A History of the County of York North Riding: Volume 2. Originally published by Victoria County History, London, 1923.
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This parish is composed of the townships of Kingthorpe, Marishes, Newton and Pickering and the chapelry of Goathland. In the 13th century Allerston, Ebberston, Ellerburn and Wilton were within the parish, but these were separated from it in 1233; Goathland was cut off in or about 1830 and Newtonon-Rawcliff in 1866, (fn. 1) both of these now forming separate ecclesiastical parishes.
The land gradually rises from the south, where lies the rich vale to which Pickering has given its name, to over 1,000 ft. on the moors in the north. Goathland and Newton lie among fine moorland scenery. Pickering belongs to both vale and moor, Kingthorpe and Marishes to the vale. There are remains of lake dwellings in this neighbourhood, (fn. 2) and many remains of the Neolithic, Bronze and Iron Ages have been found at Pickering. (fn. 3)
The area of the parish is 31,276 acres, including 81 acres of water. Of this 7,880 acres are arable, 7,298 acres permanent grass, and 4,195 acres woodland, (fn. 4) the rest moor. The chief crops raised are wheat, barley, oats and roots. Inclosure Acts passed in 1784–5 and 1795–6 (fn. 5) for Pickering and Newton are kept in the duchy of Lancaster office. The soil is limestone and sand; there is a tract of alluvium, but the subsoils include Corallian Beds and Kimmeridge and Oxford Clay. Whinstone, found on the moors and excellent for road-making, is carried by rail to Whitby for shipment.
The market town of Pickering is built along part of the road from Scarborough to Helmsley. According to legend the British prince Peredurus in 270–61 b.c. built 'the Towne of Pickering in the North parts of Yorkshyre' (fn. 6); but unless Pickering was 'Dic' (fn. 7) the earliest historical mention of the place as opposed to the 'manor' is that of the visit here of Henry I. (fn. 8)
Leland described the country between Scarborough and Pickering as 'by hille and dale meate plentifull of corn and grasse but litle wood in sight. The toune of Pykering is large but not welle compact to gither. The greatest part of it with the paroch chirch and the castel is on the south est part of the broke renning thorough the toune, and standith on a great slaty hille. The other part of the toun is not so bigge as this: the brook rennith bytwixt them.' (fn. 9)
The Scarborough road enters Pickering by Eastgate, a very broad thoroughfare now lined with trees. The town consists mainly of two parallel streets running east and west; both Hungate to the south and the market-place to the north communicate with Westgate on the opposite side of the stream. Very few of the houses are of any great antiquity, but the hilly nature of the ground and the irregularity of the buildings render the town eminently picturesque and a few remaining thatched cottages add to the effect. From Eastgate the market-place is reached by way of Smithy Hill and Birdgate, both so called in 1476. (fn. 10) The market-place is a fairly wide street and the most important in the town. A cross stood here in 1476, (fn. 11) but this seems to have disappeared before the middle of the 19th century. The present market cross in the centre of Smithy Hill was erected in 1912 to commemorate the reign of Edward VII and the coronation of George V. Until 1857 the shambles, as was usual in Yorkshire towns, stood in the marketplace, the pump and stocks being slightly to the north. The church stands on an elevation, and to the northeast and east of it are the National schools, built in 1857, the bell of which is dated 1632 and was removed from the south chapel at the church. Hallgarth, close by, takes its name from the 'capital messuage called the parsonage' (fn. 12) of the Deans of York. From the market-place Wellesgate (Wolwardgate, Wollergate, 1476) (fn. 13) and Burgate (Burghgate, 1438–9) (fn. 14) lead north towards the castle, the most northerly portion of Burgate being called Castlegate; on the east side of Castlegate is Pickering Hall.
