A History of the County of York North Riding: Volume 2. Originally published by Victoria County History, London, 1923.
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This parish in 1831 contained the townships of Kirkleatham and Wilton; with East Coatham it has an extent of 6,748 acres, of which 34 acres are covered by inland water, 1,699 are foreshore, 1,966 arable land, 1,617 pasture and 159 woods and plantations. (fn. 1) By the sea the soil is mainly sandy, but further south it is clay upon lias. Wheat, barley, beans and turnips are the chief crops grown.
The ground, nowhere of any great height, slopes gently down towards the north and along the coast is hardly above the level of the sea; indeed, much of the northern portion of the parish was occupied by salt marsh, (fn. 2) and in the Middle Ages many salt-pits were dug there. In the latter part of the 12th century Roger son of William de Tocketts gave a salt-pan in 'Cotum' to Guisborough Priory (fn. 3) and Hugh son of Ralph Deblel two salt-pans. (fn. 4) Alan de Wilton early in the 13th century granted to the canons of Ellerton 5 skeps of salt from his salt-pits of West Coatham (fn. 5); the Brus lords of Skelton had the right of taking a skep of salt from every salt-pan in Coatham Marsh, (fn. 6) and salt-pits in Coatham belonged to their descendants in the 14th century and later. It is probably the excavations necessary for these that caused the hillocks to the south of the North Eastern railway between East and West Coatham.
Kirkleatham village lies 2½ miles south of Redcar station at the junction of the road running north north-east from Stockton to Marske and Kirkleatham Lane which leads north to East Coatham. The church is situated at the south-west corner of the lane and immediately opposite is Kirkleatham Hall, which was probably built by John Turner soon after 1623; it was originally an H-shaped house of two stories, the principal front facing north, with curved gables and a cupola or bell-turret over the middle wing. Knyff's drawing, c. 1708, shows additions of short wings at either end, east and west. The building was, however, almost entirely remodelled by Charles Turner (fn. 7) who is said to have employed as his architect Carr of York. Externally the building has now lost all traces of its original appearance, having been rebuilt and enlarged in a pseudo-Gothic style with the principal front towards the south. The frontage is about 132 ft. in length and surmounted by an embattled parapet. The windows are mostly square-headed with hood moulds and wooden barred sashes, but some have pointed heads. The house was described in 1769 as containing 'an exceedingly good dining-room, an excellent rendezvous-room, a breakfasting one, four principal bed-chambers with dressing rooms, fifteen other bed-chambers and a billiard room.' (fn. 8) It retains some 17th-century oak panelling and plaster work. The building is approached from the road through an 18th-century gateway. On the coping of the high brick boundary walls facing the highway are a number of beautiful 18th-century lead urns.
To the west of the church on the main road is a house erected in 1709 under the will of Sir William Turner for the free school, (fn. 9) but long since converted into two dwellings and known as the Old Hall. (fn. 10) It is a fine brick and stone building of two stories and an attic, H-shaped in plan, with a frontage of about 94 ft. The wings, which are 50 ft. apart, project only 4 ft. in front of the main block, but have a much greater projection at the back. The elevation is one of great dignity with an entrance of monumental proportions going the full height of both stories and finishing with a semicircular pediment breaking into the attic. The whole of the middle wing is faced with ashlar, the rest of the building being constructed of 2-in. bricks with stone quoins, the windows having stone architraves, heads and sills. Below the attic is a deep cornice and the roofs, which are hipped at the angles, rise above a straight parapet. The entrance is approached by a flight of semicircular steps and over the doorway is the inscription:
On the other side of the road is Turner's Hospital, built and endowed by Sir William Turner (fn. 11) in 1676, but entirely remodelled and enlarged in 1742 by his great-nephew Cholmley Turner. The buildings are erected on three sides of a rectangular courtyard measuring about 55 yards from north to south by about 30 yards in width, and open at the north end to the road. The buildings are of brick, with slated hipped roofs behind straight parapets with the exception of the chapel, which is faced with stone, and which occupies the middle of the south end of the quadrangle. The boys' school and the master's house are on the west of the chapel and the girls' school on the east, and the lower stories of the long line of buildings on either side of the courtyard are occupied by the women on the east and the men on the west. The north end is inclosed by a tall iron grille with gates in the centre, all of admirable design, between which and the road is a kind of semicircular grassed forecourt with brick retaining wall toward the road surmounted by stone posts and chains and dwarf entrance piers. The whole lay-out as seen from the highway, with two old trees in the forecourt, is exceedingly picturesque.
As originally constructed the main block of buildings at the top of the courtyard had a line of five curved dormer gables breaking into the roof, with a low square tower and cupola in the middle. The lower end of the courtyard where the iron railings now stand was inclosed by a brick wall with a gateway in the middle having balled gate-piers. (fn. 12) As remodelled by Cholmley Turner the chapel to a great extent dominates the design. It stands slightly in front of the brick buildings on either side, and is entered at the north end from the courtyard through an open porch with round-headed openings on all three sides carried up above the roof as a clock tower and cupola. The design is one of some dignity, its rather plain character harmonizing well with the adjoining brick buildings. All the external ornament is concentrated on to the entrance porch, the principal opening of which is flanked by Tuscan pilasters supporting an entablature over which is a tablet with long inscription (fn. 13) surmounted by a broken pediment and the arms of Turner with helm, crest and mantling. The interior of the chapel measures 35 ft. by 33 ft., and has a groined plaster roof supported by four Ionic columns, with galleries on the east and west sides entered from the boys' and girls' schools at the first floor level. The altar is in an apse at the south end opposite the door, and the fittings and decorations are of a rich and interesting character. The two galleries are connected by a stone landing stepped up on either side above the arch of the entrance doorway and fenced with an elaborate wrought-iron railing of flowing pattern. From the landing a doorway with moulded architraves and broken pediment opens to the clock tower, the space above the opening being occupied by a marble bust of Cholmley Turner within a niche with eagles displayed on either side. The woodwork throughout is of unpolished mahogany, the floor of marble, and the window of the apse is filled with 17th-century Italian glass representing the Adoration of the Kings, and with full-length figures of Sir William Turner in his robes as lord mayor and his elder brother habited as a serjeant-at-law. An elaborate gilt wood chandelier hangs from the middle of the roof, and two gilt chairs, said to have been given to Sir William by Charles II, stand within the altar rails.
