A History of the County of York North Riding: Volume 2. Originally published by Victoria County History, London, 1923.
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LANGBAURGH WAPENTAKE EAST DIVISION
The parish of Brotton, situated on the sea coast of Cleveland, includes the townships of Brotton, Kilton and Skinningrove and the hamlet of Carlin How, and covers 4,262 acres, of which 1,183 acres are arable land, 294 acres woods and plantations, and 1,720 acres permanent grass. (fn. 1) The chief crops are wheat, beans, barley and oats, and the soil is a strong clay with a subsoil of inferior oolite in Brotton and Kilton and of lower, upper and middle lias in Skinningrove. The greatest height is 500 ft. above ordnance datum.
The parish is bounded on the north by the sea, on the shores of which are Cattersty Sands, outlined by Cattersty Cliffs and Hunt Cliffs, and on the west by the Millholm Beck, which is crossed by a bridge and by two fords.
In the latter half of the 19th century the importance of Brotton was greatly increased by the development of the mining industry. Between 1861 and 1871 several ironstone mines were opened in the parish. In 1874 there were five mines at work in the parish, Brotton mines to the north-west of the village, Kilton mines further south in Kilton, the Cliff and Huntcliff mines near the coast in Skinningrove, northwest of the village, and the Craggs Hall mines, now disused, south-west of Skinningrove. (fn. 2) Lumpsey mine, in the northern part of Kilton near the railway, was opened in 1880. Other mines now worked are the Loftus mines in Skinningrove and a mine in Carlin How. There is a special railway line for the mines in Kilton, and several public buildings have been opened in connexion with the miners, such as the Miners' Hospital at Skinningrove, built by Messrs. Pease & Co. of the Loftus mines in 1871, and an institute in Skinningrove opened in 1875.
Brotton is a large village built on the western slope of the hill, the High Street, which runs east and west, being the continuation of the road from Loftus. In the centre of the village is the new church of St. Margaret; the rectory and schools are close at hand. The public elementary school in Brotton was built by Messrs. Bell Brothers, Morrison & Co. and the lessors of the royalties of ironstone in Brotton, and was enlarged in 1895. To the southeast of the village is the old church of St. Margaret, now serving as a mortuary chapel. The Wesleyan Methodist chapel, built before 1855, lies towards the eastern end of the village, and there are Primitive Methodist and United Methodist chapels and a Salvation Army meeting room. The Roman Catholic church, dedicated to St. Anthony of Padua, was built in 1906.
Brotton Hall, near the centre of the village, is the manor-house. (fn. 3) Hunley Hall lies about a quarter of a mile to the north, and the Cleveland Cottage Hospital, built by Messrs. Bell Brothers in 1874, is at the eastern extremity of the village.
There is a railway station to the south-west of the church, on the Saltburn and Whitby branch of the North Eastern railway. Below the station and due west of the church is Brotton Grange, while further north and on the eastern side of the line is New Brotton, consisting of a few cottages built about 1868. There is another railway station at Skinningrove. The railway runs through Carlin How (Carlinghowe, xiv and xvi cent.), a mining hamlet east of Brotton, which from the 14th to the 16th century belonged to the Elands. (fn. 4) Here there is a district church dedicated to St. Helen, built and consecrated in 1901. A Wesleyan meeting room has been superseded by a chapel built in 1912, and there is a Primitive Methodist chapel.
