A History of the County of York North Riding: Volume 1. Originally published by Victoria County History, London, 1914.
This free content was digitised by double rekeying. All rights reserved.
Kirkby Ravensworth (fn. 1) parish is composed of the townships of Dalton, Gayles, Kirby-on-the-Hill, New Forest, Newsham, Ravensworth and Whashton, of which New Forest contains the hamlets of Helwith, Hallgate (fn. 2) and Casey Green. The area is 15,404 acres, of which 1,278 are arable, 6,073 permanent grass and 212 woods and plantations. (fn. 3) The soil is loam, the subsoil Yoredale Rocks. There is lead in this district and a certain amount of coal. (fn. 4) Stone is now worked. The chief crops raised are wheat, oats, barley and turnips, but nearly half the parish is barren moorland. Watling Street extends along nearly the whole of the northern boundary of the parish. From it on the east New Lane runs threequarters of a mile south-west to Ravensworth, a pretty village standing about 700 ft. above the ordnance datum, over which rise the ruins of the Fitz Hugh keep with a park of about three-quarters of a square mile in extent to the south. The church stands prominently on a mound above the road on the north side of a square green which has the grammar school, almshouses, manor-house and cottages grouped round it on three sides and a well in the middle. The village is much as it was when Leland described it in the 16th century: 'Ravenswathe Castel in a Mares Grounde—a Parke on a little hilling ground by hit. It is a iii Miles by North west from Richemont, and therby is a praty village . . . and by hit cummith a Bekke caulled Ravenswath Bekke' (fn. 5) (now Holme Beck).
The 16th-century grammar school is a rectangular building measuring about 76 ft. from east to west, and 18 ft. in width exclusive of buildings which appear to be later additions. There are a ground and first floor, the latter reached by a newel stair built in a square projection at the north-east end; this turret is, however, filled up and a modern wood stair is now used. On the south side is the schoolmaster's house, a two-story cottage built in 1706, with a sundial inscribed 'mox nox.' The walls have been much repaired, and in the north side are a number of later windows. There is one four-light window, with plain heads in a square setting, on the first floor. On the ground floor on both sides are several two-light mullioned windows and various small square-headed lights irregularly placed. The interior of the school is plain, with an inscription concerning the foundation, and on the first floor is a large cupboard made in 1784 containing the charter and documents relating to the school, their safety being ensured by three locks, the keys of which are held by the three trustees. The school is still in use under its original foundation, and every second year the ceremony, minutely detailed by the founder, is carried out for the selection of three trustees by a system of drawing lots. Names of candidates are written on papers and placed each in a wax ball, a number of which are put in a vessel of water and drawn from, the names of the non-elected being preserved in case of a vacancy during the two years of office, when a further drawing takes place.
Following the road north-west from Kirby Hill the small village of Gayles is reached, spread along the road at the foot of a steep wooded slope. In the middle of the village a field road leads up to the hall, a building of early 17th-century date, its mullioned windows being blocked or replaced by larger classical windows at the end of the 17th century. In the centre room on the ground floor, which probably formed an entrance hall, but now is cut off by a partition, is some late plaster work on the beam and ceiling consisting of Greek fret design with roses. The south wing of the house is remarkable for the number of small rooms intended for storage of both wine and provisions, and outside the house are two small cellars rubble vaulted and provided with a stone ledge or bench on each side apparently for the same purpose.
Gayles Manor House, close to the entrance to the hall, is a neatly built house in the classical style, and had once a pleasure garden with flights of steps and stone borders to the paths and flower beds. It is now a farm with modern additions and alterations, but the garden is being cleared and renewed. One mile north-west of Gayles is Dalton, and between them is the earthwork called Castle Steads. Dalton village consists of a number of stone-built houses, several of them in 18th-century classical style, and a row of plainer houses with gardens in front grouped round cross-roads. There is here a modern church built in 1898 and also a Wesleyan chapel. About a quarter of a mile beyond the village on the west side of the road is Dalton Hall, a rectangular house with projecting gable behind in which are mullioned windows now blocked. The kitchen has a large open fireplace adapted for modern use, and at the back of the wall which carries the fireplace are large corbels supporting a massive stone chimney above. Beyond Dalton the road continues 1¼ miles north-east to Newsham village, where there are the remains of stocks and a portion of a stone cross.
On the southern boundary of the parish near the Richmond road is a hollow stone known as the Plague Stone, which, filled with water or vinegar, was used as a receptacle for money during times of plague, when exchange was thus carried on between villages in the endeavour to avoid infection.
Holme Beck after skirting Ravensworth runs past the hamlet of Whashton before it enters Hartforth Wood. Jagger Lane bounds Whashton on the southeast.
Watling Street, going north-west from Ravensworth, passes East Dalton fields, possibly the site of the Saxon town Vilfaraesdun, where Oswiu king of Deira, in flight before Oswi of Bernicia, assembled his troops and bade them disperse. (fn. 6) In the northwest of the parish Newsham township extends north of Watling Street. From the Roman road Dyson Lane runs south, crossing Dyson Beck by a bridge to the village of Newsham; to the south stretch wide moors and woods.
