A History of the County of York North Riding: Volume 2. Originally published by Victoria County History, London, 1923.
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Chirchebi, Cherchebi (xi cent.); Kirkeby Misperton (fn. 1) (xii cent.); Kyrkby Overcarr alias Kyrkby Mysperton (xvi–xix cent.).
The parish is composed of the townships of Great Barugh, Little Barugh (Barughs Ambo), Great Habton, Little Habton, Kirkby Misperton and Ryton. Its area is 7,001 acres, of which, excluding Barughs Ambo, (fn. 2) 3,121 acres are arable, 2,110 acres permanent grass and 9 acres woods and plantations. (fn. 3) The township of Little Barugh was inclosed about 1600. (fn. 4) The soil is gravel, loam and sand; much of the ground is alluvial, but the villages of Kirkby Misperton and Barughs Ambo lie on Kimmeridge Clay. The parish is bounded by streams on the south and west. Lund Forest Cottages north of Ryton recall the old manor of 'Lund in the marsh'—the lowland by Costa Beck. (fn. 5) The height varies from 70 ft. to 100 ft. above the ordnance datum. The chief crops are wheat, oats, barley and turnips.
The village of Kirkby Misperton is small and some parts are quite picturesque. The Hall, the residence of Mr. James R. Twentyman, is a square stone 18th-century building. It was once moated and stands in a park of 50 acres containing two lakes. Great Barugh is a small hamlet mostly modern and brick built. There is a manor-house now at Little Barugh, but not at Great Barugh. The capital messuage called Barugh Hall was conveyed by Thomas Harwood to Christopher Pinder in 1570. (fn. 6)
The capital messuage of Little Habton was conveyed by Henry Earl of Westmorland to Edward Cowper (rector) of Kirkby Misperton, clerk, in 1554. (fn. 7) Perhaps this is Habton Grange. The manor-house of Great Habton is near Chapel Close.
Ryton consists of some scattered houses. The site of the Percehays' manor-house (fn. 8) is half a mile east of the new manor-house. William Simpson of Ryton (fn. 9) died seised of a capital messuage in 1639, leaving a son and heir Thomas. (fn. 10)
Garforth Hall in the township of Ryton is an 18th-century brick building, the garden being bounded by a curious fruit wall with semicircular 'bastions' at intervals. It probably takes its name from the family of Garforth, for Alice daughter of James Boyes and wife of John Garforth inherited from her father in 1623 'Percehays land' and other possessions in the parish. (fn. 11) It is perhaps the Newhouse mentioned in 1623, and the dwelling-place of Thomas Garforth in 1665–74. (fn. 12)
Among the various 13th-century place-names preserved for Ryton are Sculestrip, Sevelstrip next Rie and Ethfrid, Eikefrith or Aichefridth Wath. (fn. 13) The modern Goosecroft and Longlands (Langelands) preserve names of the same period. Curious names of the present day are Brass Castle close, Beild close, Shotten field, Sewer field, Peckstone Platt, Gosling Green and Glisterpipe. (fn. 14)
The mill at Kirkby Misperton was worth 5s. 4d. rent in 1086. (fn. 15) It was granted by Richard de Kirkby Misperton (fn. 16) to John de Dalton of Pickering in 1324, (fn. 17) and was appurtenant to the manor in the 16th century. (fn. 18) A mill was attached to the manor of Great Habton early in 1365–6, (fn. 19) perhaps the watermill of Little Habton mentioned in 1599 (fn. 20) and 1652, (fn. 21) commemorated by the present Mill Houses. There are 'Mill Cottages' near Newsham Bridge on the Rye.
John Clarke, 'the Good Schoolmaster,' known to Dr. Bentley as 'Little Aristophanes,' was born at Kirkby Misperton in 1706 and buried in the parish church. (fn. 22) Some noted rectors were John Burton, sometime Abbot of Rievaulx; John Thornborough, Bishop of Bristol; Peter Rollock, Bishop of Dunkeld; Thomas Comber, Dean of Durham; Augustus Duncombe, Dean of York; George Body, Canon of Durham, and William Henry Hutchins, Canon and Chancellor of York and Archdeacon of Cleveland.
There are Wesleyan chapels at Kirkby Misperton (erected in 1864), Great Barugh (1899), Little Barugh, Great Habton and Ryton, and public elementary schools at Kirkby Misperton (1855) and Great Habton (1857).