The castle of Kilton occupies a commanding situation on a projecting spur on the west side of Kilton Dale. The sides of the valley at this point are extremely precipitous and so thickly wooded that no distant view of the ruins is possible. The site of the castle on a long and narrow ridge is unusual, and the result is an irregular quadrilateral inclosure some 300 ft. long with an average width of about 60 ft. It is approachable only on the west side by a narrow neck, once defended by a deep ditch still in part discernible. On every other side the ground falls away rapidly from the base of the walls. Extensive further earthwork defences are said to have existed in a field to the west, but little trace of these is now apparent. The castle is evidently of an early type, and it appears to have become ruinous in the 14th century. Two distinct dates of building are observable in the existing remains; the earlier, distinguished by rubble masonry and a small chamfered plinth course, may perhaps be assigned to the later part of the 12th century, while the later ashlar-faced building belongs to the succeeding period and represents alterations of the early 13th century. The ground level within the inclosure is considerably higher than outside as at Mulgrave, and the curtain consequently becomes a retaining wall for part of its height, an arrangement that accounts for the ruinous state of most of the outer walls at the present time. The walls are most complete on the north face, where the lower portions of the curtain and towers are but little broken; on the south face only fragments of the rubble core of the walls now exist. The building was apparently divided into two unequal portions by a tower placed on the northern curtain and extending half across the inclosure and forming an inner and outer ward. No trace of the gate-house, which must have stood at the west end, remains, but to the north of it is a large mass of ruin apparently of a building lying east and west, and measuring 64 ft. 9 in. by about 32 ft. The west and north walls rise to a considerable height, and in the latter are a row of corbels to support the floor above. The angle has a heavily projecting clasping buttress, the interior being cut away to form a small chamber, probably a garderobe. The jamb of a door leading to a similar chamber remains at the first floor level. The whole structure is of the early type of masonry with a plinth course carried round the buttress, but no windows or openings exist in either wall. Of the south side of this building only foundations remain with a single fragment of the east end. A considerable length of curtain to the south of this building is standing, but it is rubble core only. Some 100 ft. to the east stands the great tower dividing the two wards. It projects somewhat in advance of the northern curtain, which was apparently cut away to receive it. The wall on the west side indeed appears to be a later insertion, as it is built up against the plinth of the tower. This structure is of 13th-century date with massive ashlar-faced walls 8 ft. 6 in. thick. The existing portion is the basement story only, and is entered by a doorway on the west side, of which the head is gone. The exterior has been almost completely robbed of its facing, which was finished at the base with a deep tabled plinth neatly jointed. The southern half of the tower is now represented by foundations only and appears to have had no basement. From this point to the north-east angle of the fortifications is a distance of rather over 100 ft. The curtain is apparently original, with a segmental bastion (some 14 ft. in diameter) about half-way along, added in the 13th century. Immediately to the east of this is the mouth of a garderobe pit. The north-east angle of the castle is defended by a large bastion projecting in a northerly direction, which is the best preserved portion of the ruins. The building is rectangular with a segmental north end and is 14 ft. 2 in. across internally. It dates from the 13th century with ashlar-faced walls and a similar plinth to that of the central tower—three courses high and capped with a small moulding. The southern wall of the tower has gone, but the other three sides are more or less complete for the two lower stories. The ground floor has a small fireplace on the west with boldly moulded corbels, one supporting a stone hood. In the centre of the segmental end is a cruciform loop, and on the east side a deeply splayed singlelight window opening with a plain pointed head. A second window of similar character exists at the first floor level. The later 13th-century work of this tower terminates at a massive buttress on its eastern face, and the few remaining fragments of the curtain standing further south on that side are of the earlier period with a chamfered plinth. A large mass of rubble core at the south-east angle of the castle probably represents another tower at this point. The curtain on the southern face follows an irregular line, which can be traced for almost its whole course, but with the exception of a fragment of 13th-century plinth about half-way along no facing or worked stone is left in position. The ruins have evidently been much quarried in the past, but within recent years efforts have been made by inconspicuous repairs to preserve the remaining fragments of the castle.