Dalton was the scene of a curious mediaeval story that runs as follows:—It would appear that in 1289 John Fraunceys, a freeholder of Gayles, owning 3 oxgangs of land, (fn. 7) 'fell into grievous sin,' and while his neighbours were attending the divine offices of the church on Sunday he, like a 'brutish man, used to visit his brutes, turning his back on the church and wandering over hill and dale.' On one Sunday, however, extending his wanderings further than usual, he visited 'a remote place,' which can perhaps be identified as Frankinshawe, (fn. 8) a wild mountainous solitude 'full of the Powers of the Air.' These 'Powers' were represented as dwarfs that were deformed in visage and simulated the habit of an abbot. They called upon him to hear the service which they mockingly performed. When they afterwards flew away he was irresistibly drawn to fly with them, but calling to mind the Passion of Christ he remained upon the earth until the 'Spirits of Iniquity' left him. On arrival at his home he took to his bed, and struggled for eight days to fly, until by a full confession and absolution he was cured. (fn. 9)
There are records of the inclosure of common lands in Tudor times. Whashton Law Hagg was inclosed in the time of Henry VIII, Birckhagg a little later. (fn. 10) There was a question in 1592 of common in Whashton in the 'springes, wooddes, groundes and hagges' called Blingell Hagg, Lodge Hagg, Birke Hagg, Colebrowe, the Oke Ympe, Kelston Hagg and the Payle Hagg. (fn. 11) In 1593 ground called the Flatts in Ravensworth was said to have been inclosed with consent of all the tenants, (fn. 12) and in 1604 the tenants of Bowes were said to have made 'intakes' in the moorland hamlets of New Forest. (fn. 13) There were Inclosure Acts for the common fields in 1772–3 and 1776–7. (fn. 14)
A survey of the manor of New Forest in 1606–7 gives the following boundaries, still the boundaries of its civil parish, and interesting for their place-names: 'Beginning at the rivulet (fn. 15) near Slapewathe next the Standingstone and thence ascending the rivulet as far as the Skalegreeneford, and then ascending by the Long Greene Beck (a beck still forming part of the boundary) as far as the Wham called the Marisikehead, and thence direct as far as the stone called the Pinhill on the hill called Frankashowe (fn. 16) (now Frankinshawe) and then directly westwards to the spring called the Skegg Arundel Well (there is still a spring at this point though nameless), and thence descending by the stream called Arundel Beck (Arndale Beck) as far as the stream called the Forest Beck.' (fn. 17)
Some 13th-century names in Gayles are Gildusberg, Saysine, Lyolfesenge, Machrustindale, Austgail, Heuningum, Chiristrerane, Austkeldrane, Gressemanneshenge, (fn. 18) Nonthewath, Baunelandes, (fn. 19) Bolerunsletes. (fn. 20)
Two mills at Ravensworth called Holme Mills belonging to the lord of the manor are mentioned in the middle of the 16th and the early 17th century. (fn. 21) A corn-mill still stands on the Holme Beck. There were mills at Dalton Michael and Gayles (Dalton Travers) in 1251, the former in the possession of Henry son of Ranulf lord of Ravensworth, the latter owned by Robert Travers. The same water-course, unknown to Henry, turned the wheels of both mills, and this, when he discovered it, seems to have given him great offence, for he immediately diverted the stream so that Robert could no longer grind. Whereupon Robert in revenge made a ditch from Dalton Beck by which he diverted the water from Henry's mill to the injury of the whole neighbourhood. (fn. 22) There was a water-mill in Gayles in 1440 (fn. 23) and 1597–8, (fn. 24) and one at Dalton Norris in 1561, (fn. 25) but there is now only one mill on Dalton Beck. There used to be a water-mill at New Forest which belonged to the Earl of Richmond, (fn. 26) and in 1598 there was one at Newsham, (fn. 27) where one still exists.
A public elementary school at Ravensworth was erected in 1841, and one at Dalton was rebuilt in 1894.
There are Wesleyan chapels at Gayles, Dalton, Newsham and Whashton.
The minor poet Cuthbert Shaw, son of a shoemaker, was born at Ravensworth in 1739. (fn. 28)
Of the history of RAVENSWORTH CASTLE little is known. It was the stronghold of the Fitz Hughs, lords of the manor of Ravensworth, the descent of which it has always followed. (fn. 29) King John visited it in 1201, (fn. 30) and in 1391 Henry Fitz Hugh received licence to inclose 200 acres of land around the castle to make a park. (fn. 31)
Shortly after Leland's visit in the middle of the 16th century it began to be pulled down, and at the close of that century the bailiff of the manor was the chief offender in taking cartloads of stone from the fabric for his own use. (fn. 32) It was said to have been utterly 'ruynated' in the time of William Marquess of Northampton, and in 1616 nothing was left, it was reported, but the old walls inclosing 1 acre of land. (fn. 33) A small portion of the building itself, however, still remains to-day. The remains of the castle occupy flat ground at the bottom of the valley. It consisted originally of a rectangular walled and moated inclosure, the longest side running roughly north and south, a square gate-house at the north-west corner and other buildings of uncertain position within the walls. The remains now consist of the gate-house and five fragments of walls and buildings. The gate-house, measuring 29 ft. by 25 ft. 6 in., with flat buttresses at the angles, is of early 14th-century date. The ground floor is entered on the east side by a door 3 ft. 3 in. wide with a shouldered arch. North of this door are the remains of an external stair leading to the first floor. From this point a straight stair in the wall leads to the south-east angle, where a newel stair, now in ruins, led to the upper floor and roof. The north wall has large rectangular loopholes on the first and second floors and a trefoiled light on the third floor. The west wall has three narrow cross-shaped loopholes; the south wall has no windows, the east wall one small trefoiled window and two double-light trefoiled windows above.
On the south side the wall of the outer inclosure joins the gate-house, having at this point a 14thcentury gateway 10 ft. 8 in. in width; the remains of a causeway led up to it, and there was doubtless a drawbridge over the moat. The portcullis grooves remain. On the east wall of the gate-house are traces of the junction of the outer wall.
The mounds marking the line of outer walls extend southwards to the south-west angle, where a fine section of wall 45 ft. long remains in position; this appears to have been a projecting bastion, for a section of wall 7 ft. long forms an angle with it at the northern end, and at the south end the angle is complete to where the wall turned east, as the moat indicates. This wall has a drain opening into the moat and two small round openings splayed within, perhaps for a similar purpose. Near the south-west angle of the court is a less perfect section of wall 30 ft. long, including a square window of some size, facing east. Within the southern area of the inclosure is a fragment of walling with a curiously lofty door or arch 3 ft. 10 in. in width. There is also a gabled wall about 25 ft. in length in the middle of the inclosure, with a small window and ruined doorway.
