A History of the County of York North Riding: Volume 1. Originally published by Victoria County History, London, 1914.
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Bernincheham (xi cent.); Berningham (xi–xv cent.); Beringham (xii cent.).
This parish is composed of the townships of Barningham, Hope and Scargill. Scargill in 1331–3 was referred to as 'cum Rotherforde' (fn. 1) (Rudderford, Roderforth), a place now only commemorated by Rutherford Bridge on the Greta (fn. 2) and Rutherford Farm in Scargill. (fn. 3)
The area of the parish is 11,270 acres of land, and 23 acres are covered by water. The subsoil is Yoredale Rocks, the soil sandy. 851 acres are under the plough, and crops of a general kind are raised; pasture, however, predominates, 6,094 acres being laid down to permanent grass. (fn. 4) The Cow Close was inclosed under an Act of 1802–3. (fn. 5) Old lead shafts exist at Spanham on Scargill Low Moor, but no minerals are now worked.
The ancient forests in the parishes of Arkengarthdale and Kirkby Ravensworth to the south formerly stretched over nearly all this region, including Hope and Scargill, which formed part of the chase of the Earl of Richmond. (fn. 6) Scargill in 1286–7 was described as 'in the forest,' (fn. 7) and there is a record of the appointment of a forester for Hope in 1401. (fn. 8) There are still 368 acres of woodland in the parish.
Barningham village lies to the north-east of the parish, the houses being built chiefly along the side of a wide street that runs east and west. The roadway runs on the north side, and the rest of the street is occupied by a large green, in the centre of which is a drinking fountain raised in 1866. The street climbs a hill, from the top of which fine views are obtained of the valleys of the Tees and the Greta, the moors to the south and the Durham hills to the north. Tor had a hall at Barningham before the Norman Conquest, (fn. 9) and the capital messuage of the later lords is mentioned in the early 13th century (fn. 10) and again in 1392. (fn. 11) In 1668 William Tunstall bequeathed the manor-house to his wife for life, (fn. 12) and it has since been used as a dowerhouse. The first mention found of the present extensive park is in 1522. (fn. 13) Francis Tunstall, who was lord of the manor in the latter part of the 16th and early part of the 17th century, added 60 acres of the common belonging to the manor to the west end of Barningham 'West Park,' and these 60 acres were inclosed during the lives of his son and grandson. (fn. 14) There was a mill in Barningham at the close of the 13th century. (fn. 15) In the south-east corner of the churchyard is the ancient base of a cross.
An annual fair for the sale of horses, cattle, sheep and geese was established about fifty years ago.
In 1722 the house of Thomas Eates in Barningham was ordered to be registered for meetings of the 'people called Quakers.' (fn. 16) Barningham has a Wesleyan chapel, and there is a public elementary school, erected in 1875. There are also parochial schools at Scargill.
Narrow and somewhat precipitous lanes lead from Barningham north, east and west to Watling Street, the western lane passing through Scargill and Gilmonby before it joins the Roman road at Bowes.
Scargill is now a small hamlet on the hillside overlooking the wooded banks of the Greta, here a tempestuous stream. A rough field-road leads west from the village of Barningham to Scargill Castle, 2 miles distant. This was the seat of the Scargills, who probably entertained Edward II here when he was at Scargill in 1323. (fn. 17) The remains, now used by the neighbouring farmhouse as barn and yard, consist of a gate-house, the entrance archway facing to the west, with jambs for a central doorway, and opening to a courtyard now mostly ruined. There are moulded beams of late 15th-century character in the ceiling of the gateway passage; on the north side of this a square-headed doorway opens to a circular stair, which is complete for about 20 ft., the upper part having been altered in modern times. The room on the first floor has a fireplace in its south wall, the chimney from which, with its embattled cresting, remains standing; the room is lighted by small square-headed windows of the simplest character.
The eastern arch of the gateway is now walled up, and the court, now a mere strawyard, is entered through a gap on the north side. The range of buildings on the north is completely ruined, while those on the south and east are practically without any details of interest. There are large fireplaces in the south and east walls of the east range and a blocked doorway in the north wall of the south range. This wall seems to have continued westward beyond the lines of the courtyard, flanking the entrance gateway. A little east of the castle and to the south of the road are some remains of a supposed chapel, part of the east wall being yet to be seen.
