BHO

Catton: Kexby, Scoreby, and Stamford Bridge West

Pages 158-164

A History of the County of York East Riding: Volume 3, Ouse and Derwent Wapentake, and Part of Harthill Wapentake. Originally published by Victoria County History, London, 1976.

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KEXBY, SCOREBY, AND STAMFORD BRIDGE WEST

Kexby lies about 5 miles east of York and with the townships of Scoreby and Stamford Bridge West it occupies some 4 miles of the west bank of the river Derwent. The village of Kexby stands at a point where firm ground approaches close to the river and where a ferry and bridge have for long afforded a crossing. The now depopulated village of Scoreby occupied a similar riverside situation just over a mile to the north, and 1½ mile further north Stamford Bridge West now forms a small adjunct of the large village in Stamford Bridge East township across the river. Kexby and Scoreby were both Scandinavian settlements. In 1850 the area of Kexby was 1,892 a. and of Scoreby and Stamford Bridge West 1,945 a., (fn. 1) of which all but about 300 a. lay in Scoreby.

The whole of Kexby township and much of Scoreby lie at between 25 ft. and 50 ft. above sealevel, with even lower ground beside the Derwent. In the north, however, Scoreby extends on to the lower slopes of the York moraine and in places reaches nearly 100 ft. From this high ground the main road to York, on the line of a Roman road, runs down towards the Derwent crossing at Stamford Bridge. The road forms part of the parish boundary and one stretch of it is the main street of Gate Helmsley (Yorks. N.R.), a 'one-sided' village which faces the fields of Scoreby Grange across the road. In the Middle Ages the open-field land of Kexby and Scoreby lay wholly on the lower ground, but both townships were inclosed at an early date and grassland and woodland have since been dominant there. Kexby common, occupying the south-west corner of the township and projecting into Dunnington, was not inclosed until the 18th century. Riverside ings occupied the limited areas of alluvium within the bends of the Derwent.

The road from Dunnington to Wilberfoss, now forming part of the York-Hull trunk road, crosses Kexby township, and from it a minor road leads southwards to Elvington. The main road formerly used a ferry across the Derwent, mentioned as early as 1315, at which tolls were taken by the lord of Catton manor. (fn. 2) A bequest was made to repair the road on either side of the ferry in 1396. (fn. 3) A ferry was last mentioned in 1650, when it crossed near the bridge and belonged to the lord of Kexby. (fn. 4) A stone bridge was apparently built in the late 1420s by Nicholas Blackburn, a York merchant. (fn. 5) About 1540 it was said to have three arches. (fn. 6) Bequests for the repair of Kexby Lane in the 16th century (fn. 7) were doubtless intended for the main road to the bridge. Much work was done to the bridge by the county in 1648-50, (fn. 8) and indeed an inscription (fn. 9) on it states that it was 'built' in 1650. Part of the older structure may have survived, however, including a representation of the arms of the Ughtreds. (fn. 10) The road was turnpiked in 1764 and the trust was continued until 1881. (fn. 11) Much work was done on the bridge in the 18th century; expenditure was especially heavy in 1780 and 1788, (fn. 12) and an inscription records repairs in 1778. The road has been widened and straightened in the 20th century and a new bridge was built in the 1960s, (fn. 13) bypassing the old one. (fn. 14) The old bridge, of stone, has three semicircular arches divided by piers with cutwaters. The eastern arch is normally dry.

The railway line from Market Weighton to York approaches the Derwent viaduct (fn. 15) in Stamford Bridge West township, and the Derwent Valley Light Railway crosses the south-west of Kexby. The latter line, opened in 1912, was closed for passenger traffic in 1926 (fn. 16) and the Kexby section was closed for goods in 1972. (fn. 17)

Kexby village is strung out along the main road and consists mainly of 19th- and 20th-century houses. Near the bridge Manor Farm, formerly Coach and Horses Farm and earlier still an inn, (fn. 18) consists of an early-18th-century house with a taller later-18th-century block forming a new frontage; its outbuildings include a large barn and dovecot. Near-by Bridge Farm has extensive 19thcentury cattle sheds. There are several estate houses, presumably built by the Wenlocks about the same time as the school, and eight council houses. There were two licensed houses in Kexby in the mid 18th century, later only one, and the Coach and Horses inn was recorded from the 1820s (fn. 19) until 1879. (fn. 20)

Scoreby village apparently stood by the river near Manor House Farm, where there were still indeterminate earthworks in 1974. Foundations and pottery were said to be frequently turned up in a riverside field in the 19th century. (fn. 21) Though now only a small appendage to Stamford Bridge village, Stamford Bridge West may formerly have been relatively larger; thus about 20 houses were recorded there in 1616 compared with 15 on the east side of the river. (fn. 22) Manor House is the only noteworthy surviving building. (fn. 23)

The half-dozen outlying farms in Kexby township include Old Hall, (fn. 24) and among a similar number in Scoreby is Londesborough Lodge, known as Keeper's Lodge in 1850 when there was a small park near by. (fn. 25)

Kexby may have been hard hit by the Black Death for it was relieved of about 60 per cent of its tax quota in 1354. (fn. 26) There were 40 poll-tax payers in 1377. (fn. 27) Twenty-three households were included in the hearth-tax return of 1672, 4 of them exempt; of those chargeable 15 had one hearth each, 3 had 3 or 4, and one had twelve. (fn. 28) The population of Kexby in 1801 was 129; it reached a maximum of 194 in 1871 and stood at 125 in 1901. (fn. 29) By 1931 there were only 93 inhabitants, and the combined population of Kexby and Scoreby fell from 229 in 1951 to 172 in 1971. (fn. 30)