RAVENSWORTH (Ravenesuuet, xi cent.; Rasueswaht, xii cent.; Raveneswade, 1201; Ravenswath, xiii–xvi cent.; Ravenswath alias Ravensworth, xvi–xviii cent.), where there were 12 carucates of land at geld, was among the possessions of Count Alan at the time of the Domesday Survey, (fn. 34) and continued to be held of the honour of Richmond, as did the other manors in this parish, until the overlordship merged in the Crown. (fn. 35)
Torphin had a 'manor' here in the time of the Confessor, and Ravensworth was included in that part of Torphin's fee which was given to Bodin. According to Breton historians Count Alan had two bastard brothers settled in England, (fn. 36) and these were in the 15th century identified with Bodin, an important landowner at the time of the Domesday Survey, and Bardolf. (fn. 37) In support of this theory it is said that Count Alan had a brother Bardolf, and Bodin also had a brother Bardolf. (fn. 38) According to the same genealogy Bodin in his old age, moved by desire to serve God and renounce the world, gave all his lands to Bardolf, while he and another brother Ribald, lord of Middleham (q.v.), became monks of St. Mary's Abbey, York. Bardolf, who strangely enough, if the above story is true, held nothing at the time of the Domesday Survey, is supposed to have been ancestor of the Fitz Hughs. The Fitz Hughs certainly succeeded him in his possessions; but the lands of Bodin came as often to the Fitz Alans as to them, and were sometimes divided between these two families. (fn. 39) Perhaps Bodin left co-heiresses, one of whom espoused Bardolf, the other Scolland, ancestor of the Fitz Alans. (fn. 40)
Acharis son of Bardolf founded the abbey of Fors, afterwards Jervaulx, during the reign of Stephen, (fn. 41) and is said to have died in 1160–1. (fn. 42) He left a son and heir Hervey, (fn. 43) who is mentioned before 1171, (fn. 44) and, having assented to the removal of the abbey of Fors (called Charity) by Earl Conan to the bank of the Jore, was considered the founder of Jervaulx Abbey. He is said to have died in 1182, (fn. 45) and was succeeded by his eldest son Henry, (fn. 46) who is mentioned in 1200–1, (fn. 47) was alive in 1210, (fn. 48) but died before 1211–12, when his brother Richard held his lands, (fn. 49) presumably as guardian of Ranulf son of Henry. Ranulf succeeded, and is mentioned in 1225 (fn. 50) and 1235. (fn. 51) By 1238 (fn. 52) he was succeeded by his son and heir Henry, who left sons Ranulf and Hugh. Ranulf died childless, and by 1278–81 (fn. 53) was succeeded by his brother Hugh, who died in March 1303–4, (fn. 54) leaving a son and heir Henry, with whom the family began to take the surname Fitz Hugh. Henry Fitz Hugh served in the Scottish wars, was governor of Barnard Castle 1315, was summoned to Parliament as a baron 1321–51, and died in 1356. His son Henry died in his lifetime, leaving sons Hugh, who married Isabel daughter of Ralph Lord Nevill and died without children, and Henry, who married Joan daughter of Henry Lord Scrope of Masham. Henry succeeded his grandfather and died in 1386, leaving a son and heir Henry, (fn. 55) his eldest son John having been slain at Otterburn. (fn. 56) Henry spent his whole life in the king's service, acted as constable of England at the coronation of Henry V, and afterwards lord chamberlain of the king's household. It is also reported that he travelled more than once to Jerusalem, and beyond it to Grand Cairo, and fought with the Saracens and Turks. By the help of the Knights of Rhodes it is said that he built a castle called St. Peter's Castle on that island. He married Elizabeth daughter and sole heir of Sir Robert Grey, kt., and died 11 January 1424–5. (fn. 57) His eldest son Sir William died in 1452 and was succeeded by his son Henry, (fn. 58) who married Alice daughter of Richard Nevill Earl of Salisbury, and died in 1472. Richard, eldest son and heir, was constituted in 1486 Governor of the castles of Richmond, Middleham and Barnard Castle, and died in 1487, (fn. 59) leaving a son George, a minor, who had livery of his lands in 1509, but died without issue four years later. Alice wife of Sir John Fiennes, kt., and Sir Thomas Parr, kt., son of Elizabeth, daughters of Henry Fitz Hugh his grandfather, were found to be his cousins and heirs (fn. 60) and entered into possession of his lands.
By agreement Sir Thomas Parr received, with others, the manors of Ravensworth, Dalton and Whashton in this parish, and died seised in 1518, leaving a son and heir William, a minor, (fn. 61) created Marquess of Northampton in February 1546–7. He was attainted for his support of Lady Jane Grey in 1553, but was fully pardoned by Queen Mary in 1558, (fn. 62) and on the accession of Elizabeth he recovered his marquessate and part of his lands, which, however, in accordance with the conditions of the regrant, passed to the Crown (fn. 63) on his death without issue in 1571. (fn. 64) His estates remained in the Crown till 1625, when they were sold by Charles I to the City of London. (fn. 65) In 1633 Jerome Robinson of St. Trinians (Easby) and John Robinson of Applegarth bought the manor of Ravensworth from the citizens. (fn. 66) Leonard Robinson held it in 1657, (fn. 67) and in 1676 James Cooke and Lucy his wife, Seth Robinson, Anne Robinson and Elizabeth Robinson conveyed it to Sir Thomas Wharton, kt., (fn. 68) from whom it descended to Philip his son and heir. Philip's daughter and heir Mary married (1) James Campbell, brother of Archibald first Duke of Argyle, and (2) Robert Byerley, (fn. 69) who thus became possessed of the manor in right of his wife. (fn. 70) In 1764 Elizabeth Byerley, only surviving daughter of Robert Byerley, bequeathed the manors of Ravensworth, Kirby-on-the-Hill and Whashton to trustees to be sold for the benefit of her five cousins, Frances Lady Legard, Jane Fisher, Philadelphia Lady Cayley, Henrietta Digby and Lucy Osbaldeston, daughters of her late aunt Sarah Digby. (fn. 71) Christopher Cradock was owner in 1857 of Ravensworth and Whashton. Major S. W. K. Cradock is now lord of the manor.