South of Scargill the moors rise to a height of over 1,600 ft., Black Hill being the highest point, and merge in the mountainous wastes of Stainmore, Arkengarthdale and New Forest. On Hope Moor, over 1,000 ft. above sea level, are the little hamlets of East and West Hope, connected by moorland roads with Barningham, Scargill and other distant villages.
The names of Farewell Farm, Greenhill Farm and Gutters Farm, in Scargill, occur in 1717. (fn. 18)
Of its 6 carucates 2 belonged before the Conquest to Tor and were in 1086 held by Enisan under the count; the other 4 were soke of Count Alan's manor of Gilling. The whole 6 carucates appear, however, to have been united in the hands of Hervey son of Morin, and this fee was granted by Count Stephen to Roald his constable, son of Harscodus. (fn. 21) The mesne lordship followed the descent of Constable Burton (fn. 22) (q.v.) to the Scropes of Bolton. (fn. 23) Of the other 4 carucates, soke of Gilling in 1086, Roger de Mowbray (fn. 24) was mesne lord in the 12th century. (fn. 25) There is no record of the enfeoffment of the Mowbrays, but perhaps the manor was seized by Nigel de Albini, who was 'a very powerful man and one in great favour with King Henry,' and spoiled even monasteries of their lands (fn. 26) unmolested.
Under the Mowbrays the family of Bardolf held the church and lands of Barningham in the 12th century. Roger de Mowbray, referred to above, confirmed to Guisborough Priory the grant of Walter Bardolf of all his possessions in Barningham and Newsham; and this grant was further confirmed by Walter's nephew, Hugh son of Ralph Bardolf, in a charter witnessed by his brother Ralph, in which he warranted the homage due to Nigel de Mowbray so that the prior should be quit. (fn. 27) Hugh Bardolf claimed the advowson of the church in 1213, but the family is not again mentioned in connexion with Barningham; and from this time until its dissolution Guisborough Priory was returned as mesne owner of 4 carucates, or onethird of a knight's fee, here. (fn. 28)
In or before 1213 the family of Barningham held the advowson of the church, (fn. 29) and evidently already possessed the manor. In 1282 the fee was divided equally between two families bearing the name of Barningham. (fn. 30) One of these appears to have descended from the Richard probably son of Stephen de Barningham who was living in 1213. Richard had two sons, of whom Stephen was the elder, and he by his wife Juliana had at least three sons. (fn. 31) The eldest of these was William de Barningham, who married Felise heiress of Robert de Barforth (fn. 32) and was tenant of 2 carucates in 1286–7 (fn. 33); he in 1289 granted all his lands and the reversion of the lands of Michael his brother and his mother's dower to his younger brother Richard, (fn. 34) who obtained grants and quit-claims from his mother and his brother Thomas. (fn. 35) A William de Barningham was joint lord in 1286–7, and may have been identical with the William Airmyn whose name occurs (fn. 36) frequently in local transactions. John son of William Airmyn was holding land here in 129–and in 1316 Richard son of John was joint lord of the vill with Richard son of Stephen, (fn. 37) who as Sir Richard de Barningham, kt., received a grant of lands in Barningham in 1321. (fn. 38) In 1332 he settled land in Barningham, Dalton Norris, Mortham and Newsham on himself for life with remainder to Geoffrey le Scrope. (fn. 39) As in 1349–50 Roger de Welles and Joan his wife and the heirs of Joan granted Richard de Barningham's lands in Sedbury (fn. 40) to Sir William le Scrope and Katharine his wife, it seems as if Richard had left heiresses, one Joan and the other possibly married to a Scrope of Masham. (fn. 41) The Barninghams continued to live in Barningham until the 16th century, when, in 1564, Richard Barningham granted lands to Francis Tunstall, (fn. 42) afterwards lord of the manor. Meanwhile the Scropes held the manor. In 1405–6 Stephen le Scrope of Masham died seised, (fn. 43) and from this time the descent followed that of the manor of Masham (q.v.) until 1565, when Henry le Scrope of Bolton conveyed it to Francis Tunstall, (fn. 44) owner of the manor of Scargill. The Tunstalls of Scargill (fn. 45) held Barningham until the late 17th or early 18th century, when Whitaker (fn. 46) says that Dorothy Milbank (fn. 47) bought it from Francis Tunstall and devised it to her nephew Acclom Milbank. It is certain that it descended to Francis Tunstall and passed in his lifetime to Acclom Milbank, (fn. 48) from whom it has descended to its present owner, Sir Powlett Charles John Milbank, bart. (fn. 49)
HOPE (Hep, xiii cent.; Hopes, called Est Hop, West Hop, xv cent.; Barningham cum duobus le hoopes, xvi cent.), like the manors of Arkengarthdale and New Forest to the south, was situated in the forest, and, forming part of the chase of the Earls of Richmond, (fn. 50) afterwards followed the descent of the manor of Arkengarthdale (fn. 51) (q.v.), of which it is now a member.