There were 14 taxpayers in Scoreby and 15 in Stamford Bridge West in 1301, (fn. 31) and 118 people paid the poll tax in the two villages in 1377. (fn. 32) Sixteen households were included in the combined hearth-tax return in 1672, 4 of them exempt; of those chargeable 5 had one hearth each, 6 had 2-4, and one had six. (fn. 33) There were 123 inhabitants in 1801, a maximum of 196 in 1861, and 155 in 1901. (fn. 34) The population was 130 in 1931, just before the built-up area of Stamford Bridge West was transferred to Stamford Bridge civil parish. (fn. 35)

MANOR AND OTHER ESTATES.

In 1086 Kexby, perhaps comprising 6 carucates, lay within the soke of Catton manor. (fn. 36) Thomas Burdon held a carucate there of Robert de Percy and he of Henry de Percy in 1284-5. (fn. 37) Brian Burdon was lord in 1316, (fn. 38) but after his death KEXBY manor passed in 1332-3 to his daughter Margaret, wife of Thomas Ughtred. In 1365 Ughtred was succeeded by his son, another Thomas (d. 1401), whose heir was his grandson Thomas. (fn. 39) By 1433 Kexby was in the possession of Robert Ughtred; (fn. 40) he or another Robert died in 1471 and was succeeded by his son, also called Robert. (fn. 41) By 1498 the manor was held by Henry Ughtred (d. 1510). (fn. 42) In 1524 Sir Robert Ughtred sold Kexby to John Allen, but Thomas Wolsey intervened and bought it himself. (fn. 43) After Wolsey's attainder in 1530 the king granted the manor for life to Sir Anthony Ughtred and his wife Elizabeth in 1531 (fn. 44) and then granted it in reversion to Sir Robert Ughtred in 1552. (fn. 45) The following year it was settled upon Sir Robert's daughter Dorothy on her marriage with John Constable. (fn. 46)

The Constables conveyed property in Kexby to the Headlam family in 1625, 1629, 1639, and 1646, and the manor to Jane Headlam in 1650. (fn. 47) Kexby was sold after the death of Charles Headlam to dame Sarah Dawes, widow of Beilby Thompson, in 1753 (fn. 48) and it subsequently descended like Escrick in the Thompson and Lawley families. (fn. 49) After the death of Beilby Lawley, 3rd Baron Wenlock, in 1912, the estate was split up and sold. Kexby Bridge, Gypsey Wood, Far, and Gray Leys farms, comprising about 550 a. in Kexby, were sold in separate lots in 1914-15. (fn. 50) About 300 a. from Bridge and Mill House farms were sold to Sir Robert Walker in 1914, (fn. 51) and by J. P. E. Walker to the Ecclesiastical Commissioners in 1936. (fn. 52) The largest part of the Wenlock estate, however, was sold in 1914 to C. F. Ryder; it comprised 947 a. in Ivy House, Old Hall, Stray, and White Carr farms. (fn. 53) Francis Ryder succeeded to it in 1942 (fn. 54) and still held it in 1973.

A manor-house was mentioned in 1342, when licence to crenellate was granted to Thomas Ughtred. (fn. 55) This was presumably the house later known as Old Hall, standing near the Derwent a mile south of the village. A second house was probably built in the late 16th century by the Teyll family. In 1581 Anthony and Thomas Teyll bought property in Kexby which the Constables had conveyed to Thomas and William Tanckard in 1564. (fn. 56) 'Mr. Teyll's house' stood near the river immediately north of the village c. 1616. (fn. 57) Anthony Teyll had in fact sold New Hall to the Constables in 1604; it passed to the Headlams in 1625, (fn. 58) and both houses then descended with the manor. John Marshall occupied a 12-hearth house in 1672. (fn. 59) Charles Headlam's house in the early 18th century, perhaps New Hall, was a two-storeyed building with attics. Its main front, facing west, was eight bays long and had three gabled projections, at least one of which contained a window bay rising through both storeys. In front of the house were a walled garden and stables. (fn. 60) New Hall still stood in 1772 (fn. 61) but had been demolished by 1850. (fn. 62) Old Hall, where traces of a moat survive, has been replaced by a modern farmhouse.

In 1066 Cille, Alwine, and Asa each had a manor at Scoreby, and Forne and Fargrim held 6 carucates there. The estate was held in 1086 by Osbern de Percy of William de Percy, despite a claim that it had belonged after the Conquest to William Malet. (fn. 63)

Under the Percys Scoreby was held in 1166 by Stephen the Chamberlain, (fn. 64) and the heirs of the Chamberlains still had a mesne lordship in 1284-5, when 6 carucates were held from them by Robert de Percy, and from Robert by Anthony Bek, bishop of Durham. (fn. 65) Under Bek SCOREBY manor was held by Isabel de Vescy for life, but in 1310 Bek gave up his interest to Peter (d. 1315), son of Robert de Percy. The manor consequently passed from Isabel to Peter's daughter Eustacia, wife of Walter of Heslerton. (fn. 66) In 1336 Walter and Eustacia conveyed it to Robert of Scorborough, and he held it at his death in 1339. (fn. 67) Walter was also said to have granted the manor in 1347-8 to Sir John of Hotham and others, but despite these transactions the manor was still found to belong to the Heslertons at Walter's death in 1349. (fn. 68) In 1368-9 the heirs of another Walter of Heslerton (d. 1367) held Scoreby under the Percys, (fn. 69) and in 1394 livery of the manor was granted to Ralph Neville, earl of Westmorland (d. 1425), cousin and heir of Heslerton's widow Euphemia. (fn. 70)