The lord of Ravensworth held a court leet at which the tenants of Dalton Michael and Dalton Norris, Whashton and Layton appeared. (fn. 72)
DALTON (Dalton Michell, xiii–xiv cent.; Dalton Michel in Broghtonlyth, xiv cent.; Dalton Ryel, xiv–xv cent.; West Dalton, xvii–xviii cent.; West Dalton or Dalton Ryall, xviii cent.).—In 1086 there were two Daltons and in 1286–7 three Daltons, all of which appear to have been in the present parish of Kirkby Ravensworth. (fn. 73) One of the Daltons of the Domesday Survey (Daltun) was held before the Conquest by Torphin with 4½ carucates and by Gospatric, whose lands passed respectively to Bodin and Count Alan, with 3½ carucates. The other Dalton (alia Daltun) with a 'manor' and 4 carucates was held before the Conquest and in 1086 by Gospatric. (fn. 74)
In 1286–7 these lands were divided into three portions, each known as Dalton (fn. 75); the mesne lordship of 'Dalton Norreys' descended to the Fitz Hughs, that of 'Dalton Michael' to the Fitz Alans and their successors, (fn. 76) and the third portion, known as 'Dalton Travers' or 'Gayles,' with part of 'Dalton Norreys,' was in the hands of the Aske family. (fn. 77) This last fee perhaps represents the lands held by Count Alan and Gospatric after the Conquest, and may have been granted by Earl Conan to his kinsman Conan de Aske. (fn. 78)
The mesne lordship of Dalton Michael belonged to the Fitz Alans and their successors until 1400, (fn. 79) and seems then to have fallen into abeyance: sixteen years later this place was held directly of the earl. (fn. 80) The manor took its name and the alternative denomination of Dalton Ryel or Ryal from its tenants the lords of Ryal in Northumberland, who already possessed it in 1251. (fn. 81) In or about 1266–7 Thomas son of Michael son of Michael lord of Ryal died seised, leaving a son and heir Michael, (fn. 82) who held Dalton in 1286–7, (fn. 83) and afterwards settled it, on the marriage of John Fitz Hugh with his daughter Isabel, to them and their heirs. (fn. 84) Isabel as Isabel de Ryall in 1308–9 sold the manor to John de Stapleton. (fn. 85) Sir Nicholas de Stapleton, kt., lord of the manor of Stapleton, settled this and other manors in 1339–40 on himself for life with remainder to Miles his son and Isabel wife of Miles and their issue. (fn. 86) In 1345–6 Henry son of John, (fn. 87) grandson of Henry son of John Fitz Hugh by Isabel Ryall, (fn. 88) claimed the manor under Michael de Ryall's settlement. Henry died without issue and in 1350 his claim was prosecuted by his aunt and heir Beatrice daughter of Henry and wife of Thomas de Fencotes (fn. 89); but in 1358 Thomas de Fencotes and Beatrice quitclaimed it to Miles de Stapleton of Haddlesey. (fn. 90) Dalton Ryall henceforth followed the descent of Stapleton, passing in 1373–4, (fn. 91) as a member of Stapleton, to the Methams of Metham. The Methams still had it in 1539, (fn. 92) but by 1627 it had come into the possession of George Meynell. (fn. 93) The Meynells of Kilvington and Yarm held the manor until the middle of the 18th century, (fn. 94) when this branch of the family died out in co-heiresses— Elizabeth, married to Thomas Witham in 1748, Anne Clementina to Simon Thomas Scrope of Danby and Frances to Stephen Walter Tempest of Broughton. (fn. 95) The manor descended to these daughters, (fn. 96) of whom Frances joined with her husband in conveying it to Thomas Lister in 1749. (fn. 97) Soon after 1788 the manor was sold by Simon Thomas Scrope to Francis Hutchinson of Newsham; it was at this date that the hall was converted into a farm-house. William eldest son and heir of Francis Hutchinson mortgaged the manor; the mortgagees foreclosed and sold it to George Sowerby, who was succeeded by his son Thomas, the owner in 1879. (fn. 98) Colonel Harry John Sowerby, D.S.O., is the present lord of the manor.
DALTON NORRIS (East Dalton, xiii–xviii cent.; Dalton Norreys, xiii–xvi cent.; Dalton Norres, xv– xvi cent.; East Dalton alias Audley Dalton alias Dalton Norris, xvi–xviii cent.).—The mesne lordship descended to the Fitz Hughs, though in 1286–7 the Abbot of St. Mary's, York, was said to hold 1 carucate directly of the Earl of Richmond, and at the same date Hugh son of Henry (Fitz Hugh) was said to hold his lands in Dalton of Matthew de Thornton of Thornton Steward and Matthew of the earl. (fn. 99) There is no further trace of Matthew de Thornton or his descendants in this place. (fn. 100) The Fitz Hughs appear to have been ever afterwards mesne lords of the whole vill (fn. 101); and in 1604 the manor was still held of the manor of Ravensworth. (fn. 102)
The sub-tenants of Newsham held part of Dalton Norris in early times. (fn. 103) When the family of Norris first appeared is not clear; but the place was called East Dalton until 1267 (fn. 104) and in 1271 Dalton Norris. (fn. 105) Alice 'la Noreys' appears to have been granted lands in Newsham by John de Hunton about this time. (fn. 106) In 1286–7 John Norris held two-thirds of Dalton Norris of Elias de Middelton and he of Margery de Newsham. (fn. 107) The family of Norris is not heard of after this century in Dalton Norris.
The rest of Dalton Norris was held by the Askes. Somewhere between 1182 and 1212 Conan de Aske made a grant in Dalton to Marrick Priory of the 2 oxgangs of land which Wihtmai his father's wife held. (fn. 108) In 1286–7 John de Aske held 1 carucate in Dalton Norris in demesne. (fn. 109) This younger branch of the family of Aske seem to have gradually acquired the whole of the manor. Richard Ayscough married a daughter and co-heir of a Robert Aske of this family somewhere about this time. (fn. 110) Thomas Coupland and Eleanor his wife, formerly wife of Thomas Leeds of Westwick, and the heirs of Eleanor, granted tenements here in 1459 to William Ayscough, Robert Ayscough and Simon Ayscough and the heirs of Robert. (fn. 111) In 1558 Sir Francis Ayscough, kt., and Elizabeth his wife granted the manor to Marmaduke Clarionett. (fn. 112) Marmaduke died in the following year, having settled all his lands in East Dalton on his younger son Marmaduke for life, with reversion to his elder son William, aged eight. (fn. 113) In 1584 Thomas Thackwrey and Margaret his wife granted the manor to Roger Meynell, (fn. 114) but in 1594 the Pilkingtons of Durham held it. (fn. 115) John Pilkington, D.D., died seised in 1604, leaving a son and heir John, (fn. 116) who died in 1610, leaving a brother and heir Thomas. (fn. 117) In 1626 Ralph Hutton and Margaret his wife and Noah Pilkington granted the manor to Sir William Lambton, kt., and Robert Lambton and the heirs of William. (fn. 118)
Again, in 1771, it was conveyed by Thomas and Mary Metcalf to Richard Brown. (fn. 119) There is now no village of East Dalton, though 'East Dalton fields' preserve the names.
