A History of the County of York East Riding: Volume 1, the City of Kingston Upon Hull. Originally published by Victoria County History, London, 1969.
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Early nonconformity in and around Hull took its strength from an active group of Puritan clergy within the Established Church. (fn. 1) By 1643 this dissenting movement had already produced a separated congregation, and among its 7 members was Robert Luddington, the intruded Vicar of Sculcoates. Five members were added during 1643 and 11 in 1644. (fn. 2) In the 1650s John Canne preached to this Independent congregation in the chancel of Holy Trinity Church, while the nave was used by John Shawe, a Presbyterian preacher who was lecturer at the church. Canne continued preaching until 1656, when Parliament removed him, and Shawe was ejected in 1662. (fn. 3) Up to 1660 the Independent congregation had attracted 134 members since its inception. (fn. 4)
At about this time, too, Quakers were already holding meetings in the district. (fn. 5) John Holmes, William Garbutt, and Edward Crowther, all of Hull, are said to have been among the earliest Quaker converts in the East Riding. (fn. 6) They and their families, together with the Staveleys and Netletons, formed the nucleus of the Hull meeting. In Sutton the Ellerkers were the most prominent Quaker family, and in Marfleet a leading Quaker was John Lyth. The Hull Quakers were treated severely in the early 1660s. Six were expelled from the town in 1660 and imprisoned for fifteen weeks when they returned. In 1661 a crowd abused women arrested at the Hull meeting 'like a company of brutes who had been killing some dog or cat'. In the same year Hull Quakers were told that they might meet undisturbed outside the town, but when they met at Drypool they were arrested and imprisoned once more. Although no regular meetingplace in the town is recorded at this time, meetings are known to have taken place in the houses of at least two Hull Quakers. (fn. 7) In 1666 George Fox addressed a meeting 'near Hull'. (fn. 8) By 1669 Hull and Sutton meetings were part of Owstwick Monthly Meeting, and Hull meeting included both Marfleet and Newland. From 1683 onwards Sutton seems to have been combined with Hornsea meeting. (fn. 9) The size of the Hull meeting is uncertain but by the end of the 17th century it probably numbered about twenty.
The Independent congregation received a new pastor in 1669 when Richard Astley came to Hull, and there were then 55 members. (fn. 10) The fate of the Presbyterians after Shawe's departure is uncertain, but they doubtless continued to meet. A Mr. Anderson, a minister described as 'a dangerous person and a concealed Presbyterian', was reported to be in Hull in 1664; (fn. 11) and a Presbyterian preacher named Thornberry is said to have been in the town. (fn. 12)
After the Declaration of Indulgence in 1672 both congregations registered meeting-houses. Joseph Wilson, who had been ejected from the living at Hessle, was licensed to preach in Hull and Newland —at Richard Barnes's house and at a new meetinghouse built in Blackfriargate. He was minister of the Presbyterian congregation until his death seven years later. (fn. 13) For the Independents, Richard Astley, who had been ejected from Blackrode (Lancs.), was licensed to preach at John Robinson's house, (fn. 14) and Thomas Oliver at John Marr's house at Newland. (fn. 15) The withdrawal of the Declaration of Indulgence in 1673 had a depressing effect on at least Astley's congregation: 25 new members had been added in 1671, 24 in 1672, and 31 in 1673, but in 1674 there were only 16, in 1675 8, in 1676 10, and in 1677 only one. (fn. 16)
After Wilson's death in 1679 the Presbyterian minister was Samuel Charles, ejected in 1662 from Mickleover (Derbys.). Under Charles there was only one meeting-place, possibly already in Bowlalley Lane. (fn. 17) Late in 1682 the governor, the Earl of Plymouth, ordered the suppression of both congregations and, though Astley escaped, Charles was caught in 1683 and imprisoned for six months. Several members of the congregations were called before the corporation, including John Robinson, the elder of the Independents, and Christopher Fawthorp, on whose land the Bowlalley Lane Presbyterian chapel was later to be built. After his imprisonment Charles was despatched to Welton under the Five Mile Act. (fn. 18) During the next few years dissenters were pursued for not attending their parish church and for keeping conventicles, (fn. 19) and few new members were added to the Independent congregation: after 12 had been gained in 1679 there were only 10 all told from 1680 to 1685. (fn. 20)
More favourable conditions were once again created by the Declaration of Indulgence in 1687 and the Toleration Act of 1689. The Independents gained 12 new members in 1686 and 10 or 11 in 1687; the Presbyterians began regular lectures under Charles, back in Hull, and two patens at their chapel were acquired at this time. (fn. 21) A major step forward was made soon after when, probably in 1691 or 1692, the Bowlalley Lane Presbyterian chapel was built. (fn. 22) Charles died in 1693 and Astley followed him in 1696, just failing to see a new chapel built for the Independents, in Dagger Lane, in 1698. (fn. 23) The Independent congregation then had 113 members. (fn. 24)
By the end of the century, then, the two congregations were strongly established and housed in new chapels. In the early years of the 18th century several new meeting-places were registered: for the Independents they included Thomas Wallis's house, for Jonathon Bielby as preacher, in 1705, Joseph Sutton's and Sarah Jackson's houses in 1709, and George Bielby's house in 1713. (fn. 25) Outside the town itself several other houses were registered: Margaret Dent's at Newland in 1709, John Peacock's at Stoneferry and Robert Plaxton's at Sculcoates in 1713, Thomas Rogers's at Sutton in 1719, and John Spivy's, also at Sutton, in 1722. (fn. 26) Most of these were no doubt Independent or Presbyterian, but at about this time a Baptist church also seems to have been forming in Hull. A Baptist meeting-place is said to have been registered in 1717, (fn. 27) and in 1736 the Baptists began to meet in a tower of the former Pole family manor-house in Manor Alley (fn. 28) with a congregation of eighteen. (fn. 29)
Some indication of the numbers of nonconformists in Hull is afforded in 1743. (fn. 30) Of a reported 679 families in Holy Trinity parish 38 were said to be Presbyterian, 29 Independent, and 5 Quaker. Of 330 families in St. Mary's 30 were dissenting, mostly Presbyterian. The Presbyterians met once a week with about 300 people attending: this was in Bowlalley Lane. The Independents, in Dagger Lane, met twice on Sundays with about 200 present, and once each alternate Wednesday with 100. The 'Anabaptists', in Manor Alley, had once-weekly meetings attended by about 60 people. The Quaker meeting—said to be in Holy Trinity though it was in Lowgate, in St. Mary's, by at least 1709 (fn. 31) — gathered twice on Sundays with 45 attending, and once on Thursdays with fifteen. In Sculcoates parish there were no meeting-houses, but of 88 families 9 were Independent, 5 Presbyterian, 4 Anabaptist, and 3 Quaker. In Sutton 7 families were Independent, out of a total of about 80, and they met in Hull. In Drypool, of 23 families 6 were Presbyterian and Independent. Only in Marfleet of the outlying parishes were there no dissenters at all.