The manor was subsequently held by Ralph's grandson Richard Neville (d. 1460), earl of Salisbury, and Richard's son Richard Neville (d. 1471), earl of Warwick, 'the kingmaker'. Upon the forfeiture and partition of Warwick's estates by Act of Parliament in 1474 between the dukes of Clarence and Gloucester, Scoreby was assigned to the latter and was confirmed to him in 1475. (fn. 71) On ascending the throne Richard III kept it in hand and in the 1490s it was accounted for along with Sheriff Hutton (Yorks. N.R.). (fn. 72) It is said to have been given by Henry VIII to his natural son Henry Fitzroy, probably along with Sheriff Hutton, in 1525, and it reverted to the Crown on Fitzroy's death in 1536. (fn. 73) It was let to members of the Blake family for much of the 16th century. (fn. 74)

In 1610 the Crown granted the manor for lives to Sir Henry Jenkins, and in 1624, described as a member of Sheriff Hutton manor, Scoreby was said to contain 715 a. as well as much woodland. (fn. 75) Sir Henry's son William (d. 1659) devised land there to his brother, (fn. 76) and Tobias Jenkins was dealing in the manor in 1697 and 1707. (fn. 77) Tobias's daughter Mary married Sir Henry Goodrick and the manor was evidently settled on them. In 1715 Goodrick sold it to Mark Kirkby, (fn. 78) and in 1723 Jenkins conveyed his life interest in part of the manor to Kirkby's sons Mark and Christopher. (fn. 79) After the death of the younger Mark Kirkby in 1748 his estates were divided in 1750 and Scoreby went to his niece Sarah Horsfield. (fn. 80)

In 1803 the devisees of Sarah's son Mann Horsfield sold the manor to E. L. Hodgson, together with 1,247 a. in the township. (fn. 81) Hodgson sold much of the land to Ottiwell Wood in 1808 and the manor and remaining land in 1817. (fn. 82) Wood died in 1847 and Scoreby was sold in 1851 by John Wood and others to Albert Denison, Lord Londesborough; the estate then included Dunnington, Hagg, Lime Field, Manor, North, and South farms. (fn. 83) In 1905 W. F. H. Denison, earl of Londesborough, sold the estate, comprising 1,281 a., to C. F. Walker, (fn. 84) who already held Scoreby Grange and part of Stamford Bridge West manor. The whole estate, comprising 1,920 a., was sold by J. P. E. Walker in 1936 to the Ecclesiastical Commissioners. (fn. 85)

A manor-house was mentioned at Scoreby in 1368. (fn. 86) Tobias Jenkins had a four-hearth house in 1672. (fn. 87) The present Manor House Farm bears the date 1723 and the initials of Christopher and Mark Kirkby.

It was perhaps in the early 17th century, when Scoreby was granted to the Jenkins family, that a separate estate was created later known as Scoreby Grange. In the 18th century it belonged, along with Gate Helmsley (Yorks. N.R.), to the Wilmers and then the Worsleys. (fn. 88) In 1843, when it comprised 366 a., it was sold by Sir William Worsley to James Walker, (fn. 89) who later acquired the manorial estate.

The area later to be known as Stamford Bridge West township was perhaps included with Scoreby in Domesday Book. In 1246 it was held by Herbert de Neville and his wife Margery of Peter de Percy, (fn. 90) and it had been described as their manor of STAMFORD BRIDGE in 1243. (fn. 91) By 1284-5 it was held, like Scoreby, by Robert de Percy of the Chamberlains, and they of the Percys. (fn. 92) It subsequently descended like Scoreby manor, passing to the Crown in the 15th century and becoming a member of Sheriff Hutton. In 1534 it was let to Sir George Lawson (fn. 93) and in 1627 it was granted for life to George Kirk and others. (fn. 94) Probably in 1628 it was alienated by Charles I to the Ditchfield grantees, along with Sheriff Hutton, as security for the City of London's loan to the Crown. (fn. 95) As in the case of Elvington (fn. 96) it may have passed through the hands of Ralph Radcliffe and Sir Arthur Ingram. The Ingrams long retained Sheriff Hutton, (fn. 97) but Stamford Bridge manor had been acquired by the Wright family by 1721. (fn. 98)

The manor, manor-house, and about 270 a. were conveyed by the Wrights to Thomas Wilson and another in 1793. (fn. 99) The estate was subsequently split up, 109 a. being sold by George Wilson to Thomas Preston in 1864, for example. (fn. 100) Some of it became part of the Walkers' Scoreby estate. (fn. 101) The manor and 13 a. were sold by the Wilsons' trustees to Robert Danby in 1873 and by his trustees to E. A. F. W. Herbert in 1905. (fn. 102) The Herberts sold Manor House to A. N. Marsh in 1967. (fn. 103) The surviving house may have been built in the 18th century and refronted in the 19th.

The guild of St. Christopher and St. George, York, had property in Stamford Bridge West. After the Dissolution it was granted in 1549 to York corporation, (fn. 104) and in the early 17th century it was called 'St. Thomas land', perhaps because the corporation assigned it towards the upkeep of St. Thomas's hospital, York. (fn. 105) It amounted to c. 30 a. (fn. 106) and in 1719 was sold by the corporation to John Wright, (fn. 107) so becoming part of the manorial estate.

