church. The distribution is made in money in sums varying from 5s. to £1.
Malvern Wells.— In 1868 Miss Eliza Pitt, by her will proved at Worcester 13 October, bequeathed £100, the interest to be applied in the distribution of bread, coals, flannel or tea on Christmas Day. The legacy was invested in £107 18s. consols.
In 1898 the Rev. Francis Hopkinson, by his will proved at London 28 March, bequeathed £200, the interest to be applied in the purchase of packets of tea, to be given on the anniversary of the donor's birth (23 February) to deserving poor inhabitants. The legacy is represented by £258 9s. consols.
In 1901 Miss Eliza Warrington, by her will proved at Worcester 28 June, left a legacy, which was invested in £497 9s. 9d. Birmingham Corporation 3 per cent. stock, the annual dividends to be applied for the benefit of the poor inhabitants.
The Church Institute, formerly the old National schools of 1838, is regulated by a scheme of the Charity Commissioners, 4 July 1899. An endowment fund of £500 Local Loans 3 per cent. stock was created in 1901 by a declaration of trust, whereby the annual income of £15 was made applicable (1) for the repair and insurance of the Institute, and (2) for the support of the Sunday school and other Church of England purposes. The stock is held by the official trustees.