KIRKBY MISPERTON belonged to Torbrant before the Conquest and in 1086 the Abbot of York held two fees here of Berenger de Toni: the first was assessed at 2 carucates 6 oxgangs and included half the church and a mill; the second, which was waste, was held as a 'manor' and was assessed at 4 carucates 2 oxgangs. (fn. 23) At this time Misperton was a berewick of Hugh son of Baldric's manor of Kirkby Moorside. (fn. 24) Berenger de Toni granted to St. Mary's Abbey, York, 8½ carucates of land in Kirkby Misperton, (fn. 25) a grant confirmed by Henry I, (fn. 26) Richard I and Edward II (fn. 27); and Hugh Fitz Baldric granted 3 carucates, (fn. 28) probably a quitclaim of the berewick of Misperton. The undertenants Alan son of Gerald (de Kirkby Misperton), Alan his son, Lawrence de Kirkby Misperton and Robert his son granted a carucate. (fn. 29) According to the first Forest Regard of Pickering in the time of John, the township of Kirkby Misperton was in the fee of St. Mary's Abbey and of Eustace de Vescy, (fn. 30) but this, the only mention of the Vescys, may be explained by their holding the adjacent manor of Barugh. (fn. 31) The abbey retained the overlordship until the Dissolution. (fn. 32)
The family of Kirkby Misperton held the manor under the abbey. Richard son of Roger de Kirkby brought a suit against the abbey in 1304, (fn. 33) and in 1324 Richard conveyed the manor to John de Dalton of Pickering. (fn. 34) In 1344 Roger son of Richard claimed the mill and lands as entailed. (fn. 35) John de Dalton was succeeded by his son of the same name, (fn. 36) who was apparently the father of the Sir John de Dalton lord in 1371. (fn. 37) Thomas Dalton was concerned in an attack on Ralph Eure before 1467. (fn. 38) The manor was held by Edmund Dalton at his death in 1529, when it passed to Roger his son, a minor. (fn. 39) In 1562 Roger made a settlement of the manor (fn. 40); he died in 1586, leaving a son Roger Dalton (fn. 41) of Lincoln's Inn, (fn. 42) who with Alison his wife conveyed it in 1594 to Thomas Phelippes. (fn. 43) Between 1610 and 1620 there are numerous references to the pecuniary difficulties of Thomas Phelippes, and eventually the manor was seized by George Shiers (fn. 44); he died seised of it in 1642, leaving a son and heir Edward, (fn. 45) who dealt with it in 1648 (fn. 46) and 1671. (fn. 47) It then came into the possession of George Shiers of Slyfield House in Great Bookham (co. Surrey), son of Robert Shiers (who died in 1668); in 1684 he was made a baronet. (fn. 48) He and Abigail Shiers, widow, made a settlement in 1683, (fn. 49) and Sir George, by his will of 1685, the year of his death, bequeathed all his Yorkshire lands to his wife Elizabeth in fee and died childless. (fn. 50) Elizabeth, only daughter of Edmund Dickenson, M.D., physician to Charles II, was only seventeen years of age at her husband's death, and two years later married Charles John Baron Blomberg, son of Nicholas Count de Blomberg, 'President of Prussia.' (fn. 51) Charles John made a conveyance in 1692. (fn. 52) On his death his wife made a third marriage, but this estate descended to their eldest son, Edmund Charles Blomberg, who dying unmarried in 1757 was succeeded by his nephew William. (fn. 53) William died childless in 1774, having devised his estates to his wife for life with remainder to his own right heirs, but on her death in 1798 his lands were declared to have escheated to the Crown, and the Crown retained possession until 1812, when one Frederick William Blomberg was owner. He is said to have been a natural son of George III and had taken his mother's name of Blomberg, but was not related to the heiress Elizabeth Shiers, though he was to her husband Baron Blomberg. He built a large obelisk in the grounds at Kirkby Misperton in 1812 in commemoration of the grant of this property to himself by George Prince of Wales, the regent. (fn. 54) The manor was conveyed in 1845, after his death, by his trustees to Captain James Anlaby Legard, (fn. 55) who in 1865 alienated it to Robert Tindall. (fn. 56) John and Robert, sons of Robert Tindall, conveyed it at their father's death in 1903 to the present owner, Mr. J. R. Twentyman. (fn. 57)