GAYLES (Dalton Travers, xiii–xvi cent.; les Gayles, xv cent.; Dalton-in-le-Gales, xvi cent.; Dalton Travers alias Dalton Gayles, xvi–xix cent.; Dalton Travers alias Gailes, 1563).—The Askes were mesne lords of this manor under the Earl of Richmond from or before 1262 (fn. 120); and under the Askes the family of Travers was enfeoffed.
Alan of Britanny, lord of Richmond, who died in 1146, (fn. 121) granted the waste land of the wood of Gilling to 'Warin Travers the old,' otherwise called 'Warin Archarius,' son of Hervey. (fn. 122) In 1186 Warin Travers, presumably a successor, granted this land to St. Agatha's Abbey. (fn. 123) Perhaps he is the Warin, son of Peter de Dalton and nephew of Conan de Aske, (fn. 124) who granted 13½ acres of his demesne in Dalton to St. Agatha's Abbey. (fn. 125) His son Robert confirmed in 1246 to John le Franceys a grant made by Warin to Robert le Franceys, father of John. (fn. 126) He was alive in 1250–2, (fn. 127) but died soon afterwards, leaving by his wife Beatrice three sons—Warin, who died childless, Gilbert, who became a monk in his eldest brother's lifetime, and Robert, who succeeded Warin, and before 1262 had sold his tenements in Dalton to Roger de Aske and Robert de Wycliffe. (fn. 128) The lastnamed Robert Travers confirmed the grants of his father Robert and grandfather Warin to the nuns of Marrick in Dalton. (fn. 129)
Roger de Aske granted these tenements before 1262 to Wischard de Charron son of Wischard, (fn. 130) to whom also the Abbot of St. Agatha's Abbey granted whatever the abbey held here. (fn. 131) In 1280 Wischard de Charron granted the manor to Wischard his son, who held half Dalton Travers in demesne in 1286–7. (fn. 132) Wischard was one of the knights of the shire for the county of Northumberland in 1310 and lord of several manors there. He left a daughter and sole heir Joan wife of Bertram Monboucher. (fn. 133) In 1319 Bertram and Joan entailed their manor of Dalton among other possessions (fn. 134); their son and heir Reynold was aged seventeen in 1332, (fn. 135) in which year Lady Alice de Charron paid 3s. subsidy in Dalton (fn. 136) and may have been holding the manor. Reynold son of Bertram and Joan left a son Bertram, who appears in Fuller's 'List of Northumberland Worthies,' and died in 1388 seised of the manor of Dalton. (fn. 137) Bertram his son and heir was followed by a son and grandson of the same name, and on failure of heirs the lands passed to Isabel sister of Bertram the grandfather. (fn. 138) She married first Sir Henry Hetton, kt., by whom she had a son William, who died without issue, and several daughters; her second husband was Sir Robert Harbottle, Sheriff of Northumberland in 1406, (fn. 139) who died in 1419–20, leaving a son Robert by her, (fn. 140) sheriff of the same county in 1439. Bertram son of Robert had issue Ralph and died in 1462. (fn. 141) In 1507 Margaret widow of Ralph, who was knighted in 1482, (fn. 142) claimed one-third of the manor as dower against Wischard his son, (fn. 143) but Wischard denied her claim, as Sir Ralph no longer held the manor when he married her. (fn. 144) Wischard died seised in 1512, leaving an infant son George, (fn. 145) who died seised in 1528. (fn. 146) His estates were partitioned in 1534 between his sisters and heirs, Eleanor wife of Thomas Percy and Mary wife of Edward Fitton, Mary receiving the manor of Dalton Travers. (fn. 147) Mary died a widow in 1556. She was succeeded by her son and heir Sir Edward Fitton, (fn. 148) who the following year sold tenements in Dalton Travers to George Bowes. (fn. 149) These were presumably the manor. Richard Bowes and Elizabeth his wife, the heiress of the Askes, (fn. 150) had made a conveyance of the 'manor' in 1534, (fn. 151) but as this was the year of the partition of the Harbottle lands it may have been a quit-claim. In 1563–4 George Bowes and Jane his wife conveyed the manor to William Wycliffe, John Saire and Richard Gascoigne. (fn. 152) In 1576 Sir George Bowes, kt., sold the same manor to William Wycliffe and Robert Smelt and the heirs of William. (fn. 153) Thomas Wycliffe was in possession in 1779 and living here in 1792. (fn. 154) In 1796 John Wharton was among the parties to a conveyance of the manor to Thomas Wycliffe. (fn. 155) In 1815 Sir Charles Blois, bart., and Clara his wife and Lucy Willey, widow, conveyed a moiety of the manor to Hugh Duke of Northumberland, (fn. 156) and Gayles is now the property of his descendant the Duke of Northumberland (fn. 157) and of the Rev. John Shaw of New South Wales.
In 1174–5 a Benedict de Dalton, who must have had some territorial connexion with one or all of these Daltons, paid 10 marks to the king, who was then holding the honour of Earl Conan, for permission to recede from a lawsuit against his nephews. (fn. 158)
KIRBY-ON-THE-HILL must have been the carucate of land granted by Bardolf and Count Stephen to St. Mary's, York, with the advowson of the church, (fn. 159) as this place is composed of a carucate and the parish church is at Kirby Hill, not at Ravensworth. The mesne lordship belonged to St. Mary's Abbey until the dissolution of the monasteries. (fn. 160) Under the abbey, however, it continued to be held by the successors of Bardolf. (fn. 161) The manorial rights descended with the manor of Ravensworth (q.v.).