Kilton Castle was probably built by the Kilton family and was the residence of their successors the Thwengs, (fn. 5) Lucy de Thweng being born there in March 1278–9 (fn. 6); it afterwards passed into the hands of the Lumleys. (fn. 7) It is first mentioned in 1265, (fn. 8) when Ralph Prior of Guisborough granted a chantry in the chapel in Kilton Castle to Marmaduke de Thweng. (fn. 9) It must have been abandoned as a dwellingplace soon afterwards. In 1341 (fn. 10) and 1345 (fn. 11) the castle is described as small and worthless and the park, which is then first mentioned, as without game. The castle followed the descent of the manor and is last mentioned in 1696. (fn. 12)
Kilton Hall lies to the north-west of the castle, and further north is Kilton Mill, which was appurtenant to the manor in 1341, when it was described as broken down. (fn. 13)
Before the Conquest Uctred held a 'manor' of 12 carucates in BROTTON, (fn. 14) which in 1086 was among the lands of the Count of Mortain, his tenant being Richard. (fn. 15) It afterwards passed into the Brus fee, (fn. 16) and in the division among the heirs of Peter de Brus in 1272 passed to Lucy wife of Marmaduke de Thweng of Kilton Castle, (fn. 17) and afterwards with Danby (q.v.) to their granddaughter Lucy. (fn. 18) The manor was settled in 1313 on Lucy and her second husband Robert de Everingham and their issue with remainder to the right heirs of Robert. (fn. 19) After his death in 1316 without issue the manor was settled on Bartholomew de Fanacourt, her third husband, for life with remainder to Adam Lord Everingham of Laxton, brother and heir of Robert, and his son Adam. (fn. 20) Lucy died in January 1346–7 (fn. 21) and Bartholomew in 1352, (fn. 22) when the manor reverted to the younger Adam Lord Everingham. Adam's son William died in his father's lifetime, (fn. 23) leaving two daughters, Joan and Katharine, co-heirs to their grandfather at his death in February 1387–8. (fn. 24) Joan married first Sir William Ellis (fn. 25) and secondly Robert Waterton, (fn. 26) while Katharine became the wife of John son of Thomas de Etton. (fn. 27) In 1401 the manor was conveyed to Robert Waterton for his lifetime by John and Katharine Etton, (fn. 28) after which no further reference to this family occurs in connexion with Brotton. Robert Waterton held the manor in right of his wife Joan (fn. 29); he died in January 1424–5, when it passed to Robert Ellis, son of Joan by her first husband. (fn. 30) In 1435 Robert and his wife Katharine settled it on themselves and their issue (fn. 31) with remainder to the right heirs of Robert and contingent remainder to John Sotehill and his wife Joan, (fn. 32) daughter of Robert's sister Agnes, wife of Sir John Poucher. (fn. 33) The manor must afterwards have been conveyed to the Conyers of Hornby, though the Constables as representatives of the Sotehills had land here appurtenant to their manor of Skinningrove. (fn. 34)
The manor was in the possession of Christopher Lord Conyers in February 1531–2, when he leased the capital messuage or Hall Place here to Roland Pudsey. (fn. 35) This manor followed the descent of that of Skelton, (fn. 36) coming in 1560 (fn. 37) to the three surviving daughters and co-heirs of John Lord Conyers, Anne wife of Anthony Kempe, Katharine wife of John Atherton, and Elizabeth wife of Thomas Darcy. Anne Kempe's share of the manor followed the same descent as her third of Skelton (fn. 38) (q.v.) until 1837, when John Wharton sold his estate here to a Mr. Barrow. The present owner is Mr. G. B. Darby. (fn. 39)
The third daughter of John Conyers, Katharine wife of John Atherton, with her husband made a conveyance of 'the manor' in the spring of 1588–9, (fn. 40) and in 1590 obtained licence to alienate their third to Thomas Moseley and others. (fn. 41) John son of John and Katharine Atherton (fn. 42) left a daughter and heir Ann, who married Sir William Pennyman. (fn. 43) He in 1597 sold to Robert Trotter (fn. 44) lands in Brotton which henceforward followed the same descent as the first third of the manor.
In 1566 Thomas Darcy and his wife Elizabeth, second daughter of John Lord Conyers, made a settlement of their third of Brotton. (fn. 45) Thomas Darcy died seised in 1605, (fn. 46) and was succeeded by his son Conyers (fn. 47) Darcy, afterwards Lord Darcy and Conyers, who in 1616 settled 'the manor' on his son Conyers on his marriage with Grace granddaughter of William Rokeby. (fn. 48)
In 1641 Conyers Darcy the elder, with his son Conyers and others, conveyed the manor to William Wiggoner, (fn. 49) who in 1655 made a conveyance of half the manor to Nicholas Wiggoner. (fn. 50) In 1687 Robert Wiggoner held this estate, (fn. 51) and in 1697 Timothy Wiggoner, probably his son, and others conveyed it to John Burdett. (fn. 52) Its later history remains obscure, though it may be this part of the manor which in 1787 was held by William Jackson and his wife Mary, (fn. 53) whose descendants, the Misses Jackson, are landowners here at the present day.
