A History of the County of York North Riding: Volume 1. Originally published by Victoria County History, London, 1914.
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Aluerton, Alvertune (xi cent.); Alvertona (xii cent.); North Alverton (xiv cent.).
Northallerton, the head of the district called Allertonshire, occupies a central position in the vale of York between the Hambleton Hills and the River Swale. The ecclesiastical parish comprised in 1831 the townships of Northallerton and Romanby and the chapelries of Brompton, Deighton and High Worsall. Lazenby, formerly extra-parochial, was included in the ecclesiastical parish in 1867, while Brompton was constituted an ecclesiastical parish in 1843, and High Worsall has been similarly separated. All these places are now separate civil parishes.
The surface of this district is undulating, varying generally from 100 ft. above the ordnance datum near the Wiske to 350 ft. in the east of Northallerton township. At High Worsall, by the Tees, the land drops to 25 ft. The parish, including all the townships, covers 14,021 acres. The subsoil is Keuper Marls; the upper soil, which is fertile, is chiefly clay, and produces wheat, barley, oats, rye, beans, potatoes and turnips.
The River Wiske forms the western boundary of Romanby, Brompton and Lazenby. Leland refers to the stream called the Sun Beck, which he says was crossed by a bridge of one stone arch on the north side of Northallerton. (fn. 1)
The main line of the North Eastern railway, (fn. 2) the Leeds and Stockton branch (fn. 3) and the Northallerton and Hawes branch unite at Northallerton junction, which is to the south-west of the town.
The town of Northallerton is built along a portion of the main road from York to Durham and the north, and it is to this fact that its importance is due. It is situated on low-lying ground, and is protected on the north-west by a double line of brooks, the Sun Beck (fn. 4) and the Willow Beck. There seems to have been a Roman settlement here, (fn. 5) and it was doubtless its strong position that made William I choose it as a camping place for his army in 1068 (fn. 6); he may have been the first to make a stronghold here. The place had been of considerable importance before the Conquest, when it was valued at £80 yearly, and there were sixty-six villeins here; in 1086 it was waste. (fn. 7) Whether or not the earthworks of the Castle Hills must be assigned wholly or in part to the Conqueror, (fn. 8) there is no doubt that a castle was built here by Bishop Hugh Pudsey in 1174. (fn. 9) The bishop lent some countenance to the rebellion of that year against Henry II, and placed the castle in the custody of his nephew Hugh Count of Bar. (fn. 10) Later in the year, when Henry's victory seemed assured, the bishop surrendered the castle, which was razed to the ground under royal mandate two years later. (fn. 11) It seems probable that the bishop's fortified house, afterwards known as the Palace, the site of which lies a little to the east of the former castle, was built (fn. 12) soon afterwards, for Hubert Walter Archbishop of Canterbury was staying at Northallerton in 1199, (fn. 13) and in 1201 King John rested here, (fn. 14) while a house had certainly been built by 1226. (fn. 15)
Henry III twice stayed at Northallerton in September 1236 when going to and returning from Durham, (fn. 16) while Edward I made it his customary stopping-place when on his way to Scotland, and was here in 1291, 1292, (fn. 17) 1293 (when he stayed here three nights and dined with the bishop), 1296, 1298, 1299 (fn. 18) (when the Bishop of Durham sent him a white palfrey), (fn. 19) 1303 and 1304. (fn. 20) Edward II rested here in 1312, (fn. 21) and here Edward III stayed in 1327, (fn. 22) 1331, 1333 (when he was accompanied by Queen Philippa) (fn. 23) and 1356, (fn. 24) a few months after founding the Carmelite Friary here. In the late 14th and 15th centuries frequent grants were made by the bishops of the office of janitor, and with this was often coupled the office of keeper of the gaol that seems to have been within the castle. (fn. 25) In 1405 Northallerton was one of the places at which the adherents of Mowbray and Archbishop Scrope assembled, and Henry IV twice stayed here in July, when reducing the north to quietude. (fn. 26) A hundred years later Leland described how 'at the west side of Northalverton a litle from the chirch is the Bisshop of Dyrham's palace, strong of building and well motid.' (fn. 27) The palace was apparently quite unfit for defence in the 17th century, (fn. 28) and in 1663 Bishop Cosin empowered (fn. 29) John Danby, 'tenant of the Hall Garth,' to remove 120 fothers of stones from the manor-house for the repair of the Castle Mills (fn. 30) and market-place. In 1723 Lord Harley spoke of visiting 'some old ruins, on the side where the Bishop of Durham's palace stood.' (fn. 31) 'A great piece of the gate' was said in 1789 to have been standing 'some years ago,' but 'the stones were used to build a hall adjoining, now ruinous,' and the last materials were incorporated in the newly-built house of the steward of the manor. (fn. 32) The site of the palace was in 1856 laid out as a cemetery, but the moat can still be traced.
In spite, however, of its natural protection and its castle Northallerton suffered severely from the Scots. It was near Northallerton that the English forces assembled in 1138 when the battle of the Standard was fought (fn. 33) on what is now known as Standard Hill within the township of Brompton. Here too Harsculph de Cleasby and his fellows were ordered in 1303 to assemble 1,400 foot to proceed against the Scots, (fn. 34) and here Sir John Gower, priest, preached to the army on the Feast of St. Fabian and St. Sebastian, 1315. (fn. 35)
In the previous year Edward II had issued commands for Master Adam de Glasham the carpenter to make a peel within the bishop's manor for the safety of those parts. (fn. 36) It was apparently this peel that in 1322 was garrisoned by Joscelin Dayvill, Gilbert de Middleton and other sympathizers with the cause of Thomas of Lancaster. (fn. 37) They probably held it until the autumn, for they are said to have been in league with the Scots; and it was in October of that year that Edward II wrote hastily from Rievaulx to the Earl of Pembroke commanding him to raise the country towards Byland, as his spies had brought word that the Scots were about Northallerton. (fn. 38) Commissions of array for the town and liberty were issued, (fn. 39) but the place suffered as it had done in 1319, when it had been devastated with the rest of the North Riding, (fn. 40) and in 1323 the proctor of the parish church was given licence to collect alms throughout the realm for the rebuilding of the church, which had been burnt by the Scots; the walls of the chancel and tower still bear marks of that fire. (fn. 41) In 1336 the benefices of Northallerton and Allertonshire were among those in the North unable to pay the quadrennial tenth (fn. 42); indeed, the central position of Northallerton made it of importance in every warlike movement in the North Riding. In the rising of the Earls in 1569 it played an important part, (fn. 43) and was one of the centres appointed for the execution of the rebels.
After the Scots took Newcastle in September 1640 the royal army made for Northallerton, and when negotiations were opened Northallerton was at first appointed as the meeting-place of the commissioners. (fn. 44) During the Civil War the town was constantly occupied, (fn. 45) and in 1663 rumour had it that it was the centre of a wide conspiracy. (fn. 46) In 1745, when the Duke of Cumberland was marching to the north, his army was encamped at the Castle Hills. (fn. 47)
'The towne of Northalverton,' wrote Leland, 'is yn one fair long streate lying by south and north' (fn. 48); the description still held good at the close of the 18th century, (fn. 49) when there were here 'an exceeding good inn or two,' one of these doubtless being the 'Old Golden Lion' at which John Wesley had preached in 1745. (fn. 50) Close to the town hall is an inn with timber work in front, some of which appears to be old.
Though the town is still chiefly 'yn one fair long streate' with cobbled sides, it has altered greatly in appearance since the 18th century. Until 1872 much of the space in the street was occupied by low shambles built of brick and decorated with posters. Beyond these stood the cross, reared on a pedestal of four solid steps, and beyond this was the toll-booth. The toll-booth had been the centre of burghal life since at least the 15th century. (fn. 51) Here in 1344 the courts were held (fn. 52) and the standard measures kept. The destruction of the shambles was followed by that of the toll-booth, which in 1873 was sold with the market cross for £23. (fn. 53) In the same year was opened the new town hall with a market hall underneath, built on the site of the old shambles.