At the west end of the market-place the beck is crossed by a stone bridge, perhaps successor of the 'stanbrig' mentioned in 1476 and of that crossed by Leland (fn. 15); close by is the station of the North Eastern railway. Potter Hill, the main street west of the stream, is mentioned in 1377–8. (fn. 16) Here now stands the new Roman Catholic church of St. Joseph, a handsome building nearing completion but still lacking the tower. Leland 'saw 2 thinges to be notid, the ruines of a manor place, caullid Bruses-Haul, and a manor place of the Lascelles at Keldhed,' (fn. 17) northwest of Potter Hill and its continuation Westgate.
In 1702 a house at Pickering was set apart for service for Dissenters. A chapel was built for Protestant Dissenters in 1720 and an Independent church in 1789. (fn. 20) Wesleyan and Primitive Methodist chapels were erected in 1885. There is also a Friends' meeting-house.
Lady Lumley's Grammar School was reorganized on its present basis in 1905, the ancient foundation grammar schools at Thornton Dale and Pickering (fn. 21) being then amalgamated. There are public elementary schools in the town and at the hamlet of Stape (erected in 1900 and 1896 respectively), a church school in Hallgarth (1857), a Wesleyan school (1856), and a Roman Catholic elementary school. Besides water corn-mills (fn. 22) Pickering has a bone-mill, and a lane called Paper Mill Lane indicates a former industry. Weaving was one of the staple occupations of Pickering and the adjoining villages, (fn. 23) and both weaving and dyeing were carried on here in 1276. (fn. 24) The population to-day is, however, chiefly agricultural and pastoral.
Ralph Dodmer, mercer, son of Henry Dodmer of Pickering, was Lord Mayor of London in 1521. (fn. 25) Francis Nicholson, the 'father of water-colour painting,' was born here in 1753, and was the son of a weaver. (fn. 26) The Rev. Joseph Kipling, grandfather of Rudyard Kipling, was Wesleyan minister here in 1837.
Goathland is a very small village in the moors with a station on the Pickering Valley line. The houses are all modern and have largely increased of late years owing to the popularity of the district as a holiday resort. A modern farm-house now represents the 'Abbot's House,' a former possession of Whitby Abbey. There is a Wesleyan chapel, and public elementary schools were built here in 1875. The extreme limit of Goathland parish towards the east is marked by Lilla Cross, a monolith some 7½ ft. high with a roughly cut head of Maltese form. It marks the junction of the townships of Fylingdales, Goathland, Lockton and Allerston.
Newton-on-Rawcliff is a small village standing high on the right side of the Pickering valley and a short distance to the west of Levisham station. It has a large green with two duck-ponds and with the church of St. John at the southern end. There are both Wesleyan and Primitive Methodist chapels here. The public elementary school was built in 1894.
As tenants of Thomas of Lancaster the men of this neighbourhood were deeply involved in the politics of the early 14th century. In 1312 John de Dalton the bailiff led 300 tenants clad in forest green against Scarborough and subsequently to Lancashire to attack Sir Adam Banaster and the royal forces at York, Pontefract, Newcastle-on-Tyne and Tickhill. (fn. 27) It was chiefly through Earl Thomas that the northern counties were so much ravaged by the Scots during this reign, and the inhabitants of the Vale of Pickering complained that although they were forced into treasonable warfare they were never arrayed or allowed to array against the Scots. (fn. 28) The commonalty (fn. 29) of the vale in 1322 promised Robert Brus 300 marks if he would spare them; they gave three hostages as security, but afterwards refused to make payment. (fn. 30)
The castle of Pickering, which is of the mount and bailey type, was erected probably early in the 12th century. Henry I, when he visited Pickering and dated a charter there (fn. 31) (possibly in 1122, at which date he kept Christmas at York), probably stayed at the castle. At first, like other castles of its type, its earthworks had only timber defences and buildings, the newly thrown up earth not being sufficiently consolidated to allow of masonry for some fifty years or more. The castle was strengthened after the northern rebellion which ended in the submission of King William of Scotland in 1175, and the accounts for the work on the king's houses in 1179–80 (fn. 32) and on the bridge of the castle in 1186 (fn. 33) possibly refer to the earliest masonry work.