Certain lands here must have been granted to the lords of Kilton, for in the 14th century the Lumleys were lords of a manor here which followed the descent of their manor of Kirkleatham. (fn. 54)
Marmaduke and Lucy de Thweng obtained a grant of free warren in Brotton in 1279. (fn. 55) View of frankpledge occurs among the rights of the lords of the manor in 1639, (fn. 56) 1681 (fn. 57) and 1732. (fn. 58)
In 1086 the Count of Mortain held 1 carucate in KILTON (Chilton, xi cent.; Kylton, xiv-xvi cent.) and 1½ carucates in Kilton Thorp, previously held by Uctred (fn. 59); at the same time 3 carucates in Kilton and 2½ carucates in Kilton Thorp were held of the king by Turchil. (fn. 60) By 1309 the overlordship had passed to the Percys of Kildale. (fn. 61)
In early times Kilton gave a surname to a family, of whom Ilger de Kilton, an early benefactor to Guisborough, (fn. 62) was succeeded by his son William, (fn. 63) who was living in 1219. (fn. 64) William's heir was his niece Maud, (fn. 65) who married first Richard Hawtrey (de Alta Ripa), (fn. 66) by whom apparently she had no issue, and secondly Robert de Thweng, (fn. 67) who was her husband in January 1228–9. (fn. 68) Robert de Thweng was noted for his opposition to the foreign ecclesiastics sent to England in the reign of Henry III, and went on a successful mission to Rome for the redress of the matter. (fn. 69) He afterwards went on a crusade, whence he returned in 1242, (fn. 70) in which year he acknowledged that he had given the manor of Kilton to his son Marmaduke and his wife Lucy de Brus, (fn. 71) sister and co-heir of Peter de Brus. (fn. 72) Marmaduke was dead by 1284–5, when this manor passed by settlement to Marmaduke his second son by Lucy de Brus. (fn. 73) Marmaduke fought in the Scottish wars in the reign of Edward I, and after the battle of Stirling was put in charge of the castle there. (fn. 74) He was holding 5 carucates in Kilton in 1302–3 (fn. 75) and died in 1322–3, being succeeded by his son William, (fn. 76) whom two years previously he had enfeoffed of the manor. (fn. 77) William died without issue in 1340–1, his widow Katharine obtaining dower in November 1341 (fn. 78); his brother and heir Robert, parson of Warton in Kendale, Lancashire, (fn. 79) died before May 1344, and was succeeded on the death of Katharine by his brother Thomas, also a priest. (fn. 80) Thomas granted the reversion of Kilton to his nephew Marmaduke Lumley, (fn. 81) son of his sister Lucy who had married Sir Robert Lumley, (fn. 82) while some rights here were also assigned to his niece Elizabeth, wife of William de Botreaux, daughter of his sister Katharine. (fn. 83) Thomas died in June 1374. (fn. 84) Robert Lumley, son of Marmaduke, died a minor in the following December, (fn. 85) his brother and heir Ralph being also a minor. (fn. 86) In 1396 Elizabeth de Botreaux granted her rights in Kilton to this Ralph Lumley, Lord Lumley, her kinsman, (fn. 87) who, having taken part in the insurrection to restore Richard II, was slain in a skirmish at Cirencester in January 1399–1400 and attainted. (fn. 88) His eldest son Sir Thomas died a minor in 1400, (fn. 89) and the second son John, who succeeded, was restored in blood in 1412. (fn. 90) At his death in 1420 (fn. 91) his heir was his son Thomas. (fn. 92) Thomas became Lord Lumley in 1461 on the reversal of the attainder of his grandfather; he died in about 1480 and was succeeded by his son George. (fn. 93) Thomas son of George Lord Lumley died in the lifetime of his father, (fn. 94) who was therefore succeeded by Richard his grandson in 1507. (fn. 95) Richard Lumley died seised in 1510, (fn. 96) and his son John in 1524 settled the manor on his son George on his marriage with Jane daughter of Richard Knightley. (fn. 97) George was attainted and executed in 1538 for joining in the insurrections of 1536 and 1537 (fn. 98); John Lord Lumley then settled the estates on his grandson John son of George, (fn. 99) who in 1547 was also restored in blood. (fn. 100) In the reign of Elizabeth he was suspected of plotting in favour of Mary Queen of Scots, and was imprisoned in the Tower between 1570 and 1573. (fn. 101) He made conveyances of the manor at various dates, (fn. 102) but was still lord in 1607, (fn. 103) and died seised in 1609, succeeded by his nephew Splandrian Lloyd, son of his sister Barbara. (fn. 104)