By the close of the 17th century, if not earlier, Northallerton had become the administrative centre for the North Riding, and this position it has retained. The registry for deeds for the North Riding was built and established here in 1736, and in 1906 the town became the head quarters of the county council. The registry and court-house, built in 1782, stand in what is now called Zetland Street, but seems to have been formerly the 'back lane' of the town. Here once stood the pinfold. (fn. 54) Further north and close to the workhouse stood a house of Carmelite Friars. To found this Edward III in 1356 bought the 'Tentour croft' with 3 a. 1 r. of meadow from John Yole, and the holding was increased by a further 6 acres by Bishop Hatfield in the following year. (fn. 55) The site has been dug for gravel, but it 'still retains the name of the Friarage.' (fn. 56)
Another religious house, that of the Austin Friars, (fn. 57) stood on the site now occupied by the 'Fleece Inn' and two adjoining houses. (fn. 58) To this order Master William de Allerton, fourteenth Abbot of Fountains, gave 8 acres in 1340 (fn. 59) for the friars to build thereon a dwelling-place and chapel.
Roman Catholicism has always been strong in the neighbourhood, and in 1871 the chapel of the Sacred Heart was built on the west side of the town. Mention has already been made of the preaching of Wesley here, and in 1796 a Wesleyan chapel was built 'at the east end of Bake-house corner' (fn. 60); this was superseded by a new chapel in 1885, when the old building was taken over by the Baptists, who thereupon vacated their former chapel in Marshall's Yard. (fn. 61) In 1856 the Primitive Methodists obtained the old theatre for a meeting-place, while the Congregationalists built a chapel here in 1819. (fn. 62) There is also believed to have been a meeting-house of the Society of Friends from 1730 to 1737, (fn. 63) but the body has long since dispersed here.
To visitors to Northallerton in the 18th century the most striking thing in the town was the great vine that grew on what is now the cottage hospital. Lord Harley in 1723 described the vine as extending 'from the outermost branch on one side to that of the other an hundred and six feet and reaches up one storey.' (fn. 64) The Vine House, at which the quarter sessions were held from 1720 to 1770, was afterwards occupied by Robert Raikes Fulthorpe, and was used as the post office in the middle of the 19th century and until 1876, when the present post office was opened; in the following year the house was converted into a cottage hospital. (fn. 65)
Further north and also on the east side of the street is the Porch House. The house, which has been greatly modernized, bears the date 1674, and was probably rebuilt by William Metcalfe, who also built Oxbank or Marigold Hall in Leake parish. It is traditionally said to have once sheltered Charles I. The Metcalfe family have been settled in the town since at least the 15th century and Richard Metcalfe was living here in 1494. (fn. 66) Richard Metcalfe, draper, George Metcalfe and Julian Metcalfe held 'old land here in the Gost Croft' in 1595, while Richard Metcalfe in 1590 obtained a lease of the Castle and Hurley Mills and the Castle Hills and Cherie Closes. The Moot Hill, the Great Applegarth, the Bailey Oxgang and Tree Close are also mentioned. (fn. 67) In the reign of Henry III Robert de le Hou of Flouberne granted to Robert Moryn of Kilvington various parcels of land in the open fields of Northallerton, among the place-names mentioned being the Tungate, Osmundgate, Merefurlong, Winterbeck, Bretun Well and the field of Flouberne. (fn. 68)
Outside the town on the east side are rifle ranges.
Northallerton was never a large manufacturing centre, but depended for its trade upon the agricultural district in which it is situated. Weaving and tanning were carried on here in 1494, (fn. 69) and the chief industries are now saddlery and tanning; the manufacture of cart covers, tent cloths and linoleum is also carried on, and there are also large flour-mills in the town. The inhabitants of Brompton are largely occupied in the weaving of linen, sheetings, ducks and drills.
Among the distinguished men connected with Northallerton (fn. 70) was the devotional writer and divine Edmund Guest, D.D., Bishop of Salisbury, who was born there in 1518. (fn. 71) John Meriton (1636– 1704), another divine, was the son of Richard Meriton of Northallerton. (fn. 72) The saintly John Kettlewell (1653–95), nonjuror and devotional writer, was the second son of a merchant at Northallerton and educated under a zealous Royalist at Northallerton School.
The church of Northallerton was among those which were restored by Anthony Salvin (1799–1881).
In 1706 Northallerton gave the title of Viscount to George Augustus, Electoral Prince of BrunswickLüneburg, who afterwards ascended the throne as George II. (fn. 73)
Brompton is a very large village, forming what is practically a northern suburb of Northallerton, being separated from it by about a mile of road. The main part of the village consists of rather small houses closely built round a large open space between the roads to Northallerton and Lazenby. The church of St. Thomas stands with its churchyard at the western end. At the east end where three roads meet there is a small ridge over which the village extends. Beyond it is a large green almost surrounded by houses and traversed by a small beck. Outside the village on the south is a hill with the rectory and several large farms amid a group of trees. There are Primitive Methodist and Wesleyan chapels, a public elementary school and Wesleyan Sunday school, and also linen factories. Brompton Beck, which is crossed by several foot-bridges, flows north of the village, and on the opposite side there is an old windmill.
The township of Deighton is more wooded than the rest of the parish and has several scattered plantations. The village is inconsiderable and consists of the church, a school, the Town Farm and a smithy, which are built on a road leading to Appleton Wiske. The cottages are small and usually of brick. Here once stood the great hospital of St. James of Northallerton. To the west of the church there is a moat inclosing about 4 acres of land, doubtless the site of the old manor-house. The present manor-house was built about 1876 by Mr. James Emerson and is now the property and residence of his son Mr. C. A. Emerson. (fn. 74)
The little township of Lazenby lies between Brompton and Danby Wiske and contains only a few scattered houses. There is a Methodist chapel, but no village.
Lazenby Hall, now occupied as a farm-house, stands in a group of trees on rising ground overlooking the river. The building, which is of the early 17th century, consists of a central block flanked by projecting wings on the north and south. On either side of the plain square-headed central entrance doorway are triple clustered shafts, each group having a common capital of Doric type and supporting an entablature. The windows are mullioned and above those of the ground floor is a shallow cornice supported by plain pilasters, a similar treatment being adopted on the first floor, where, however, the pilasters are of the Ionic order. On each side of the window above the doorway the clustered shafts are repeated, each group having a common Ionic capital, with a fragment of entablature over it. There are several blocked windows on this front, while sash frames have replaced the mullions in one or two instances. The wings and other parts of the building are plainer, the windows being larger, some of them modernized and some blocked.
The roof is partly slated and partly tiled, the chimney stacks being small and stone-built. The south wing of the building projects to the west as well as to the front, and in its south wall is an entrance which would have connected it with a garden on the level ground on that side. There are excellent examples of the later types of plaster ceiling remaining, the patterns consisting of grape clusters, acorns, leaves and flowers. The best and most elaborate example is now only fragmentary and forms the roof of the cow byre into which the northern wing has been partly converted; this room was probably the dining room, the other chief room being the one which occupies the front of the southern wing. In a room on the first floor is a piece of scroll work with numerous skulls and cross bones and the motto 'Memento Mori,' the whole quaintly placed immediately above the bed. The plaster work in this room bears the date 1680.
Romanby township is situated to the south of Northallerton a short distance west of the railway, which passes between it and the town. St. James's Church stands at the junction of two roads on the west of the village. Most of the houses are brick-built, and lie along the south side of an extended green, through the middle of which a road passes, descending at the north-west corner to a ford over a tributary of the Wiske. A water-mill and a windmill were in existence at Romanby in 1663. (fn. 75) There is now a mill near Northallerton junction.
The township of High Worsall is widely separated from the rest of the parish. It lies half-way between Yarm and Great Smeaton and forms a rough square with a projecting portion which fills a loop of the Tees where the river bounds the parish on the north. The total area includes about 1,600 acres of cultivated land sloping down to the river. There are only two small plantations. High Worsall has now no village, but there are one or two buildings near the church of All Saints on the road that leads to Yarm, and foundations of buildings are said to have been found in the fields round the church.
High Worsall Manor Farm is built of squared blocks of sandstone and small red bricks. It is a rectangular building of uncertain date to which additions have been made on the east and west sides. The hamlet of Lower Worsall lies to the north-east. It is grouped round three sides of a green with Lower Worsall Hall at the northern end, which is approached by an avenue of elms across the green. The house is of red brick and contains some 17th-century panelling and a fireplace and staircase of the same date. There were formerly many quays for landing goods along the river bank, indicating some trade here, but within the last twenty-five years they have been robbed of their stones, the last being destroyed when the new church was being built.