A carucate of land was granted to St. Mary's Abbey with the church, (fn. 58) and formed the RECTORY MANOR. In 1351 Thomas de Hoton, the rector, referred in his will to 'my manor at Kirkby.' (fn. 59) The parsonage was said to be within a 'moote' in February 1532–3. (fn. 60) The capital messuage, 'formerly the property of the parish church and afterwards of Edward Cowper clerk,' belonged to the lord of the manor in 1587. (fn. 61)
In 1086 GREAT BARUGH (Berg, xi–xiii cent.; Berch, xii cent.; Berk, Berych, xiii cent.; Bergh, xiv–xv cent.; Bargh, xvi cent.; Barough, xvii cent.) was a berewick of Kirkby Moorside. The 3½ carucates of land that were in the king's hands in Great and Little (alia) Barugh in 1086 had been held before the Conquest by Ligulf and Esbern as two 'manors.' (fn. 62) The 3½ carucates that were also held at that date by the Archbishop of York had previously been held by Ulf as three 'manors.' (fn. 63) The manor was held of the Mowbrays as of their manor of Thirsk in the 13th and 14th centuries, (fn. 64) but this overlordship is not afterwards mentioned. Under the Mowbrays were the Wakes of Liddell, (fn. 65) Barugh, Muscotes and Wombleton (fn. 66) forming one knight's fee attached to the manor of Kirkby Moorside, (fn. 67) which was held by the Vescys and their descendants. (fn. 68) Both these mesne lordships seem to have fallen into abeyance by 1442. (fn. 69)
Under John Wake in 1284–5 Adam de Everingham (apparently first Lord Everingham de Laxton) was another mesne tenant, (fn. 70) and in 1442 Sir Richard Pickering was said to hold his lands here of the heir of Adam de Everingham Lord de Laxton. (fn. 71)
William son of Ulf had land here in the reign of John, (fn. 74) and in 1242 William de Kirkby 'le Romain' charged his lands in Great Edston and Kirkby Misperton with the services due from Hexham Priory for the lands granted them by William son of William. (fn. 75) Bernard de Barugh held 1 carucate of land in 1284–5 of John Wake, (fn. 76) perhaps as lessee of his uncle (fn. 77) Walter Romayne. Walter Romayne of Great Edston (fn. 78) in 1303 settled the manors of Edston and Kirkby Misperton (i.e., Barugh) on Walter son of James de Holme and Alice daughter of John Cruel of Wrelton and their issue, with reversion to his own heirs. (fn. 79) Walter Romayne died childless in 1303. Of his two sisters and heirs the elder, Agnes, married a Barugh and was mother of Bernard. (fn. 80) Bernard had been succeeded at Great Barugh by 1317 by his son (fn. 81) Alexander, (fn. 82) keeper of Scarborough Castle and town in 1324–5. (fn. 83) In 1376 Walter son of Robert son of Alexander son of Bernard de Barugh, Robert de Thornton and John de Topcliffe, descendants of Alice younger sister of Walter Romayne, claimed the manor on the ground that Walter son of James de Holme and Alice had died childless and that Richard Arusmyth and Margery his wife and John de Dalton had entered into the manor of Kirkby Misperton, Robert Pert and Joan his wife into that of Edston, (fn. 84) contrary to the form of the grant. It was denied, however, that John de Dalton had made any entry. (fn. 85) In 1428 John de Barugh held 1 carucate here that Adam de Everingham formerly held (fn. 86); but Sir Richard Pickering, kt., who held the Wreltons' manor of Lockton, (fn. 87) died seised jointly with Margaret his wife of the Everingham lands in 1442. (fn. 88) The Pickerings of Oswaldkirk (fn. 89) held Great Barugh until 1526, when Sir William Pickering conveyed the manor to Richard Harwood. (fn. 90) Matthew Harwood died in 1538 seised of the manor, leaving a son and heir James. (fn. 91) In 1570 Thomas Harwood and Agnes his wife con- veyed the capital messuage called Barugh Hall to Christopher Pinder. (fn. 92) John Harwood died in possession of a messuage and lands here in January 1576–7 and was succeeded by Francis his son, then a minor. (fn. 93) Robert Gere of Great Barugh died about 1643, leaving a son and heir Robert, (fn. 94) who in 1656 conveyed the manor to Thomas Hassell apparently as a marriage settlement on Thomas his son and Mary daughter of Ralph Hassell of Thornton Dale. Thomas Gere had succeeded to the estate by the beginning of 1673–4, (fn. 95) but Nicholas Fairfax was in possession in the spring of 1707–8 (fn. 96); he conveyed the manor to Thomas Gill in 1709. (fn. 97) In 1857 it belonged to Richard Hodgson, in 1859–79 to Henry James Lesley, in 1890–1905 to Robert Lesley. The estate has now been broken up into small holdings.