The buildings on either side the courtyard are very plain, with elevations of 2-in. brick. There is a stone string-course at the height of the first floor and the walls finish with a stone cornice and straight brick parapet. The windows and doorways have stone architraves and the former retain their original barred sashes, and a paved footwalk runs round the courtyard against the buildings. In the middle is a lead statue of Justice, now painted, and over the two doorways at the north end where the wings are slightly returned inwards are niches containing respectively the statues of an old man and woman. The upper floor in the east wing over the women's rooms is occupied by a museum and library transferred from the Free School by Cholmley Turner in 1756, and in the west wing is the house of the resident surgeon.
The village was practically rebuilt in the latter half of the 18th century by Charles Turner. (fn. 14) Fourteen cottages of brick and tiles were erected round an open space, and houses and shops provided for a blacksmith, wheelwright, butcher and general shopkeeper. The little ale-houses that were the resort of smugglers were put down and replaced by a good inn, now the Turners' Arms Farm, in Yearby Lane.
About half a mile south-east of Kirkleatham on a branch road to Guisborough is the hamlet of Yearby, and still further south on Dunsdale Beck is Dunsdale, which occurs in the 13th century, (fn. 15) but as a village owes its rise to the mines there and has come into existence within the last twenty years. There are schools at both these places. (fn. 16) From Kirdeatham village a lane leads north to East Coatham. In the 12th and 13th centuries the port of Coatham in which the Brus family exercised certain rights (fn. 17) was of some importance, for in 1205–6 Coatham paid 16s. 11d. as the fifteenth of merchants' goods, while Whitby only contributed 4s. (fn. 18); and in 1257 Marmaduke de Thweng obtained a grant of an annual fair to be held on the feast of St. Lawrence and the day preceding and following, not in his manor of Kirkleatham but in Coatham, (fn. 19) no doubt because it was the more frequented place. As in the division of the Brus inheritance in 1272 the profits of the boats of 'Cotum' were assigned with the manor of Marske, (fn. 20) it is natural to suppose that the port was at East Coatham near Marske. At the end of the 16th century the port had long since disappeared, but a remembrance of its former importance survived in vague local tradition. (fn. 21) Long afterwards Charles Turner seems to have hoped to make the place again a trading centre, and with this idea he built near the sea a house with granaries which he let to a merchant. (fn. 22) Development, however, did not follow on these but other lines.
The possibilities of Coatham as a health resort had also been noticed by Turner, who built an inn and bathing machines to attract visitors, (fn. 23) with ultimate success. In 1810 East Coatham still consisted of a single street with houses built down one side only, a green on the east separating it from Redcar, (fn. 24) but it was already known as a watering-place, and its progress has been continuous. It was created an ecclesiastical parish in 1860, (fn. 25) a civil parish in 1899, (fn. 26) and now forms practically the western half of Redcar. The chief roads run from west to east off Kirkleatham Lane, Coatham Road containing Christ Church, consecrated in 1854, (fn. 27) and High Street, more to the north, the grammar school which is the refoundation of the old Kirkleatham free school. (fn. 28) The west end of the town is bounded on the north by the Common, but further east, near the convalescent home, (fn. 29) an esplanade called Newcomen Terrace has been built along the coast. The pier at the east end of the town was destroyed in 1899; opposite to its site a road runs south to the North Eastern railway, which in 1846 opened a station (fn. 30) here. The two public elementary schools are near the station, one to the north in Coatham Road, the other south at West Dyke. There is also a school for Roman Catholic children. Station Road Hall is used by the Primitive Methodists for their services, but the Wesleyan Methodists have a chapel, built in 1869, and the Friends their own meeting-house. A Presbyterian chapel has also been built. From East Coatham the Coatham Road leads west to Warrenby, a hamlet which grew up shortly after 1872 (fn. 31) round some ironworks, and before 1889 had a mission chapel served by the clergy of Christ Church, and a Wesleyan chapel.
At the extreme north-west of the parish lies the South Gare breakwater, between Coatham Sands on the east and Bran Sand on the west, and further south Dabholme Beck runs from West Coatham Marsh through Bran Sand into the Tees. A little east of the beck is the hamlet of West Coatham, which consists of two or three farms reached by a lane branching westwards from Kirkleatham Lane over Wylie Brigg which recalls 'le Wyliges' (fn. 32) mentioned in 1301–2. At West Coatham there is an earthwork which, it is thought, may be the remains of the camp of refuge made in 1069–70 by those who held out against William I. (fn. 33)
The alum works near Kirkleatham employed many people here in the 17th century, (fn. 34) but they were declining before the beginning of the 19th century. (fn. 35) Pig-iron is manufactured at Warrenby and mining carried on in the south of the parish.
The following place-names (fn. 36) occur: Breikefleit, Smitheing, Underlestain, Lambegriphe, le Petepites, le Spetelgrene, (fn. 37) Melledio, Routhegates, Sefurlenges and Barton (fn. 38) (xiii cent.). At Yearby in 1539 and 1563 there were places called Newton Yng and Morton Carres and a close called Waye. (fn. 39)
Wilton, an ancient chapelry and in 1871 (fn. 40) a separate parish, lies to the south-west of Kirkleatham, and is bounded on the north-west by the Tees. It is about 4,639 acres in extent, of which 5 acres are covered by inland water, 16 acres by tidal water, 351 acres are foreshore, 1,137 acres arable land, 1,590 acres pasture and 521 acres woods and plantation. (fn. 41) The soil is clay upon lias, and wheat, beans and oats are grown.