Very little is known of the history of the mesne borough that grew up in Northallerton under the Bishops of Durham and followed the descent of the manor. (fn. 76) The date at which the town was granted at farm is not known, (fn. 77) but it was esteemed a borough in 1267–8, (fn. 78) and in 1334 the rent was 40 silver marks (fn. 79) or £7 in 1595. (fn. 80) Of the early number and disposition of the burgage tenements no record has been found, but Gale declared that in 1739 the true number was 194½, though this had risen to 204 by 1790. (fn. 81) In 1832 they were about 210 or 211 in number, and were 'mixed up and conjoined with the other buildings from one end of the town to the other.' (fn. 82)
In 1334 the burgesses held the courts jointly with the bishop's bailiff, the procedure being for the two reeves (prepositi) of the vill, or one of them, to appear before the bailiff in the bishop's court, and for the cause to be assigned to them for hearing in the toll-booth. (fn. 83)
In 1497 the borough court was held on the Friday of each week; special courts at which the various officers of the borough were chosen were held on 6 October and at Easter. (fn. 84) In 1358 a grant of pontage for the repair of the 'Northbrigg' and the causeway was made to the bailiff and good men of the town, (fn. 85) and certainly by the 15th century the bailiff was the chief officer. He was elected in the manorial court of the bishop, (fn. 86) while two constables, two ale-tasters and two inspectors (supervisores) of meat and fish were chosen in the October court (fn. 87); at the Easter court four bye-law men were chosen. The appointment of the ale-tasters and their fellow inspectors points to a development of the borough liberties since 1334, when the bishop reserved the amendment of the assizes of bread, ale, flesh and forestallers together with 'haymsoken, blodewyte et Namii vetiti.' (fn. 88) The men of the vill formed the juries in all cases touching land or tenements within the vill, and they also held a fair and market with all profits except those just mentioned. (fn. 89) In 1522 the borough with the toll-booth, borough rents, town farm rents and profits of the borough courts was leased for thirty years to Edmund Scarlett of Allerton and Thomas his son at a rent of £7 a year. (fn. 90) On the expiration of this lease in 1552 the borough was leased to Jane Barker, widow, on the same terms for twenty-one years, (fn. 91) but for some reason a new lease was granted in 1555 to John Cherder for twenty years. (fn. 92) At the termination of this lease in 1576 the borough was leased to Robert Hilton of Auckland for another term of twenty-one years. (fn. 93)
How long this burghal government continued is not known; probably the lessees allowed the rights to lapse, but no trace of it has been found in the 17th century. (fn. 94) The town, perhaps owing to more peaceable relations with Scotland, was in decay in 1555, (fn. 95) and the borough was sold for £237 3s. 2d. during the Commonwealth. (fn. 96) Everything indicates that, as has been recently said, 'no remnant of municipal organization survived in 1689.' (fn. 97) By 1741 the town was governed by a select vestry of twenty-four. (fn. 98) In 1851 a local board was formed under the Public Health Act of 1848. (fn. 99) The town is now under an urban district council. (fn. 100)
In the 17th century Northallerton became a Parliamentary borough, the franchise resting in the owners of burgage tenements and the returning officer being the bailiff of the bishop. (fn. 101) Northallerton had sent two members to the Parliament of 1298, (fn. 102) but no further return was made until 1641. (fn. 103) From this time until 1832 it returned two members. Under the Reform Act (fn. 104) the representation was reduced to one member, and the townships of Northallerton and Romanby and the chapelry of Brompton were constituted the Parliamentary borough; this, however, ceased to exist after the passing of the Redistribution of Seats Act of 1885. (fn. 105) The representation is now merged in that of the Richmond division of the Riding. Roger Gale, the antiquary (1672–1744), represented the town in the Parliaments of 1705, 1707, 1708 and 1710, and Henry Lascelles, afterwards second Earl of Harewood, was returned as member in 1818.
A fair here was granted in 1200 to Bishop Hugh Pudsey for the feast and morrow of St. Lawrence. (fn. 106) Another fair was obtained by Bishop Tunstall for the eve, feast and morrow of St. George, (fn. 107) while a further fair with piccage, stallage, &c., and a court of pie-powder was granted in 1611 for the eve, day and morrow of St. Matthew. (fn. 108) In the first half of the 18th century the fair days were the feasts of Candlemas, St. George, St. Bartholomew and St. Matthew, and the town was noted as having 'the greatest Beast market in England,' whence 'incredible numbers' were 'bought eight times every year and brought southward.' (fn. 109) In 1889 fairs were held on 14 February, 5 May, 5 September and 3 October for cattle, and 6 May, 6 September and 4 October for sheep. (fn. 110) There were two hirings during the year, on 5 May and 23 November. The fairs, which took place in the main street of the town, had then been almost destroyed by the two auction marts, one of which was held outside the township. (fn. 111)
A market here was established before 1333, but was probably prescriptive. (fn. 112) The first chartered market was that for the Wednesdays between the Feast of St. George and Lammas Day obtained by Bishop Tunstall in 1555 (fn. 113); this was extended in 1611 to the Wednesdays between Lammas Day and Christmas. (fn. 114) By 1792 a market was held every Wednesday. In 1889 three usual markets were nominally established, but practically the only one held was a small general market in the open street on Wednesdays. (fn. 115) The Tuesday cattle market, established in 1871, was in the hands of certain auctioneers.
The corn market had formerly been a pitched market and of some value, but in 1889 everything was sold by sample. The rights of market were limited to the ancient borough of Northallerton, and were bought in 1871 from the Ecclesiastical Commissioners by the Northallerton Market and Public Improvement Company.
Earl Siward of Northumbria is the first known lord of Northallerton. (fn. 116) He was succeeded by Earl Edwin, who in the time of Edward the Confessor held the 'manor,' assessed at 8 geld carucates, and eleven dependent berewicks, assessed at 36 carucates, (fn. 117) at Birkby, Little Smeaton and East Cowton, (fn. 118) Great Smeaton, Kirby Wiske, (fn. 119) Romanby, Thornton-le-Beans, Borrowby, Landmoth, Sowerby under Cotcliffe and Yafforth. (fn. 120) These lands were in the king's hands in 1086, (fn. 121) and were granted by William II (fn. 122) to William de St. Carileph, Bishop of Durham (1081–96) and his successors. (fn. 123) On the accession of Henry I Bishop Ranulf was disseised of it, but the king subsequently restored it to him, (fn. 124) and it remained with the see of Durham (fn. 125) until its dissolution by Act of Parliament in 1553. The manor was regranted by Queen Mary to Cuthbert Bishop of Durham and his successors, (fn. 126) who continued to hold it until 1648, (fn. 127) when, under an ordinance for the disposal of bishops' lands for the use of the Commonwealth, it was sold to William Cave for £1,453 6s. 8½d. (fn. 128) After the restoration of church property on the accession of Charles II the see of Durham held the manor until it was transferred with other lands to the newly-constituted see of Ripon in 1836. (fn. 129) Since 1860 the Ecclesiastical Commissioners have been the lords of the manor.
The right of free warren in all their demesne lands in Yorkshire was confirmed to the Bishops of Durham by Henry III. (fn. 130)
Fourteen carucates of land in BROMPTON (Bruntone, Bruntun, xi cent.; Brumpton, xiii cent.) were among the possessions of the Bishops of Durham both before the Conquest and in 1086. (fn. 131) The land remained the property of the see (fn. 132) until transferred to that of Ripon in 1836. (fn. 133) The Ecclesiastical Commissioners are now lords of the manor.