It was not until after the middle of the century that the two chief congregations experienced significant doctrinal changes. The movement towards Arianism and Unitarianism among English Presbyterians, which had begun about 1712, seems to have reached Hull only with the ministry of John Beverley, beginning in 1757. Thenceforth Bowlalley Lane was Unitarian. (fn. 32) At Dagger Lane John Burnett, appointed as Independent minister in 1767, proved to be a Presbyterian and Arian, and part of the congregation, 11 in number, seceded in 1769 to build a chapel in Blanket Row. This was replaced in 1782 by Fish Street. It was from Blanket Row and Fish Street that several later Independent and Congregational churches were to spring. After Burnett left, Dagger Lane received a Swedenborgian minister, Robert Green, in 1783 and remained Swedenborgian for many years. (fn. 33)
At the same time the Baptists were having similar difficulties. The Manor Alley meeting-place had been replaced by a new chapel in Salthouse Lane in 1757. There internal disputes arose between the Arminians and Calvinists in the congregation, and about 1765 the Calvinists seceded with the minister, Robert Rutherford, and six years later opened a new chapel in Dagger Lane. Rutherford's successor, however, joined the Church of England and in 1781 the chapel fell into the Countess of Huntingdon's Connexion, (fn. 34) leaving Salthouse Lane as the town's sole Baptist chapel. Some Baptists may have been satisfied with neither Rutherford nor John Beatson at Salthouse Lane, for in 1772 a house was registered for worship by Samuel Lyon and 5 companions. (fn. 35)
Meanwhile the Methodists had for the first time established themselves in the town. In 1746 Elizabeth Blow, a convert of Wesley, from Grimsby, came to Hull and won over a couple called Medforth; meetings were at first held in their house in the Back Ropery, and later in Butchery. (fn. 36) John Wesley visited Hull for the first time in 1752, when he attended service at Holy Trinity Church and in the evening preached to a large crowd at Myton Carr. The meeting ended in disorder and Wesley was pursued by the mob into the town. In 1759, however, Wesley reported 'a far finer congregation' at Hull than at Pocklington; and in 1761, after the Methodists had moved into the King's Manor tower vacated by the Baptists, he found in Hull 'some witnesses of the great salvation'. Wesley preached in Hull again in 1764, 1766, and 1770, and in 1772 he was in the new Manor Alley chapel which he described as 'extremely well finished, and, upon the whole, one of the prettiest preaching-houses in England'. Two years later the chapel would not hold all who wanted to hear him. He was in the town again in 1777, 1779, 1781, 1782, 1784, and 1786. He preached in Holy Trinity Church in 1786, and again in 1788 when he was also at the new George Yard chapel, which he praised highly. At George Yard the congregation was 'larger than even that at Birmingham, which exceeded all the morning congregations I had then seen'. When Wesley paid his last visit, in 1790, Methodism was firmly established in Hull. (fn. 37)
In the closing years of the 18th century a significant development took place at Ebenezer Chapel, Dagger Lane. Lost by the Baptists to the Countess of Huntingdon's Connexion in 1781, the chapel was subsequently led by a succession of Independent, Calvinistic, ministers. It was one of these men, Samuel Barnard, who in 1797 left to establish the Hope Street church, founding an important branch of local Congregationalism. (fn. 38) Though Ebenezer remained Independent (fn. 39) it had two ministers with Baptist sympathies in the early 19th century. (fn. 40)
The Baptists by the end of the century had added a second chapel to Salthouse Lane. The registration for worship of a room in High Street by William Clarkson and two others in 1788 (fn. 41) may indicate some dissatisfaction with the conduct of Salthouse Lane, and in 1794 the congregation there divided. Nineteen members left with the probationer-minister William Pendered and met in the Corn Exchange in North Church Side until 1796, when George Street chapel was opened. (fn. 42) There may still have been malcontents, for two 'Independent Baptist' meeting-places were soon registered: in Mill Street by Robert Stainton and two others in 1798, and in Garden Street by William Hornsey and three others in 1799. (fn. 43) Almost certainly Baptist, too, was a meeting-place in High Street registered by Robert Blake and five others in 1795. (fn. 44)
The last decade of the century also brought changes among the Methodists. Hull, indeed, played a significant part in the secession of Alexander Kilham to form the Methodist New Connexion in 1797, for it was the 'Signal Gun from Hull' that brought Kilham into the open. 'The Gun', a letter sent from Hull in 1791 to Methodists all over the country, prophesied that if Methodism parted from the Church of England it would 'dwindle away into a dry, dull, separate party'. (fn. 45) The main responsibility for the letter lay with Thomas Thompson, a local preacher and the first Methodist M.P., and it was also signed by Richard Terry, of Newland, who shared with Thompson the leadership of Methodism in Hull. (fn. 46) The group that seceded in Hull in 1797 is said to have met at first in Dagger Lane, (fn. 47) but in 1799 the first New Connexion chapel was opened, in North Street. (fn. 48)
Nonconformity made rapid strides in the earlier 19th century as the population of Hull increased and the town expanded. Chapels were beginning to be built in new housing areas away from the old town centre, sometimes to relieve overcrowding in older chapels. While much of the expansion took place from well-established congregations, there was also a proliferation of small meeting-places—in rooms, houses, and workshops—whose denomination and even location have not been identified. (fn. 49)
New chapels were founded during this half century by all three Congregational branches in Hull. From Fish Street were established Nile Street in 1827, Cogan Street in 1833, and Albion Street in 1842. (fn. 50) Nile Street and Cogan Street enjoyed for fifty years the services of a notable minister, James Sibree, (fn. 51) and at Albion Street Christopher Newman Hall, a well-known writer of popular religious works, was minister until 1854. (fn. 52) Fish Street itself had two noteworthy ministers: George Lambert (1769– 1816), prominent in East Riding Congregational affairs and a founder of the London Missionary Society, (fn. 53) and Thomas Stratten, who took a leading part in the ecclesiastical controversy in Hull in 1834. (fn. 54) Hope Street's part in the expansion of Congregationalism in this period was a personal one. It was for Ebenezer, son of Hope Street's long-serving minister John Morley (1801–50), that Holborn Street was built in 1830. (fn. 55) Finally, from the branch at Ebenezer Chapel or 'New' Dagger Lane, were founded Sykes Street in 1826 and Osborne Street in 1842, neither of them long-lived. Sykes Street was built by Samuel Lane, the minister at Ebenezer, which soon afterwards passed to the Mariners' Church Society (C. of E.). (fn. 56) First Nile Street (fn. 57) and then Osborne Street were also used by Lane. (fn. 58)
For the Presbyterians this was a period of nationwide revival, and Hull shared in the new movement. A meeting was formed in 1838, at first using makeshift premises, and in 1841 the United Presbyterians acquired the 'Old' Dagger Lane chapel where Hull Presbyterianism had come to an end in 1783. No further advances were made until after the midcentury. (fn. 59)
The Baptists were still at this time experiencing internal difficulties. Both Salthouse Lane and George Street were Particular Baptist congregations, and it seems that small groups of General Baptists were meeting elsewhere. Robert Blake's group, (fn. 60) for example, was admitted to the General Assembly of General Baptist Churches in 1808. (fn. 61) The General Baptists were by now virtually Unitarian, and it was the Unitarian Society which reported in 1811 that Blake's congregation had dispersed. (fn. 62) Two other 'Unitarian Baptist' congregations were meeting in the early years of the century, one of them in 'New Dock Street': this was Ebenezer, Dagger Lane, Congregational chapel. (fn. 63) The George Street church was itself twice divided by its ministers' views. In 1807 James Lyons announced his movement towards Unitarianism, and he left together with some of the congregation. (fn. 64) And in 1845 John Pulsford left with 70 members of the church to meet in Nile Street and then South Street. (fn. 65) Salthouse Lane, however, was strengthened when William Arbon's congregation agreed to unite with it in 1816. Arbon had been trained as a minister for the Countess of Huntingdon's Connexion and he was at Ebenezer, Dagger Lane, when in 1811 he became a Baptist; his followers are then said to have met in Princess Street. (fn. 66) At Ebenezer a subsequent minister, Samuel Lane, has been described as a true Independent although also inclining to Baptist views. (fn. 67) Finally, two new though short-lived Baptist chapels were opened—Mason Street in 1822, with William Arbon as minister, (fn. 68) and Osborne Street in 1823. (fn. 69)