SCARGILL (Scracreghil, xi cent.; Scakregill, xii cent.; Schargil, Scargel, xiii cent.; Scarthgill, Skarghill, xiv cent.; Scergill, &c., xv cent.; Skargill, xvi, xvii cent.).—The soke of Scargill belonged in 1086 to Count Alan's manor of Gilling, (fn. 52) and afterwards became a member of the honour of Richmond. (fn. 53)
Count Stephen, who died in 1137, granted all he held in Scargill to St. Peter's, York, (fn. 54) but the family of Scargill was either already enfeoffed of the manor or very shortly had a grant from this hospital. Between 1171 and 1174 Warin de Scargill was one of the surveyors of the works of Bowes Castle, (fn. 55) and in 1174–5 his son Miles (fn. 56) paid 5 marks fine for his land in the honour of Earl Conan. (fn. 57) Miles married Julia, heir of Robert son of William, and thus acquired half a knight's fee in Fulbeck. (fn. 58) In 1250–2 William son of Alan de Scargill called Hervey de Scargill to warrant him lands in Stanwick. (fn. 59) William son of Warin de Scargill is mentioned in 1271, (fn. 60) and Sir William de Scargill was returned in 1282 as holding a quarter of a fee, (fn. 61) and in 1302–3 as holding onethird of a fee, (fn. 62) in Scargill. By 1313–14 Warin son of William had succeeded his father. (fn. 63) This Warin married the heiress Clara de Stapleton, and so acquired the manor of Saddleworth in the West Riding. (fn. 64) In 1316 he was returned as lord of Scargill and Saddleworth. (fn. 64a) He continued in the service of the Crown during all the troubles occasioned by Bruce and Lancaster in 1322, (fn. 65) and probably entertained King Edward at Scargill in 1323. (fn. 66) He was appointed commissioner of array in the wapentakes of Osgoldcross and Staincross in the West Riding, and on 9 May 1324 was returned with his son William de Scargill by the sheriff as summoned to attend a great council at Westminster. (fn. 67) Warin was succeeded by his son William by 1327. (fn. 68) William's son Warin had succeeded him by 1333, (fn. 69) and he was followed by his son William, lord in 1347–9 (fn. 70) and in 1367. (fn. 71) William left a son and heir John, whose son William had succeeded him by 1424–5. (fn. 72) William was returned in 1428 as holding the quarter of a fee in Scargill that William his 'father' (evidently a mistake for grandfather) formerly (that is, in 1347–9) held. (fn. 73) William Scargill 'the elder' was lord in 1448, (fn. 74) and in 1471 William Scargill, sen., and Elizabeth his wife made a settlement of the manors as those which they had from William Scargill, deceased. (fn. 75) Sir William Scargill, kt., died in 1481, leaving a son and heir Sir William Scargill, kt., (fn. 76) who died in 1497 seised of Thorpe Stapleton and Scargill, and was succeeded by his grandson Sir William Scargill, kt., son of his son William. (fn. 77) Sir William died in 1519, leaving a son and heir Robert, (fn. 78) commander of a contingent at Flodden. (fn. 79) Robert died seised in 1530–1, leaving two daughters and heirs, Mary wife of Marmaduke Tunstall and Margaret wife of John Gascoigne. (fn. 80) In 1558 Francis Tunstall, son and heir of Mary and Marmaduke, paid his mother £400 for the manors of Scargill and Saddleworth, (fn. 81) though at her death in 1578–9 Mary was said to have held these manors, and to have left a son and heir Francis. (fn. 82) Francis died in 1586, leaving a son and heir Francis, (fn. 83) who in 1617 received a grant of free warren to himself, his heirs and assigns in the manors of Scargill, Barningham, with the park of Barningham, and Hutton Longvilliers. (fn. 84) His great-grandson Marmaduke made Wycliffe his chief seat. Scargill has since followed the descent of Wycliffe (q.v.), and is in the possession of Major Walter George Raleigh ChichesterConstable.