John Longespy was a tenant here in 1259–60 and in 1284–5, (fn. 134) and among the followers of Joscelin Dayvill in 1322 was Thomas Longespy, who held two messuages and 8 oxgangs here. (fn. 135) This holding, together with his land in Newton-le-Willows, (fn. 136) was granted in fee to Iseult de Pakenham in 1359. (fn. 137)
At DEIGHTON (Dictune, xi cent.; Dichton, Dycton, xiii cent.; Dighton, xiv cent.) a 'manor' and 6 carucates belonged in 1086 to the Bishop of Durham, (fn. 138) whose successors retained the overlordship. (fn. 139) In 1231 Robert son of Ralph enfeoffed Thomas de Smeaton of Little Smeaton in land in Deighton, (fn. 140) and in 1284–5 William de Smeaton held the mesne lordship of half a carucate, his tenant being John Morgan. The larger tenants at that date were, however, John Dayvill, who had 2½ carucates, and Richard de Romanby, who had 2 carucates. (fn. 141) John Morgan was the son of Morgan de Deighton, who was living in 1259–60; he exchanged his lands here with William de Smeaton for two parts of the manor of Little Smeaton (q.v.). (fn. 142) Richard de Romanby seems to have been succeeded by Richard de Kirkbridge, (fn. 143) one of the lords of Deighton in 1316, the other being Joscelin Dayvill. (fn. 144) The interest of Richard de Kirkbridge did not survive. Joscelin Dayvill, who held his lands in Deighton by the service of one-third of a knight's fee, (fn. 145) forfeited them for his share in the garrisoning of Northallerton peel (fn. 146); they were granted in fee by Edward III in 1361 to John de Wadsworth and Robert de Whalton. (fn. 147) In 1364 Robert de Whalton conveyed to Thomas son of Joscelin Dayvill (apparently the son of the rebellious Joscelin) (fn. 148) the manor of Deighton, but the property was shortly afterwards acquired by John Montagu Earl of Salisbury, who was beheaded for his support of Richard II and attainted in 1400. The Deighton lands, which were again taken into the king's hands, were afterwards demised at farm to Richard Nevill, who was acknowledged Earl of Salisbury in right of his wife in 1428. (fn. 149) In 1484 Richard III granted the manor of Deighton for life to Sir James Strangways, kt., (fn. 150) Speaker of the House of Commons, who on the accession of Henry VII obtained a Crown lease of it for forty years. (fn. 151) In 1518 a lease for thirty-one years was granted to Sir Edward Nevill to commence from the death of Sir James Strangways, (fn. 152) but in the same year the custody of the manor was given to Sir Thomas Strangways, kt., for forty years. (fn. 153) William Tipper and Robert Dawe, the 'fishing grantees,' obtained a grant of Deighton Manor in 1589, (fn. 154) but in 1609 it was assigned by the Crown to George Salter and John Williams of London. (fn. 155) They may have been acting on behalf of Sir Francis afterwards Lord Russell and subsequently fourth Earl of Bedford, (fn. 156) who was in possession in 1611. (fn. 157) His grandsons Sir Francis Russell and William Russell (fn. 158) conveyed the manor in 1657 to Hugh Frankland and George Smalwood. (fn. 159) Rent from the manor was in the possession of William Northey in 1738, (fn. 160) and in 1757 of Charles, afterwards Sir Charles, Turner, whose son held it in 1794. (fn. 161) The latter sold it in 1802 to George Brown. In 1875 it was purchased from Mr. G. Gilpin Brown by Mr. James Emerson, from whom it descended in 1892 to the present owner, Mr. C. A. Emerson, who does not, however, exercise any manorial rights.
The lay rectory of Deighton seems to have descended with the manor since at least the 18th century and is now held by Mr. C. A. Emerson. (fn. 162)
In 1086 LAZENBY (Leisencbi, Leisingbi, xi cent.; Leysingby, xiii cent.) was soke of Northallerton (q.v.), of which the overlordship followed the descent. (fn. 163) The 2 carucates of land in the vill were held by Thurkil son of Q'nild at the close of the 11th century and by Ralph le Faderles for the fifth part of a knight's fee early in the 13th century, (fn. 164) and remained with his family until about 1285, when the manor of Lazenby was granted by William Faderles to John de Lithegrenes, (fn. 165) who with his wife Alice founded a chantry of St. Mary in the chapel of St. John the Baptist here in 1290 and appointed six chaplains, one of whom was to be the master. In 1294 John and Alice Lithegrenes granted the manor to Geoffrey, master of the hospital of St. Mary of Lazenby, (fn. 166) and in 1301 John Sleight, then master, obtained a grant of free warren in his demesne lands here. (fn. 167) In 1443, the endowment being insufficient, the Bishop of Durham obtained royal licence to assign it to the Abbot and convent of Jervaulx, who were to provide two chaplains to perform divine service in the chapel. (fn. 168) At the Dissolution Jervaulx Abbey still held the grange of Lazenby, as it was then called, (fn. 169) which was granted by the king in 1544 with the site of the abbey to Matthew Earl of Lennox and Margaret his wife. (fn. 170) After their death Queen Elizabeth leased the grange in 1601 to John Constable, sen., for the lives of his sons John, Charles and Robert. (fn. 171) In 1625 Charles I granted it to Robert Lord Carey, (fn. 172) who was created Earl of Monmouth in the following year, and to his son Sir Henry Carey, kt. The former died in 1639, and the latter, who left no son, in 1661. (fn. 173) In the same year the king leased the grange to William Stanley, Sir John Monson, bart., and Henry Wilkinson for twenty-one years, (fn. 174) after which no further history of it can be traced. Mr. J. Arundell Hildyard of Hutton Bonville is the present lord of the manor.
The soke of ROMANBY (Romundebi, Romundrebi, xi cent.; Remundeby, xiii cent.; Romondbye, xiv cent.) belonged to Northallerton (q.v.) at the time of the Domesday Survey. At the close of the 11th century it was extended at 12 carucates, of which 11 were held by Ilving, Molbrand and Leising, while 1 was accounted with the demesne lands of Northallerton. (fn. 175) In 1284–5 the vill consisted of 10½ carucates, the greater part of which was held by the bishop in demesne, (fn. 176) until it was transferred to the see of Ripon in 1836 (fn. 177); the Ecclesiastical Commissioners are now the lords of the manor.
John de Romanby held land here and at North Otterington for a quarter of a knight's fee early in the 13th century (fn. 178) and the 3 carucates held in 1284–5 (fn. 179) by Richard de Romanby as a quarter of a knight's fee remained in his family until about the end of the 15th century. (fn. 180) In 1505 Joan Hastings, widow, formerly the widow of Richard Pigot and daughter of William Romanby, died seised of this 'manor' of Romanby and all the lands there which had belonged to her grandfather Richard Romanby. She left no heir, and by her will directed that the property should be sold and the money used for the maintenance of six priests. (fn. 181) Sir Ninian Markenfield, kt., was seised of this or some other land called the manor at his death in 1528. (fn. 182) His son Thomas settled the manor on his son Thomas, who was then a child, in 1549, and died in the following year. (fn. 183) This last Thomas was subsequently attainted, and in 1576 his manor of Romanby was granted to Thomas Boynton, Nicholas Broke and Percival Gounson, (fn. 184) after which there is no direct descent of this holding. It may have passed to a branch of the family of Metcalfe, who were the most important residents in the township in the 17th century, and owned considerable property there, although probably no manorial rights. George Metcalfe resided at Thornborough Hall, in or near Romanby, in 1653. His grandson Richard died in 1713, and was succeeded in his estates at Romanby and elsewhere by an only daughter and heiress Elizabeth Metcalfe, who was then a minor. Her second husband Nicholas Lambton ultimately became possessed of the property after the death of his wife and her only child Margaret, and he mortgaged the whole of it to Anthony Wilkinson and his heirs and assigns between the years 1749 and 1759. This mortgage was afterwards paid off by his daughter Mary (by another wife), who, after his death, continued in possession of his Romanby estate until 1811, when she sold part of it. (fn. 185) The whole property was probably dispersed among various proprietors about that time.
In 1086 4 carucates in HIGH WORSALL (Wercesel, Wirceshel, xi cent.; Werkeshal, xii cent.; Magna Wyrkesale, xiv cent.) which had belonged to Altor and Elfi at an earlier date were in the hands of the king. (fn. 186) The overlordship soon afterwards came into the possession of the Bishops of Durham, with whom it remained until at least the 16th century. (fn. 187)
William de Vesci and his relative John, the Constable of Chester, (fn. 188) held High Worsall in the 12th century, and granted it to Gilbert Hansard, whose son Gilbert obtained a confirmation of the vill from King John in 1199. (fn. 189) John Oliver obtained a writ of right for 4 carucates here in 1207, (fn. 190) but the fee seems to have been retained by the Hansards, for in 1284–5 it was held of Gilbert Hansard by John Hansard, whose father Gilbert had settled it upon him and his wife Maud and their heirs. (fn. 191) John Hansard was succeeded by a daughter Joan, (fn. 192) who probably married the Gilbert de Toutheby, or Thorneby, (fn. 193) to whom the Bishop of Durham granted the manor of High Worsall in 1310. (fn. 194) They had a son Thomas at that date, but he does not seem to have survived, (fn. 195) and (if the supposition that Joan de Toutheby was the daughter of John Hansard is correct) it was another son, Sir William Toutheby, kt., who with his wife Olive granted the manor in 1353 to Thomas de Seton. (fn. 196) Thomas obtained a grant of free warren here in the following year. (fn. 197) Either he or another Sir Thomas de Seton, kt., died without issue, and was succeeded by his kinsmen and heirs John Sayer and John Laurenson, who were both minors in 1401, the date of the death of Isabel de Fauconberg, who held the manor of High Worsall for life with reversion to them. (fn. 198) In 1468 the manor was claimed by William Ryther (or Trelaweless), who was descended from John and Maud Hansard. (fn. 199) William in 1469 quitclaimed the manor to John Sayer, (fn. 200) who granted it almost immediately to his son William Sayer and his heirs. (fn. 201) William, son of a John Sayer, was seised of it at his death in 1531, (fn. 202) and his son John died seised of it in 1584, leaving his son John as his heir. (fn. 203) A John Sayer who held the manor in fee-tail died in 1635. (fn. 204) During the Commonwealth Laurence Sayer was returned as a recusant and delinquent. High Worsall Manor was sold to Gilbert Crouch and discharged from sequestration, (fn. 205) but some rights in it were evidently restored to the Sayers, as in 1671 Laurence Sayer and Gilbert Crouch jointly made a conveyance of the property (fn. 206) to Sir Ralph Ashton, bart. In 1727 it was in the possession of Elizabeth and Dorothea Bellingham, the daughters and co-heirs of William Bellingham. (fn. 207) The former married Sir Robert Echlin, bart., in that year, and all three were parties to a recovery as to High Worsall Manor in 1730. (fn. 208) Before 1793 it came into the possession of John Bowes Earl of Strathmore, who died in 1820 the day after his marriage. (fn. 209) Mr. Edward Simpson, J.P., now owns the whole of High Worsall.