One and a half carucates in LITTLE BARUGH belonged to the fee of Lutterell, (fn. 101) but the carucate of land that afterwards formed the manor was held by William Malcake in 1284–5 'of the socage of Pickering' (fn. 102) (q.v.). It passed to the St. Quintins (fn. 103) of Ebberston and was conveyed by Gabriel St. Quintin to Richard Darell, John Darell and Thomas Nesse in 1562. (fn. 104) Richard Darell died in or about 1613, after which his son Richard sold his part of the manor to William Nesse, lord in 1619. (fn. 105) William Nesse and others conveyed the manor to George Clapham [of Beamsley] in 1622. (fn. 106) George died seised in 1629, leaving a son and heir Christopher, (fn. 107) who made conveyances in 1639 (fn. 108) and the spring of 1641–2, (fn. 109) and early in 1667–8 joined in conveying it to Roger Jaques and others. (fn. 110) By the beginning of 1709–10 it had been divided into tenths and the holders of four parts conveyed them to Henry Baynes. (fn. 111) Settlement was made by Charles Allanson and others of one-quarter early in 1717–18, (fn. 112) and the whole seems to have been in the hands of Allan Swainston, M.D., by right of Frances his wife in 1790. (fn. 113) It was in the possession of Henry Beaumont in 1859 and in 1890 was owned by Mr. William Scoby.
In 1086 GREATHABTON (Abbetune, Habetun, xi cent.; Habbedun, xii cent.) was already divided into Great and Little. Before the Conquest Ulf and Cnut held 6½ carucates there as two 'manors'; this was in the king's hands in 1086. (fn. 114) A third 'manor' without a hall and assessed at half a carucate belonged to Ulchil and Orm before the Conquest and in 1086 to the Count of Mortain. (fn. 115)
Patrick de Ryedale granted Rievaulx Abbey free passage over Habton Moor, (fn. 118) and in 1209 Nicholas de Ryedale sued Deodonatus medicus and Amiot the Jew of Pontefract for the manor of Habton on the ground that the father of Nicholas gave it them in pledge. (fn. 119) Nothing further is heard of Nicholas. Before this an Ansketil de Habton, son of Gospatric, held lands in Habton. (fn. 120) The grant of Eda son of Ansketil to Keldholme Priory was confirmed in 1200–1. (fn. 121) During the greater part of the 13th century William de Habton was seised of it. (fn. 122) Alan his son and heir died in his father's lifetime and William granted two parts of the manor to Maud, Alan's widow, for life. (fn. 123) The only child of Maud and Alan was Alice, lady of Habton in 1335 and 1337. (fn. 124) She married a member of the family of Middleton of Stockeld and had at least three children—William her son and heir, Christiana who married Gilbert de Wauton, and Elizabeth. (fn. 125) According to one pedigree put forward at a later date William had two sons, John and Alexander, but both died without issue and the manor passed to Christiana and Elizabeth. (fn. 126) In 1363 these two parts of the manor were claimed successfully by Sir Thomas de Middleton of Stockeld, kt., and Thomas his son, (fn. 127) and in 1365–6 Christiana and Elizabeth gave Sir Thomas a quitclaim of their rights. (fn. 128) The Middletons of Stockeld continued in possession until the 19th century. (fn. 129) Mrs. Pickering was owner in 1857, George Pickering in 1873. Mr. William Johnson was the owner in 1890, but three years later it was in the hands of Mr. Robert Metcalfe of Malton, the present lord of the manor.
