A History of the County of York North Riding: Volume 1. Originally published by Victoria County History, London, 1914.
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Hornby is a parish of nearly 4,000 acres northwest of Bedale. It is divided into three townships: Hornby on the west, Hackforth in the centre, and Ainderby Myers with Holtby on the east. The Roman road forms the eastern boundary of the parish. The country near Bedale is very fertile, and about half of the total area is in cultivation, (fn. 1) the chief crops being wheat, oats, barley, beans and potatoes. The soil is loamy on a subsoil of limestone.
A large part of Hornby is included in the wellwooded park of Hornby Castle, which covers about 700 acres. This park was probably made by William Lord Conyers, who improved the castle at the end of the 15th century, and is said to have 'caste downe 40 husbandries to make it.' (fn. 2) It was very much altered about 1800. (fn. 3) Previous to that time a large part of the park lay on the west of the castle. This was converted into farms and an extension made towards Hackforth, while the road from Catterick to Bedale was diverted to pass through that village. The ground rises to the west, so that the castle, which stands on what is now the western edge of the park, is about 300 ft. above the ordnance datum. It is, as the Earl of Oxford said of it in 1723, 'placed on a very agreeable situation, were there but a river within the prospect from it, which is a very extensive one towards the south and the Hambleton Hills.' (fn. 4) The castle dates from the 14th century, when the St. Quintins were lords of the manor, but according to Leland 'it was but a meane thing' before the days of William first Lord Conyers. (fn. 5) It is the residence of the Duke of Leeds. The fine collection of pictures was already begun in 1725. (fn. 6)
The castle is of a large courtyard plan with the principal front towards the south. The 'keep' is at the south-east angle and the St. Quintin's Tower at the north-west. From the latter a wing containing the dining rooms projects to the west, and from this again another called the bachelors' wing projects northwards. The walls are of stone and have embattled parapets. Whilst both the principal towers named stand fairly well above the general level of the house, the other two angle towers at the north-east and south-west corners are not so high. The sky-line is also broken on the east front by the bow window or curved bay in the middle being carried above the main parapet. The building is generally of two stories, the corner towers of three. The roofs are flat.
The oldest part is the St. Quintin's Tower, which is probably of late 14th-century date. The north range east of the tower was built early in the 16th century, but was very much altered in the 18th century. The large entrance gateway in the south range adjoining the keep, and forming the principal entrance, dates from the 15th century, and probably the keep itself contains walling of the same period; but this, besides being covered with ivy, has been very completely restored and modernized, like the greater part of the remainder of the house. The wing west of the St. Quintin's Tower is a mid-18th-century addition, and the bachelors' wing is modern. The whole of the internal arrangements are of 18th and 19thcentury date. The entrance archway in the south front is of late 15th-century date. It has hollowchamfered jambs and two-centred drop arch, the wide hollow being carved with flowers and beasts; the label is similarly carved with beasts and running foliage, and has grotesque beast stops. The inner arch towards the courtyard is four-centred and of plainer detail; the stones have several masons' marks; the original hooks for the gates remain. On the middle face of the three-sided central bay of the south front, between the ground and first floor windows, is the reset label of a late 15th-century window with beast stops; the space it incloses contains an old stone carved with a rose and two modern shields. In the parapet of the same wall is an old stone carved with a concave and much weather-worn shield of Darcy of twelve quarters, of which Darcy, Meynell, Tempest, St. Quintin, Nevill and Fauconberg are still visible. Below it is an 18th-century sundial. The remainder of this range, which contains the library and billiard room on the ground floor and the drawing room on the first floor, has been modernized.