For the Methodists, whether the Wesleyans or the several seceding branches of Methodism, this was a half century of marked expansion. Some fifteen chapels were opened by the Wesleyans, beginning with Scott Street in 1804 (fn. 70) and ending with Great Thornton Street in 1842. (fn. 71) The latter was their largest chapel so far and one of the most impressive architectural features of 19th-century Hull. The New Connexion Methodists added to their existing chapel only one other, Beverley Road in 1849. (fn. 72) The Independent Methodists, who seceded in 1806, had a single chapel in Hull, the former Baptist building in Osborne Street, acquired in 1826. (fn. 73) Towards the middle of the century two other small groups emerged: the Wesleyan Association, which seceded in 1836, acquired a meeting-place in Hull in 1846 (the Sykes Street Congregational chapel); (fn. 74) and the Wesleyan Reformers, who seceded in 1849, were soon meeting in three or four places. (fn. 75)
Of much greater significance than these small
Methodist secessions was the establishment of Primitive Methodism. (fn. 76) William Clowes, who had worked
in a local pottery fifteen years earlier, returned to
Hull as a missioner in 1819. A warehouse in North
Street belonging to a local preacher, Richard Woolhouse, (fn. 77) was used at first but later in 1819 a new
chapel was built in Mill Street. By the end of the
year its membership had more than doubled, and
the Primitive Methodist Conference was held in
Hull in 1820. (fn. 78) The town was soon a mission centre
for the south as well as the north of England. (fn. 79) A second meeting-place had been opened in 1819, in a building in Wincolmlee belonging to Edward Taylor, (fn. 80) and half-a-dozen chapels were taken over or built by the mid-century. In 1849 a chapel was built in Great Thornton Street to challenge that of the Wesleyans there, and in 1851, just after Clowes had been buried in the town, Jarratt Street chapel was opened in his memory: it was even larger than Great Thornton Street Wesleyan. (fn. 81)
Table 1. Church and Chapel Attendances, 1834 (fn. 106)
On two occasions during the early 19th century the nonconformists of Hull briefly united to defend their common interests. The first was in 1811 when Lord Sidmouth unsuccessfully introduced into Parliament a Bill which sought to oblige all dissenting ministers to be licensed. Ministers of all denominations attended meetings in the town to protest against the measure. (fn. 82) The second occasion was in 1834 during the so-called 'Hull Ecclesiastical Controversy'. The dissenting ministers petitioned the House of Commons for the removal of discrimination against them and for freedom from the Church of England in such matters as the registration of baptisms, marriages, and burials, the celebration of marriage, the use of burial grounds, and the payment of church-rates. (fn. 83)
It was part of the dissenters' intention in 1834 to show that, collectively, they exerted a greater influence in the town than did the Established Church. The statistics which they prepared (see Table 1), although not including some of the smaller nonconformist meeting-places, give some impression of the strength of nonconformity at this time. They were anxious not to overstate their case and when it was objected that the number of regular Church of England communicants was 1,200 rather than 768 they were ready to concede that this might be so. The relative strength of the various churches can be examined again in 1851, from the returns of the 'Religious Census' (see Table 2). The accuracy of these returns depended on the care taken by individual ministers and this was highly variable: some in Hull, as elsewhere, returned precise figures, presumably obtained by a counting of heads, while others sent in round figures which can only have been estimates. The returns nevertheless furnish a useful guide to attendances. In both 1834 and 1851 the nonconformists appear to have been attracting over twice as many people to their services as was the Church of England, and both sets of figures underline the dominance of the Methodists among the nonconformist groups.
The 'Religious Census' also shows that several
smaller denominations had established themselves in
Hull. The Free Church of England congregation
was that led by the Revd. Andrew Jukes, who was
baptized at George Street Baptist chapel and left the
Established Church in 1843. (fn. 84) Jukes joined the
Plymouth Brethren, probably after a visit to Hull planned by J. N. Darby late in 1843, after he had heard of Jukes's secession. (fn. 85) Jukes remained with the Brethren until the controversy which in 1848 produced the Open and Exclusive branches. (fn. 86) In 1851 he described his congregation as 'independent', though 'not what is commonly so called, or connected with the Congregational body'. (fn. 87) It often gained the description of 'Baptist'. (fn. 88) The Lutherans were meeting in the former Osborne Street Congregational chapel. (fn. 89) The 'Sailors' chapel' had been conducted by the Port of Hull Society for the Religious Instruction of Seamen since 1821 and was inter-denominational. (fn. 90) The Census provides the earliest mention of two American sects, the Latter Day Saints and the Disciples of Christ, but the first subsequently appears only intermittently and the second is not heard of again. One other small sect had come and gone by 1851: a group of Millenarians, for whom Joseph Rodley's house was licensed in 1818. (fn. 91)
Table 2. Church and Chapel Attendances, 30 March 1851, in the Area of the Modern Borough (fn. 107)
|Denomination||Number of churches and chapels||Number of sittings||Attendance|
|Church of England||18 (fn. 108)||14,020||5,933||1,182||5,114|
|Independents||6 (fn. 109)||4,966||1,517||80||2,083|
|Baptists||4 (fn. 110)||1,140||425||501|
|New Connexion Methodists||2||1,080||410||380|
|Wesleyan Reform Methodists||1 (fn. 111)||1,000||200||500||1,000|
|Free Church of England||1||330||150||300|
|Latter Day Saints||1||500||70||90||150|
|Disciples of Christ||1||34||10||6||7|
The rapid rise in the population of Hull after the mid-19th century and the wide-spreading growth of the town, were met by a great increase in the number of nonconformist congregations and by strenuous efforts to evangelize the new suburbs. (fn. 92) While these developments can be readily traced in terms of new buildings it is difficult to gauge their success in terms of attendances for no comprehensive statistics are available. For one limited period, 1851 to 1881, some calculations have been made, (fn. 93) and these reveal significant variations in the fortunes of the leading denominations. Total church attendance is said to have increased by 57 per cent., with the Church of England gaining 12 and the Roman Catholics 17 per cent. The Methodists had substantial increases, 54 per cent. for the Wesleyans and 75 per cent. for the Primitives, and it was certainly these two which fought the main sectarian battle in Hull. The Presbyterian increase is put at 900 per cent., perhaps an exaggeration by a Presbyterian writer, but the actual numbers involved were small compared with Methodist congregations. Other denominations experienced decreased attendances: 12 per cent. each for the New Connexion and Free Church Methodists, 25 per cent. for the Baptists, 32 per cent. for the Independents, and 86 per cent. for the Brethren.
It was during the second half of the 19th century that the nonconformists made their greatest contribution to the provision of educational facilities. Five day-schools were opened by the Wesleyans and two by the Congregationalists. The first appeared as early as 1837, and a second in 1850, but five were added in the 1860s and 1870s. (fn. 94) For their own congregations many of the chapels also provided libraries. Some were no doubt of long standing, such as that at Bowlalley Lane Presbyterian chapel which had received a bequest of books in 1716. And some had comparatively large collections, Waltham Street Wesleyan, for example, containing 1,800 books in 1866. (fn. 95)
The Congregationalists opened several new chapels and one or two mission rooms in the suburbs between 1868 and 1882, but it was not until 1898 that they finally abandoned the old town centre. Fish Street was then closed, to be replaced in the following year by Fish Street Memorial, Prince's Avenue, on the edge of the growing town. Five years later a similar outward move saw Hope Street replaced by Newland, Beverley Road. Other chapels in the older suburbs were given up in the early 20th century—Cogan Street to the Jews in 1914, Latimer, Williamson Street, in 1919, and eventually Wycliffe, Anlaby Road, in 1935. The closure of Williamson Street was followed by the establishment of a congregation in the newer suburbs of east Hull. By 1939 the Congregational effort was centred on five remaining churches: at Albion Street, alone in the inner suburbs but drawing its congregations from a wide area, Beverley Road and Prince's Avenue in the north, Hessle Road in the west, and the Reckitt Garden Village in the east.
Presbyterian development followed a similar pattern. A new congregation formed in 1866 moved two years later into the former Free Church of England church in Prospect Street: Andrew Jukes had built it early in 1866 but was forced by ill-health and financial difficulties to give it up. (fn. 96) Dagger Lane, in the old town centre, was finally replaced in 1875 by a chapel in Spring Bank, and other suburban churches were founded in Holderness Road to the east and Anlaby Road to the west. A further outward move was made in 1931 when St. Ninian's, Chanterlands Avenue, took the place of Spring Bank, and there were thus four chapels remaining in 1939.