The castle has little history. Henry II visited it and there gave a charter to the weavers of York. (fn. 34) Whether Fair Rosamond accompanied him or whether her father Walter de Clifford had any connexion with the castle is unknown, but a 14th-century tower here is called Rosamond's Tower; it may, however, commemorate another lady of that name. The court of King John was held here early in 1201 (fn. 35) and Letters Patent are dated from Pickering on 9 August 1208. (fn. 36) Edward I was here on 25 September 1280, (fn. 37) probably for the hunting, (fn. 38) and again on 26–9 August 1292, (fn. 39) when, busy with the Balliols' claim to the Scottish throne, his head quarters were at Berwick-on-Tweed. (fn. 40) Edward II stayed at the castle in August and September 1323, (fn. 41) taking seisin after Lancaster's rebellion. Edward III was at Pickering on 26–30 May 1334 (fn. 42) on his way to Newcastle to receive Balliol's homage, (fn. 43) and on 11–20 June 1335, (fn. 44) on one of his many journeys northward to reinstate Balliol. (fn. 45) Richard II was confined in the castle at the close of 1399. (fn. 46)
The castelle stondith in an end of the town not far from the paroch chirch on the brow of the hille, under the which the broke rennith. In the first court of it be a 4 toures, of the which one is caullid Rosamunde's Toure. In the ynner court be also a 4 toures, wherof the kepe is one. The castelle waulles and the toures be meatly welle, the logginges yn the ynner court that be of timbre be in ruine, in this inner court is a chappelle and a cantuarie prest. . . . The castelle waulles now remaining seme to be of no very old building. (fn. 47)
The castle stands on an elevated site on the north side of the town and on the east or left bank of the Pickering Beck. On this side it is defended by a precipitous slope of some height, but on the other three sides the site is protected by a wide, dry moat skirting the walls. The general plan of the inclosure is heart-shaped with the point towards the southwest. It is divided into two unequal portions by the keep and cross wall, the northern and smaller division forming the inner ward and formerly containing the domestic buildings, and the southern the outer ward. The keep stands on a circular mound near the centre of the site and is encircled by a ditch, which is also continued along the outer face of the cross walls connecting the keep with the outer curtain.
Three periods are discernible in the existing remains and of these the earliest or late 12th-century work occurs in the north-western curtain. It appears highly probable that the inner ward alone formed the original castle, when the arrangement would be of the keep and bailey type common at that time. To the late 12th century may also be assigned the massive cross walls connecting the keep and the outer curtain, but the keep itself appears to date from early in the following century, to which date the chapel in the inner ward may also be assigned. In the 14th century the castle was more than doubled in size by the addition of the outer ward, all the towers and curtain of which are of this period. There is no evidence of any later work in the existing building, which appears to have been in its present ruinous and fragmentary state for a considerable period, as the earliest engravings of the castle indicate that it has changed little in appearance since the 18th century. The remains of the outer ward are now by far the most complete and preserve an almost unbroken line on the south and east faces, defended at intervals by the Mill Tower at the south-west angle, the Gate Tower some 104 ft. to the east, Rosamond's Tower and the Devil's Tower on the north-east face. The remains of the keep are very fragmentary, but portions of the cross walls are yet standing, with a lofty fragment of the inner gate. The curtain of the inner ward is mostly ruined to the ground level, but within it is the small chapel still roofed but much altered. Leland mentions the existence of four towers to the inner ward, of which the keep was one. Of the two now missing one was probably at the western end of the cross wall.