In 1279–81 William de Habton claimed that his ancestors had had free warren in their demesne lands here time out of mind. (fn. 130)
Before the Conquest RYTON (Ritun, Ritone, xi cent.; Rihtuna, Rictona, xii cent.; Richton, xiii cent.) belonged to Cnut; it was in the king's hands in 1086, when part of it was also a berewick of Hugh Fitz Baldric's manor of Kirkby Moorside. (fn. 131) The owners of Kirkby Moorside were overlords in 1564, but Ryton was then said to be held of their manor of Thirsk. (fn. 132) Of the 3 carucates of land held by Walter de Percehay in 1284–5 Robert Luttrell was mesne lord, (fn. 133) and the capital messuage was held of the Crown 'as of the fee of Lutterell' in the 17th century. (fn. 134)
Walter de Percehay, who was lord of Ryton in 1284–5, (fn. 135) is said (fn. 136) to have been the son of Robert de Percehay, lord of Ryton, by Joan daughter and heir of John de Vescy. This manor followed the descent of the family lands in Crambe (q.v.), and with it was inherited in 1482 by Lyon Percehay. (fn. 137) Walter son of the second Lyon (fn. 138) died childless in January 1528–9 and was succeeded by his brother William, (fn. 139) who lived on ill terms with the Prior of Malton. (fn. 140) He was concerned in the Pilgrimage of Grace, (fn. 141) and dying in 1549 was succeeded by his younger son Robert Percehay, on whom the manor had been settled in fee with remainder to the elder son Leonard. (fn. 142) Robert died childless in 1563, (fn. 143) Leonard died in 1593 and was succeeded by his son Thomas, (fn. 144) who in 1612 had a son William Percehay. (fn. 145) William died unmarried in his father's lifetime and on the death of Thomas Percehay in 1625 the manor was inherited by his son by his second marriage with Mary daughter of Sir Marmaduke Wyvill of Constable Burton. This Christopher Percehay recorded his pedigree in 1665 when his heir was Christopher son of his dead son William. (fn. 146)
In 1685 Christopher Percehay conveyed the manor to John Ramsden, (fn. 147) evidently a trustee for Michael Barstow, who seems to have succeeded by 1698. (fn. 148) Michael Barstow appointed a gamekeeper for the manor in 1742. (fn. 149) He died at his house at York in 1743, having devised the manor of Ryton to trustees for Thomas Barstow, son of his cousin Benjamin, in tailmale with various remainders. (fn. 150) Thomas, who was Lord Mayor of York in 1778, died at Fulford, York, in 1786 and was followed by his son Michael. On his death at Danzig in 1794 he was succeeded by his son Thomas Barstow, who made a conveyance of the manor in 1812 (fn. 151) and died in 1866. His eldest son Thomas Irwin Barstow, sometime stipendiary magistrate for Clerkenwell, died childless in 1889, leaving the manor of Ryton to his widow Mary Elizabeth, daughter of Henry Leader, for life. Mrs. Barstow is the present lady of the manor. (fn. 152)
A further fee was held in the 13th century by Simon son of John the Hunter of Ryton, a contemporary of Walter Percehay. (fn. 153) Simon had a brother John and a sister Alice, (fn. 154) but no further particulars of this family have been found, and it seems probable that the greater part of the fee passed into the hands of Malton Priory. (fn. 155)
Walter de Percehay obtained a grant of free warren here in 1328. (fn. 156)
The church of ST. LAURENCE consists of a chancel 35 ft. 3 in. by 15 ft. 3 in. with north vestry, nave 50 ft. 6 in. by 18 ft. with south aisle making a total width of 28 ft., south porch and west tower. The total length is 96 ft. 9 in., all the measurements being internal.
No portion of the existing building appears to date from earlier than the 15th century, when a complete reconstruction took place. The site is, however, of great antiquity, as numerous Saxon stones are built into the present fabric, and a drawing of the interior in 1873, preserved in the vestry, appears to indicate the existence of an early Norman chancel arch. The church has, however, since then been considerably altered and restored, the chancel being entirely rebuilt and the south porch added. The upper stage of the tower is an early 19th-century reconstruction.
The modern chancel has a three-light east window and three two-light square-headed windows on the south side, all of 'Perpendicular' character. The walls of the vestry on the north are in substance of the 15th century, but have been much restored. The chancel arch is also modern.