The Baptists' remaining chapel in the old town, Salthouse Lane, was replaced by South Street in 1866. The other long-standing congregation, at George Street, was torn by dissension about this time, during F. W. Smith's ministry (1866–8). One group seceded to meet at the Protestant Hall and other members left to join the new Prospect Street Presbyterian church. Smith himself left to become a Unitarian minister in 1868. (fn. 97) In 1903 South Street moved out westwards to Boulevard, and in north Hull George Street went to unite with Beverley Road, which had seceded from it in 1890, to form the new Central Church there. Central Church closed in 1938 but by then a new church had been established at Chanterlands Avenue. In east Hull four churches were founded between 1899 and 1929, and of these Courtney Street and Holderness Road remained in 1939, together with a mission at Marfleet, opened in 1938.
For the Methodists the second half of the 19th century was their period of greatest expansion. Nearly 30 Wesleyan and about 20 Primitive chapels and halls were either built or taken over. In the 20th century the Wesleyans added only six more and the Primitives the same number. The Primitives showed more concern for evangelism than for the character of their buildings, but each branch was quick to react to the other's attack upon a new locality and Primitive and Wesleyan buildings often followed one another at short intervals. Much of this competitive building was without adequate financial resources, and in 1920 it was said that only 13 out of 38 Primitive chapels built in the previous hundred years had been completely paid for. (fn. 98)
Although the Methodists followed population into the developing suburbs they nevertheless showed a tendency to keep open causes which were becoming redundant in the old inner districts. The Wesleyans went further and built three large central halls in the early 20th century, in an attempt, it is said, to win back those who did not like the respectability of the suburban chapels. (fn. 99) In 1905 Queen's Hall was built in the newly-cut Alfred Gelder Street, near the site of the old George Yard chapel. Thornton Hall was built in 1909 on the site of the splendid Great Thornton Street chapel, destroyed by fire two years earlier. And King's Hall was built in Fountain Road in 1910. Each had 2,000 sittings. In the suburbs in the 20th century Methodist policy was often to build school-chapels with the intention of adding separate chapels later on: only in this way was it possible to keep pace with the growth of the city.
The smaller Methodist branches made comparatively little impact after the mid-19th century and were eventually re-united with the main stream of Methodism. The Wesleyan Association and the Wesleyan Reformers joined forces in 1857 as the United Methodist Free Churches, and in Hull their main chapel was Campbell Street, built in 1866. The New Connexion Methodists for their part rebuilt Zion, Beverley Road, their chief meetingplace, in 1869. The Free Churches and the New Connexion were the chief constituents of the United Methodist Church, formed in 1907; Boulevard, built in that year, became their headquarters. The Independent Methodists maintained their existence, briefly using various chapels, and are last heard of in Goodwin Street from 1934 to 1938.
After the United Methodists joined with the Primitives and the Wesleyans in 1932, the Methodist Church built four chapels in Hull before the Second World War. In all there were in 1939 about 50 Methodist chapels as well as the three central halls.
Several of the smaller churches already existing in or before 1851 continued without notable expansion. The Unitarians shared in the movement to the suburbs when Park Street replaced Bowlalley Lane in 1881, but they built no other chapels. The Friends, whose history in Hull seems remarkably uneventful, (fn. 100) moved from Lowgate to Mason Street in 1852, and thence to Percy Street c. 1920. Their membership of 102 in 1887 (fn. 101) suggests little advance from their position in 1851. The Danish Lutherans kept Osborne Street until the Second World War, and the German Lutherans had their own chapel from 1859 to 1924; both Swedish and Finnish seamen's missions were also established. The Swedenborgians seem to have continued with little or no interruption until the Second World War, while the Latter Day Saints, after meeting in existing premises, built their own church in 1934. The Free Church of England, however, died out in 1868.
The later 19th and early 20th centuries also saw the flowering of many new denominations, some of them short-lived, which attracted those workingclass people to whom the older congregations seemed exclusive and opulent. The Brethren, after Jukes's brief association with them, (fn. 102) are first mentioned in 1866, but they had few meeting-places until the 1920s and 1930s. The Catholic Apostolic Church established a congregation in 1877. The Salvation Army made its appearance in 1881 and used a succession of buildings from then onwards. In 1881 William Booth himself helped to conduct well-attended meetings at a disused ice-house in Cambridge Street and at Hengler's Circus near by. (fn. 103) The Spiritualists registered their first meeting-place in 1897, opened several others during the next 20 years, and had more than a dozen at different times in the 1930s. The Churches of Christ, the Christadelphians, the Seventh Day Adventists, and the Christian Scientists all appeared before the First World War, and the Pentecostal Churches, later known as the Assemblies of God, in 1918. In the 1920s the Elim Church was established in the city, and the Apostolic Church and the Jehovah's Witnesses both appeared in the 1930s; a forerunner of the Witnesses, the International Bible Students' Association, had arrived in 1916. A number of missions was also at work, using a variety of halls, rooms, and former chapels. Prominent among them was the Hull City Mission, (fn. 104) and several were working among seamen, including the Port of Hull Society. Of some 80 meeting-places used by the missions between 1851 and 1939 a dozen were seamen's mission halls.
The Second World War disrupted the work of many of the churches and left some congregations without a building. A dozen Methodist chapels, including Thornton Hall, were destroyed or irreparably damaged by bombing. The Congregationalists and Presbyterians each lost two, and the Danish Lutheran church was also destroyed. After the war the rebuilding programme of the Methodists concentrated on the newer suburbs, but a new central hall was opened in a more convenient location in 1960 to take over the work of the overlarge Queen's Hall. (fn. 105) Eight new buildings were erected, in addition to Central Hall, and in 1964 more than 30 chapels and halls were still in use. The Congregationalists put up one new building and still had five congregations in 1964; the Baptists opened one new church and had six congregations; and the Presbyterians replaced their two losses, in one case with a new church, and so still had four congregations.
Among the smaller churches, the two Lutheran congregations were revived after the war, the Danish in a newly-erected building. A notable addition to nonconformist buildings was the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter Day Saints, built in 1965 in Holderness Road, and one new denomination to become established was the Churches of God in 1962.
Places of Worship
The list is arranged alphabetically by denominations, except that 'Other Churches and Missions', many of which are doubtless undenominational or interdenominational, are placed at the end. Spiritualist meetings are all placed together regardless of whether or not they were Christian. Within denominations, the arrangement is alphabetical by streets. The list was compiled in 1964, with some additions up to 1966.
Figures for the cost of buildings and the number of sittings they contain have been given where possible, as an indication of the size and vigour of a congregation. It should be realized, however, that the exact scope of the expenditure is often obscure and that the figure is sometimes only an estimate. Numbers of sittings may also be estimates, and they of course varied over a period of time as alterations were made to a building; the earliest available number has therefore been selected, though the effect of large-scale alterations is sometimes also indicated.
Beverley Road, Trafalgar Street or Central Church: opened in 1906, after the union of Trafalgar Street and George Street in 1903;(14) 850 sittings. It was designed by G. Baines & Son of London in a simplified Gothic style,(7) and built with a flint facade and red-brick dressings at a cost of £9,000.(14) The chapel was closed in 1938 and became an undenominational church; it was still so used in 1964.
Dagger Lane, Ebenezer Chapel: opened in 1771, after secession from Salthouse Lane c. 1765, and enlarged in 1776. It passed to the Countess of Huntingdon's Connexion in 1781.(14, 27) In the early 19th century it had ministers with Baptist sympathies (see Congregationalists).