An alabaster quarry belonged to the lord of the manor (fn. 42) when the common fields were inclosed in 1803, (fn. 43) and ironstone is at present worked at Lazenby Pit south of the castle. (fn. 44) The land, low on the north and west, rises considerably towards the south, attaining a height of 775 ft. on Wilton Moor. The village of Wilton lies along a lane which turns south off the road running from Stockton to Kirkleatham. On the east side of the lane are the public elementary schools erected in 1855, (fn. 45) on the west is the church at some little distance from the vicarage but close to Wilton Castle which stands well with a background of wooded hills, and a waterfall on the east. Ralph de Bulmer in 1330 had licence to crenellate his dwelling-house of Wilton, (fn. 46) and in 1406 the manor-house was called a castle. (fn. 47) As the chief seat of the Bulmers it must have been an important place, and in 1569 Lord Eure mentioned it among the strongholds of the North Riding as standing 'for Cleavland very servesable.' (fn. 48) From this time, however, it seems to have gone gradually to ruin. Some remains of it could still be seen at the beginning of the 19th century, (fn. 49) but in 1846 even these had disappeared. (fn. 50) The present house was built on the old site by Sir John Lowther (fn. 51) about 1807 in the Gothic style from designs of Sir Robert Smirke. The park surrounding the castle may have had its beginning in a grant of free warren made to Alan de Wilton in 1204, (fn. 52) but it is first mentioned in 1331. (fn. 53) Reference is made to it in 1558 in a grant of the manor by the Crown. (fn. 54)
About three-quarters of a mile to the south-west of Wilton is the hamlet of Lazenby, which lies principally on the north side of the Stockton road here called High Street. It has an inn, a school built in 1867, and Wesleyan and Primitive Methodist chapels. (fn. 55) Still further to the south-west is Lackenby hamlet, situated partly on the main road and partly a little removed to the north; here (fn. 56) also there is a Wesleyan chapel. Lackenby Lane leads north from this point past Greystone Field and Kettle Beck to North Lackenby, where are ironworks close to the railway.
Towards the end of the 12th century Ilger de Kilton held a knight's fee, or part of one, in Kirkleatham, (fn. 61) and from the time of Sir William de Kilton (fn. 62) the manor of Kirkleatham has the same descent as Kilton Castle (fn. 63): it passed by marriage to the Thweng family and was settled on Marmaduke younger son of Marmaduke de Thweng and his wife Lucy de Brus, and in the 14th century came into the hands of the Lumleys. (fn. 64) The manor was sold by the last Lord Lumley in June 1586 for 200 marks to Thomas Crompton and Edmund Hunt, (fn. 65) and afterwards became the property of Richard Bellasis, who owned it in February 1596–7; at his death in February 1599–1600 (fn. 66) it passed to his nephews Charles and Brian Bellasis successively. Charles died in 1601 (fn. 67) and Brian in 1608, leaving a son and heir William, (fn. 68) of whom, in January 1623–4, the manor of Kirkleatham was bought by John Turner. (fn. 69) From him it descended in 1643 to his eldest son (fn. 70) John Turner, (fn. 71) who died in 1688, (fn. 72) and was succeeded by his son Charles, and the latter in 1719 by his son Cholmley. (fn. 73) The manor fell, on Cholmley's death in 1757 without surviving male issue, (fn. 74) to his brother William (fn. 75) and then to William's son Charles, who in 1782 was created a baronet. (fn. 76) Sir Charles Turner, the second baronet, inherited the manor from his father in 1783, and dying childless in 1810 left it by will to his wife Teresa daughter of Sir William Gleadowe-Newcomen. (fn. 77) In 1812 Lady Turner married Henry Vansittart of Foxley and died in 1844, leaving an only child Teresa Vansittart, (fn. 78) who in 1841 married Arthur Newcomen and became the owner of the manor in 1848 on the death of her father. (fn. 79) Mrs. Newcomen was succeeded in 1867 by her son Arthur Henry Turner Newcomen, (fn. 80) and he in 1884 by his son the present lord of the manor, Mr. Gleadowe Henry Turner Newcomen.
A grant of free warren in Kirkleatham Manor was made in 1257 to Marmaduke de Thweng, and in 1292 confirmed to his son. (fn. 81)
The right to wreck along the sea-coast and the Tees from Runswick to Yarm possessed by the Brus lords was divided after the death of the third Peter de Brus in 1272 among his sisters and co-heirs, so that a share was inherited by the Thwengs (fn. 82) and the Lumleys, (fn. 83) and wreck within the manors of Kirkleatham and Coatham was sold with the manors in 1586 by Lord Lumley. (fn. 84) The privilege of taking toll from ships within a certain area which the Brus lords and their descendants possessed had nothing to do with manorial rights, but anchorage of ships from Redcar to Caldcoats Flats is said to have been bought in 1666 by the lord of Kirkleatham Manor, John Turner, from Sir George Marwood. (fn. 85) In 1340 there is mention of a windmill here, (fn. 86) and in 1587 of three mills in Kirkleatham and Coatham. (fn. 87)
In Domesday Book COATHAM (Cotum, xii and xiii cent.) is possibly represented by a holding of 3 carucates in Kirkleatham, formerly the 'manor' of Leising and then in the king's hands. (fn. 88)
The Brus family had land here early in the 12th century, (fn. 89) but nothing is heard of the manor of Coatham until 1257, when it belonged to Marmaduke de Thweng. (fn. 90) From this date East Coatham Manor (fn. 91) followed the descent of Kirkleatham (q.v.). The weekly market on Wednesday and the fair of three days in Coatham granted to Marmaduke de Thweng in 1257 (fn. 92) were mentioned as rights belonging to the manor in 1586 when it was transferred to Thomas Crompton by Lord Lumley. (fn. 93)
Guisborough Priory had a mill in Coatham in or about 1200 (fn. 94) and in 1535 still possessed one there. (fn. 95) It is not certain in which hamlet this was situated, but of the three mills in Kirkleatham and Coatham in 1587 (fn. 96) two were probably in East Coatham.