The north range contains the principal doorway from the courtyard. It has elaborately moulded and enriched jambs and three-centred arch and dates from early in the 16th century. It is flanked by pilasters or thin buttresses, which are carried up to the string-course of the parapet and terminate in grotesque gargoyles. The label of the doorway is enriched with crockets above and carvings below, and terminates in a finial below which is the name conyers. Above is a large moulded panel inclosing an achievement of arms. The coroneted shield is of Conyers quartering St. Quintin, Ryleston, Darcy, Meynell, Nevill of Raby, Fauconberg and Braose, supported by a lion and a bull. The motto is 'Un Dieu un Roi.' Above the panel is a threecentred niche containing a stone carved with a lion, and having a label with a shield as finial charged with the Conyers maunch. A stone east of the niche carved with a ram's head and two shields west of it are evidently not in situ. The first shield bears three scallops and the second three chaplets of roses. The oak door is divided into four traceried panels, and the middle rail is carved with creeping beasts and the initials W.A. The windows in the wall are of the 18th century, but traces of the original windows remain. One on the ground floor west of the entrance was square-headed, the original moulded string-course passing over it as a label; two on the first floor, one on each side of the over-door, were large openings with apparently two-centred drop arches. Two other old stones have been reset in the wall, one on each side of the doorway; one carved as a woman bearing a pitcher, now much mutilated, the other as a bird. A three-sided, or quarteroctagonal, bay of two stories in the north-east angle is probably of the same date, but has been very much pulled about and restored; it has panelled buttresses at the angles. The trefoiled windows of the ground floor have been filled in with ashlar, the upper windows have trefoiled heads and tracery. In the space between the lower and upper windows are the remains of an inscription; on the south-west face 'posvi devm,' and on the south face 'adiv . . .' Another projecting half-octagonal bay west of the entrance, of one story only, is an 18th or 19th-century addition, but with the windows made up of early 16th-century trefoiled lights. On the opposite side of the courtyard is a modern bay window copied from this, the two sides being connected by a modern underground passage.
The windows on the north and east sides of this range are of the 18th century, but in the east wall are traces of a former very large Tudor window (now blocked), evidently the end window of a large hall, and in the north wall are two smaller blocked windows of the same character, all three with four-centred arches.
The east range contains only modern detail. The west range, also much restored, has a modern doorway in the courtyard containing a few old stones reused, and over it is part of a black letter inscription, too weather-worn to be decipherable. Above it is a shield, also weather-worn, with arms, apparently Conyers quartering Nevill and Braose.
The only detail of interest in the St. Quintin's Tower appears to be a late 14th-century cinquefoiled light on the north face. It is otherwise modernized. In the grounds west of the house is a small modern museum.
There are fish-ponds in the park, the Long Pond, Great Pond, and New Decoy being at its southern edge. Just outside the lodge gates, at the west end of Hornby Park, are St. Mary's Church and rectory, with a small group of stone-built houses standing among a group of trees. In the rectory garden are three yew trees of some size, and north-west of it a circular rubble-built dovecot.
Hackforth, just outside the park at its south-east corner, is rather larger than Hornby. The manorhouse, the residence of the Misses Ingledew, stands on the east side of the village, surrounded by a moat. It has stone mullioned windows in front, and is apparently the remains of a 16th-century house. There are a school, an inn and two mills, the water-mill being the successor of one mentioned in the 14th (fn. 7) and 16th centuries. (fn. 8) Ghyll Hall, now a farm-house, is a stone building, probably of the 16th century.
From Hackforth a footpath leads south-east to the old manor-house of Ainderby Myers. This consists of a central block with two projecting wings, forming a small court, the front of which is closed by a wall, in which an entrance arch remains. The house has been somewhat altered, and in place of the original entrance by the court on the south side the main door is now in the middle of the eastern or larger wing, and the court is partly filled by a modern building with a lean-to roof. The eastern wing is 26 ft. wide and the court about 30 ft.; the western wing is shorter in projection and has been altered. The archway, 4 ft. 10 in. in width, appears to be semicircular, though the stones are much shifted and out of the perpendicular, and springs from much worn capitals and plain jambs. The keystone, of the classical type, with decoration on the face and soffit, bears a weather-worn date beginning 16—. On the spandrels are shields of arms, apparently intended for Darcy and Covell. In the east wall of the court, on a level with the first floor, is a blocked doorway with a cambered lintel, probably approached originally by an external stair. The north-east gable has a pyramidal pinnacle, and at the south-east angle of the house is a flat clasping buttress or thickening projecting 5 in. Where not modernized the windows are of two and three lights, mullioned, and of late date, with straight moulded labels above the head. The interior retains no detail of interest with the exception of the fine chimney block, with its back-toback fireplaces, opposite the entrance from the court.