The nave has two windows of two lights and one of three in the north wall, all of the 15th century but restored. The wall itself, however, is mainly old. The south arcade of four bays consists of pointed arches resting on octagonal piers without capitals but having moulded bases. The south aisle is faced with ashlar and lighted by a three-light window at each end and by a two-light traceried square-headed window in the first, second and fourth bays of the south wall. All these are of 15th-century date. Externally the aisle is divided into bays by three-stage buttresses and has diagonal buttresses at the angles. The parapet is embattled, as is that of the modern south porch, which projects from the third bay. It is possible that the latter stands on old foundations. The western tower is two stages high, the lower stage being of the 15th century and supported by diagonal buttresses at the western angles. The upper stage or bell-chamber was rebuilt early in the last century, probably in 1838, when the bells were recast. It is lighted by a two-light window in each face and has an embattled parapet with pinnacles at the angles. There are three bells, all cast by Thomas Mears in 1838. The font has a plain octagonal bowl.
Built into the south wall of the chancel is an inscribed stone of Saxon date, apparently forming part of a grave slab with the name 'Tatburg.' On the north nave wall is a fragment of a cross shaft, only one edge, with knotwork, being visible. Incorporated in the north wall of the vestry are numerous fragments of crosses in relief, of various dates but mostly of the 12th and 13th centuries.
The plate consists of a cup, flagon and three patens bearing the Blomberg arms, two patens, and a cup of silver gilt, 1871, and a pewter almsdish of doubtful antiquity, bearing the figure of a bishop and the inscription 'Sig. Oswaldi de Riltune.' A cup and paten (London, 1839) belong to Ryton Church.
The registers previous to 1812 are as follows: (i) mixed entries 1658 to 1663; (ii) entries compiled from various sources and from memory 1789; (iii) baptisms 1780 to 1812, burials 1788 to 1812. The old registers were accidentally burnt in 1789.
The church of the HOLY SAVIOUR at Great Barugh, built in 1850, is a small building of red and white brick and stone, with a three-sided apse at the west end. It has a south porch and a bellcote containing one bell. It is served from the parish church.
There were a church and priest at Kirkby Misperton in 1086. (fn. 157) The church was granted by Alan or Ralph son of Gerald de Kirkby Misperton and his son to St. Mary's Abbey, York, (fn. 158) which in 1292 had a pension from it. (fn. 159) In 1303 the abbot had licence to grant the advowson to William de Roos of Hamlake (fn. 160); it has ever since followed the descent of Helmsley, (fn. 161) and is now in the gift of the Earl of Feversham. The living is a rectory.
The chantry (fn. 162) of the Holy Trinity in the parish church (fn. 163) was founded by Alexander son of Bernard de Barugh in 1317 for a chaplain to celebrate service daily for the souls of Master William de Pickering, Master Robert de Pickering, William de Barugh, Bernard de Barugh and Cecily his wife, and the ancestors and heirs of Bernard, Cecily and Alexander. (fn. 164) There were two chantry priests at the finding of the parson in 1547. (fn. 165) On the dissolution of the chantries it was granted with lands called 'lamp-landes' in Kirkby Misperton to Thomas Bell of Gloucester and Richard Duke of London. (fn. 166)
Alexander de Barugh also obtained licence in 1317 for augmenting the subsistence of a chaplain celebrating divine service daily in the chapel of Barugh for the souls of the same persons. (fn. 167) This was the chantry of St. Laurence, said in 1547 to be necessary because the overflowing of the River Costa often prevented the Percehays of Ryton, who had also endowed it, and their servants from attending the parish church. (fn. 168)
William Smithson, by will dated 9 March 1637 (inter alia), charged his tithes in Kilderthorpe with the payment of £11 yearly for teaching children, subject to the payment of 10s. a year for a sermon on the anniversary of the funeral of the donor, and of 10s. a year to be distributed in bread after every such sermon. By an order of the Charity Commissioners dated 25 August 1903, made under the Board of Education Act, 1899, the annual sum of £10 was determined to be the Smithson Educational Foundation.
Elizabeth Stockton and John Percival, as stated in a tablet in the church, gave 40s. and 30s. respectively for the poor. The sum of 30s. only appears to be paid, issuing out of a cottage and land at Cropton, the property of Mr. Daniel Richardson.
The National School.—The official trustees hold a sum of £200 North Eastern Railway 4 per cent. preference stock under the title of the charity of James Anlaby Legard and Robert Tindall for a master of the National school.