In 1086 Niel had at LACKENBY (Lachenebi, xi cent.) under the Count of Mortain 2 carucates and a 'manor' previously held by Norman. The land was then waste. (fn. 100)
A carucate and 6 oxgangs of land here were in 1086 soke of Earl Hugh's 'manor' of Loftus. (fn. 103) This land was presumably included in the 2 carucates bought of Reginald de Rosel in 1208 by Hugh de Lackenby, for a payment was due from them as ward of Chester Castle. (fn. 104) Hugh de Lackenby gave 4 oxgangs of his land in Lackenby (fn. 105) and the services due from 9 other oxgangs to Guisborough Priory, (fn. 106) which in about 1300 had 9½ oxgangs here held by free tenants. (fn. 107) The priory, which received 4 oxgangs in 1234–5 from Thomas de Wilton, (fn. 108) had lands here at the Dissolution worth £8 5s. 8½d. a year, (fn. 109) apparently those which in 1561 belonged to Sir Thomas Chaloner, (fn. 110) and were then made over by him to the queen. (fn. 111)
At LAZENBY (Lesingebi, xi cent.) 3½ carucates, described in 1086 as a 'manor,' had been Levenot's and then were the king's. (fn. 112) There was also a half carucate there which belonged to the soke of Earl Hugh in Loftus; this was waste. (fn. 113) Robert de Brus, who received his land after the compilation of Domesday Book, held 1½ carucates here, (fn. 114) and appears in the end to have secured more.
The Brus overlordship in Lazenby (fn. 115) descended through Lucy de Brus to her granddaughter Lucy de Thweng who married William le Latimer, 2 carucates being held in 1303 of the fee of Latimer. (fn. 116) Lucy and her third husband Bartholomew de Fanacourt granted her knights' fees here and elsewhere in 1346 to John Darcy le Fitz and Elizabeth his wife for the life of Lucy, (fn. 117) but after 1303 there seems no trace of the Brus overlordship. The Percys who held under the Brus heir in 1284–5 and 1303 (fn. 118) were probably mesne lords, as in 1314 Henry de Percy was not the actual owner. (fn. 119)
Some land must have come into the hands of the Mauleys and Nevills whose fee in 1284–5 and in 1303 included land in Lazenby. (fn. 120)
In 1204 the principal owner here was Alan de Wilton, (fn. 121) and his successors the Bulmers held in 1284–5 the land of the Mauley fee, (fn. 122) and in 1315 the 2 carucates (fn. 123) held by Henry de Percy of the fee of Latimer. Lazenby follows the descent of Wilton Manor, of which in 1406 it was said to be a member.
In WILTON (Widtune, xi cent.) a certain Maldred in 1086 held 3½ carucates, formerly the 'manor' of Altor. (fn. 124)
A carucate of land in Wilton and Lazenby was soke of this holding which William de Percy appears to have held in the time of William Rufus (fn. 125); in 1236–9 (fn. 126) and in 1284–5 (fn. 127) his descendants were overlords of part of Wilton.
The Count of Mortain had in 1086 a further fee of 4 carucates in Wilton which Niel held of him; Norman before had held the 'manor.' (fn. 128) The Niel of Domesday Book has been identified with Niel Fossard, whose inheritance in the reign of John came into the hands of Peter de Mauley through his marriage with Isabel de Turnham, (fn. 129) only child of the Fossard heir. This lordship followed the descent of Mulgrave until last mentioned in 1414. (fn. 130)
In 1283 Ralph de Nevill had a mesne lordship here, (fn. 131) for it is clear that the land held by knight service of him in Wilton (fn. 132) was that which he himself held of Peter de Mauley. This lordship followed the descent of Sheriff Hutton, (fn. 133) of which the manor of Wilton was held.