The church of ALL SAINTS consists of a chancel 48 ft. 2 in. by 22 ft. 2 in. with modern vestries to the north of it, central tower 17 ft. 4 in. square, north transept 26 ft. 4 in. by 20 ft. 6 in., south transept 24 ft. 9 in. by 20 ft. 7 in., nave 59 ft. 5 in. by 20 ft. 9 in., north aisle 20 ft. 6 in. wide, south aisle 23 ft. 1 in. wide and a south porch. These measurements are all internal.
Although, apart from the fragments of Saxon crosses, there is no positive evidence of a building earlier than the 12th century upon the site, it is probable that a pre-Conquest church existed from which the present structure has grown. At the beginning of the 12th century the church had an aisleless nave and chancel. The nave was probably about 39 ft. long, and occupied the western portion of the present nave, the chancel being much smaller both in length and breadth. A north aisle with an arcade of three bays was added about 1120, and shortly afterwards the chancel was widened and its east wall moved to where the present entrance to the chancel now comes; the north aisle was extended at the same time and a second arcade of three bays was pierced in the chancel wall, so that the plan took the very unusual form (for the 12th century) of a nave and chancel with only one aisle extending the whole length of the church and with the chancel arch dividing it into two almost equal portions. The church remained thus till about 1190, when a south aisle with an arcade of six bays, also extending the full length of the nave and chancel, was added, and the plan assumed a more regular rectangular form. The chancel arch, which till then had probably remained in position, was cleared away and the double pier still existing was to some extent recut; the middle scallops in the capital to the north and south of this pier are evidently of later workmanship than the others. The west wall of this 1190 aisle can still be traced, showing that it was about 8 ft. or 9 ft. wide. The wall above the inserted arcade has had to be cut back owing to the capitals being too small, a common mistake in mediaeval work. About 1220 the present transepts were added, with a new chancel to the east of the former east wall, thus forming a cruciform plan, and the whole was crowned with a central tower; the easternmost bays of the arcades were removed to make room for the arches and piers of this tower. The springing stone of the former eastern cross arch to the north aisle has been discovered in the north-west pier of the tower. The south aisle was widened early in the 14th century; its windows are all later insertions, but the jambs of the west window are of this date and there are traces of earlier side windows.
After the battle of Bannockburn (1314) the Scots made an incursion into Yorkshire, when the church of Northallerton among others suffered severely from their attacks and was burnt, while the central tower was overthrown and with other parts left in a ruinous condition. Marks of the fire can be seen to this day. In 1323 licence was granted to collect money for the repair of the building. (fn. 212) The chancel was apparently entirely rebuilt and considerably lengthened about 1330. The fragments of moulded work now lying about inside and outside the church doubtless belonged chiefly to the former large east window. They are of good detail, and, though of somewhat earlier form, may well be assigned to this date. The tower was rebuilt about 1420. The greater part of the former tower was pulled down, the 13th-century stair-turret alone being preserved for re-use, but doubtless some of the stonework of the earlier piers was retained to form a core for the later and larger piers. This opened out the nave for re-use with the chancel, and attention was next turned to putting the aisles into repair; the transepts were left for awhile and were closed off with low lean-to roofs against the tower and towards the aisles; the chases formed to take these roofs still remain. The south aisle received new windows throughout, but the 13th-century doorway which had been moved out with the wall in the earlier widening was still retained. The south porch was also added and the north aisle was rebuilt and widened. The northwest buttress of the tower had previously been partly carried on the narrow arch spanning the east end of the aisle; when this was removed and the arch widened the buttress was brought down solid like the others. There was no attempt in the rebuilding of this aisle to preserve the west wall of the 13th-century aisle as had been done in the earlier widening of the south aisle, and the side wall was allowed to butt into the blocked lancet of the transept in a much more clumsy fashion. The transepts were brought into use again in the same century, new large windows being inserted in the end walls in place of the lancet windows. The rest of the history of the building up to the end of the 18th century consists of minor operations; the side windows of the aisles lost the feathering in their lights, and among other alterations the high-pitched roofs were altered to a lower pitch.
The chancel was rebuilt in 1779 and again in 1883–5, when the present chancel and vestries were erected in the 15th-century style. This last chancel, though of ample length, is some 15 ft. shorter than the former one, the line of the east wall of which is marked by a pile of the old stones belonging to the former windows. The roofs were also raised to their original pitch and the windows in the east walls of the transepts, which were blocked up, were opened out, while a new window was inserted in the west wall of the nave. The modern east window of the chancel is of five cinquefoiled lights and on either side of it is a canopied niche. In the north wall are two windows, each of three trefoiled lights, and a doorway into the vestry. On the south side are three similar windows and below the first are three sedilia. The walling is of ashlar inside and out; the roof is gabled and has a barrel ceiling enriched with carving on the easternmost bay.
The four arches to the central tower are each of three chamfered orders dying on to the splayed jambs of the piers. The piers have plinths of two orders, much of which is now of modern stonework; the labels to the arches are moulded with modern square blocks for stops. The stair turret, which is of earlier date than the rest of the tower, rises in the north-east corner. Its present entrance is on the north, but it was originally entered by the segmental-arched doorway towards the east in the chancel, now blocked, the north jamb of which is old, the south modern. Over it are the marks of fire upon the stonework. The turret has had a later skin added to its south face in the chancel and was lighted by two loops now blocked. On the east face of the turret is a length of carved foliated 13th-century string-course. Above the arches of the tower in the angles are the filleted angle shafts which supported the former ceiling; they rest upon moulded corbels carved with human heads and pass through the modern panelled ceiling into the chamber above, where they terminate with carved foliated capitals supported on corbels carved with the symbols of the Evangelists—the angel, lion, bull, and eagle—all with wings and robes and holding scrolls. There are no signs of vaulting and they doubtless supported a wood ceiling to the lantern. This chamber is lighted in each wall by two trefoiled ogee-headed windows with pierced spandrels and lancet-shaped rear arches. The bell-chamber above has on each side two tall windows of two ogee-headed trefoiled lights divided by transoms, below which the lights have cinquefoiled four-centred heads; in the two-centred heads of the windows, which have moulded labels on carved stops, is vertical tracery. The corners of the tower are strengthened by pairs of angle buttresses which reach almost to the parapet and are finished with octagonal pinnacles with crocketed finials. In the middle of each face are smaller square pinnacles with modern crocketed finials rising from gargoyles on the parapet string; the parapet proper is plain, but the line is broken by a series of steep crocketed and finialled gablets standing up above it, with half gablets of similar form abutting upon the pinnacles; most of the stonework of these is modern. At the angles are the springing stones of angle squinches for an octagonal spire, but the spire does not appear to have been built.