ECONOMIC HISTORY.

Kexby was not described separately in the Domesday Survey and there are few early references to its economy. There was probably extensive woodland in the township in the Middle Ages. Thomas Ughtred was licensed to impark his woods at Kexby and elsewhere in 1334, (fn. 108) for example, and 116 oaks were bought at Kexby for York Minster in 1441-2. (fn. 109) The reclamation of woodland apparently led to the creation of open arable fields in the north of the township, where much ridge-and-furrow survives on either side of the main road to York, some of it in areas which have reverted to woodland in modern times. (fn. 110) Further south in the township assarting may have produced only inclosed land, including the meadow land known as Grey Leas, towards Elvington; (fn. 111) it is possible that this land took its name from the Grey family, one of whom conveyed property in Kexby to the Ughtreds in 1366, for example. (fn. 112)

Grey Leas had probably been subdivided into several closes by the 17th century, (fn. 113) and a close called'White Carr was mentioned in 1602. (fn. 114) Other named closes included Ox and Middle closes 'above the wood' in 1618. (fn. 115) The open fields had also, it seems, been inclosed by the early 17th century and had passed into single ownership. Wood was sold from Mill field, which was almost certainly a former open field, in 1616 and 1627, a settlement of 1625 having reserved timber there to the owner at twelve oak trees to the acre. (fn. 116) The moor or common of Kexby occupied the south-west corner of the township, adjoining Dunnington, and an outgang or 'stray' led to it alongside the township boundary. (fn. 117) The common was said to comprise about 200 a. in 1752. (fn. 118) An 86-acre close taken from it was mentioned in 1786 (fn. 119) and it may have been inclosed about the same time as Dunnington common. In 1752 there were also 186 a. of woods, occupying much the same ground as in the 20th century; they lay between the road to Elvington on the east, Grey Leas on the south, and 'widow Robinson's farm' (the former White Carr) on the west. (fn. 120)

At Scoreby in 1086 there was said to be land for 3 ploughs, but Osbern de Percy then had 2 ploughs and 4 villeins and 2 bordars had 2 more. There was meadow measuring 3 furlongs by one and woodland ½ league long and ½ broad. The estate had been worth £1 10s. in 1066 but was valued at £2 in 1086. (fn. 121) The continued existence of woodland in 1368 is suggested by a pasture called the Hagg, but there were also reclaimed plots of land called Holker and 'Newland of Forland', as well as openfield land. Tenants-at-will held 24 houses and probably 48 bovates of land, and the demesne was also in the hands of tenants. (fn. 122) Scoreby and Stamford Bridge West may also have shared an area of common pasture, for in 1259 Peter de Percy demised common for 10 cattle and 100 sheep in the pasture of the two villages. (fn. 123) Other evidence for the existence of open-field land is provided by the ridge-andfurrow that still survives in Scoreby, some of it in the modern plantations there. (fn. 124)

It is not known when and in what circumstances Scoreby village was depopulated. (fn. 125) The open fields may have been converted to pasture by the early 16th century, when two men were involved in a lawsuit after putting 50 cattle into a pasture called Scoreby. (fn. 126) The manor remained predominantly pastoral in the 17th century. In 1624 pasture closes, including Great Hagg, Holly Hagg, North fields, and Far field, and meadows called the Ing, North ings, and South ings, together covered 715 a., and there were woods containing c. 800 trees. (fn. 127) By 1639 much timber was said to have been felled. The manor was then estimated to comprise 1,400 a., including 80 a. of meadow and 300 a. of former waste ground, since inclosed and improved; the rest was described as very good pasture. (fn. 128) The woodland was not completely cleared and there were still 197 a. in 1798. (fn. 129)

At Stamford Bridge West little is known of early agricultural arrangements. The rents of freeholders and cottagers there were recorded in 1368, and there was a common oven. (fn. 130) In 1555 various closes were named and there were 10 a. of arable called the infields and 3 a. of meadow called Hawe ings. (fn. 131) There may have been some open-field and common meadow land surviving in the early 17th century. In 1612, when there were at least 10 houses in the village and a dozen closes totalling 132 a., there was land and meadow in Brigg field and Brigg ing. (fn. 132) Among the closes in 1624, however, was the 37-acre Brigg field, and others included Little field (13 a.) and Summer close (20 a.). Several tenants then had beast-gates, variously said to be in Brigg pasture, in Cow and Middle pastures, and in meadow called the ings. Haw ings were also mentioned. (fn. 133) In both 1612 and 1624 a common pasture was said to belong to the manor and was estimated at the latter date at 80 a. It may have been situated in the north of Scoreby township. A common outgang apparently leading towards Scoreby was mentioned in 1719, together with cow-gates in the common; the mayor of York's small estate also then included parcels of land in Brigg field and Main ings, (fn. 134) suggesting that inclosure was not yet complete.