As there is no trace, except through the overlordship, of two manors in Wilton, it seems probable that the Bulmers who owned the land of the MauleyNevill fee in 1283 (fn. 134) had acquired it so early that the two holdings of Domesday were regarded before the 13th century as one manor. (fn. 135)
In the reign of Henry I the manor was held by Ralph de Farlington (fn. 136) and in or about 1136 by his son Alan, (fn. 137) whose son Ralph de Wilton figures in 1165 among the knights of Bertram de Bulmer. (fn. 138) He was followed in Wilton by his son Alan de Wilton, (fn. 139) who received from King John in 1204 a grant of free warren in his fee in Wilton, Coatham, Lazenby and Lackenby. (fn. 140) Alan seems to have died in 1230–1, (fn. 141) when the manor fell to his brother Thomas de Wilton, and on the latter's death without issue in or about 1236 (fn. 142) to John de Bulmer, (fn. 143) the son or grandson of Stephen, brother of Alan de Farlington. (fn. 144) From this time the manor remained in the Bulmer family (fn. 145) until it was forfeited to the Crown in 1537 (fn. 146) through the execution of Sir John Bulmer for treason. Sir John's eldest son, Sir Ralph Bulmer, who was restored in blood, was apparently allowed possession (fn. 147) under the settlement of his grandfather, Sir William Bulmer, (fn. 148) but directly after he died in October 1558 the manor was granted by Queen Mary to Sir Thomas Cornwallis, kt., controller of her household, his wife Anne and the heirs male of Thomas. (fn. 149) In 1605 it was inherited by Thomas's son, Sir William Cornwallis, kt., (fn. 150) who was succeeded in Wilton in November 1611 by his son Frederick, (fn. 151) in 1660 created Lord Cornwallis. (fn. 152) The manor was held in January 1676–7 (fn. 153) by his grandson and in 1698 by his great-grandson, Charles Lord Cornwallis, (fn. 154) but was shortly afterwards sold to Sir Stephen Fox. (fn. 155) From the latter it passed in 1718 to his son Stephen, created in 1741 Lord Ilchester, (fn. 156) from whom it was bought in 1748 by Katharine widow of Robert Lowther (fn. 157) for her son James, then a minor. James Lowther succeeded to a baronetcy in 1751, and in 1784 was created Earl of Lonsdale. (fn. 158) He began in 1777 an embankment to protect part of his estate from the sea, but abandoned the undertaking, (fn. 159) probably owing to the protests of the lord of the neighbouring manor of Kirkleatham, on whose rights he was encroaching. He died without issue in 1802, and Wilton passed under his will to his relative, John Lowther of Swillington, (fn. 160) in 1824 created a baronet. From him it descended to his two sons in succession, in 1844 to John Henry, (fn. 161) and in 1868 to Charles Hugh, (fn. 162) and in 1894 it passed to the latter's grandson, Sir Charles Bingham Lowther, bart. (fn. 163)
The right of gallows was claimed in 1278–81 to have belonged to the lords of Wilton from the time of the Conquest. (fn. 166)
YEARBY (Overby and Ureby, xiv cent.; Uverby, xv cent.; Urebie, xvi cent.; Earby and Verby, xvii cent.) may almost with certainty be identified with the 'manor' and 9 carucates in Kirkleatham held in 1086 by the Count of Mortain, and before by Uctred. (fn. 167) This holding appears to have come afterwards into the possession of the Brus family, for about 1119–24 Robert de Brus granted to Guisborough Priory 'all Lyum,' (fn. 168) extended at 9 carucates of land (fn. 169) with that part of Coatham adjacent, and tithe of his lordship of 'Lyum.' The gift was confirmed to the priory by Henry I and Henry II, (fn. 170) and in 1284–5 the prior claimed to hold the 9 carucates in frankalmoign with soke, infangenthef, and toll and team. (fn. 171) In 1365 Edward III granted the convent free warren in their demesne lands in 'Ureby,' (fn. 172) and in 1539 the priory manor to which rights in Coatham were attached was called 'Uverby.' (fn. 173) After the Dissolution the manor was given by Henry VIII in January 1545–6 with court leet, view of frankpledge and free warren thereto belonging to Sir Charles Brandon, kt., and his wife Elizabeth for their lives, (fn. 174) and in 1563 Queen Elizabeth sold the reversion of the manor and courts, the capital messuage and various customary works and lands pertaining to the manor to Richard and Thomas Osborne of London and their heirs. (fn. 175) Thomas Osborne in 1574 sold the manor to Peter Osborne and his wife Anne, (fn. 176) who disposed of it in July 1583 to Henry Cheke. (fn. 177) In January 1584–5 Henry settled it in dower on his wife Frances Constable for her life, (fn. 178) and died in 1586 leaving no children by her, so that the reversion of the manor fell to Thomas Cheke, Henry's son by a former marriage, (fn. 179) and from him his right was bought by Thomas Stowpe in June 1597. (fn. 180) Stowpe appears to have been acting for Ralph Rokeby (fn. 181) of Marske, who was said to own the manor in 1608–9 when twothirds were taken from him as a recusant, and let by the Crown to Thomas Salvin. (fn. 182) In November 1613 Rokeby, Stowpe and others (fn. 183) sold the manor for £3,200 to Sir Warwick Hele. (fn. 184) At the latter's death in 1626 it was inherited by his nephew John Hele, (fn. 185) who made it over in 1635 to John Turner. (fn. 186) From that time the manor of Yearby has followed the descent of Kirkleatham.
The church of ST. CUTHBERT consists of chancel 37 ft. by 21 ft. 3 in., nave 57 ft. 6 in. long with north and south aisles, south porch and west tower 13 ft. square, all these measurements being internal. At the north-east corner of the chancel is the Turner mausoleum, and further west a modern vestry. With the exception of the lower part of the tower the building dates from 1763, but takes the place of an earlier church on the same site. Leonard Knyff's drawing, made c. 1708, shows the building to have then consisted of chancel with a small gabled projection, probably a vestry, at the east end of the north wall, clearstoried nave with north and (presumably) south aisles and embattled west tower of three stages. The clearstory consisted of four twolight windows and the nave roof was of flat pitch covered with lead. The roof of the aisle was also leaded, but that of the chancel, which was of steeper pitch, appears to have been covered with stone slates. This building may have been of the 14th century with later alterations and rebuildings, its external appearance suggesting a rather later date.
The roof was repaired and the tower rebuilt in a plain classic style in 1731. (fn. 187) The rebuilding of the church in the same style followed in 1763, the upper part of the tower being apparently again rebuilt. The building is faced throughout with ashlar with quoins at the angles, the walls finishing with a dentilled cornice and straight parapet which hides the roofs. The east window is of three lights divided by two columns with Ionic capitals and bases carrying a cornice over the side lights, the middle opening having a semicircular head with keystone, and the whole inclosed within a large semicircular arch. In the middle of the south wall of the chancel is a tall doorway with moulded architrave and pediment set within a round arch, and there is a similar doorway at the west end of the south aisle, in front of which a pedimented porch has been added. The chancel has no windows to the north and south, and there is no chancel arch, a straight beam carried on Tuscan pilasters occupying its place. At the east end of the north wall is the entrance to the mausoleum, a pointed doorway with an 18th-century Gothic outer door, originally meant, no doubt, to harmonize with the old chancel. The west part of the north wall is now open to a small modern organ chamber in front of the vestry. The east wall finishes with a cornice and pediment, behind which is a flat-pitched slated roof.