The outer ward is entered by the Gate Tower on the south face. It is a much ruined structure of the 14th century, and the pointed arch, on the line of the curtain, is now blocked up with a square-headed modern door inserted below. Two parallel walls project outside it for a distance of some 13 ft., forming a barbican, and probably fitted with doors on the outer face, as a rebate appears in the western jamb. On the same side near the main gate is a square recess. The tower still rises to some height and is embattled, but most of the facing has gone. A short distance to the west stands the Mill Tower, a square building of the same date and two stories high. The ground floor forms a square apartment 11 ft. 6 in. each way, lighted by a loop in the south wall and entered by a door on the north, with a pointed arch and rebated on the inner and outer faces; the thickness of the wall has a ribbed barrel vault. The first floor was approached apparently by an external staircase landing on the alure of the adjoining curtain. The tower is entered by a pointed door on the north face. The chamber has a two-light window on the south, of which the mullion has gone, and a garderobe chamber in the thickness of the west wall. In the east wall is a small fireplace and to the north of it is a door and small landing, from which rises a stone vice leading up to the roof. It is inclosed in a semioctagonal projection externally and was originally finished above the leads with a small ribbed dome. The Mill Tower is of rubble with ashlar quoins and is generally in a good state of preservation. Rosamond's Tower, the first tower to the east of the gate-house, is also square and similar in character to the Mill Tower. Externally it is 22 ft. 9 in. square and is three stages high. The ground floor forms a small chamber 9 ft. 8 in. by 8 ft. with a narrow loop in the south-east face and a pointed doorway on the northwest. The banked-up earth against the inner face of the tower is kept back on either side of the door by stone retaining walls, apparently once arched over, as the floor above has a doorway immediately over. The first floor has a curious corridor in the thickness of the north-west wall, communicating at one end with a stone vice leading up to the floor above and the roof, and at the other end with a garderobe in the thickness of the return or north-eastern wall. The corridor is barrel vaulted and the main chamber is entered by a door on the north-west side immediately opposite the outer entrance. It is lighted by two loops. The second floor has a transomed two-light window on the south-east, a square-headed fireplace with good moulded jambs and head and a label over, on the south-west, and two aumbries and a garderobe in the thickness of the north-east wall. The vice has a doorway communicating with the alure of the southern curtain. The Devil's Tower stands on the north-eastern curtain just to the east of its junction with the cross wall. It is three stories high, 21 ft. 9 in. north to south by 16 ft. 6 in. east to west, and is complete to the string below the parapet. The ground or basement stage formed a postern and has two massive arches in the north and south walls. The outer or northern is pointed and set in a squareheaded recess and opens at the level of the moat. The first-floor chamber is lighted by a single loop in the north wall and approached by a corridor some 20 ft. long in the thickness of the south wall and the adjoining curtain, lighted by two small loops and having a flagged roof. This arrangement was to avoid interfering with the arch of the postern below, and the west end of the corridor was further used for a garderobe. The second-floor chamber is lighted by a loop in the north and west walls. It also has a corridor in the south wall communicating with the chamber by a door at the west end. It is carried through the walls at either end, being flush with the alure on the east and having three steps to that on the west. Opening from the corridor and in the thickness of the east tower wall is a garderobe, the pit of which is inclosed in an elaborately corbelled projection and discharges over the moat. Thirteen and a half feet to the west of the Devil's Tower is a square structure 11 ft. 6 in. from north to south, forming the northern termination of the cross wall. It has a doorway on the west, communicating with the alure (which has here a parapet on either side) and the Devil's Tower, but the eastern side is completely ruined. The curtain of the outer ward from the gate to the Devil's Tower is largely intact to below the parapet. It is not curved, but built on numerous faces, the various angles being marked by upright ashlar bands. Between Rosamond's and the Devil's Towers are two corbelled projections, as though for the reception of small turrets.