To the south-east of the north transept is a modern archway to the vestry passage. This wall is pierced by three 13th-century lancet windows, each having a small chamfered order outside and large splayed jambs inside; the rear arch is also splayed and is semicircular. The external labels which mitre with the string-course at the springing level are double chamfered. Strings of similar section are set in the wall, both inside and out, below the sill level. The sill of the southern light is lifted for the archway of the vestry passage. The wall outside is divided into three bays by shallow buttresses, the top offsets of which with the eaves and end gable are of modern stonework. The original clasping buttress to the north-east angle has been removed and the corner is now supported by a heavy diagonal buttress of 15th or 16th-century date. The north-west clasping buttress remains, but the two against the north wall have been partially cut away for the insertion of a 15th-century window of three trefoiled lights under a pointed segmental arch, above which inside is the rear arch of the original lancet. The gable wall above has been rebuilt and thinned, but a 13th-century vesica piscis window has been reset with but three new stones in its surrounding hood mould. A lancet in the west wall of the transept has been filled in and the aisle wall now butts into it. This wall has also been thinned some 4 in. in its upper part. The wide archway towards the aisle is of two chamfered orders.
The south transept has three lancets in the east wall similar to those in the north transept. The north one has its sill lifted up for an arched recess, the sill of this recess being 3 ft. 5 in. above the floor; its north jamb and part of the arch have been destroyed by the later tower buttress. In the remaining south jamb is an engaged shaft with a moulded base and carved capital. The arch is pointed and has a three-quarter edge roll. Nearly all the stonework is modern, but it is presumably a copy of the 13thcentury work, and once formed an altar recess, as to the south there is a small trefoiled recess which may have been a piscina. The wall externally is divided into three bays by shallow buttresses, one of which has been enlarged probably in the 15th century, and there are shallow clasping buttresses at the angles. The south wall was rebuilt and thinned by 7 in. in the 15th century and a large traceried window of five cinquefoiled lights, now much repaired, was inserted. The gable above has been rebuilt. Below the window inside is a shallow square recess, possibly a locker or a plain piscina.
The north arcade of the nave consists of four bays; the first, third and fourth columns are circular, the second is a compound pier with about 1 ft. 9 in. of flat wall surface between two half-round responds; the first column is touched and slightly cut away by the tower buttress and has a square scalloped capital with a chamfered and grooved abacus. The first complete arch is a round one of two orders, the outer square, the inner chamfered, and probably a later recutting.
The second, or compound, pier has much new stone let into it. The capital is like that of the first column, the abacus passing all round on both sides; the innermost scallops towards the south and the innermost western one towards the north are certainly of later work than the others. The capital of the third column is square in plan and is also scalloped, but the abacus has no groove above the chamfered lower edge; in the haunch of the arch above it (towards the nave) is a small shallow ogeeheaded niche of later date, evidently for a figure which must have stood upon the abacus. The scalloped capital of the fourth column is octagonal; the abacus is chamfered above and below and is a later re-cutting; the south-west face is modern. The west respond has two orders with a half-round shaft on the face of the inner and detached shafts in the angles between the inner and outer; the latter have cushion capitals and the former a scalloped capital, the abacus of which is carved with zigzag ornament and has been cut off flush with the sides of the capitals to the north and south; the bases of all the columns and responds are missing, or more probably buried below the floor. The three western arches, which, like the eastern arch, are round, are each of two square orders without labels. The south arcade has four bays, with a portion of a fifth bay against the tower, now partly closed up with modern stonework. The pillars are round, and of much smaller diameter than those opposite, with bases of two rounds and a hollow, and simple round bell capitals with chamfered abaci. The arches are pointed and of two chamfered orders. Some of the bases of this arcade have been badly mutilated. The west doorway is of late 12th-century date, but has suffered in later times; some of the carved shaft capitals now lying in different parts of the church probably belonged to this doorway. It has now jambs of two square orders with slightly chamfered edges and with modern shafts in the angles. The arch is a plain round one of three slightly chamfered orders with a double-chamfered label. Two projecting stones set within the label at the springing line of the arch are apparently later carved corbel heads.
The window over the doorway is a new one in the style of the 15th century. Nearly all the outer face of the west wall is modernized. To the south of the entrance is a wide and shallow niche set about 7 ft. 6 in. above the ground level; it has a plain angular head with three straight sides; a smaller niche inside suggests that this was formerly a piercing with the wider end to the outside and set skew-wise. There are buttresses to rebut the ends of the arcades, probably both of the date of the west doorway and the south arcade; both are rather shallow and of two stages.
The three north windows and the west window of the north aisle are alike; each has three trefoiled lights with plain piercings above the outer lights and a two-centred segmental head. The cusping is modern. The north doorway, now blocked, has a twocentred drop arch. The two buttresses dividing the wall into three bays and the western diagonal one are old, though much repaired, and are topped by modern pinnacles. In the stonework of this aisle there are many masons' marks, some ten or more different forms being noticeable.
The archway from the transept into the south aisle is of two hollow-chamfered orders much repaired. The arch stones and jambs of an earlier arch are visible 2 ft. to the north of the present arch. The first and second south aisle windows are each of three plain lights under two-centred segmental heads. Both windows are insertions of the late 15th or 16th century; round the first can be traced the outline of the former window. The buttress between the windows is modernized, but apparently dates from the 15th century; it has a modern crocketed pinnacle standing up above the plain parapet. Similar pinnacles stand above the side walls of the porch and the angle buttress at the west end. The lower part of the wall below the first and second windows is faced with many old gravestones, one of which has an edgeroll, but the others are without distinctive marks. The south doorway is of the 13th century and has jambs of three orders, the inner with three rounds worked on it, the outer two square with modern angle shafts. The arch is almost all original and has three moulded orders and a double-chamfered label. The third window resembles those to the east of the doorway except that the cusping is modern. The window in the west wall has also been much modernized, but its jamb stones are old and probably earlier than the south windows; they are the only remains of the original 14th-century south aisle windows. Under the window is a change in the plinth and a short length of straight joint, showing the return of the earlier aisle, and the line of its steep lean-to roof can be seen in the wall above. In the 14th-century part of this wall are two or three coffin slabs; one has an edge-roll and another an incised staff.
The south porch is probably a 15th-century addition; it has an outer arch of two orders. In the low gable is a small trefoiled niche, the head of which is old, the jambs modern. The corners of the porch are strengthened by diagonal buttresses; at the angle of the east one with the face are the remains of a holy water stoup. The walling of the church inside and out is of ashlar.
There are many carved stones lying in and about the church belonging to earlier work. In the recess in the east wall of the south transept are fragments of pre-Norman crosses carved with knot and interlacing patterns and one with a human figure; there is also a quern. A small transitional 12th-13th-century capital probably belonged to the west doorway. A similar one has been set in the south wall of the vestry. Beside it are two moulded bell capitals, evidently belonging to 13th-century window shafts. In the recess formed by the blocked north doorway there are two small scalloped capitals, three small 13th-century bases and many pieces of moulded 13th-century window jambs, all evidently belonging to the former chancel east window. There are many more pieces of jambs and tracery of similar mould set in the churchyard in a heap, which is said to mark the site of the former east wall; there are also in the last-mentioned recess two pieces of gravestones with floreated crosses of 14th and 15th-century date.
All the roofs are modern; those of the nave and transepts replaced low-pitched roofs put up in the 16th or 17th century.
The font dates from 1662; the bowl is octagonal in plan and stands on a fluted stem. Over it is an 18th-century tall wood canopy. On the west wall of the north transept are the remains of a painted wood screen probably of 15th-century date; it has lost its tracery and is closed up with wood panelling. Near it is an old chest with a large amount of plain ironwork; three of the bands across the top have staples for padlocks. The other furniture is modern.
The monuments in the church are few and small and of comparatively late or modern dates. The earliest appears to be a slab on the north wall of the north transept to Mark Metcalfe, a former vicar, who died in 1593. There is a slab with a small brass to Francis Kaye, who died in 1624, and a slab to 'Mr. Pigott,' 1775, both former vicars. There is also a slab to Robert Raikes, who died in 1709, and other 18th-century stones.
There are eight bells; these are now all modern. Up to 1898 they were all more or less out of tune, and in that year several were recast and retuned and they now form a natural scale. Previous to this two of them dated from 1656.
The plate includes a cup and a small cover paten, both of 1636, with maker's mark I.P. of York, also a paten of 1702, with the arms of the Metcalfes, a cup of 1826 and a large pewter flagon.
The registers begin in 1592 in a Latin copy.
The church of ST. THOMAS, Brompton, consists of a chancel 22 ft. by 15 ft. 8 in. with a north vestry and organ chamber, nave 58 ft. by 19 ft. 9 in., north aisle 45 ft. 3 in. by 9 ft. 2 in. and a south tower serving as a porch 9 ft. square. These measurements are all internal.