The nave consists of four bays and is divided from the aisles by tall stone Tuscan columns on pedestals carrying a straight beam, with pilasters of similar character at either end. The aisles are 7 ft. 9 in. wide, the total width across the church being 40 ft., and both nave and aisles have flat plaster ceilings of equal height. The windows are tall round-headed openings with a string-course at the springing of the arches carried all round the exterior. The design is one of some merit and dignity, and is said to be due to one 'Robert Corney, a native of Kirkleatham,' who was both architect and builder. (fn. 188) There was formerly a gallery at the west end containing the organ, access to which was by a doorway in the tower now built up.
The tower is of two external stages, with a doorway on the north side only, and terminates in a plain blocked cornice and straight parapet with angle pinnacles. The lower stage, which remains pretty much as rebuilt in 1731, is plain on the north and south sides and without quoins, but on the west has a circular opening at the bottom with a semicircular-headed window above. Much of the masonry, though refaced, belongs, however, to the mediaeval church, and a projecting vice remains at the southeast corner, going up to the height of the belfry floor. The upper stage has quoins at the angles, and the belfry windows are plain round-headed openings with keystones and louvre boards. A round-headed doorway between the tower and the nave is now built up, and the lower part of the vice is also closed, access to the ringing chamber now being by a wooden staircase.
The fittings are mostly of 18th-century date. The font is of marble with fluted bowl and has a welldesigned pyramidal oak cover of an earlier date. The seats in the nave are the old pews cut down, and the altar table, altar rails, pulpit and reading desk are all of contemporary date. The other fittings in the chancel are modern.
Some relics of the old church are preserved. Near the pulpit is the stone effigy of a female with clasped hands, (fn. 189) and in the floor of the nave a 15th-century brass with a worn black-letter inscription in memory of Thomas Lambert and Agnes his wife. (fn. 190) West of this is a slab with the matrix of a large brass representing a priest, round the edge of which has been an inscription with the emblems of the four Evangelists at the corners. There is also a small mediaeval grave-cover with a floreated cross and dagger, (fn. 191) and in the chancel two 17th-century brasses. One of these is to Robert Coulthurst of Upleatham, merchant tailor (d. August 1631), with full-length figure, inscription and shields with the arms of the Merchant Taylors Company of London in the four corners. (fn. 192) The other is to Dorothy infant daughter of John Turner, who died in 1628, aged four years. (fn. 193) There is a marble mural monument to John Turner (d. 1688), with full-length standing figure, and many blue stone slabs to members of the Turner family. There is also a stone in memory of Henry Forder, rector of Kildale, 'first usher of Kirkleatham Free School' (d. 1753).
The mausoleum, built by Cholmley Turner, which in its way is a rather handsome piece of Renaissance work, is octagonal in plan with buttresses at the angles, and is crowned with a high stone pyramidal roof terminating in a large vase. It is lighted by circular windows high up in the wall, the lower part of which has blank recesses and alternate courses of rusticated masonry. Round the outside runs the inscription, 'This Mausoleum was erected 1740 to the memory of Marwood William Turner Esquire the best of sons.' It was rebuilt in 1839, all the old stonework being used. The walls are stoothed and plastered inside to circular form, the internal diameter of the building being 20 ft. In the middle of the floor is the tomb of Sir William Turner, removed from where the organ now stands, but originally outside the north wall of the chancel in the churchyard. Besides Marwood William Turner, there are also interred in the mausoleum his father Cholmley Turner (d. 1757) and Sir Charles Turner, bart. (d. 1810), while in the floor are inserted several inscribed stones of 17th and early 18th-century date to members of the Turner family. There are sculptured figures of Marwood William and Cholmley Turner, by Peter Scheemakers, in one of the wall recesses, the father being in Roman costume. The monument to Sir Charles Turner is surmounted by an allegorical female figure. (fn. 194)
A fine 14th-century oak chest, now very dilapidated, is preserved in the tower. It is 5 ft. long, with an elaborately carved front and traceried patterns and figures of beasts at the ends. In the vestry is an old iron chest.
There is a ring of three bells, cast by Lester & Pack of London in 1763. The second bears the inscription 'O quam dulce sonas Domini properemus ad aedes.' The third was recast in 1901 by Taylor of Loughborough 'at the expense of G. H. T. Newcomen.' It bears the names of the vicar and wardens. (fn. 195)
The plate consists of a cup of 1570, of the usual pattern; two cups with covers, of 1674, similar in design, and each inscribed, 'This Cupp and Cover was Given to ye Church of Kirkleatham for ye Sole use of ye holy Sacrament by Sr William Turner Kt Ld Maior of ye Citty of London Anno 1669,' and engraved with the Turner arms and crest; and a paten and two flagons of the same date, and similarly inscribed but for the words 'This Patten was . . .,' 'This Flagon was . . .' There is also a silver almsdish of repoussé work, 125/8 in. in diameter, perhaps of Spanish make, and apparently made originally as a stand for a ewer. The edge has a pierced fringe, and the rim within this has a running border with foliage of roses, leaves, flowers, lions, mermaids, &c., twice repeated. In the concave depression is a bold leafage with pomegranates, rabbits and birds twice repeated. (fn. 196)
The entrance to the churchyard is at the south-east corner by a good 18th-century gateway with rusticated stone pillars and iron gates. Near the wall on the north-west side is a small stone coffin, and others have been found on the south side.