The inner ward is entered by a second gate-house having a lofty tower on the east side (24 ft. 3 in. from east to west by about 22 ft. from north to south externally). Of this only the north-west angle remains standing to the parapet level, but remains can be traced of the east respond of the gateway. The work is of the 14th century, which is probably also the date of the stone outer abutment of the drawbridge, remains of which are still traceable. The gate-house stood near the centre of the cross wall connecting the keep with the western curtain. Of this there are only fragments left at the western end, but between the gate and the keep is a magnificent piece of late 12th-century walling carried across the keep moat. At the base it is some 11 ft. thick and rises to a considerable height. The keep crowns the top of a circular mound and dates from the 13th century. It was a polygonal structure externally and circular within (diam. 71 ft.), but only two faces on the north-west and a small portion on the east are now standing. Each face has a tall loop, but those on the north-west are restored. The eastern fragment retain portions of a double plinth, but the walls are nowhere standing more than about 10 ft. high. A considerable fragment of the cross wall connecting the keep and the northern curtain remains standing and is of the same date as the south cross wall. The curtain wall of the inner ward is in a very fragmentary state, but the line is preserved by a modern boundary wall which stands upon the old base. About 240 ft. north of the cross wall is a late Norman doorway set in the wall with an enriched semicircular arch and side shafts. It is now fitted with a seat, and judging from the exterior of the wall is not in situ. Of the domestic buildings in the inner ward the only one now standing is the chapel of St. Nicholas, a small rectangular building 42 ft. by 13 ft. 6 in. internally. It dates from the early part of the 13th century, the greater part of the walls being built of the rough rubble walling common to the inner ward. The east wall is largely modern, and a gabled weathering on the east face may be indicative of the former existence of a chancel. The present east window and the pair in the north and south walls are late insertions. Further west are two lancet windows on each side, all of 13th-century date, and to the west of the southern pair is a pointed south door of the same date. The west wall is without openings and is of modern construction, the chapel formerly extending further west, as is evident from the rough projections where the side walls were broken away. The roof is modern.
This chapel is mentioned in 1313–14, (fn. 48) and payment was made for repair of seven glass windows in it in 1325. (fn. 49) In a survey of 1538 it was said to adjoin the hall in the inner ward and to be 13 yards long by 4 yards wide, covered with slate and in reasonable repair. (fn. 50) This chapel 'in indifferent good repair' was in 1651 used for keeping the courts of the honour, (fn. 51) the Cholmleys having pulled down the old hall in which the courts were kept. (fn. 52)
The position of the great hall is indicated by welldefined mounds against the western curtain and between it and the west end of the chapel. It appears to have been about 80 ft. long, and a deep sinking in the centre probably represents a former substructure.
A 15th-century bell, said to have formerly belonged to the castle chapel, is now preserved in the Victoria and Albert Museum, South Kensington. It bears the inscription '+ Vilyame Stokeslai' in Lombardic characters, and figures of the Crucifixion, St. George and the Dragon, the Virgin and Child, and St. John the Baptist.