A court was held by the Earl of Richmond in 1436–7, and three tenants at this date paid gressoms. (fn. 164)
NEWSHAM (Neuhuson, xi cent.; Neusom, xiii cent.; Neusome in Broghtonlithe, xiii–xv cent.).— Before the Conquest Ulchil, who possessed 5 carucates, and Sport, tenant of 2 carucates, had halls at Newsham. In the Survey of 1086 it follows directly after Broctun, a place whose situation is now unknown, and, like Dalton Michael, Newsham was described in 1439 as 'in Broghton Lythe.' (fn. 165) At Broctun before the Conquest Ulchil had a 'manor,' afterwards held by Bodin, (fn. 166) but no further history of the place has been found. It apparently coalesced with Newsham at an early date, for at the time of the Domesday Survey 5 carucates were geldable in Broctun and 7 in Newsham, and in 1286–7 12 carucates were accounted for in Newsham. (fn. 167) The mesne lordship of 5 carucates in Newsham descended from Bodin to the Fitz Hughs, and the mesne lordship of another 5 descended from Bodin to the Fitz Alans, (fn. 168) but was unknown in the time of Gale. (fn. 169) The remaining 2 carucates were held of the Mowbrays and their successors under the Earl of Richmond. (fn. 170)
Newsham is one of the Yorkshire manors that passed from the Miniots of Carlton Miniott to the Markenfields. (fn. 171) Roger Miniot had a grant of free warren in 1285 in his demesne lands of Middleton (Tyas), Kneton, and Newsham in Broughtonlithe, (fn. 172) and in 1301–2 he paid by far the largest subsidy in Newsham. (fn. 173) No further mention is found of the Miniots, but in 1497 Thomas Markenfield, kt., died seised of 10 carucates of land in Newsham, (fn. 174) and the Markenfields probably held the manor until the attainder of Thomas in 1569. Thomas was one of the chief instigators of the plot of the northern earls and was executed. His brother John was also attainted, but the York Commission reported that he was 'very young, under twenty, and was attainted onely to bring his title to his brother's lands (if he have any) to the [Queen]; and it was not meant that he shold dye, for that he hath no lande and is within the compass of the commission for compounding.' (fn. 175) This document is a very interesting illustration of Tudor methods. The manor of Newsham must have been granted to Lord Burghley, who held it in 1593 (fn. 176); his son the Earl of Exeter held it in 1609. (fn. 177) Diana daughter and co-heir of William Cecil, second Earl of Exeter, married Thomas Bruce, first Earl of Elgin (fn. 178) and lord of Whorlton in Cleveland (q.v.), and in 1728 Newsham still followed the descent of Whorlton. (fn. 179) It was conveyed by Joshua Glover and Elizabeth his wife to Mark Milbank in 1830, (fn. 180) and is now in the possession of Sir Powlett Charles John Milbank, bart. (fn. 181)
In 1240 Roger eldest son of Gilbert de Hunton, (fn. 182) in Patrick Brompton (q.v.), granted 6 carucates of land in Newsham and Dalton to his younger son Roger, (fn. 183) who died without issue before 1258–9. Margery, already wife of Warin de Scargill, (fn. 184) Cassandra wife of Brian Piggot and Maud were his sisters and heirs. (fn. 185) In 1286–7 the descendants of the two lastnamed held their lands—the Fitz Hugh fee—in Newsham of Margery as Margery de Newsham. (fn. 186) Margery is last heard of in 1306–7. (fn. 187) She had a son Roger, (fn. 188) who was assessed for the subsidy in 1301–2. (fn. 189) As Roger Miniot is mentioned in none of the returns and the Middletons succeeded to his lands in Middleton Tyas (q.v.), as they did here, it may be suggested that this is Roger Miniot. Maud, the other heiress of Roger de Hunton, married John de East Layton, and in 1286–7 William de Middleton held her share and in 1312 called Thomas her son to warrant it to him. (fn. 190) In 1316 William de Middleton was returned as joint lord of Newsham, (fn. 191) which probably included at this date Dalton Norris—where William was probably lord—for in 1312 the two places were alluded to as one vill. (fn. 192) Peter de Richmond brought a suit against William de Middleton the younger in 1346–7 for a rent of 24s. in Newsham, (fn. 193) and this is the last mention of the Middletons in Newsham.
In 1286–7, by what title does not appear, Henry Picot or Pigot, (fn. 194) presumably a connexion of Cassandra who was holding part of the Fitz Hugh fee at that date, held the Fitz Alan fee of Newsham (fn. 195) and was assessed for the subsidy in Newsham in 1301–2. (fn. 196) Brian Pigot was joint lord of the vill in 1316, (fn. 197) and in 1340 a Brian Pigot of Mansfield settled tenements, a mill and quarter of a knight's fee in Mansfield and Newsham on himself for life, with successive remainders to his son John and his heirs, and to Henry son of Sir Geoffrey le Scrope, kt., and his right heirs. (fn. 198) Sir Henry Scrope, kt., gave the manor to Stephen Scrope, from whom it descended to his daughter Joan. (fn. 199) She married Sir Roger Swillington, kt., and as his widow died seised in 1427. (fn. 200) Her heirs were Conan son of Roger Aske and Elizabeth his wife, her daughter, Isabel wife of Robert Conyers of Sockburn, another daughter, and Margaret wife of William Edlington, a third daughter. (fn. 201) The 'manor' seems to have been divided among these co-heirs, for in 1486–7 Christopher Conyers died seised of one-third, (fn. 202) and in 1420 his son William died seised of the same, leaving a son and heir Christopher. (fn. 203) There is no further mention of the manor.
The 2 remaining carucates of Newsham belonged before the Conquest to Sport, and were held in 1086 by Count Alan in demesne. The Mowbrays were mesne lords in the 12th and 13th centuries, (fn. 204) and Dalton Travers was still assessed with 'Mowbray's fee' in 1522–3. (fn. 205) Walter Bardolf was under-tenant in the reign of Henry II, and with the consent of Roger de Mowbray granted these 2 carucates to Guisborough Priory (fn. 206); Hugh son of his brother Ralph, living 1221 and 1235, confirmed the grant. (fn. 207) The Barninghams, however, who succeeded the Bardolfs here as at Newsham, held these 2 carucates in demesne, and all that the priory had was all services and homages, which were quitclaimed to them by William de Barningham (fn. 208) in the early 13th century. (fn. 209) Guisborough Priory held these services until 1428 (fn. 210) and had 12s. rent in Barningham and Newsham (perhaps including Dalton Travers) at the time of their dissolution. (fn. 211)
In 1332 Sir Richard de Barningham, kt., settled part of a fee in Newsham, Dalton Norris and elsewhere on himself for life, with remainder to Sir Geoffrey le Scrope, kt., who was duly seised. Sir John le Scrope in 1424 prayed that right might be done him with respect to the above settlement. (fn. 212) The Scropes of Upsall held this small fee called a manor of Newsham till 1566, when Henry Lord Scrope sold it to Francis Tunstall, (fn. 213) the lord of Barningham, who died seised in 1586. (fn. 214) After this time the Tunstalls are only said to hold tenements in Newsham, the manorial rights being probably lost.