Before the Conquest a 'manor' in HORNBY was held by Archil. (fn. 9) His son Gospatric was holding Hornby of Count Alan in 1086, but the land was waste and without value. (fn. 10) In the 12th century the church, and apparently the manor, were in the possession of Wigan, 'son of Landric of Hornby.' (fn. 11) A mesne lordship here subsequently belonged to the lords of Thornton Steward. (fn. 12)
At the close of the 12th century the tenant in demesne was Conan son of Ellis, (fn. 13) lord of East Cowton (q.v.), who held one fee in Ainderby and Holtby, (fn. 14) this probably including his land in Hornby. He died without issue, (fn. 15) his heirs being the three sisters of his father Ellis, Beatrice, ancestress of the family of Hornby, Parnel, who married a Lascelles, and Constance, ancestress of the family of Crakehall. (fn. 16) Avis, widow of Conan, afterwards married Alan de Multon and held Hornby in dower. At her death it reverted to Ellis de Crakehall, William Lascelles and Robert de Hornby, (fn. 17) sons of the co-heirs. In 1286 Robert Lascelles, brother and heir of William, (fn. 18) held 2 of the 6 carucates in the vill. Peter de Crakehall, son of Ellis, also held 2, while of the other 2 Thomas de Ottrington, nephew of Robert de Hornby, held one, and the other was in the hands of Richard Barton. (fn. 19) The share of Thomas de Ottrington subsequently reverted to his aunt Sybil de Hornby, (fn. 20) and it seems probable that this family gradually acquired the whole vill. Thomas de Hornby was the chief tenant here in 1316 (fn. 21) and Robert de Hornby in 1327. (fn. 22) Four years later mills and tenements in Hornby were settled on Robert and his wife Christina and their issue, with contingent remainder to Thomas St. Quintin and his heirs. (fn. 23) In 1332 Christina, widow of Robert, and Thomas St. Quintin were holding jointly. (fn. 24) At her death the manor came into the sole possession of the family of St. Quintin, a younger branch of the St. Quintins of Harpham. (fn. 25) Thomas was succeeded by his nephew William, who had a son and heir John. (fn. 26) Anthony son of John died at the end of the 14th century, and left a daughter and heir Margaret, whose wardship and marriage belonged to Richard Lord Scrope. (fn. 27) He married Margaret St. Quintin to John Conyers, 'a servant of his own,' (fn. 28) who became the ancestor of the Conyers of Hornby. He was succeeded by a son and heir Christopher, who purchased more lands in Hornby. (fn. 29) Christopher was alive in 1459, (fn. 30) and was succeeded by his son John, (fn. 31) who became Sheriff of Yorkshire 'at the king's special request,' but received none of the accustomed issues and profits. As a reward he had a pardon of all offences committed by him and all accounts due to the king. (fn. 32) His son Sir John Conyers, (fn. 33) who married Alice the daughter and co-heir of William Lord Fauconberg, predeceased him, (fn. 34) and on his death in 1490 he was succeeded by his grandson and heir William, (fn. 35) created Lord Conyers in 1506 or 1507. (fn. 36) He married Anne daughter of Ralph Nevill Earl of Westmorland, and had a son and heir Christopher. (fn. 37) John Lord Conyers, son and heir of Christopher, died in 1556, and his property was inherited by his four surviving daughters, Margaret, who died unmarried in 1560, (fn. 38) Anne the wife of Anthony Kempe, Elizabeth, who married Thomas Darcy, and Katherine, afterwards wife of John Atherton. (fn. 39) The heirs of Thomas Darcy and his wife, in whom the barony of Conyers became vested by the failure of heirs to the other two surviving sisters, (fn. 40) acquired by purchase their two-thirds of Hornby. John