The office of constable of the castle was generally given with those of bailiff of the liberty and steward and that of keeper of the forest. (fn. 53) It is mentioned in 1201, when the castle and the bailiwick were committed to William de Stutevill, keeper of York Castle. (fn. 54) Henry Duke of Hereford, who seems to have had the administration of the Pickering estates in his father's lifetime, granted in 1393 to David de Rawcliffe (fn. 55) the offices of constable and master forester for life on his surrendering a previous grant during pleasure. John of Gaunt had granted to David, his 'knight-bachelor,' on taking to wife his 'damsel' Margery Hesill, £20 a year for life from the issues of Pickering lordship, in addition to the £20 he had already granted him from the same, and to Margery if she survived David £10 yearly for life. Henry IV confirmed this grant before and after his accession to the throne, and in 1401 granted David a further 40 marks yearly from the issues, and confirmed the 5 marks yearly that John of Gaunt had granted Margery 'when she was sole.' (fn. 56) Henry VII appointed Brian Sandford (fn. 57) constable, steward and master forester in 1489, (fn. 58) and ten years later Sir Richard Cholmley replaced him in these offices and that of bailiff of the liberty. (fn. 59) In 1565 Queen Elizabeth's favourite, the Earl of Leicester, was governor of the castle, with Sir Henry Gate of Seamer (q.v.) as deputy. (fn. 60)
Blansby hay, (fn. 61) by Pickering Beck, is mentioned in 1250, (fn. 62) and in 1565 the park, mentioned in 1297, was estimated to be 6 miles in circuit. (fn. 63) It descended with the castle in the 16th century. (fn. 64) It was probably leased to the Earls of Westmorland, who appear to have had a hunting lodge here. When order was given for it to be disparked and improved in 1641 it contained 1,280 acres, of the yearly value of £129, houses, trees and underwood worth £410. (fn. 65) It was stored with deer in 1661, but the game was 'almost quite decayed.' (fn. 66)
Before the Conquest the important 'manor' of Pickering was held by Earl Morcar. It had berewicks in Barton, Newton, Blandsby and Easthorpe, and soke in various places in the parishes of Pickering, Brompton, Ebberston, Allerston, Thornton Dale, Ellerburn, Levisham, Middleton and Barton. The whole was assessed at 50 carucates and was in the time of King Edward of an estimated value of £88. (fn. 67) Morcar joined the rebellion of 1071, (fn. 68) and his lands came into the hands of the king and were royal demesne in 1086. (fn. 69) How seriously they had been wasted may be judged from the value of Pickering being then returned as 20s. 4d. (fn. 70) Stretching east of Pickering to the sea was Tosti's 'manor' of Falsgrave, also demesne of the Crown in 1086. (fn. 71) At a later date the manors of Pickering and Falsgrave, with the exception of Scarborough, formed the honour of Pickering. (fn. 72) The men of the soke of Pickering and of Falsgrave were assessed together in 1168–9, (fn. 73) and it may be that when the royal manor of Falsgrave first came into the hands of the burgesses of Scarborough (q.v.) the caput was moved not, as has been suggested, to Scalby (fn. 74) but to Pickering. The manor of Easingwold and Huby also formed part of the honour in the 14th century. (fn. 75) It was granted to Simon de Montfort in 1259, (fn. 76) but no mention of it is found in the grant made in 1267 to Edmund of Lancaster, who may, however, have obtained it under the general grant to him of the earl's lands made by Henry III in April 1269. (fn. 77) A petition of the time of Edward II (fn. 78) states that both Pickering and Easingwold were granted to Earl Simon; no other record of this has been found, but if true it points to the formation of the honour before 1259.
In 1267 Henry III made to his second son, Edmund, grants in the north of England of the honours of Lancaster and Newcastleunder-Lyme, and, besides other lands, of the castle, manor and forest of Pickering in fee, with the proviso that if they were taken away he should receive a reasonable equivalent. (fn. 79) Edmund was summoned to Parliament as Earl of Lancaster in 1276 and died in 1296. (fn. 80) His son Thomas led the baronial opposition to Edward II. (fn. 81) Earl Thomas, who had no children, was captured by Edward's followers and beheaded at Pontefract in 1322, when all his possessions were forfeited. (fn. 82) His brother and heir Henry, a member of the same party, was in 1324 partially reinstated in his father's lands, (fn. 83) but his Lancashire, Yorkshire and other possessions were retained by the Crown until the accession of Edward