By 1669 Kilton was again in the possession of a branch of the Thweng family. In that year Alphonso Thweng and Thomas Thweng, probably his son, made a settlement of the manor. (fn. 105) Thomas Thweng left a daughter and heir Ann (fn. 106); she apparently married first Chichester Graham, who in 1691 and 1693 held the manor in right of his wife Ann. (fn. 107) She was certainly married to William Tullie by 1696, when it was conveyed, probably in trust, to Samuel Diggle. (fn. 108) William Tullie died without issue in 1741, (fn. 109) and was succeeded by his nephew Joseph Tullie, (fn. 110) from whom the estate passed to the Rev. Dr. Waugh, chancellor of Carlisle. (fn. 111) Dr. Waugh's daughters sold it to John Wharton (fn. 112) before 1807, (fn. 113) and henceforth it followed the descent of the manor of Skelton (q.v.), Mr. William Henry Anthony Wharton being the present lord of the manor.
In 1272 the manor of SKINNINGROVE (Scinergreve, xiii cent.; Skynnargreve, xiv cent.; Skynnalgrave, Skynyngravis, xv cent.; Skillingrave, xvi cent.) was part of the Brus fee. (fn. 118) At the death of Peter de Brus in that year it descended with Brotton to the Thwengs. (fn. 119) Lucy de Thweng settled the manor on her third husband, Bartholomew de Fanacourt, and his heirs in 1339. (fn. 120) He died in March 1352, (fn. 121) when as he was a foreigner his lands were taken into the king's hands. (fn. 122) Edward III granted Skinningrove to Peter de Routh, (fn. 123) who later granted it to Sir William de Everingham, (fn. 124) after which it seems to have followed the descent of Brotton (q.v.). In 1494 it was held by Sir John Sotehill, who had granted it for life to Ralph Ribston. (fn. 125) Sir John's son George, an imbecile, died in 1502, (fn. 126) and the manor passed to his sister Barbara, wife of Sir Marmaduke Constable, who held it in her right in 1545. (fn. 127) His son Sir Robert died in 1558 and was succeeded by a son Marmaduke Constable. (fn. 128) On his death in 1574 the estates passed to his son Sir Philip, (fn. 129) who was followed in 1619 by his son Marmaduke. (fn. 130)
In 1622 Marmaduke Constable sold this manor to Richard Seaton, (fn. 131) who died seised in 1631–2 and was succeeded by his son John. (fn. 132) John Seaton had livery of one-third of the manor in 1635; the rest had been settled by Richard in 1627 on his younger son Zachary. (fn. 133) After this the manor passed through various hands. In 1685 half of it was conveyed by Elizabeth Lee, widow, who may have been a daughter of John Seaton, to John Turner, (fn. 134) and about this time various conveyances were made by her in conjunction with Nevile Lemon and his wife Penelope, who must have been an heiress as it was held in her right. (fn. 135) Penelope Lemon still held this half of the manor in 1720. (fn. 136) The other half was held by William and Mary Lee, in right of Mary, in 1708, (fn. 137) when they conveyed it to John Turner and Robert Hilton. Robert in 1711 obtained a quitclaim to it from Elizabeth Metcalfe, (fn. 138) widow, who may have been the Lee heiress. In 1756 part of the manor was held by Joseph and Margaret Aspden (fn. 139); the latter, then a widow, in 1760 conveyed it to Anthony Jefferson and John Richardson. (fn. 140) Ultimately the greater part of the estate came to Sir Lawrence Dundas, bart., (fn. 141) who became Earl of Zetland in 1838 and died in 1839. (fn. 142) His son Thomas, the second earl, died in 1873, (fn. 143) his heir being his nephew Lawrence. He became Marquess of Zetland in 1892, (fn. 144) and is the present owner of the estate, the other principal landowners being the trustees of the late Mr. Anthony Lax Maynard.