Atherton, son of Katherine, and his wife Anne quitclaimed their third of the manor to Conyers Darcy, son of Thomas, in 1611, (fn. 41) and their daughter Anne and her husband, Sir William Pennyman, did the same in 1630. (fn. 42) Anne Kempe died in possession of her share in 1567, (fn. 43) and it was conveyed after her death by her husband to John Jackson and Harsculph Cleasby, (fn. 44) with whom Thomas Darcy and Katherine Conyers held the manor (fn. 45) in 1573. Jackson and Cleasby quitclaimed their share in 1575 to William Waller, (fn. 46) who in 1579 sold it to Oswald Metcalfe. (fn. 47) Oswald Metcalfe died and was buried in Hornby in 1604. (fn. 48) Two years later Thomas Claxton and Mary his wife, with William Covell and Elizabeth his wife, conveyed a third of the manor to Conyers Darcy, with a warranty against the heirs of Mary and Elizabeth, (fn. 49) apparently the daughters and heirs of Oswald Metcalfe. (fn. 50) Conyers Darcy was thus in possession of the whole manor, which remained in the hands of the Lords Darcy. (fn. 51) Conyers Darcy had a son Conyers, created Earl of Holderness in 1682 (fn. 52); he was succeeded by another Conyers, who had a son and heir Robert. (fn. 53) Another Robert Lord Conyers succeeded his father, but died without male heirs. (fn. 54) The earldom of Holderness and the barony of Darcy became extinct, but Amelia, daughter of the last earl, became Lady Conyers in her own right and inherited the family estates. She carried them by her marriage with Francis Godolphin Osborne Marquess of Carmarthen, afterwards fifth Duke of Leeds, into the Osborne family, Dukes of Leeds. (fn. 55) The present Duke of Leeds is lord of the manor of Hornby.
Mills in Hornby are mentioned as an appurtenance of the manor down to the 17th century. (fn. 56)
In AINDERBY MYERS (Endrebi, xi cent.; Anderby, xiv cent.; Ainderbie-en-le-Myers, xvi cent.) Bernulf had 2½ carucates with sac and soc before the Norman Conquest. In 1086 Landric, a vassal of Count Alan, had it in demesne. (fn. 57) Here as at Hornby (q.v.) the lordship came into the hands of Conan son of Ellis. (fn. 58) The Fitton family succeeded to his right in the manor. (fn. 59)
In 1286–7 Robert Ainderby was holding land here directly of the Earl of Richmond. (fn. 60) Thomas Colvill, lord of Holtby, held land here in the 14th century, (fn. 61) probably by grant of the Ainderbys. (fn. 62) In 1536 Thomas Covell (Colvill) died seised of the manor. (fn. 63) He was succeeded by his son and heir William, who died in 1556, leaving a son Thomas. (fn. 64) Thomas Covell was lord in 1589 (fn. 65) and was succeeded by his son John; in 1632 John Covell and Anna his wife and Roger Covell quitclaimed the manor to Conyers Darcy of Hornby, (fn. 66) which it has since followed in descent. (fn. 67)
A 'capital messuage' in Ainderby Myers was owned by John Smelt in 1579, when he settled it on his wife with remainder to his son John, who died seised of the reversion in 1597, leaving a son and heir Thomas, a minor. (fn. 68)
HACKFORTH (Acheford, xi cent.; Hakford, xiii cent.) belonged before the Conquest to Archil, except for 1 carucate which was held by Uctred. In 1086 Geoffrey held of Count Alan the land of Archil, and Odo the land of Uctred, which was waste. (fn. 69) The manor was held in demesne from the end of the 12th century by the family of Burgh. Thomas son of Thomas de Burgh paid relief for his father's lands in 1199, (fn. 70) and six years afterwards his mother Sarah, then the wife of Simon son of Walter, claimed dower here. (fn. 71) Thomas son of Philip de Burgh (fn. 72) was the tenant in 1286 (fn. 73) of two fees here and in Appleton. (fn. 74) He died in 1322 (fn. 