George Street: built in 1796 after secession from Salthouse Lane; 600 sittings.(25) It was built at a cost of £1,200. The chapel was refronted in 1842 and the interior altered in 1854 and 1860;(29) it was repaired in the 1880s and 1890s. After being united with Trafalgar Street in 1903, to form Beverley Road (Central),(25) it became a cinema and later a shop.(7)
Gordon Street, Boulevard Church: built in 1903 to replace South Street;(14) 800 sittings. It was designed by T. B. Thompson in a Gothic style, and built in yellow brick with red-brick dressings at a cost of £12,000. The chapel was damaged during the Second World War but restored.(7)
South Street: opened in 1847 after secession from George Street in 1845; it had been built in 1840 privately; 650 sittings. The congregation in 1851 professed to be of no definite denomination.(5) It dissolved in or about 1857(25) but the chapel was registered in 1858(3) and renovated in 1863.(29) Salthouse Lane moved here in 1866. It was replaced by Gordon Street in 1903(14) and has since been demolished.
Trafalgar Street, Tabernacle: registered in 1892(3) to replace Pryme Street. It was united with George Street in 1903 and replaced by the adjacent Beverley Road in 1906.(14) The chapel was used in conjunction with Beverley Road in 1964.
Beverley Road: a Sunday school building was erected in 1909; 200 sittings. It was designed by M. Lenham and cost £387. An auditorium built in front of the school was opened in 1921; 400 sittings. The vestibule and frontage were added in 1923. The building is in red brick with a stone facade and cost £10,000.
Albion Street, Albion Chapel: opened in 1842; (29) 1,500 sittings.(5) It was designed by H. F. Lockwood in the Greek Revival style, and built with a stone front (including a fine Doric portico) at a cost of £8,000. The chapel was destroyed by bombing in 1941 and the adjoining church hall was subsequently used for worship, (7) seating 150.(17)
Anlaby Road, Wycliffe Chapel: opened in 1868; 1,100 sittings.(21) It was designed by W. H. Kitching(29) in the Gothic style, (7, 8) and it cost £8,000.(21) The chapel was closed in 1935 and used as showrooms until destroyed by bombing in 1941.(7)
Beverley Road, Newland Church: replaced Hope Street in 1903; a temporary building was used until the church opened in 1906;(27) 820 sittings.(7) It was designed by Moulds and Porritt of Bury, Manchester, and London(27) in a simplified Gothic style, and built in red and yellow brick with terracotta dressings at a cost of £9,000.(7, 8)
Dagger Lane, New Dagger Lane or Ebenezer Chapel: taken over from the Baptists by the Countess of Huntingdon's Connexion in 1781. Though it became Independent, the chapel had ministers with Baptist sympathies in the early 19th century (see p. 314). It was sometimes called New Dock Street or Myton Walls Chapel, (27) and was named New Dagger Lane in 1826.(7) It passed to the Mariners' Church Society (C. of E.) and was used from 1828 until 1834,(29) when a new Mariners' Church was built on the site.
Fish Street: built in 1782 by the Blanket Row congregation at a cost of £1,575. It was enlarged in 1802 to contain 1,050 sittings, and was restored and modernized in 1869. The chapel was sold in 1898 and replaced by Prince's Avenue. It was subsequently used as a telephone exchange(18, 24) and in 1964 was a storehouse.
Hessle Road: registered in 1877;(3) 900 sittings. It was designed by S. Musgrave in the Gothic style. The chapel was used as a theatre from 1949 to 1954 and subsequently as a warehouse.(7, 8) It had been demolished by 1964.
Hope Street, Providence Chapel: founded in 1797; 1,150 sittings.(5) It was restored in the 1850s, 1862,(29) and 1876. It was replaced by Beverley Road in 1903 and was subsequently used as a warehouse.(27) It was destroyed by bombing in 1941.(7)
James Reckitt Avenue: opened in a temporary building on the corner of Summergangs Road after Williamson Street had closed in 1919. It later moved to Reckitt Garden Village Hall and, after war damage, to Westcott Street.(7)
Moxon Street: said to have been opened in 1839. (22) It was in use in 1851 under the minister of Albion Street; 250 sittings.(5) It later became the Hope Street Congregational schoolroom and in 1860 was taken over by the Methodists.(27)
Porter Street: built by the Independents by 1851(19) but used by the Methodists and the C. of E. until 1862. It was then an Independent chapel until Hessle Road replaced it in 1877 and it became a music hall.(7)
Sykes Street, Tabernacle: registered in 1826(4) but taken over by the Methodists in 1835;(31) 720 sittings in 1851.(5) It is said to have become Congregational again in 1867(21) and was so described in 1872–4,(19) but it was subsequently once more Methodist.
Williamson Street, Latimer Chapel: opened in a temporary building in 1869(21) and in the new chapel in 1874;(11) 570 sittings. It was designed by S. Musgrave in the Gothic style(7) and cost £2,500. The chapel was registered by the Port of Hull Society in 1923.(3)
Prospect Street: St. John the Evangelist's Church: registered in 1866.(3) It was designed by A. D. Gough of London in the Gothic style and built entirely of stone. It was acquired by the Presbyterians in 1868.(11)
Lowgate: a house, acquired for meetings in 1709 but perhaps used before that. A larger meeting-house was built on the garden behind in 1780;(1) 390 sittings in 1851.(5) It was replaced by Mason Street in 1852(1) and had been demolished by 1964.
Mason Street: the former Wesleyan school, acquired in 1851 and opened in 1852 after enlargement and conversion for a meeting-house; (1, 29) 600 sittings.(26) It was rebuilt in 1880 and replaced c. 1920 by Percy Street.(19) It was used as a warehouse in 1964.
Lee Smith Street (or Hedon Road): taken over from the Methodists in 1910(3) and used as a Swedish mission until at least 1926,(19) when it was apparently replaced by Church Street. A Roman Catholic mission was built on the site.
Nile Street: the former St. Luke's Church (Church of England) (see Methodists), acquired in 1859 by the German Lutherans.(29) It was rebuilt in 1911 in a simplified Gothic style, but was deregistered in 1924. It was registered again in 1949, after being used as an undenominational mission.(3, 8) It probably housed the German seamen's mission mentioned in 1939.(19)
Osborne Street: meetings were held in Bethesda Congregational chapel in 1850–1.(5, 29) It was rebuilt by the Danish Lutherans in 1871 and named St. Nicholai's Church;(1, 3) 300 sittings. It was built in the Gothic style.(19) The chapel was deregistered in 1941(3) and destroyed by bombing. A new building was erected on the other side of the street and was registered in 1955.(1)
Alfred Gelder Street, Queen's Hall: registered by the Wesleyans in 1905(3) near the site of George Yard Chapel,(1) and replacing also Humber Street; 2,000 sittings.(31) It was designed by Sir Alfred Gelder in a simplified Gothic style, and was built of stone at a cost of £20,000.(7, 8) The hall was replaced by Central Hall in 1960(3) (see King Edward Street) and was demolished in 1965.
Anlaby Road (Anlaby Park Church): a school building, used as a chapel, opened by the Wesleyans in 1914; 250 sittings.(7) It was replaced by a new chapel, designed by B. W. Blanchard and opened in 1959 (date in building).
Anlaby Road, Bourne Chapel: built by the Primitives in 1871; 1,420 sittings. It was designed by J. Wright in the Gothic style, and it cost £7,600.(7, 34) The chapel was deregistered in 1960(3) and had been demolished by 1964, when rooms in a house near by were used for worship.
Anlaby Road (or Plane Street): a school-chapel, opened by the Wesleyans in 1895;(3) 800 sittings. Designed by Gelder and Kitchen in the Tudor style and built at a cost of £2,900. It was replaced in 1910 by a new chapel by the same architects, built at a cost of £9,500.(7)
Argyle Street: registered by the Wesleyans in 1872 (3) and replaced by Willow Grove in 1886 (Jubilee Commem. Stepney Church, copy in Hull Pub. Libr.). A new chapel was built here in 1895;(3) 1,000 sittings.(31) It was designed by Gelder and Kitchen in the Romanesque style, and was built of red brick with terracotta dressings at a cost of £5,500.(7) It was deregistered in 1959(3) when Spring Bank was built and had been demolished by 1964.