A considerable acreage continued to be devoted to pasture and woodland in both Kexby and Scoreby in the 19th and 20th centuries. Kexby included 1,097 a. of arable, 500 a. of meadow and pasture, and 154 a. of woodland in 1843, (fn. 135) and 1,006 a. of arable, 543 a. of grass, and 261 a. of woodland in 1905. (fn. 136) Scoreby with Stamford Bridge West had 923 a. of arable, 503 a. of grassland, and 186 a. of woodland in 1841, (fn. 137) and 1,263 a. of arable, 507 a. of grass, and 213 a. of woodland in 1905. (fn. 138) The land use in Kexby was still notably mixed in the 20th century, with much pasture near the Derwent and around the village and extensive woods west of the Elvington road. In Scoreby grassland was most prominent near the river and in the north of the township; Hagg and Scoreby woods survived, (fn. 139) and since 1952 they have been managed by the Forestry Commission. (fn. 140)

There have usually been 9-12 farmers in Kexby in the 19th and 20th centuries. (fn. 141) The manorial estate included 9 farms of 100 a. and more in 1808, (fn. 142) and in the 1850s Kexby had 2 of over 250 a. each and 8-10 of 100 a. and more. (fn. 143) There were 2 farms of over 150 a. in the 1920s and 1930s. There have usually been 8 or 9 farmers in Scoreby and Stamford Bridge West. (fn. 144) Six had over 120 a. in 1832, (fn. 145) one over 350 a. and 7 over 100 a. in 1851, (fn. 146) and 4 over 150 a. in the 1920s and 1930s. (fn. 147)

Markets and fairs brought trade to Stamford Bridge West over a long period, and perhaps briefly also to Kexby. A Wednesday market and a fair on Easter Monday and the following six days were granted to Thomas Ughtred at Kexby in 1347, (fn. 148) but they were not recorded again. Fairs at Stamford Bridge were mentioned c. 1200, (fn. 149) and a Tuesday market and a fair on the eve, day, and morrow of Holy Trinity were granted to Herbert de Neville in 1243. (fn. 150) In 1368 the Heslertons were holding fairs on 22 July and 20 November, as well as on Trinity Sunday. (fn. 151) A fair was held there in 1770 on 22 November for animals, brass, pewter, hardware, and cloth. (fn. 152) A cattle fair was held on 1 December in 1840, (fn. 153) a cattle, horse, and pleasure fair in 1872, and an almost wholly pleasure fair in 1892. (fn. 154) A fair on 1 December was mentioned as belonging to the manor as late as 1905. (fn. 155) The fair was held in a field on the south side of the York road not far from the Derwent. (fn. 156)

Fishing in the Derwent at Kexby was mentioned in the 16th century and later. (fn. 157) There was a wharf in 1840, when the proprietor of the Coach and Horses inn was also a maltster and timber, coal, and lime merchant. (fn. 158) The wharf lay just south of Kexby bridge and there was also an old landing near Kexby Old Hall in 1850. (fn. 159) Other non-agricultural employment has been provided in the township by a brickworks beside the Elvington road, first mentioned in 1901 (fn. 160) and closed in 1972. (fn. 161) There have been refreshment rooms on the York road since the 1930s. (fn. 162)

At Stamford Bridge West there was a wharf beside the Derwent in the 19th century and near by a brewery and malting; (fn. 163) a brewer was mentioned from 1823 until 1889. (fn. 164) Derwent Plastics Ltd. was established in 1934, when the former brewery was converted to a workshop. (fn. 165) The factory site was enlarged in the 1950s and 1960s (fn. 166) and new buildings erected.

There was presumably a windmill at Kexby in the Middle Ages, giving its name to Mill field. It probably stood on a mound still existing in Millfield wood. (fn. 167) There was also a windmill at either Scoreby or Stamford Bridge West in 1339. (fn. 168)

LOCAL GOVERNMENT.

At Kexby amends of the assize of bread and of ale were granted to Thomas Ughtred in 1347. (fn. 169) Court profits were recorded for Scoreby and Stamford Bridge West in 1368, (fn. 170) but a court leet at Stamford Bridge was said in 1624 to be seldom kept. (fn. 171)

There were parish poorhouses at a place called Noddy Cock in Stamford Bridge West. (fn. 172) Kexby, Scoreby, and Stamford Bridge West all joined York poor-law union in 1837. (fn. 173) They became part of Escrick rural district in 1894, Derwent rural district in 1935, (fn. 174) and the Selby district of North Yorkshire in 1974.

CHURCH.

A chantry chapel at Kexby was mentioned in 1398 (fn. 175) and a chaplain, with an income of £4, in 1525-6. (fn. 176) The chapel, which is said to have been dedicated to St. Mary, (fn. 177) may have been suppressed in the 16th century. It perhaps stood in Chapel close, mentioned in 1604. (fn. 178) A district chapelry was formed out of Catton parish in 1853. (fn. 179) It was at first a perpetual curacy but by 1872 was styled a vicarage. (fn. 180) The benefice was united with that of Wilberfoss in 1959. (fn. 181)

The patronage belonged to Lord Wenlock in 1853 and thereafter descended with the manor until the death of Beilby Lawley in 1912; it then passed like Escrick manor to Irene Lawley and so to the Forbes Adam family. (fn. 182) In 1937 it passed to Y. R. Vesey, 5th Viscount de Vesci, whose father Eustace had married Constance, sister of Beilby Lawley. (fn. 183) After 1959 the patrons of the united benefice were J. E. Vesey, 6th Viscount de Vesci, and J. E. R. Wyndham, 1st Baron Egremont. (fn. 184)

The living was worth £140 in 1884 and £130 net in 1915. (fn. 185) From 1889 to 1921 there was mention of 39 a. of glebe, but only 5 a. remained in 1974. (fn. 186) A parsonage house, built beside the church in 1853, (fn. 187) was still in use in 1973. It was perhaps by F. C. Penrose.