75); the legitimacy of his son John appears to have been questioned and Elizabeth, sister of Thomas and wife of Alexander de Mountford, was declared heir. She renounced her right and acknowledged John as heir, (fn. 76) but in 1324 obtained a grant from him and his brother. (fn. 77) Laurence Mountford succeeded his father Alexander, (fn. 78) and several generations of Thomas Mountfords succeeded him as lords of Hackforth. (fn. 79) The last of them was in possession in 1520 (fn. 80); his heir was his elder daughter Margery wife of Nicholas Girlington. (fn. 81) She in 1544 (fn. 82) settled the manor on her son Nicholas, who died seised in 1583. (fn. 83) His son and heir Nicholas died in 1597, (fn. 84) leaving a son John. (fn. 85) In 1606 John Girlington and Christina his wife quitclaimed tenements and land here to the heirs of Cuthbert Pudsey. (fn. 86) Thomas Pudsey died seised of the manor in 1619 (fn. 87) and his daughter Philippa in 1629. (fn. 88) She was unmarried and her heir was her uncle William Pudsey. (fn. 89) In 1652 Michael Pudsey and Mary his wife quitclaimed two parts of the manor to Conyers Darcy, lord of Hornby, (fn. 90) which it henceforth followed in descent. (fn. 91)
The yeoman family of Hackforth held land here of the Burgh family in the 13th and 14th centuries. (fn. 92)
Thomas de Burgh obtained a grant of free warren in Hackforth in 1304–5. (fn. 93)
HOLTBY (Heltebi, xi cent.) was held by Gospatric of Count Alan in 1086 (fn. 94) and followed the descent of Hornby, coming into the hands of Conan son of Ellis. (fn. 95) Like East Cowton (q.v.) it passed to Richard Fitton, and was held of his grandson Edmund in 1281. (fn. 96) In 1286 the mesne lordship had passed to Henry de Ripon. (fn. 97) Later the manor was held of the lords of Hornby. (fn. 98)
The tenant in demesne was William de Holtby in 1252, (fn. 99) Adam de Holtby in 1278, (fn. 100) and a second William in 1286. (fn. 101) He conveyed the manor in 1288 to Thomas Colvill, (fn. 102) who received a grant of free warren here in 1307. (fn. 103) In 1459 it was with Pinchingthorpe in the hands of Christopher Conyers of Hornby, John Conyers and his wife Margery. (fn. 104) Subsequently it was held by a younger branch of that family. Thomas Conyers was lord in 1558, (fn. 105) and was succeeded by his son Christopher, who died in 1588, (fn. 106) leaving a son and heir Christopher. Henry Conyers, son of Christopher, (fn. 107) settled the manor in 1637 on his son Darcy and Elizabeth his wife and their heirs. (fn. 108) The co-heirs of Darcy were his daughters Mary and Elizabeth. (fn. 109) Mary died in 1642, (fn. 110) and Elizabeth, then two and a half years old, inherited Holtby; later she married Henry Harrison of Allerthorpe. (fn. 111) Her son Conyers, born in 1663, (fn. 112) probably inherited the manor. Before 1784 it had come into the hands of Thomas Robson, (fn. 113) whose granddaughter and ultimate heir married John Hutton of Solberge. (fn. 114) His son Robert Hutton Squire (fn. 115) succeeded him, and the latter's widow is now owner of Holtby.
The church of ST. MARY THE VIRGIN consists of a chancel 34 ft. 7 in. by 18 ft. 4 in. with a small north vestry, nave 45 ft. 9 in. by 21 ft. 5 in., south chapel 12 ft. by 17 ft. 5 in., north aisle 13 ft. 9 in. wide, south aisle 15 ft. 5 in. wide, south porch and west tower 11 ft. 8 in. by 11 ft. 5 in. These measurements are all internal.
The earliest part of the church is the tower, which dates from about 1080 and was evidently attached to a small church consisting of a chancel and nave. This chancel and nave were rebuilt about 1170–80 and a north aisle added. About 1330 the north aisle was widened.