The church of ST. MICHAEL AND ALL ANGELS stands on the hill-side to the south of the village, and consists of a chancel 31 ft. by 18 ft. 10 in. with north and south vestries, a nave with aisles 46 ft. by 32 ft., and a west tower 9 ft. square, through which is the chief entrance. The building is entirely modern, the chancel and nave having been originally of equal width, but spaces for vestries have been recently taken from the chancel on either side, and aisles formed in the nave by building north and south arcades; the window tracery, which was of the poorest character, has also been replaced by something more attractive.
The former east window of three lights with mullions running straight up to the arch has been replaced by a five-light window, and the chancel is now divided from the nave by a well-designed modern oak screen with a cross, set up in memory of Sir Frederick Milbank. The nave is divided into three bays, with as many three-light windows on each side, and the roof, which extends without a break over the chancel, is of low pitch and ceiled to the rafters. The font is of marble and quite modern, the only ancient fitting in the church being the scalloped capital of a 12thcentury pillar piscina, set in the chancel. The tower is in three stages, with embattled parapet and angle buttresses. In the chancel hangs a fine brass chandelier of twelve lights, the gift of Mark Milbank in 1738.
There are two bells, one of 1690, the other uninscribed, but probably of the same date.
The plate includes a cup inscribed 'Barningham 1671,' with maker's mark for John Plummer of York. The cover is of the same date. There are also a cup of 1792, a paten with the mark of Isaac Cookson of Newcastle and date-letter for 1730, and a flagon of 1820.
The registers begin in 1581. (fn. 85)
In 1213 Hugh Bardolf claimed the advowson of Barningham Church against the Prior of Malton, who put in the defence that Walter, 'ancestor' of Hugh, presented the last parson, but eight years afterwards granted the advowson to the priory. (fn. 86) Hugh in 1214 quitclaimed the advowson to the canons of Malton, (fn. 87) who, after a series of apparently collusive actions, quitclaimed it to Guisborough Priory. (fn. 88) It was held by Guisborough Priory until the dissolution of the monasteries. (fn. 89) In 1290 the canons sought the king's licence to appropriate this church, alleging the poverty caused by a fire, (fn. 90) but the result of the request is not recorded. From the time of the Dissolution the Crown kept the advowson in its own hands (fn. 91) until 1874, when it was exchanged among other livings with the Bishops of Ripon, (fn. 92) who are now patrons. The living is a rectory.
In 1328–9 Richard de Barningham, with royal licence, granted tenements to Jervaulx Abbey to find a chaplain to celebrate divine service daily at the altar of St. Mary in the church of St. Michael of Barningham. (fn. 93) This chantry is not, however, again mentioned.
The land known as the School and Poor's Estate consists of 6 a. 2 r. 16 p., let at £15 a year, and two and four-tenths stints on Barningham Moor, comprised in a deed dated 13 May 1684 and an inclosure award of 1807, and £300 consols.
By a scheme of the Charity Commissioners of 24 August 1906 the income was directed to be applied as to the rent of 1 a. 24 p., known as the Cow Close Allotment, and as to one-half of the net yearly income of the residue of the endowment for educational purposes, and the remaining half for the general benefit of the poor in such way as the trustees should consider most conducive to the formation of provident habits.
This parish is entitled to participate in the Bowes Cross Charity, founded in 1878 by Abraham Hilton. See parish of Bowes.