Two services each Sunday were held in 1865 and later; communion was celebrated monthly in 1865, with an average of 17 recipients, fortnightly by 1877, and weekly by 1915. (fn. 188) In 1973 a weekly service was held on Fridays and communion on Sundays.

The church of ST. PAUL, of stone, was designed in an early Gothic style by F. C. Penrose (fn. 189) and was consecrated in 1852. (fn. 190) It consists of chancel, nave, north-west bell-turret with spire, and west door with canopy. There is one bell.

NONCONFORMITY.

Two Roman Catholics were reported at Kexby in 1865. (fn. 191) The Methodists had a dozen members there in the 1790s. (fn. 192) A Primitive Methodist chapel was mentioned in 1840 (fn. 193) and 1851, (fn. 194) but a cottage was used in 1865 and 1877. The vicar reported in 1865 that most of the villagers were Primitives until the church was built in 1852 but that they had since attended the church. (fn. 195)

EDUCATION.

A school at Kexby was begun in 1831 and had 37 children in 1835; it was supported by P. B. Lawley, who also partly clothed the children, and there was a lending library attached to the school. (fn. 196) The schoolroom at first stood close beside the York road, (fn. 197) but about 1858 it was rebuilt, (fn. 198) standing back from the road opposite the church. An annual government grant was first received in 1860-1 (fn. 199) and 49 children attended in 1871. (fn. 200) The school was closed in 1905 and the children transferred to Dunnington and Wilberfoss. (fn. 201) The large schoolroom and master's house, built in the Tudor style of bright red brick with stone dressings, was used as a private house in 1973.

The children of Scoreby and Stamford Bridge West have attended schools in Stamford Bridge East, Dunnington, and Gate Helmsley (Yorks. N.R.). (fn. 202)

CHARITIES.

T gift of members of the Dealtry family to the poor of the parish included £1 for Kexby. (fn. 203)

William Headlam is said to have given a rentcharge to Kexby township in respect of which Beilby Thompson paid £5 4s. a year in 1824. It was then distributed to the unrelieved poor in sums of from 5s. to £1 10s. (fn. 204) It was regularly received thereafter, but in 1973 it was redeemed for £100 which was then invested in stock. (fn. 205)

Kexby and Stamford Bridge West benefited from the charity of John Hodgson for parishes in York poor-law union. (fn. 206)