WHASHTON (Wassington, Quassyngton, xiii–xv cent.; Quasshyngton, Quassheton, Whashton, xv–xvi cent.; Washton, Whasheton, xvii cent.) is not mentioned in Domesday Book.
Henry ancestor of the Fitz Hughs was mesne lord of half the manor in 1250–2, (fn. 215) and probably held the other moiety in demesne.
Under him Robert son and heir of Eudo de Whashton, son of Bonde, a minor, held the other moiety, (fn. 216) but it had escheated to the mesne lord, also tenant of the other moiety, by 1286–7, (fn. 217) and the manor has since followed the descent of the manor of Kirkby Ravensworth (q.v.).
The church of ST. PETER AND ST. FELIX (fn. 218) consists of a chancel 26 ft. 6 in. by 16 ft. 6 in., north vestries, nave 38 ft. 6 in. by 18 ft. 6 in., north aisle as long as the nave and 12 ft. in width, south aisle 29 ft. by 11 ft., south porch at the west of the aisle, and a west tower, 16 ft. square, all measurements being internal.
The oldest building on the site of which any traces now remain had an aisleless nave of the same size as at present; its south-east angle is still to be seen. It was probably of early 12th-century date, and the chancel which was attached to it was replaced c. 1180 by that which still stands, though a good deal altered in the end of the 13th century. The north vestry was added to the chancel about 1300, and a north aisle to the nave, the chancel arch being probably widened at the same time. In 1397 the tower and south porch were built, and the south aisle of the nave, with the clearstory, belongs to the second half of the 15th century.
In modern times, besides the repair of window tracery, buttresses, and walling, the space between the vestry and the north aisle has been roofed in to form an additional vestry.
The chancel has an east window, c. 1280, of three uncusped lights, with pierced spandrels in an arch of two chamfered orders with a double-chamfered label. There is a similar and contemporary window of two lights at the south-east, and below it a small projecting piscina with a half-round basin. The walls of the chancel being in the main of 12th-century date have a splayed plinth and shallow pilaster buttresses with a projecting corbel course at the eaves, which is broken into by the head of the south-east window. Some of the corbels, with human heads, are probably 14th century additions. The present south doorway, a plain pointed opening of the date of the windows, has a blocked 12th-century window over it, and immediately to the west, part of the 12th-century south door, now blocked and the plinth carried across the blocking in imitation of the original work. At the south-west is a window of two trefoiled lights, c. 1310, which half destroys the doorway.
On the north side of the chancel is an original late 12th-century round-headed window now opening into the vestry, and to the west of it the 14th-century vestry door, with continuous quarter-round mouldings.
The external string, corbel table and buttresses of the 12th-century wall are visible in the vestries, the plinth having been cut away in the old vestry but not in the new. The upper part of the middle buttress remains over the 14th-century doorway. A second 12th-century window is probably hidden under the plaster at the north-west of the chancel, and the east window of the north aisle appears to be similarly covered up.
The vestry has a two-light east window, very like the south-west window of the chancel, and a single trefoiled north window, both original, c. 1300. In the east wall is a small projecting piscina with a halfround basin and a square recess behind it, and in the wall between the vestry and the chancel below the sill of the 12th-century window is an opening widely splayed towards the vestry, giving a view of the high altar. A modern doorway gives access on the west side to the new vestry, which is lighted by a single light copied from that of the old vestry.
The chancel arch has been much pulled about and probably widened, but its jambs show late 12thcentury features. There are three engaged shafts in each jamb, the middle one having been pushed back into the respond in a clumsy way. The base of that on the south is set about 4 ft. above the floor as a corbel, as if to allow for a low stone screen across the archway; that on the north side rests on a plain square block. The arch is pointed, of two orders, the outer square and the inner chamfered; in the middle of the soffit is a groove evidently made to receive the boarding above the rood screen. The arch does not fit the jambs, and its details suggest that the widening and insertion of the present arch were made c. 1320.
The north arcade of the nave is of three bays. Its east respond seems to be part of a re-used early13th-century clustered column, which had a central and four flanking shafts. Only one of the shafts remains; it has a moulded ring and the usual base moulding of a hollow between two rounds; the two piers of the arcade are octagonal, with very simple capitals, and arches of two chamfered orders, the chamfers of the outer order having broach stops above the piers; the easternmost arch is lower than the other two, and its point is much to the west of its centre line; this is an alteration made for reasons connected with the rood-loft. In the west respond of the arcade the western jamb of a late 12th-century doorway has been retained in its original position; it is of a single chamfered order and has a moulded abacus.
The north aisle has a recess in its east wall, marking the place of a blocked window, and there are two north windows, the first a 15th-century insertion of two cinquefoiled lights with sunk spandrels under a square head, and the second a modern copy of it or a restoration of a similar one. The north doorway is at the north-west angle of the aisle, and is a plain piece of 14th-century work of the date of the aisle. The west window is a single trefoiled light, apparently reset, with a label on mask stops.
The south arcade is of two bays with an octagonal central pier. The capitals are even more simple than those opposite, and the bases are hollow chamfers. The south doorway is pointed and of two quarter-rounded orders, with a label of the same section square above. In the apex of the arch outside is set a shield partly pendant, and the label has human head stops.
The south aisle has a two-light east window of late 15th-century style, the jambs and mullion of which do not fit the tracery, and two modern south windows, also of 15th-century style. In the east wall of the aisle is an image bracket. There is a late 15th or early 16th-century clearstory to the nave, with three two-light windows a side, having threecentred arches and moulded labels.