The earliest work in the present structure probably dates from the 12th century, but it is clear from the evidence of 11th-century stones found that there was an earlier church on the site. The south walls of the nave and the chancel are probably on the lines of the earlier church, but the nave was smaller, being about 45 ft. by 15 ft. When the north aisle was added about 1180 the wall was moved out some 4 ft. or 5 ft. Most of the windows are modern, but from what is left of the old work it may be assumed that in the 14th century the chancel was rebuilt on the old foundations, and the nave was lengthened about 12 ft. or 13 ft. westward. The tower was added in the 15th century, and since then the fabric has undergone many minor 'repairs,' of which two are dated by panels on the south wall of the nave (1638) and the corresponding wall of the chancel (1660). A restoration took place in 1868, when most of the windows, already modern, were replaced by new ones, the galleries around the church removed, a chancel arch put in, the north organ chamber and vestry added and the walls refaced with ashlar outside. During this work many 11th-century (or perhaps earlier) stones were found in the foundations, including some fine 'hog-back' gravestones. Most of these are now preserved in the church, but two or three of them have been taken to Durham.
The jambs are the only parts of the east window of the chancel which are old. The first window in the south wall of the chancel is a modernized 15thcentury insertion. In the middle of the wall is a modern priest's doorway and to the west a single trefoiled ogee-headed light; the jambs are modern, but the head and sill are of 14th-century date. The chancel arch is modern. The vestry is lighted by a three-light east window and entered by a small doorway in the north wall.
The nave arcade has four bays; it has no responds. The middle column is octagonal, the other two circular. The base of the octagonal column is of a roll and chamfer section, those of the circular columns a roll and ogee. The capitals have been more or less retooled and are all of plain section except for some slight scroll ornament carved on the first capital. The capitals at the east and west ends appear to be modern. The arches are all semicircular and of two square orders with chamfered labels. The south-east window is of modern stonework. The south doorway into the tower is probably contemporary with it. The jambs only of the south-west and west windows are old.
The two north windows and the west window of the aisle are also modern. Between them is a blocked doorway with a two-centred head.
The tower is of three stages ; the outer entrance is of a single hollow-chamfered order and has a threecentred arch. Over it are a small niche, too much perished for its detail to be made out, and a small rectangular light. There are diagonal buttresses at the angles which do not reach to the first string. The stair rises in a projecting turret in the northeast corner. The second stage is blank except for the clock face on the west side. The third or belfry stage is lighted in each wall by square-headed windows of two lights, with trefoiled two-centred droparched heads. The parapet is embattled and there are modern pinnacles at the angles. The vane above the tower is dated 1794.
All the exterior face of the walling except to the tower is in modern picked ashlar. On the east wall are two stones carved with interlaced knot-work, and there is one on the south side. The roofs are modern.
The treasures of the church are the unusually fine 'hog-back' stones and the ancient crosses found at the restoration ; of the former there are five, three almost perfect, and one only a fragment, and the last with one of its beasts gone. All have bears at the ends, from whose mouths issue the ridge rolls. The three nearly perfect stones are about 4 ft. 3 in. long. Two of the crosses are well preserved and are carved with the usual interlacing patterns. The third (the head of which is at Durham) has a stem of more than usually interesting character ; one face is carved in three panels, with two figures on the lowest, perhaps intended for the Creation, and two buds in the upper panels. Another has a figure holding what is apparently a kerf, with a bird above and a human head beneath. The third has a figure holding a staff, and the fourth an interlacing pattern with trefoiled leaves at various parts. There are also three other fragments of cross heads carved with interlacing patterns. (fn. 213) Two other small gravestones of later date, probably 14th century, stand on the window ledges in the aisle. Both have floreated crosses carved upon them.
The font and other furniture are all of modern date. In the vestry is a 17th-century carved chest.
There are three bells : the first of 1622, inscribed 'Jesus be our speed,' the second by Warner, 1879, and the third by Thomas Mears, 1800.
The communion plate includes a cup, paten and flagon, all modern, a pewter flagon and two plates.
The registers begin in 1594.
The church of ALL SAINTS, Deighton, which is mostly modern, is built of stone, and consists of a chancel measuring internally 33 ft. by 14½ ft., a nave 17½ ft. by 11 ft. a north vestry, south porch and west bellcote.
In the north wall of the chancel is an old twolight square-mullioned window of the domestic type.
The font is circular on a circular stem and is apparently old. On the exterior of the porch is inscribed '[T CM] 1715' and a sundial bears the date 1722. Neither of the two gable bells has any inscription, but the northern one is of decidedly early shape. The original cannons, which show a V-pattern, have been replaced in later times.
The church of ST. JAMES, Romanby, was built in 1882, and consists of a chancel, nave, a north vestry and organ chamber, a south porch and small open bell-turret above the chancel.
In the churchyard are some architectural fragments apparently of 14th-century date.
The church of ALL SAINTS for High and Low Worsall is entirely modern, having been consecrated in 1894. The remains of the old church at High Worsall consist of a nave measuring about 24 ft. by 20 ft. built in 1710 from the fragments of an older chapel. The old dressed stone has been combined with brick to form the present building, which has three roughly made two-light windows. Until recently it was used as a mortuary chapel.
A brick gable still carries a bell cast by John Lee of Newcastle in 1764.
The plate at the new church includes two modern plated chalices and one plated paten with a pewter flagon and almsdish, the latter bearing the maker's name, Edmund Harvey. In addition there is a quite modern communion set.
The registers begin in 1720.
The church of Northallerton was in existence before the end of the 12th century, when it belonged to the priory of St. Cuthbert of Durham, (fn. 214) to which it was confirmed by King John in 1204. (fn. 215) In 1217 the prior was empowered to apply the revenues of the church to the relief of the poor and hospitality. (fn. 216) A vicarage was ordained before 1267, in which year a new incumbent was presented by the prior and convent, but there was apparently some uncertainty as to their claim to the church, (fn. 217) and in 1410 it was challenged by the Archbishop of York. He complained that the Prior and convent and chapter of Durham had held the church of Northallerton, among others, without canonical title, and converted the fruits and tithes to their own uses, and usurped the visitation and spiritual jurisdiction. It was shown, however, that the prior and convent had been in possession from time immemorial and judgement was given in their favour. (fn. 218) Their successors continued to hold the church until the Dissolution. (fn. 219) In 1541 the Dean and Chapter of Durham obtained a grant of the advowson of the vicarage, (fn. 220) but the rectory seems to have remained in the Crown. In spite of the grant to Durham, Northallerton was one of the churches which, with the rectories and advowsons, were consigned to Nicholas Archbishop of York in 1558. (fn. 221) This last grant was evidently disregarded by Elizabeth, who gave the rectory (but not the advowson of the vicarage) in 1592 to William, Christopher and James Bowes successively for their three lives. (fn. 222) In 1607 the rectory and church and also the advowson, notwithstanding the grant to Durham, were granted to Edward Lord Bruce of Kinloss, (fn. 223) who was seised of them at his death in 1610–11. (fn. 224) His son Edward Lord Bruce of Kinloss was seised of them at his death three years later, and his brother and successor Thomas, (fn. 225) afterwards Earl of Elgin, (fn. 226) dealt with the advowson in 1627 (fn. 227) and 1645. (fn. 228) There may have been a division of opinion as to the rightful patron of the church, however, as in 1624 and 1628 the incumbent was jointly presented by Richard Hunt (possibly on behalf of Lord Bruce) and the Dean and Chapter of Durham. The latter seem to have been eventually able to substantiate their claim, and from at least 1675 the presentations have been uniformly made by the dean and chapter only, (fn. 229) in whose gift the living still remains. The rectory continued with Lord Bruce and descended from him to the Earls of Ailesbury, one of whom is said to have sold it to William Prissick of Carlton in Cleveland, who sold it to Mrs. Elizabeth Raine of Northallerton, and she or her representatives to George Prissick, the brother of William. George Prissick's son Edmund sold it to Henry Peirse, (fn. 230) whose descendant (fn. 231) Sir Henry Beresford-Peirse is the present lay rector. (fn. 232)
Durham College in Oxford, which was probably founded about 1290, (fn. 233) had a pension of £20 from the church of Northallerton before the Dissolution, which was granted with the vicarage to the Dean and Chapter of Durham in 1541. (fn. 234)
There was a chapel at Brompton at a very early date, possibly before the Conquest. (fn. 235) In 1386 it was dependent upon the church of Northallerton and so continued. (fn. 236) At the suppression of chantries this chapel was certified as being used in all things as a parish church, the incumbent being found and paid by the vicar of Northallerton. (fn. 237) Brompton was separated from the mother church and constituted a distinct benefice under an Order in Council dated 1843. (fn. 238) It is now a vicarage in the gift of the Dean and Chapter of Durham.