Footnotes

  • 1. O.S. Map 6" Yorks. (1854 edn.). Kexby is covered by sheet 175, Scoreby and Stamford Bridge West mainly by sheet 175 and partly by sheet 158.
  • 2. C 134/41 no. 1; C 135/116 no. 1; Cal. Pat. 1405-8, 26, 68.
  • 3. Y.A.J. xii. 282.
  • 4. E.R.R.O., DDEL/32/31.
  • 5. Cal. Close, 1422-9, 410-11, 473; Y.A.J. iii. 241; Test. Ebor. ii, pp. 20, 50.
  • 6. Leland, Itin. ed. Toulmin Smith, i. 44.
  • 7. Test. Ebor. vi, pp. 208, 308; N. Country Wills, i (Sur. Soc. cxvi), 293.
  • 8. G. C. F. Forster, E.R. Justices of the Peace in the 17th Cent. (E. Yorks. Loc. Hist. Ser. xxx), 63.
  • 9. Made in 1778, perhaps copying an older one.
  • 10. See below. For the arms see V.C.H. Yorks. N.R. ii. 15.
  • 11. MacMahon, Roads and Turnpike Trusts, 70.
  • 12. E.R.R.O., QAB/2/1.
  • 13. e.g. E.R.C.C. Mins. 1960-1, 130; 1970-1, 179.
  • 14. See plate facing p. 160.
  • 15. See p. 150.
  • 16. V.C.H. City of York, 479.
  • 17. Local information.
  • 18. O.S. Map 6" (1854 edn.); SE 75 SW. (1958 and 1971 edns.); see plate facing p. 64.
  • 19. E.R.R.O., QDT/2/13, 15.
  • 20. Directories.
  • 21. Bulmer, Dir. E. Yorks. (1892), 574. For the house see below p. 161.
  • 22. Petworth Ho. Arch., no. 3072.
  • 23. See p. 161. The Three Cups inn is in Gate Helmsley.
  • 24. See p. 160.
  • 25. O.S. Map 6" (1854 edn.).
  • 26. E 179/202/53.
  • 27. E 179/202/58 m. 14.
  • 28. E 179/205/504.
  • 29. V.C.H. Yorks. iii. 497.
  • 30. Census.
  • 31. Yorks. Lay Subsidy, 30 Edw. I (Y.A.S. Rec. Ser. xxi), 105.
  • 32. E 179/202/58 m. 8.
  • 33. E 179/205/504.
  • 34. V.C.H. Yorks. iii. 497.
  • 35. Census.
  • 36. V.C.H. Yorks. ii. 219.
  • 37. Feud. Aids, vi. 33.
  • 38. Ibid. 173; Cal. Inq. p.m. v, p. 319.
  • 39. Yorks. Fines, 1327-47, p. 58; Yorks. Inq. Hen IV-V, p. 22.
  • 40. Cal. Pat. 1429-36, 306.
  • 41. C 140/521 no. 47.
  • 42. Yorks. Deeds, ii, p. 122.
  • 43. L. & P. Hen. VIII, iv (2), pp. 164-6.
  • 44. Ibid, v, p. 36.
  • 45. Cal. Pat. 1550-3, 295.
  • 46. C 3/236/5; E.R.R.O., DDEV/53/4.
  • 47. E.R.R.O., DDEL/32/1, 7, 19, 25, 31.
  • 48. Ibid. DDFA/8/116; Headlam Estate Act, 26 Geo. II, c. 23 (Priv. Act).
  • 49. See p. 20.
  • 50. R.D.B., 166/110/86; /139/113; /205/171; /373/309.
  • 51. Ibid. 164/370/325.
  • 52. Ibid. 561/501/390.
  • 53. Ibid. 166/456/387.
  • 54. Ibid. 678/158/121.
  • 55. Cal. Pat. 1340-3, 388.
  • 56. Yorks. Fines, i. 295; ii. 163.
  • 57. Petworth Ho. Arch., no. 3428.
  • 58. E.R.R.O., DDFA/8/19; DDEL/32/1.
  • 59. E 179/205/504.
  • 60. B.L. Lansd. MS. 914 no. 34.
  • 61. T. Jefferys, Map of Yorks. (1772).
  • 62. O.S. Map 6" (1854 edn.).
  • 63. V.C.H. Yorks. ii. 262.
  • 64. E.Y.C. xi, p. 213.
  • 65. Feud. Aids, vi. 33.
  • 66. E.Y.C. xi, p. 112; Yorks. Lay Subsidy, 30 Edw. I, 105; Yorks. Fines, 1300-14, p. 80; Cal. Inq. p.m. vi, pp. 82-3; vii, p. 421.
  • 67. Yorks. Fines, 1327-47, p. 98; Cal. Inq. p.m. viii, p. 180; Cal. Fine R. 1337-47, 158, 171.
  • 68. Cal. Pat. 1350-4, 337; Percy Charty. 228-9; Cal. Inq. p.m. ix, pp. 431-2.
  • 69. Cal. Inq. p.m. xii, pp. 181-2, 224.
  • 70. Cal. Close, 1392-6, 192; D.N.B.
  • 71. Cal. Close, 1422-9, 238; 1454-61, 407; Cal. Pat. 1467- 77. 483, 486-7; D.N.B.; see above p. 14.
  • 72. D.L. 29/650/10510.
  • 73. Y.A.J. x. 86; V.C.H. Yorks. N.R. ii. 178.
  • 74. Y.A.J. x. 87, 89, 91.
  • 75. B.L. Harl. MS. 6288 ff. 79-80.
  • 76. Abstracts of Yorks. Wills, 1665-6 (Y.A.S. Rec. Ser. ix), 154.
  • 77. C.P. 25(2)/895/9 Wm. III Hil. no. 59; C.P. 25(2) /984/6 Anne Trin. no. 49.
  • 78. R.D.B., D/351/587.
  • 79. Ibid. H/625/1266.
  • 80. E.R.R.O., DDSY/108/3, 5.
  • 81. R.D.B., CF/530/841.
  • 82. Ibid. CN/385/603; DC/346/473.
  • 83. Ibid. GR/340/407; GS/361/456.
  • 84. Ibid. 75/457/435 (1905).
  • 85. Ibid. 561/501/390.
  • 86. C 135/198 no. 12.
  • 87. E 179/205/504.
  • 88. E.R.R.O., Land Tax; B.I.H.R., TER. I. Catton 1716 etc.; see V.C.H. Yorks. N.R. ii. 140.
  • 89. R.D.B., GB/263/309.
  • 90. Yorks. Fines, 1232-46, pp. 160-1; E.Y.C. xi, p. 109.
  • 91. Cal. Pat. 1232-47, 405.
  • 92. Feud. Aids, vi. 33.
  • 93. L. & P. Hen. VIII, vii, p. 174.
  • 94. E.R.R.O., DDKG/142(c); V.C.H. Yorks. N.R. ii. 178.
  • 95. R.D.B., H/227/475.
  • 96. See p. 14.
  • 97. V.C.H. Yorks. N.R. ii. 178.
  • 98. R.D.B., H/227/475.
  • 99. Ibid. BR/357/590.