The west tower is a fine massive building, opening to the nave by a sharply-pointed arch of two chamfered orders dying out at the springing. It is of three stages, the ground stage lighted on the west by a two-light window with trefoiled heads and on the south by a single cinquefoiled light, in the outer east jamb of which is a shallow recess, perhaps to hold a lantern. The stair is at the south-east, and at the other angles are large buttresses, setting back with gabled heads at the base of the third or belfry stage. The second stage has small trefoiled lights in its north and south walls, and the third has on each face tall square-headed openings of two trefoiled lights. Below the embattled parapet, at the heads of the buttresses, are shields, that at the south-east bearing a saltire, perhaps for Nevill, and that at the south-west a fesse between three cauldrons (?). On the south face of the second stage is a clock-dial; the clock has been in working order since the early part of the 18th century. The date of the tower is given by an inscription on the south-west buttress, 'a.d. mo ccco lxxxxviio,' to which has been added in later lettering, 'This church built Anno Dom 1397. M.T.' The first stage of the tower has a ribbed stone vault with a central bell-way, the western corbels of the vault being carved as crouching figures, while the eastern are plain.
The south porch is of one build with the tower, and has an outer arch with a niche over it with a vaulted canopy. The embattled parapet is built of large square stones, and appears to be later than the pinnacles of the angle buttresses. In the middle of the parapet is the figure of a man seated with crossed legs and apparently playing a musical instrument.
There are many ancient carved stones built into the walling, the finest in the porch being about 27 in. long by 12 in. in height, and carved with an arcade of interlacing round-headed arches. In the south aisle are part of a small 12th-century capital with a human face and a volute and other fragments with cheveron and diaper ornament of the same date. Over the south-west window of the chancel is the half-figure of a man with his arm raised, and in the east wall one arm of an early cross-head.
The roofs are modern, the chancel being highpitched and the nave low. The marks of the former steep gable of the nave are seen on the tower wall.
The font is probably an 18th-century reshaping of an old bowl. It has no stem, but rests directly on a moulded base.
A late 14th-century gravestone has been reversed and used as a lintel to the north-east window in the north aisle. On it is a calvary cross and the inscription '+ hic iacet gerardus de nornmavile de eivs anima ddevs misereatvr.' Below the piscina in a moulded panel, apparently of 17th-century date, is an inscription in Latin to Lucy Robinson, and at the east end of the north aisle is a pretty alabaster monument to Francis Laton, 1609, and his wife Ann, 1622. Over a belfry window is set a coffin slab, carved with a long cross, a sword, a bow and arrow and a horn. Several other slabs have been cut up to form steps up the tower.
There are a good modern oak chancel screen and pulpit, but the only old woodwork consists of some carved pew fronts dated 1639 with large poppy heads, now standing in the tower.
A curious relic in this church is the wood-bound will of Dr. John Dakyn, once incumbent of this church. He took part in the Pilgrimage of Grace, (fn. 219) but managed to exculpate himself and left a legacy for the foundation of a grammar school in 1555. It has iron hinges and two chains. On one side, covered with talc, is the written black letter inscription, 'Whoso these Statutes will overlooke, Read them and after clasp the book'; and on the other side, 'Whoso these Statutes to read is able, Do so and afterwards close up the table.' The writing inside begins with the words, 'An example of some statutes or clauses of them to be hanged up publicly in the parish church,' &c.
Of the two bells one is inscribed 'Venite exultemus domino SS 1664,' and has a shield with the arms a cheveron between three bells impaling three flagons. It is by Samuel Smith.
The plate consists of a silver cup with the York mark 1701 and maker's name W. Williamson, and a silver paten with the London mark 1714. There is also a pewter flagon.
The registers begin in 1678.
There were a church and priest at Ravensworth in 1086. (fn. 220) The advowson and 1 carucate of land were granted by Bardolf (fn. 221) the lord of Ravensworth and also by Count Stephen (fn. 222) to the abbey of St. Mary, York, and the advowson remained in the possession of this monastery until its dissolution, (fn. 223) after which the king granted it in 1546–7 to the Bishop of Chester and his successors, with licence to appropriate it when it became vacant. The bishop was to appoint a 'vicar,' to find him a sufficient house, to maintain him competently, and to distribute yearly among the poor of the parish a reasonable sum of the fruits of the church. (fn. 224) In 1859 the Bishop of Chester exchanged this advowson with the Bishop of Ripon, (fn. 225) who is now the patron. The living is a perpetual curacy called a vicarage since 1868.
There was a chapel of St. John the Apostle and Evangelist in Ravensworth Castle, and in 1468 Henry Lord Fitz Hugh had licence to found a perpetual chantry, to be called the chantry of St. Giles. Two chaplains were to celebrate divine service daily in this chapel for the good estate of Henry and Alice his wife and their souls and the souls of the ancestors of Henry and the founders and benefactors of the hospital of St. Giles at Brompton Bridge in Easby parish. (fn. 226) There was another chapel of St. Wolfray at Dalton Norris, now commemorated by High Chapel Pasture and Chapel Gill. It was in ruins in the 16th century. (fn. 227) Two 'parochial chaplains' are mentioned in 1457. (fn. 228) The new church of St. James at Dalton was erected in 1898.
The grammar school was founded under a licence to John Dakyn, LL.D., (fn. 229) to found a school and almshouse. (fn. 230) By an Order of the Charity Commissioners dated 14 November 1905, establishing a scheme determining the educational foundation, forty-nine one hundred and thirty-fifths of the gross yearly income of the schoolmaster's charity, the residence and premises belonging thereto, with the ground floor of the school building, were allocated to the school. The endowment consists of houses and farms in East Cowton and near Richmond of about 600 acres in extent, producing an income of about £1,000 a year.
In 1666 John Heslop by deed gave a close called the Lunns for the poor, subject to the payment of 5s. to the minister of the parish and 5s. to the feoffees. An allotment of 1½ acres was added on the inclosure of Whashton Common. The land produces about £10 a year, which, subject to the above payments, is distributed among the poor.
Thomas Lax, by will proved at Richmond 22 April 1851, left £300, now represented by £307 7s. 6d. consols, dividends to be applied for the benefit of the minister and schoolmaster. In 1904 the stock was transferred to the official trustees, and £200 consols allocated for the minister and £107 7s. 6d. consols to the Lax Educational Foundation.
In 1756 Thomas Buckton by will devised his estate called Cramma Farm, charged with the annual payment of £3 to a schoolmaster for teaching poor children of the township, not exceeding six in number.
For Dr. Bathurst's educational charity see under Arkengarthdale.