Barnsley Street: a mission hall, first mentioned in 1892(19) and registered by the Wesleyans in 1895; (3) 340 sittings. It was extended, under Gelder and Kitchen, in 1914, and destroyed by bombing in 1941.(7)
Beverley Road: opened by the Wesleyans in 1862;(29) 1,000 sittings. It was designed by W. Botterill in the Gothic style, and built at a cost of £5,900. The chapel was closed in 1941, subsequently used as a printing works, and burnt down in 1954.(7)
Beverley Road (or Cave Street), Stepney or Zion Chapel: opened by the New Connexion Methodists in 1849;(29) 150 sittings.(5) It was in the Classical style, with a stucco front, and cost £400. It was replaced by a new building in 1869. The old chapel was sold in 1878(12) and has subsequently been used by the Salvation Army and the Assemblies of God.
Beverley Road, Queen's Road Church: opened by the Wesleyans in 1878, replacing temporary premises;(12) 1,200 sittings.(19) It was designed by S. Musgrave in a Renaissance style, and was built at a cost of £9,000. It was damaged during the Second World War(7) and the adjoining schoolroom was subsequently used for worship. The old church was used as a warehouse in 1964.
Beverley Road, Stepney Chapel: opened by the New Connexion Methodists in 1869 to replace the old chapel on the corner of Cave Street; 600 sittings. The cost was £2,500 (Jubilee Commem. Stepney Church, copy in Hull Pub. Libr.). It was designed by W. Hill of Leeds in the Gothic style, and was built in red and white brick with stone dressings.(7)
Bricknell Avenue: after meetings had been held for some time in a farm-house, a temporary building was opened in 1944.(13) This was replaced by a school-chapel in 1953, designed by Fisher and Hollingsworth and built at a cost of £26,000. This in turn was replaced by a chapel in 1957, built at an estimated cost of £17,000.(7)
Campbell Street: built by the Free Methodists in 1866(29) to replace Walker Street; 560 sittings. It was designed by W. H. Kitching in the Gothic style, and was built at a cost of £2,600. Accommodation was increased c. 1875. The chapel was damaged by bombing in 1941(7) and closed in 1943,(3) subsequently becoming a storehouse.(7) It had been demolished by 1964.
Carlton Street: built by the Wesleyans in 1865. It was designed by W. Botterill in the Gothic style and cost £500.(29) This was replaced by a larger chapel, seating 300,(7) in 1886.(3) It was deregistered in 1962(3) and was derelict in 1964.
College Street (Sutton): replaced a Primitive chapel said to have been built in 1832, having 90 sittings in 1851,(5) which stood in the present Chamberlain Street.(26) The new chapel was registered in 1893(3) and built of grey brick with red-brick and stone dressings. It was deregistered in 1933 and subsequently used for various purposes.
Coltman Street, Trinity Chapel: built by the Wesleyans in 1872;(31) 1,250 sittings. It was designed by W. Botterill in the Gothic style,(7) and built at a cost of £8,000.(31) It was damaged by bombing in 1941 and closed, and was demolished in 1953.(7)
Cottingham Road, Newland Chapel: opened by the Wesleyans in 1858 after meetings had for some time been held in a barn; 160 sittings.(12) It was designed by W. Botterill in the Gothic style, and built at a cost of £600.(7) The chapel was enlarged in 1867 and 1873, but it was replaced by a new building, on the opposite side of Newland Avenue, in 1901(12), and was subsequently used by the Port of Hull Society(7) until c. 1962 (Hull Daily Mail, 18 Dec. 1964). It was demolished in 1966.
Cottingham Road, Newland Church: a schoolchapel, opened by the Wesleyans in 1901; 850 sittings.(7) The cost was £7,700.(12) A church was opened alongside in 1928; 700 sittings. It was designed by Gelder and Kitchen, and built at a cost of about £10,000. It was damaged during the Second World War but repaired.(7)
Dansom Lane: opened by the Wesleyans in 1876; (31) 340 sittings.(19) After 1920 it was used jointly with the Baptists.(3) It was closed in 1929,(31) was later a warehouse,(7) and was used as offices in 1964.
Edgar Street (or Mechanics' Lane): built by the Primitives in 1891; 220 sittings. It was adapted from existing Primitive premises, first mentioned in 1885, at a cost of £400.(5, 29) It had ceased to be used by 1954.(3)
Fountain Road: adapted by the Wesleyans from premises first mentioned in 1888,(19) the new mission being registered in 1895;(3) 400 sittings.(7) It was replaced by King's Hall, built on the same site in 1910.(31) A building in Waterloo Street was temporarily used during 1910.(19)
Fountain Road, King's Hall: built by the Wesleyans in 1910 on the site of Fountain Road mission chapel, and replacing also Scott Street and Oxford Street;(31) 2,000 sittings. It was designed by Gelder and Kitchen, and built at a cost of £18,000.(7) An extension was registered in 1915.(3)
Fountain Road, Zion Chapel: built by the Primitives in 1877; 800 sittings.(34) It was in the Italian Romanesque style(7) and cost £6,400.(34) The chapel was damaged by bombing in 1941(7) but was again registered from 1957 to 1959,(3) when Spring Bank was built. It had been demolished by 1964.
George Yard: registered by the Wesleyans in 1791 (4) and said to have been built 5 or 6 years before; (22, 29) 1,060 sittings in 1851.(5) It was built in the Classical style and cost £4,000.(7, 29) The chapel was replaced by Queen's Hall, built on an adjoining site in 1905(3) (see Alfred Gelder Street).
Great Thornton Street: built by the Primitives in 1849;(29) 625 sittings.(5) It was burnt down and rebuilt in 1856.(20) It was designed by W. Sissons in the Italianate style, and built at a cost of £5,200. The chapel was deregistered in 1937(3) and destroyed by bombing in 1941.(7)
Great Thornton Street: opened by the Wesleyans in 1842;(29) 1,300 sittings.(5) It was designed by H. F. Lockwood in the Greek Revival style, and built with a stone facade and brick sides and back (7) at a cost of £7,000.(31) This was one of Hull's outstanding buildings (see plate facing p. 315). It was largely destroyed by fire in 1907,(31) though one small wing survived until c. 1950,(8) and it was replaced by Thornton Hall in 1909.(3)
Great Thornton Street, Thornton Hall: opened by the Wesleyans in 1909 on the site of the earlier chapel;(3) 2,000 sittings.(31) It was designed by Gelder and Kitchen and cost £18,250. The hall was destroyed during the Second World War.(7)
Greenwood Avenue, Clowes Memorial Church: after meetings had been held in a private house and then a school since 1942, a temporary building was opened in 1947. A new chapel was opened in 1957.(3, 12)
Hawthorn Avenue, Norman Memorial Church: built by the Primitives in 1905; 500 sittings.(34) It was designed by Gelder and Kitchen and built in multi-coloured brick(7) at a cost of £4,900.(34) After bomb-damage in 1941 services were held in the schoolroom, but this was closed in 1955 and subsequently demolished.(7)
Hedon Road: built by the Primitives in 1894; 380 sittings.(34) It replaced smaller premises in a lane to the rear,(26) built in 1877.(19, 20) The new chapel was built at a cost of £1,100.(34) It was destroyed by bombing in 1941 and temporary accommodation was used(7) until Southcoates Lane was built.
Hedon Road (Marfleet): opened by the Wesleyans in 1873, and built of red brick with yellow-brick and stone dressings. It perhaps replaced another Wesleyan meeting-place in Marfleet, registered from 1861 to 1876. Hedon Road was deregistered in 1906 (3) and replaced by Marfleet Avenue; it was later used as a workshop(7) and was apparently unused in 1964.
Hessle Road: built by the Primitives in 1881; 1,000 sittings.(34) It is predominantly Romanesque in style,(7) built at a cost of £8,200.(34) The chapel was deregistered in 1933(3) and registered by the Elim Church in 1934.