The church of ST. CUTHBERT at Wilton stands in a retired situation a little to the east of the castle, and consists of chancel 21 ft. 6 in. by 13 ft., with vestry and organ chamber on the north, nave 57 ft. 9 in. by 17 ft. 10 in., and south porch 8 ft. 3 in. by 7 ft., all these dimensions being internal. The building is substantially of 12th-century date, the chancel, however, having been rebuilt and extended probably in the 13th century, but the whole of the fabric has been so much altered and restored that comparatively little of the original detail remains. In the early part of the 19th century the west front was adapted in a 'pseudo-Swiss taste to suit its pretty background of rock and wooded hill.' (fn. 197) This was done by the addition of three tall wooden 'spires,' one over a bell-turret in the gable and the others on either side the gable forming the termination of two flat buttresses carried up at the angles beyond the line of the side walls. There was a partial restoration in 1850, but one of a more drastic nature in 1907–8 effected almost a rebuilding of the fabric, the side walls being reconstructed and new roofs erected. A number of old stones of 12th-century date found embedded in the masonry have been preserved, and all the old windows were reset or restored. The south doorway, almost alone, retains its ancient detail untouched and undisturbed; but the building preserves in a large measure the original plan. The roofs are covered with red tiles and have overhanging eaves.
The chancel has a modern three-light pointed east window with diagonal angle buttresses, and is lighted at the east end of the north wall by a small restored pointed opening and on the south by a window of two lights opposite, while further west, in the usual position, is a single-light low-side window, the sill of which is 4 ft. 3 in. above the ground. These windows all have plain pointed chamfered heads, and appear to be of 13th-century date restored. An early corbel table with masked heads runs the length of the chancel on both north and south. The east wall may have been rebuilt at a later time or the buttresses added. A segmental-headed priest's doorway in the usual position is now built up, two scalloped Norman capitals and a moulded arch stone being inserted in the masonry inside. The west end of the north wall is open to the organ chamber. The chancel arch is modern, and there is a modern oak screen. The altar table and rails are apparently of late 17th or early 18th-century date. The chancel floor is raised one step above that of the nave.
The nave has three original or restored windows on the north side, the two western ones having rounded heads in one stone with wide internal splays and stepped sills 6 ft. above the floor. The easternmost opening is apparently later and has a pointed head like those in the chancel. On the south side are two similar round-headed windows and three modern pointed ones of two lights. There are north and south doorways opposite to each other in the usual positions, the one on the north being quite plain with semicircular arch of a single square order. The arch of the south doorway is of two orders, each carved with cheveron ornament, the outer springing from angle shafts with carved capitals and moulded bases, and the inner carried down to the ground without impost, the jambs, however, being quite plain and chamfered on the edge. The east capital has a double scroll or volute with star ornament along the top and side. The west capital has a scroll only, of simple form and less refined workmanship. The abacus of the east capital has two paterae carved on the return, the front being plain. The porch is of late date, the outer doorway having a flat fourcentred arch with dripstone.
The nave roof is of four bays, and at the west end a modern stone arcade of three pointed arches carries the bell-turret. The west window is a square-headed one of two lights with geometrical tracery, but only the head and hood mould are ancient. Externally the junction of the masonry of the old west wall with the extended ends is clearly seen, and is further marked by the old plinth which stops about 6 ft. short of either end.
In the porch are preserved two effigies, said to represent members of the Bulmer family, male and female, the man in armour with crossed legs and shield, the female very much worn by exposure. Both figures lay till 1910 outside the chancel on the north side. The edge of the stone on which the male figure rests has a line of four-leaved flowers in the hollow.
The plate consists of a cup of 1638 with the maker's mark C.T., a paten of 1744 by Thomas Gilpin of London, and a modern plated flagon. (fn. 198)
CHRIST CHURCH, Coatham, consecrated in 1854, is a building of sandstone with Bath stone dressings in 13th-century style, and consists of chancel, nave with aisles, north porch and west tower with spire. The living, which was endowed by Mrs. Teresa Newcomen of Kirkleatham Hall, is a vicarage in the gift of Mr. Gleadowe H. T. Newcomen. Attached to Christ Church is a mission chapel in Warrenby.
In 1086 there was a priest and a church (fn. 199) in the fee of William de Percy in 'Weslide.' At the beginning of the 13th century Sir William de Kilton, kt., (fn. 200) gave the church to the priory of Guisborough. (fn. 201) On a vacancy of the church in 1221 William's heir, his niece Maud, and her husband Richard Hawtrey successfully disputed the grant on the ground that William at the time of the gift had been at the point of death and not responsible for his actions. (fn. 202)
The attempt to force a papal nominee into Kirkleatham Church caused Robert de Thweng, Maud's second husband, in 1232 to head an attack on the property of Italian ecclesiastics in England, (fn. 203) and he secured in the end the pope's acknowledgement not only of his right but that of other lay patrons. (fn. 204)
The church passed with the manor to various members of the Thweng and Lumley families. (fn. 205) Apparently it was alienated by John son of Ralph Lumley to Ralph Nevill Earl of Westmorland, who in 1409 obtained the royal licence to grant it to the master and college of Staindrop, co. Durham. (fn. 206) The appropriation was carried out in 1412 (fn. 207) and the Archbishop of York ordained that a salary of £13 6s. 8d., with a dwelling in the rectory-house or some other place near the church, should be assigned to the vicar. (fn. 208)
After the dissolution of the college of Staindrop in 1547 the advowson fell to the Crown, (fn. 209) and was granted in August 1582 by Queen Elizabeth to Sir Christopher Hatton, (fn. 210) who sold it immediately to Christopher Freeman and John Walker. (fn. 211) In 1588 it belonged to Richard Bellasis, (fn. 212) and since 1597 the lord of the manor has presented to the church.
The rectory, which had been leased by Staindrop College in 1537 to the father of Bellasis and by the queen in 1560 for twenty-one years to Bellasis himself, (fn. 213) was given in 1582 with the advowson and has had the same history.