A chapel dependent on Northallerton Church also existed at Deighton in 1386, (fn. 239) and, like Brompton, was said to be used as a parish church in the 16th century. (fn. 240) The present church is still a chapel of ease to Northallerton.
There was a chapel at Romanby as early as 1231. In that year a grant was made to John de Romanby, his heirs, and the men of the vill of Romanby of a perpetual chantry there every day in the year save at Christmas, the Purification, Good Friday, Easter and All Saints, and also on Palm Sunday if there should then be service in the chapel, when it should be done without a procession and the blessing of palms. They were to maintain the chaplain, receiving half a mark yearly for this from the vicar of the mother church, and they, the chaplain and his successors were to swear obedience to the mother church and its rectors. (fn. 241) This chapel occurs as a dependent chapel to Northallerton in 1386. (fn. 242) In 1523 Cardinal Wolsey ordered the destruction of Romanby chapel in consequence of the incumbent of Northallerton having questioned his authority, and this order was subsequently carried out. (fn. 243) The present church is a chapel of ease to Northallerton.
A church or chapel was in existence at High Worsall as early as 1204, (fn. 244) and seems to have been always dependent upon Northallerton, although at some distance. In the 16th century it was said to be seven miles away, and to have no priest with any perpetual stipend, but to be served by the chaplain of John Sayer, who gave him household wages. (fn. 245) High Worsall chapel of ease was superseded by a new edifice on its site; it was constituted a parish church in 1719. (fn. 246) The vicar of Northallerton has one turn in four in presenting to the living and the Archbishop of York three turns. In 1891, by an Order in Council, the township of Low Worsall was separated from the parish of Kirk Leavington and united for ecclesiastical purposes with High Worsall as 'High Worsall-with-Low Worsall.'
A chantry of St. Laurence, founded by a Bishop of Durham, existed in Northallerton in 1546; it was 1,000 ft. from the parish church. (fn. 247)
There had been another chantry at the altar of Trinity founded in 1476 by Richard More, a draper of Northallerton; he also established a Bedehouse, called Maison Dieu, in the town for thirteen poor people, and made Sir James Strangways and his son Richard the trustees. A memorandum states, however, that two years before the Suppression William Lord Dacre and Sir Charles Brandon, kt., entered into the property, which they used for their own benefit without providing a priest or paying anything to the poor people. (fn. 248) The number of the latter was subsequently reduced from thirteen to four. (fn. 249)
In the 15th century there was a gild or fraternity connected with the church of Northallerton. The date of its institution is unknown, but in 1441 an indulgence was granted to the brethren of the gild by Cardinal Kempe. (fn. 250)
The chantry in the chapel of Lazenby, founded by John and Alice Lithegrenes, (fn. 251) was still served in 1546 by two priests who had been maintained by the Earl of Lennox since the surrender of Jervaulx Abbey.
At the same date Thomas Markenfield (according to the custom of his ancestors) also paid a stipend to a priest named John Blaisdaille, 'a man of indifferent learning,' for saying mass and doing divine service in the church of Northallerton, unless he happened to be residing at Romanby, when the priest attended and said mass there instead.
One cottage in Northallerton was devoted at that time to the maintenance of a yearly obit and another to the finding of a light in the church. (fn. 252)
Northallerton. — For the free school see article on the Yorkshire schools. (fn. 253)
By an Order of the Charity Commissioners of 4 April 1905 the following charities were united and a scheme established for their management, viz.:
The Maison Dieu, founded in 1476 by one Roger More, for establishing a chantry and for certain charitable purposes.—The endowment consists of four dwelling-houses occupied by four sisters or almspeople, two closes in the township of Northallerton and Romanby containing 13 a. 2 r. 35 p., let at £24 a year, five cottages let at £6 10s. a year, and £107 10s. 7d. consols, £103 4s. 6d. local loans £3 per cent. stock (held by the official trustees) and £93 15s. 6d. in the savings bank. The net income is divided between the four poor women occupying the almshouses.
Charity of Rev. Francis Kaye, founded by will in 1624, consisting of two yearly sums of £8 and £2 issuing out of land in Danby Forest called Stormy Hall and Nook House, belonging to Joseph Dale, which are applicable under the scheme above referred to as to one-half for the sisters in the Maison Dieu and as to the other half for the benefit of two poor widows of the civil parish of Brompton.
Charity of John Eshall, by deed of 17 Charles I, being a yearly sum of £3 issuing out of an estate at Cattal belonging to Ralph Jackson of Brentwood Grange, Amersham, applicable under the scheme as to one-half for the four sisters and the other half for the general benefit of the poor of the township of Romanby.
Charity of Elizabeth Raine (deed 1737), consisting of two closes known as the Yarn Closes in the township of Romanby, containing together about 11 a., let at £15 4s. 6d. a year, of which £7 10s. a year is directed by the scheme to be applied for the benefit of the sisters, £1 for the poor of the township of Romanby and the residue—subject to the payment, under an order of the Charity Commissioners of 1904, of a yearly sum of 40s. as an endowment of the Raine educational foundation—for the benefit of the poor of the townships of Northallerton and Romanby.
Charity of Dr. John Hodgson (will 1891), consisting of £713 7s. 6d. consols (with the official trustees) and a further sum of £1,000, subject to an existing life interest. By the scheme £7 10s. a year is applicable for the benefit of the sisters and the residue for the general benefit of the poor of the township of Northallerton. The amounts payable under the scheme for the poor of any area are applicable in such manner as may be considered by the trustees most conducive to the formation of provident habits. They are distributed chiefly in coals and clothing.
In 1788 a sum of £100, being the amount of several charitable benefactions by Archbishop Palliser and others for the poor of the parish, was by a resolution of the Select Vestry expended in rebuilding the Maison Dieu Hospital.
In 1694 the Rev. John Kettlewell, by deed, conveyed to trustees certain lands in Brompton known as Low Field Farm, containing about 85 a., upon trust to apply the rents in providing Bibles, Prayer-books and other religious books, physic, clothes, education, &c. The lands are let at £60 a year. The official trustees also held (1906) £254 18s. 5d. consols on remittance account and £260 17s. 3d. consols on an investment account to replace moneys expended in drainage works and improving farm buildings. The stock arose from sale in 1859 of land for £650 to the North Eastern Railway Company.
By a scheme of the Charity Commissioners of 25 April 1876 £15 a year is applicable to hospitals, &c., £15 a year to the poor of Northallerton and Brompton and £2 10s. a year in the distribution of Bibles, &c., and by an order made in 1904 under the Board of Education Act, 1899, the whole of the endowment, excepting the aggregate yearly sum of £32 10s. applicable as above mentioned, was determined to be educational, and to be called the Kettlewell Educational Foundation.
Charity of Dame Mary Calverley.—This parish is entitled to participate in the funds of this charity. (See general charities under Richmond.)
Township of Brompton.—See the united charities of Northallerton.
The following charities are also for the benefit of the township: 'Crowfoot's' charity (will 1698), an annuity of £1 charged on land in Brompton; 'Hiddon' alias 'Hebden's' charity, £1 a year charged on land in Scruton; and charity of Thomas Crawforth, an annuity of £2 charged on land in Brompton. These annuities, amounting together to £4, are distributed by the vicar and churchwardens among the poor in money.
By her will, proved in 1893, Mrs. Isabel Middleton bequeathed her residuary estate to the Brompton School Board, the income to be applied in the purchase of coals and other articles to be distributed among the poor. The legacy is represented by £1,719 14s. 4d. consols with the official trustees, the dividends of which, amounting to £42 19s. 10d., are applied in accordance with the trusts by the parish council, which body was appointed in 1904 by the Charity Commissioners to be the trustees of the charity.
Charity of Mrs. Isabel Middleton for the chapel.— The same testatrix left £500 to the trustees of the Methodist chapel for investment. The sum of £450 (the amount of the legacy less duty) has been lent to the trustees of the Netherfield Wesleyan Chapel on the security of a promissory note at 3½ per cent., and the income is applied in the repairs, &c., of the Brompton Wesleyan Chapel.