Hessle Road (or St. George's Road): registered by the Wesleyans in 1877 and replaced by a new building in 1883;(3) 750 sittings.(31) It was designed by T. B. Thompson in a Renaissance style,(7) and built in red brick with terracotta dressings at a cost of £4,000.(31) It was enlarged in 1904 by Gelder and Kitchen.(7) The chapel in 1942(3) became the Thornton Hall (St. George's) Mission.
Hodgson Street: built by the Primitives in 1884; 260 sittings.(34) It was built, partly in the Gothic style,(7) at a cost of £1,450.(34) The chapel was apparently closed in 1940, when its accounts cease (papers in Hull Pub. Libr.). It was damaged by bombing during the Second World War (local information) and was used as part of a factory in 1964.
Holderness Road (or Bright Street): opened by the Primitives in 1864;(29) 1,100 sittings.(34) It was designed by J. Wright in the Italianate style, and built in red and white brick with stone dressings(7) at a cost of £5,100.(34) The chapel was damaged by bombing in 1941(7) and had been demolished by 1964.
Holderness Road, Brunswick Chapel: registered by the Wesleyans in 1877(3) to replace Durham Street. An assembly hall, added by W. A. Gelder in 1886, increased the accommodation to 800 sittings.(19) A new building was opened on the site of the old chapel in 1962 (date in building). The assembly hall was used by the National Assistance Board in 1964.
Holderness Road, Wesley Chapel: registered by the Wesleyans in 1913;(3) 550 sittings. It was designed by Runton and Barry. The chapel was renamed Kingston Wesley after some of the fittings had been transferred from the destroyed Kingston Chapel.(7)
Holland Street, Bethesda Chapel: built by the Primitives in 1902; 550 sittings.(34) It was designed by Gelder and Kitchen(7) and was built at a cost of £6,400.(34) It was deregistered in 1962,(3) when Brunswick, Holderness Road, was rebuilt, and was unused in 1964.
Humber Street, Wesley Chapel: built by the Wesleyans in 1833(5) and registered in 1835;(4) 800 sittings.(5) It was designed by W. Sissons in the Classical style, and built at a cost of £3,600.(7) The chapel was remodelled in 1887 and named Wesley Hall. It was replaced by Queen's Hall in 1905 and used as an auction room(31) before being destroyed during the Second World War.(7) A Wesleyan mission in 1907(19) may have been in the old chapel.
Jarratt Street (or Kingston Square), Clowes Chapel: opened by the Primitives in 1851;(29) 1,400 sittings.(34) It was designed by W. Sissons(29) in a Renaissance style, and built of red and grey brick with stone dressings at a cost of £7,400.(34) The chapel was deregistered in 1932(3) and was used as a storehouse before being demolished in 1965.
Jenning Street, Groves Chapel: a Wesleyan mission is first mentioned in 1885;(19) it was presumably followed by the chapel opened in 1897,(3) replacing Lime Street from which many fittings were transferred; 600 sittings.(31) It was designed by Gelder and Kitchen in the Gothic style. The chapel was damaged by bombing in 1941 and not restored.(7)
Lambert Street, Lamb Memorial Chapel: built by the Primitives in 1894,(34) replacing a schoolroom which in 1888 had replaced Willow Grove;(12) 850 sittings.(34) It was designed by Thompson and Gelder in a Renaissance style,(7, 8) and was built at a cost of £6,000.(34)
Lime Street: built by the Wesleyans in 1826; 340 sittings.(19) Its place was taken by Kingston Chapel, Witham, opened in 1841, and Lime Street later passed to the Wesleyan Reformers. In 1853 it was used as a Sunday school.(26) It was used by the Free Methodists in the 1860s, 1870s, and 1880s.(19) The chapel was replaced by Jenning Street in 1897; (7, 31) in 1964 it was a storehouse.
Lincoln Street: built by the Primitives in 1872; 950 sittings.(34) It was possibly designed by W. Freeman, is in the Gothic style,(7) and was built at a cost of £5,300.(34) The chapel was deregistered in 1935.(3) It had been partially demolished by 1964 and the remainder was used as a workshop.
Lower Union Street: built by the Wesleyans in 1820 or 1828;(31) 280 sittings.(19) It was given up shortly after Great Thornton Street opened in 1842.(7) By 1851 it was used by the Independent Methodists. It was Wesleyan again in 1885 and they apparently used it until 1900.(19) It later became a warehouse,(31) a Jewish mission hall in 1916, and finally a synagogue in 1928.
Lower Union Street: a mission room, registered by the Wesleyans in 1882.(3) It was apparently this one of the two Wesleyan buildings in the street which remained in use until 1910. It was then used by the Independent Methodists from 1911 to c. 1930, (19) and in 1933 was registered as St. Victor's undenominational chapel.(3)
Manor Alley: the tower of the King's Manor was taken over from the Baptists in 1757. It was demolished and a new meeting-house built in 1771;(30) this was replaced by George Yard, registered in 1791.(4) It was used as a warehouse in 1866(29) and demolished in the early 20th century.
Mason Street (later Little Mason Street): built by the Wesleyans in 1826; 450 sittings. It was used until Kingston Chapel, Witham, was opened in 1841 (7) and then passed to the Primitives.(5) It was later used exclusively as a school, and had been demolished by 1964.
Mill Street (later West Street): opened by the Primitives in 1819;(4, 34) 790 sittings.(5) It cost £1,700.(34) The chapel was replaced by Perth Street and deregistered in 1912.(3) It was subsequently used as a dance hall and was destroyed by bombing in 1941.
Moxon (later Spencer) Street (or Hamilton Place): registered by the Free Methodists in 1860;(3) it had been a Congregational schoolroom.(27) It was deregistered in 1876(3) but it was presumably the same building that was used by the Wesleyans at least from 1885 onwards.(19) It was demolished in 1930.(7)
Nile Street: taken over by the Primitives from the Baptists in 1847. It was replaced by Great Thornton Street in 1849(7) and was unoccupied in 1851.(5) The Wesleyan Reformers may have used it before moving to Porter Street by 1853.(7) It became St. Luke's Church (C. of E.) for a period in 1856.(29)
North Street (later Charlotte Street), Bethel Chapel: built in 1799 by the New Connexion Methodists; (29) 925 sittings in 1851.(5) It was renovated in 1865(29) and enlarged in 1875. The chapel was destroyed by bombing in 1941.(7)
Osborne Street: taken over by the Independent Methodists from the Baptists in 1826;(29) 680 sittings.(5) It was Gothic in style, altered c. 1865. (29) It was subsequently used by the New Connexion Methodists,(19) and was replaced by Boulevard in 1907.
Oxford Street: opened by the Wesleyans in 1870 to replace York Street;(22) 300 sittings.(19) It was closed when King's Hall was opened in 1910 and subsequently used as a cinema and as offices;(31) it had been demolished by 1964.
Porter Street: built by the Independents by 1851 (19) and taken over by the Wesleyan Reformers by 1853.(26) In 1855 it was replaced by Walker Street (23) and from 1856 to 1862 was used as St. Luke's Church (C. of E.).(29) It was lent to the Primitives for a period in 1856 while Great Thornton Street was being rebuilt.(20) It became a music-hall in 1864.
Preston Road: registered in 1937;(3) 300 sittings. It was designed by Gelder and Kitchen, and was built at a cost of £5,500.(7) It was perhaps a temporary building, replaced by this one, that was registered in 1934.(3)
Raikes Street (or Church Street) (Drypool): built by the Wesleyans in 1805 (22) and used as a Sunday school in 1853.(26) It was registered in 1877;(3) 250 sittings. The chapel was closed in 1930 because of the proximity of Kingston Chapel, Witham, but used for youth work for some years more.(7) It was a workshop in 1964.