Of the date of the rebuilding of the south aisle (fn. 116) we have a valuable record in the MS. History of the Darcys and Conyers, written in 1667, from which the following is an extract: '11th of Henry IV (1410) 28 Jan. Richard, mason, of Newton in the Parish of Patrick Brompton covenants with John Conyers of Hornby that he shall make the south Eil of the Parish Kirk of Hornby Berandalius as full brede as the north Eil with 2 hole pillars and 2 half pillars for 50 marks.' This aisle was built as described, and towards the end of the century it was extended eastwards to form a south chapel to the chancel. At the same period the tower was raised one stage higher and the clearstory to the nave was added. The south porch and the vestry are modern additions and the church was thoroughly restored in 1878–9, the chancel arch and the east wall both being rebuilt at that time. The latter has three modern roundheaded lancets with a roll edge and zigzag ornament inside and a label outside. Above these is a modern wheel window of seven trefoiled lights around a circular centre light; this also has a label. Below the windows inside is a billet-moulded string. In the north wall of the chancel, giving access to the vestry, is a round-headed doorway with a threequarter edge roll. It is of late 12th-century date and has either been reset inside out in its original place or, as perhaps is more probable, has been removed from the south wall. Next to this is a large modern archway to the organ chamber. There is no window on this side. In the south wall are two round-headed lights of late 12th-century date with three-quarter edge rolls to the inside splays, the roll passing also along the bottoms of the sloping window ledge. The outside faces of the windows are in two orders; the inner one has been renewed recently, the outer is old and has its edge slightly chamfered. The labels, having the usual small groove above a hollow chamfer, are really part of the string which runs along the wall at the level of the springing line of the window arches and is carried over them. Another string of similar section, renewed in parts, runs also below the window sills. Under the second window is a very late priest's doorway with a flat pointed head of two chamfered orders. The arch west of it into the south chapel has semioctagonal jambs with hollow-chamfered bases and very plain moulded capitals, the arch being two centred and of two chamfered orders. The chancel arch is modern and is built in the same style as the arches of the north arcade.
The three bays of this arcade are divided by piers of four attached shafts and have responds of two orders with keeled half-round shafts flanked by smaller shafts. The base moulds are a hollow between two rounds, the upper filleted and the lower somewhat flattened in section; below this is a sub-base with a three-quarter edge roll. The capitals, which follow the forms of the piers or responds below, but are octagonal above, have a round neck mould, above which, on the bell, is carved a simple and shallow voluted leaf of the 'water-plant' type. The abacus is a hollow chamfer with a round below and a groove above it; that of the eastern respond is new. The three half-round arches differ one from another. The first or easternmost is of two orders; the inner has a keeled roll between two hollows on the nave side and a smaller keeled roll towards the aisle. The outer order is chamfered on the aisle side, but towards the nave it has a hollow between two small rounds and filled with a cheveron enrichment in high relief. The second arch has an inner order of a large half-round flanked by zigzag ornament on both sides; the outer order, which is also chamfered on the aisle side, is enriched on the nave side, the eastern half of the arch with a lozenge ornament and the western half with a shallow zigzag. The western arch is plain, its two orders being simply chamfered. There appears to be no break between these different styles of enrichment, and it is evident that the whole is the result of one continuous effort. The south arcade is also of three bays; the piers are octagonal, the responds semi-octagonal. The bases have a large hollow chamfer; the neck mould of the capitals is a round, above which they swell out to a square-edged abacus with an edge roll below. The arches, which are two-centred, are of two wave-moulded orders, the inner wave being hardly more than a sunk chamfer. The clearstory is lighted by three windows on either side, the easternmost pair being of three lights, the others having two; all the lights have trefoiled fourcentred heads with flat lintels over.
The north aisle has its east wall pierced by a three-light window with trefoiled pointed heads and quatrefoiled tracery over in a two-centred arch; the jambs and arch are of three chamfered orders both inside and out. In the same wall to the south of this window is a recess, set rather high up but probably a part of a former piscina; it has a trefoiled four-centred head of late character. The first window in the north wall is of similar character and detail to the east window, but is of two lights. Below is a locker, and west of it is a tall recess with a trefoiled ogee arch; it is not quite evident what use this served, it may have held an image. West of this is the large recess which incloses the two recumbent effigies described below. It has a pointed arch of two small chamfered orders. The second and third windows of the north wall are similar to the first, but the third is modern. Between these two windows is a blocked 14th-century doorway of an unusually small width. It has a pointed arch of two chamfered orders. The west window of the aisle is a modern one of three cinquefoiled lights with cusped intersecting tracery in a pointed head.