  • 100. Ibid. IL/294/388.
  • 101. Ibid. 75/457/435 (1905).
  • 102. Ibid. LC/28/286; 70/157/148 (1904); 74/85/80 (1905).
  • 103. Ibid. 1514/549/482.
  • 104. Cal. Pat. 1549-51, 31.
  • 105. V.C.H. City of York, 422.
  • 106. L.R. 2/230 ff. 189-215; B.L. Harl. MS. 6288 ff. 66-9; E.R.R.O., DDKG/142(c).
  • 107. R.D.B., F/411/889.
  • 108. Cal. Pat. 1334-8, 36.
  • 109. Fabric Rolls of York Minster (Sur. Soc. xxxv), 56.
  • 110. Forestry Com. Forest Record, no. 62 (H.M.S.O.), including air photograph.
  • 111. Yorks. Fines, i. 39, 55.
  • 112. Yorks. Fines, 1347-77, p. 119.
  • 113. E.R.R.O., DDEL/32/31.
  • 114. C 142/25 no. 126.
  • 115. E.R.R.O., DDFA/8/21, 24-5.
  • 116. Ibid. DDFA/8/20; DDEL/32/1, 5.
  • 117. O.S. Map 6" (1854 edn.).
  • 118. E.R.R.O., DDFA/8/10.
  • 119. Ibid. DDFA/8/43.
  • 120. Ibid. DDFA/8/10.
  • 121. V.C.H. Yorks. ii. 262.
  • 122. C 135/198 no. 12.
  • 123. Cat. Anct. D. iii, D 236.
  • 124. Forestry Com. Forest Record, no. 62.
  • 125. See p. 159.
  • 126. C 1 /402 no. 60.
  • 127. B.L. Harl. MS. 6288 ff. 79-80.
  • 128. E.R.R.O., DDKG/142(c).
  • 129. R.D.B., BZ/125/183.
  • 130. C 135/198 no. 12.
  • 131. Cal. Pat. 1555-7, 102.
  • 132. L.R. 2/230 ff. 189-215.
  • 133. B.L. Harl. MS. 6288 ff. 66-9.
  • 134. R.D.B., F/411/889.
  • 135. B.I.H.R., TA. 521S.
  • 136. Acreage Returns, 1905.
  • 137. B.I.H.R., TA. 297S.
  • 138. Acreage Returns, 1905.
  • 139. [1st] Land Util. Surv. Map, sheet 27; 2nd Land Util. Surv. Map, sheet 709 (SE 65-75).
  • 140. Ex inf. Forestry Com., York, 1972.
  • 141. Directories.
  • 142. E.R.R.O., DDFA/41/3.
  • 143. Ibid. DDFA/41/6; H.O. 107/2356.
  • 144. Directories.
  • 145. C. Howard, Gen. View of Agric. of E.R. Yorks. 2.
  • 146. H.O. 107/2356.
  • 147. Directories.
  • 148. Cal. Pat. 1345-8, 527.
  • 149. E. Y.C. xi, p. 77.
  • 150. Cal. Pat. 1232-47, 405.
  • 151. C 135/198 no. 12.
  • 152. Yorks. Fairs and Mkts. (Thoresby Soc. xxxix), 176.
  • 153. White, Dir. E. & N.R. Yorks. (1840), 236.
  • 154. Kelly's Dir. N. & E.R. Yorks. (1872), 549; Bulmer, Dir. E. Yorks. (1892), 574.
  • 155. R.D.B., BR/357/590; LC/218/286; 74/85/80 (1905).
  • 156. O.S. Map 6" (1854 edn.).
  • 157. C 142/77 no. 18; E.R.R.O., DDFA/8/116; Yorks. Fines, i. 295; ii. 163.
  • 158. White, Dir. E. & N.R. Yorks. (1840), 236.
  • 159. O.S. Map 6" (1854 edn.).
  • 160. Kelly's Dir. N. & E.R. Yorks. (1901), 512.
  • 161. Local information.
  • 162. Directories.
  • 163. White, Dir. E. & N.R. Yorks. (1840), 236-7; O.S. Map 1/2,500, Yorks. CLVIII. 15 (1893 edn.).
  • 164. H.O. 107/2356; directories.
  • 165. Dalesman, Nov. 1965, 626.
  • 166. R.D.B., 889/470/393; 960/105/94; 1563/114/106.
  • 167. Shown as 'mill hill' on O.S. Map 6" (1854 and later edns.).
  • 168. E 152/28.
  • 169. Cal. Pat. 1345-8, 527.
  • 170. C 135/198 no. 12.
  • 171. B.L. Harl. MS. 6288 ff. 66-9.
  • 172. O.S. Map 6" (1854 edn.).
  • 173. 3rd Rep. Poor Law Com. 169.
  • 174. Census.
  • 175. Test Ebor. i, p. 244.
  • 176. Y.A.J. xxiv. 72.
  • 177. Ibid. x. 84.
  • 178. E.R.R.O., DDFA/8/19.
  • 179. Lond. Gaz. 11 Feb. 1853, p. 365.
  • 180. Sheahan and Whellan, Hist. York & E.R. ii. 626; Kelly's Dir. N. & E.R. Yorks. (1872), 510.
  • 181. York Dioc. Regy., Order in Council 748.
  • 182. York Dioc. Handbk.; see above pp. 20, 160.
  • 183. York Dioc. Handbk.; Burke, Peerage (1967), 740-1.
  • 184. R.D.B., 1745/56/52.
  • 185. B.I.H.R., Bp. V. 1884/Ret.; Bp. V. 1915/Ret.
  • 186. Directories; ex inf. the vicar, 1974.
  • 187. Sheahan and Whellan, Hist. York & E.R. ii. 626.
  • 188. B.I.H.R., V. 1865/Ret. 285; V. 1877/Ret.; Bp. V. 1915/Ret.
  • 189. Pevsner, Yorks. E.R. 291.
  • 190. B.I.H.R., CD. 232.
  • 191. B.I.H.R., V. 1865/Ret. 285.
  • 192. E.R.R.O., MRP/1/7.
  • 193. White, Dir. E. & N.R. Yorks. (1840), 236.
  • 194. H.O. 129/23/515.
  • 195. B.I.H.R., V. 1865/Ret. 285; V. 1877/Ret.
  • 196. Educ. Enquiry Abstract, 1082.
  • 197. O.S. Map 6" (1854 edn.).
  • 198. Kelly's Dir. N. & E.R. Yorks. (1889), 414.
  • 199. Rep. of Educ. Cttee. of Council, 1860-1 [2828], p. 776, H.C. (1861), xlix.
  • 200. Returns relating to Elem. Educ. 792.
  • 201. E.R. Educ. Cttee. Mins. 1905-6, 217.
  • 202. e.g. directories.
  • 203. See p. 158.
  • 204. 11th Rep. Com. Char. 726.
  • 205. Char. Com. files.
  • 206. See p. 12.