Marmaduke and Lucy de Thweng obtained a grant of free warren in Skinningrove in 1279. (fn. 145) Mention of view of frankpledge occurs in 1622. (fn. 146) A watermill was appurtenant to the manor in 1685, (fn. 147) 1687 (fn. 148) and 1688. (fn. 149)
The old chapel of ease, dedicated to ST. MARGARET, was rebuilt in 1778 and is now used as a mortuary chapel. It is a plain rectangular stone edifice, measuring internally 67 ft. by 25 ft., with a tower 6 ft. square at the west end. It is lighted at the east end by a large round-headed window and by three similar but narrower windows on each side. The roof is covered with blue slates. The entrance is at the west end below the tower, which finishes with a low eaved pyramidal roof. Internally there is a flat boarded ceiling and a west gallery, approached through the tower from an external stone staircase. (fn. 150) At the east end are two mural tablets, one of good design to William Tullie of Kilton, who died in 1741, with a long inscription, (fn. 151) and a smaller one to Francis Easterby (d. 1804). There is also a stone in the floor to 'John Easterby Esq.' The interior was restored in 1873.
There are two bells in the tower, the oldest, a mediaeval bell, inscribed in Gothic capitals 'Thomas de Wald me fecit,' (fn. 152) and the other bearing the date 1778.
In the churchyard is a brass plate, now damaged and broken, to the memory of Thomas Pressick, blacksmith, who died in 1770. (fn. 153)
The new church of ST. MARGARET was built lower down the hill-side in 1888–91. It was the gift of Miss Jackson of Hunley Hall and consists of chancel with south aisle, north organ chamber and vestry, nave of five bays, north and south aisles, and south and west porches. There is a small bell-turret on the south side between the chancel and nave. The roofs are covered with red tiles. The building, which stands well above the road and is of stone, is a very good example of modern Gothic work in the style of the 15th century. (fn. 154)
The plate consists of a cup of 1771, silver gilt, with the maker's mark 'W.B.,' a paten of 1726, silver gilt, and a flagon of 1772, made by William Tuite of London, all three inscribed, 'The Gift of Joseph Tullie of Kilton Castle Esqr. For the use of The Communion Table in the Church of Brotton in the County of York 1773.' (fn. 155) There is also a spoon with the maker's mark 'A.A.'
As dependent on the church of Skelton, the chapel of Brotton was probably included in the gift made to Guisborough Priory by Robert de Brus before 1124. (fn. 156) Peter de Brus III afterwards granted Guisborough an annual rent of 30s. on condition of the prior and convent finding a perpetual chaplain to celebrate in the chantry of the chapel of Brotton. (fn. 157) The chapel was appropriated to the priory in January 1308–9. (fn. 158) It remained in their possession till the Dissolution, (fn. 159) when it was granted by Henry VIII to the Archbishop of York in exchange for other manors. (fn. 160) The archbishop is still patron and impropriator. (fn. 161)
The Barrow Memorial Charity.— The Rev. James Barrow, by deed dated 8 April 1880, declared the trust of £500 consols, the income to be applied for the benefit of the deserving poor, especially for those connected with the mining population. The income of £12 10s. a year was in 1904 distributed by the rector and churchwardens among thirty-nine recipients.