The south chapel is lighted by an east window of three trefoiled ogee-headed lights with vertical tracery under a pointed segmental arch. It is of two hollow-chamfered orders and has a moulded label. To the south of it is a three-light window now filled in and hidden by the Darcy monument. The outer face of this chapel is of ashlar, whereas that of the south aisle is of large rubble. The two south aisle windows are each of two cinquefoiled ogee-headed lights with cusped 15th-century tracery within a two-centred arch; they are of three orders both inside and out— a wave, small splay and a hollow chamfer, the last the outermost; there are no labels. The window hidden by the Darcy monument is similar, but of three lights; it is without doubt the former east window reset in the south wall. All these windows are the original work of 1410, and their approximation to early 14th-century work is very noticeable. The south door, also original, has two wave-moulded orders continuing round the pointed arch, which has a moulded label. In the west wall is a small trefoiled ogee-headed single light on a square head; its moulds are the same as those of the south windows.
The archway into the tower is tall and narrow, with square jambs and semicircular arch, and a chamfered abacus at the springing. The proportions are those of Saxon work, but the masonry shows no such influence. The tower is of four stages. The lowest has wide and shallow clasping buttresses at its western corners and shallow buttresses against the nave walls. These last are obscured by the later western buttresses of the nave. This stage is lighted in the north and south walls by small round-headed modern lights. The west doorway has rough square jambs and a large lintel, above which is a somewhat distorted half-round relieving arch. The projecting string dividing the lowest and the second stages is square below and weathered above. In the second stage is an old narrow round-headed light on the south side; it has small rebated jambs outside, the glass being but 2 in. or 3 in. back from the wall face. The modern clock faces are fixed on the south and west faces of this stage. The third stage, which was the former top stage, is lighted in each wall by windows divided into two lights by large mid-wall shafts with square bases and cushion capitals, with long abaci supporting two small half-round arches cut out of single stones. The jambs of the windows are square. The heads and abaci have been refaced on the north-west and south faces, but the rest is old, and, like the east arch of the tower, has several Saxon characteristics. The windows are now closed on the inside with glass. The fourth stage, the present belfry, is lighted on each side by a window of two trefoiled ogee-headed lights with plain uncusped tracery in a square head. The lights are divided by a transom; the jambs are of two hollow-chamfered orders. The embattled parapet is modern. The corbels on the string are mostly square blocks, but a few old masks remain. Square pinnacles with crocketed finials stand on the corners of the parapet.
The walling of the three lower stages of the tower is of irregular rubble with thick mortar joints and fairly even quoins; the clasping buttresses are of rubble in their lower halves and large ashlar in the upper. The top stage of the tower is of squared coursed rubble with quoin stones.
The walling of the south aisle is of rubble with a plain moulded parapet partly restored. The old buttresses of two stages remain between the windows; the section of the offsets to the easternmost buttress differs somewhat from that of the others. Next to this buttress and also further west are two much heavier buttresses, probably 18th-century additions. The chancel walling is of ashlar and there are shallow clasping buttresses at the eastern angles. The plinth is a roll above two chamfered members. The parapet is modern and is carried on an overhanging string with modern corbels in the 12th-century style. The roofs are all modern.
Of marks on the stonework the only noticeable ones are a sundial on one of the south buttresses and some nine or ten masons' marks on the north doorway in the chancel. These are in the form of arrow heads.
Some 15th-century woodwork is set in the lower part of the modern chancel screen, and in the lower panels of the west screen of the Conyers chapel are some late 15th-century painted patterns of foliage, flowers and birds.