St. George's Road (or Beecroft Street): built by the Primitives in 1873;(7, 23) 250 sittings.(19) It was designed by W. Freeman in the Gothic style and cost £850. It is now part of the Sunday school. (7) A new, adjoining, chapel was built in 1890; 650 sittings.(34) It was designed by Freeman and cost £3,646.(7)
St. Mark's Square (Pottery Ground), Potteries Chapel: opened by the Wesleyans by 1806. It was apparently replaced by English Street by 1818.(31) It was perhaps the same building that was used by the Primitives in the 1820s.(20)
Scott Street: built by the Wesleyans in 1804; 530 sittings.(4, 5) It was built of brick, in the Classical style,(7) but the front was stuccoed when the chapel was enlarged c. 1860.(29) It was closed when King's Hall was opened in 1910(3) and was used as part of a workshop in 1964.
Selby Street: built by the Primitives in 1901; 400 sittings.(34) There had been Primitive premises here in 1885, with 200 sittings.(19) The later chapel was designed by T. B. Thompson with Gothic features,(7) and was built at a cost of £1,650.(34)
Spring Bank, Ebenezer Chapel: built by the Primitives in 1878; 1,000 sittings.(34) It was designed by W. Freeman in a Renaissance style,(7) and was built of red and grey brick with stone dressings at a cost of £8,100.(34) The chapel was closed in 1946(7) and used as a warehouse in 1964.
Spring Bank, Jubilee Chapel: opened by the Primitives in 1864;(29) 1,030 sittings.(34) It was designed by J. Wright in the Italianate style, and was built of red and white brick with stone dressings (7) at a cost of £6,100.(34) The chapel was renovated in 1952(7) and replaced by a new building in 1959, (3) designed by B. W. Blanchard. It was then joined by Alexandra Street, Argyle Street, and Fountain Road.
Stoneferry Road, Bethel Chapel: built by the Wesleyans soon after 1820,(31) altered in 1826,(7) and rebuilt in 1839; 90 sittings.(5) It was enlarged in 1881(7) and closed in 1892 when a new chapel was opened in this road. Part of the old building is incorporated in Stoneferry Road School.(31)
Stoneferry Road, St. John's Chapel: registered by the Wesleyans in 1892,(3) replacing Bethel Chapel in the same road; 100 sittings. It was designed, perhaps by Gelder and Kitchen, in the Gothic style.(7)
Sykes Street, Tabernacle: an Independent chapel, taken over by the Wesleyans in 1835. After being used by the Presbyterians from 1838 until 1840, it was acquired by the Weslevan Association in 1846. (31) It was Wesleyan in 1851,(5) Methodist Free Church for at least part of the period from 1864 (31) to 1882, and New Connexion in 1889 and 1899–1900. The Primitives also had a mission in Sykes Street from 1892 to 1900(19) and may have used the same building. The chapel was destroyed during the Second World War.(7)
Walker Street: used by the Wesleyan Reformers, replacing Porter Street, from 1855(23) until Campbell Street took its place in 1866.(29) It was registered by the Independent Methodists from 1871 to 1876.(3) It later became Zion Calvinist Chapel (see Congregationalists).
Waltham Street: opened by the Wesleyans in 1814;(31) 1,500 sittings.(5) It was designed by W. Jenkins in the Classical style,(7) and built of cement-rendered brick(29) at a cost of £9,000.(7) It was deregistered in 1933(3) and subsequently used for administrative purposes, as well as by the Mildmay Mission.(23) The chapel was damaged during the Second World War(7) and was later demolished for Central Hall to be built on the site (see King Edward Street).
West Parade (Spring Bank): opened by the Wesleyans in 1874;(22) 350 sittings.(19) It was replaced by Argyle Street in 1895 and used as a Sunday school until 1910.(7) It later became a cinema(31) and in 1964 was a warehouse.
Wheeler Street: a Wesleyan mission room, in use by 1883.(28) A new building was erected in 1900 (date on building). It was given up c. 1960 and taken over by the Churches of God a year or two later (local information).
Willerby Road, Derringham Bank Church: a school-chapel, registered in 1933;(3, 12) 400 sittings. It was designed by Gelder and Kitchen.(7) A separate chapel was built in 1958;(3, 12) 450 sittings. It was designed by B. W. Blanchard.
Williamson Street, Hodge Memorial Chapel: built by the Primitives in 1873 (date on building) and registered in 1875;(3) 1,300 sittings.(34) It was designed by F. N. Pettingell in the Gothic style,(7) and built in red brick with blue- and yellow-brick and stone dressings at a cost of £7,900.(34) The chapel was closed in 1940(7) and was used as a warehouse in 1964, when meetings were held in Williamson Street School (local information).
Wincolmlee (formerly Church Street): opened by the Primitives in 1819(4) in a building called the 'Old Penitentiary'.(29) Two houses near by were subsequently used, and on or near the site of one of them Wincolmlee chapel was built in 1842.(20)
Wincolmlee (formerly Church Street): registered by the Primitives in 1842(6) and enlarged or rebuilt in 1846.(20, 29) It was replaced by Lincoln Street in 1872 but may have been used until 1882.(19) It was later used as a storehouse, (7) and still stood in 1964.
Witham (or Holborn Street): the Congregational chapel, taken over by the Primitives in 1860, replacing a farm-house on Holderness Road.(20) It was itself replaced by Holderness Road chapel in 1864. It was a Temperance Hall in 1866,(29) was later used by the Salvation Army and the Spiritualists,(7) and was a storehouse in 1964.
Witham, Kingston Chapel: opened by the Wesleyans in 1841;(29) 2,000 sittings.(5) It was designed by J. Simpson in the Greek Revival style, and built in brick with a stone facade (including a fine Ionic portico)(7) at a cost of £8,000.(29) It was damaged by bombing in 1941 and later demolished.(7)
Anlaby Road: built in 1893, replacing Walton Street; 750 sittings. It was designed by T. B. Thompson in the Italianate style.(7) Its sale was authorized in 1961(1) and the adjoining chapel hall was subsequently adapted for worship. The chapel itself was demolished in 1964.
Dagger Lane (or Prince Street), Bethel Chapel: opened in 1841 after the Swedenborgians left;(10) 600 sittings in 1851.(5) It was replaced by Spring Bank in 1875.(3) It was subsequently used as a synagogue, and in 1964 was a warehouse.
Holderness Road: registered in 1874.(3) It was designed by W. H. Kitching in the Gothic style, and built in red brick with yellow-brick and stone dressings. It was damaged by bombing in 1941 and services were held in the Sunday school until 1949, when two houses in the same road were converted for a chapel.(3, 7) The old building was used as a workshop in 1964.
Prospect Street, St. Andrew's Church: the former St. John's Free Church of England building, acquired by the Presbyterians in 1868(11) but not registered until 1877.(3) It was destroyed by bombing in 1941 and replaced by the church hall near by in Baker Street.(7) The church was rebuilt in 1960; (3) it was designed by Gelder and Kitchen.
Spring Bank: opened in 1875 to replace Dagger Lane;(3) 450 sittings. The chapel was designed by W. H. Kitching, is in the Gothic style, and was built at a cost of £3,300. It was replaced by Chanterlands Avenue in 1931 and was used as a warehouse in 1955;(7) it was demolished in 1966.
Bowlalley Lane: perhaps first used c. 1680; it was rebuilt probably in 1691 or 1692. A new chapel was built on the site in 1802;(33) 490 sittings.(5) It was replaced by Park Street Unitarian Church, registered in 1881.(3) The old chapel was later used as offices and was demolished in 1936.(7)
Charlotte Street (Mews), Hesketh Hall: registered by the Bible Pattern Church Fellowship from 1943 to 1948, and by the Hull Pentecostal Free Church from 1948 to 1955 when it was replaced by Charlotte Street, Rehoboth.(3)
Hessle Road, Sailors' and Fishermen's Bethel: opened in 1892 (W. Mawer, Adventures in Sympathy, 22) and used at least in 1899–1900 (West End Bethel) and from 1905 onwards.(19) It was registered in 1925(3) and still used by the Port of Hull Society in 1964.
Williamson Street: the former Congregational chapel, taken over in 1919 (W. Mawer, Adventures in Sympathy, 22) and registered by the Port of Hull Society from 1923 to 1937.(3) It was used as a storehouse in 1964.