In 1348 Thomas de Thweng established in the church a chantry of twelve priests and four assistant clerks: the priests were to live in the rectory-house and have their meals at the rector's table and to receive each 20s. a year and certain allowances of cloth and fuel; if one of them was employed by the rector as chaplain in the parish church he was to have a mark beyond the ordinary stipend; the clerks, who were to be of the parish if possible, were to be paid 20s. a year each. (fn. 217) With the appropriation of the church to Staindrop this chantry must have come to an end.
There was also in the parish of Kirkleatham in 1546 a chapel of St. Sepulchre built for certain parishioners who lived 2 miles off the parish church, (fn. 218) but there seems no information as to the date of its foundation. It is called 'St. Sulphon's' in 1586 when Queen Elizabeth gave land which had belonged to a chantry in the chapel to Sir Christopher Hatton, (fn. 219) and again in 1608, (fn. 220) the last occasion on which it is mentioned. As both the chapel and its meadow land in East and West Coatham were in the tenure of the same person in 1575, and were then sold together by the queen, (fn. 221) it appears to have been in Coatham. St. Cyprian's Chapel, which is probably the same as St. Sepulchre's, was undoubtedly in Coatham, for in 1585 when the queen granted it to Anthony Collins and Lawrence Woodnett it is said to be 'on the sands.' (fn. 222)
The church of St. Cuthbert, (fn. 223) Wilton, was originally a chapel of Kirkleatham. (fn. 224) The earliest notices of it appear in the will of James Morley, who in 1524 made a small bequest to the high altar, (fn. 225) and in that of Sir William Bulmer, who bequeathed £10 in 1531 to the church of Wilton. (fn. 226)
Sir Thomas Cornwallis received with the manor in 1558 the advowson of the church of Wilton, (fn. 227) so presumably the right of presenting to the curacy had belonged before that date to the lord of the manor, (fn. 228) as it has since. (fn. 229)
The chapel of St. Helen in Wilton was founded probably by Sir William Bulmer, kt., (fn. 230) who in 1528 made over to trustees a house which he had just built close by, and lands for the endowment of a chantry there. (fn. 231) By his will in 1531 (fn. 232) he ordained that there should be two priests, to be known as the master and brother of St. Helen's chapel, one or both of whom should say mass daily in the chapel and pray for the souls of Sir William's father and mother and other relations. They were to live in the house near the chapel and receive the one £4 10s., the other £4 a year. There were also to be four poor men and a poor woman who were to go to the chapel morning and evening to join in the prayers then said for the dead. They were to be provided with food and clothing or to have at least 1d. a day each.
A few years afterwards Wilton passed from the Bulmer family for ever, and the chantry no doubt came to an end then. The ruins of the chapel, described by Graves in 1800, (fn. 233) still existed in 1846, (fn. 234) but have now vanished.
For the free school founded by Sir William Turner, kt., 1679, see the article on Schools. (fn. 235)
The hospital also founded by Sir William Turner under Letters Patent, 1678, is now regulated by Act of Parliament. (fn. 236) Its objects include the relief of ten poor aged men and ten poor aged women, the board and instruction of ten poor boys and ten girls, with a chaplain and nurse. Owing to agricultural depression there was in or about 1889 a large debit balance existing, and with the sanction of the Charity Commissioners the numbers of the pensioners and children were reduced to one-half, and the corporation were authorized (among other things) to sell out a sum of £1,772 16s. 8d. consols (arising from the sale of land) and apply the same towards the payment of liabilities subject to replacement. The endowment consists of 1,789 acres producing in 1906 £1,392, an annual rent-charge of £50 out of an estate at Stainsby paid by Lord Harewood, of £20 out of an estate at Kirkleatham, and of £6 by the North Eastern Railway Co. and £1,046 1s. 7d. consols, held by the official trustees, towards replacement of the above-mentioned sum of stock. The principal items of expenditure in 1906, after the expenses of management, were £364 for master's salary, allowances for boarding and teaching the boys and pensions to the old men; £271 to the matron for salary, &c., and £56 to Coxwold Hospital and £596 to the Charity Commissioners.
In 1755 Cholmley Turner, by deed, charged his estate in Kirkleatham with the annual payment of £14 1s., which is distributed in sums of 2s. a month to each of twelve poor widows, the churchwardens making up the balance.
Ecclesiastical District of Christ Church, East Coatham.—The convalescent home for men, women and children at Coatham was founded in 1862, and is regulated under the provisions of a deed of 1893. The income from endowments amounts to about £74 a year, derived from the following securities, namely, £300 City of York 3 per cent. debenture stock, £993 3 per cent. debenture stock, and £656 4 per cent. preference stock of the North Eastern Railway, £200 mortgage at 3½ per cent. with the Knaresborough Local Board, and £199 15s. consols (with the official trustees) representing a legacy, by will, of Henry William Ferdinard Bolckow, proved in 1878. See also Elizabeth Jocelyn's charity, Bolton-uponSwale, Gilling East. (fn. 237)
The National school, founded by deed 1865, was by an order dated 22 July 1904 made under the Board of Education Act, 1899, declared to be wholly educational, subject to the right of the incumbent to use the same for any parochial meeting or other parochial purposes under his exclusive control and management.
John Jackson, a planter in the West Indies, by his will dated in 1805, left to the poor of the villages of Lackenby, Lazenby and Wilton the sum of £500. The legacy was invested in £635 18s. 8d. consols, the trusts of which were more particularly declared by a deed poll, dated 31 March 1819. The dividends, amounting to £15 18s., are duly applied in the respective areas.
The Independent chapel and house at Lazenby, comprised in a deed of 1833, was authorized by scheme of the Charity Commissioners, 1885, to be sold and the net proceeds, amounting to £76, applied to the chapel and the minister's house at Eston, subject to replacement with the official trustees, who hold the sum of £56 10s. 9d. consols.