In this chapel are two blue marble slabs with brasses, one with an inscription to Christopher Conyers, 14—, and his wife Helen, 1443. Above are indents for two pairs of shields, and over each pair three labels, one set of three inscribed with sentences from the Creed, 'peccatorum Remissionem,' 'Carnis resurreccionem,' 'vitam eternam,' while the other set bears the inscription 'redemptor meus vivit, in novissimo die de terra surrecturus sum.' A second brass has figures of Thomas 'Mountforth,' 1489, and Agnes his wife, with eight sons, one of them a priest, and seven daughters, one of them a nun. A third brass plate here is to Henry Harrison, 1668, who married Elizabeth Conyers of Holtby in Hornby parish.
In the same chapel are two fine but mutilated early 15th-century alabaster effigies, one of a knight in plate armour, mail hauberk and camail and pointed bascinet, on which is the somewhat defaced inscription, 'Ihs Nazare,' the other of a lady in veil, wimple, mantle and long gown. There is also a sandstone effigy of poor style, apparently of a lady, under a gabled canopy of mid-14th-century date.
Against the south wall is a large stone monument in two stages to Elizabeth (Conyers), 1572, wife of Thomas Darcy, esq. The monument is dated 1578 and bears three shields—one of Conyers alone, another Conyers quartered with St. Quintin, Ryleston, Fauconberg quartering Braose, Nevill and Darcy. The top shield is Darcy with four quarterings: Meynell, Tempest, Waddington, and three goats' heads razed, impaling Conyers with its quarterings.
The two sandstone effigies in the north aisle are very fine 14th-century work. The cross-legged knight in mail with a long sword has a blank shield. The lady is clad in a long gown with mantle, veil and wimple.
The bells are four in number, the first with the inscription 'Venite Exultemus Domino 1695 S. S. Ebor,' by Samuel Smith; the second of 1793, cast by James Harrison of Barton-upon-Humber; the third originally of 1656, and the fourth, both recast by the same founder in 1793.
The church of Hornby was granted to the Abbot and convent of St. Mary of York in the 12th century by Wigan son of Landric. (fn. 117) In 1220 they transferred it to the archbishop, (fn. 118) who granted it in the next year to the dean and chapter for the use of the common fund of the church of York. (fn. 119) It was appropriated and a vicarage was ordained. (fn. 120) The dean and chapter are the patrons at the present day.
In 1332 Thomas St. Quintin and Margaret his wife and Christina widow of Robert de Hornby had licence to grant a messuage, 3 tofts, 6 oxgangs of land and 3 acres of meadow here and in North Otterington for founding the chantry of St. Cuthbert in the south aisle of the parish church. (fn. 121) The chantry of our Lady (fn. 122) is said to have been founded by Thomas Mountford, lord of Hackforth.
In the 13th century there was a dependent chapel at Hackforth. (fn. 123) It seems to have disappeared before the Dissolution.
The charities in this parish have been consolidated under a scheme of the Charity Commissioners dated 11 September 1906, the endowments whereof consist of the following properties, namely—an annual payment of 14s. made by the Duke of Leeds in respect of the charity of William Tipping, will, 1626, for poor widows; 5 a. 10 p. at Hunton, let at £7 10s. a year, purchased in 1783 with £130, arising from the gifts of the Hon. Bridget Darcy (£100), Gregory Elsley (£20) and William Firby (£10); the sum of £22 16s. 9d. consols, representing a legacy of William Brown in 1789 for poor of township of Hornby; £370 3s. 7d. consols, representing a legacy of the Rev. George Alderson, will proved at York 6 October 1879; and £179 15s. 6d. consols, representing a legacy of Henrietta Alderson, will proved at Wakefield 3 March 1884. The several sums of stock are held by the official trustees—one hundred one hundred and thirtieth share of the rent of the field at Hunton is under the trusts of Bridget Darcy's charity applicable for the benefit of the poor of East and West Patrick Brompton, Hackforth, Ainderby Myers, West Appleton, Arrathorne and the township of Hornby.
By the provisions of the scheme the yearly income of the charities, amounting to about £22, is applicable for the benefit either of the poor of the interested areas generally or of such deserving and necessitous persons resident therein (with a preference to widows and widowers) as the trustees, thereby appointed, should select, and may be applied in aid of the funds of a dispensary, convalescent home, provident club, or in providing nurses or temporary loans, &c.