III, when the attainder of Earl Thomas was reversed, (fn. 84) and Henry became Earl of Lancaster, Earl of Leicester and High Steward of England. He died in 1345, leaving an only son Henry, who in March 1350–1 was created Duke of Lancaster, an honour that became extinct on Henry's death of the plague in March 1360–1, leaving two daughters, Maud and Blanche. Blanche married John of Gaunt, fourth son of Edward III, (fn. 85) and to them Edward, with the consent of Maud, assigned the castle of Pickering with its soke and members (fn. 86) as part of the share of Blanche. On the death of Maud in 1362 this great inheritance was united in the hands of John of Gaunt and Blanche. Blanche died in 1369, (fn. 87) and on the death of John of Gaunt in February 1398–9 his banished son Henry Duke of Hereford was his heir. (fn. 88) Richard II thereupon granted the custody to William le Scrope Earl of Wiltshire, but on Henry of Lancaster's appearance (he marched straight from Ravenspurn to Pickering) the deputy-warden immediately surrendered the castle to him and he stayed there two days 'taking seisin' before marching on to Knaresborough. (fn. 89)
Immediately after his accession Henry IV granted a charter in Parliament by which the possessions of the duchy of Lancaster were declared a separate inheritance from other Crown lands: 'The prerogatives of the king were annexed to all the possessions so separated, but the rule or governance of the estates was to be under an appropriate management, the distribution of the revenues by a distinct treasury, and the ordering of all matters connected therewith was vested in an establishment called the Chancellor and Council of the Duchy.' (fn. 90)
In 1616–17 the castle, honour, forest and manor were granted to Sir Francis Bacon and others to the use of Prince Charles, (fn. 91) and in 1629 they were settled on Queen Henrietta Maria for life with reversion to the Crown. (fn. 92) The queen dowager in 1660 joined in conveying them for a term of years to the Earl of St. Albans and others, who in 1672 and 1687 settled them on the queen for life with remainder to Abell Tassin D'Allonne for ninety-nine years. (fn. 93) Before the expiration of the term the premises were conveyed to John Hill, who held the lease in 1739. (fn. 94) The family of Hill of Thornton Dale (fn. 95) continued to hold these premises on lease for a century and a half.
The Earls of Lancaster had with the grant of Pickering these regalia: return of writs, estreats, goods of felons and fugitives, gallows and amendment of the assize of bread and ale. (fn. 96) As to imprisonment, the Sheriff of Yorkshire made his tourn and the bailiff of Pickering made inquisitions in his bailiwick, caused suspected persons to be taken to the prison at Pickering and tried them at the next court. (fn. 97) The profits of sheriffs' tourns were included in the issues of the honour in 1313–14. (fn. 98) The earls had also wreck of sea and royal fishes, their Admiralty jurisdiction extending from Hayburn Wyke (Habernewick), to the north of Scalby, to Ravendrake in the lordship of Filey. (fn. 99) The town of Scarborough (q.v.), which lay between, claimed special privileges. Seagraves were sworn to make presentments concerning wrecks and to keep the coast. (fn. 100) In 1583, however, the Admiralty claimed that the duchy was within its jurisdiction. (fn. 101)
The hallmote was mentioned in 1622, (fn. 102) but was disused later in the 17th century. (fn. 103) The 'court of view of frankpledge and king's tourn,' held at Pickering, had jurisdiction over all vills in the honour. In 1577 a constable and four men from the vills of Lebberston, Gristhorpe, Wilton, Cayton, Allerston, Aislaby, West Ayton, Thornton, Farmanby, Middleton, Cropton, Cawthorn, Wrelton, Levisham and Kingthorpe and the hamlets of Newbiggin, Osgodby, Killerby, Roxby and Hartoft came to this court 'to present as far as pertains to the leet,' and they attended from the vills of Hutton Bushel, Seamer and East Ayton and the hamlets of Preston, Deepdale, Irton and Throxenby but did not present. (fn. 104) Within the memory of John Watson, steward in 1875, all the townships in the liberty performed this duty except Cawthorn, Hartoft, Rosedale Eastside, Troutsdale, Throxenby, Staintondale, Pickering Marishes, Great and Little Habton and Little Edston, but the custom had by 1875 been discontinued. (fn. 105)
In 1622 it was stated that no tenants of the honour might sue each other in any other court for any action of debt under 40s. (fn. 106) The court appointed annually two constables, two market searchers, two yarn tellers, two reeves, two ale tasters, two leather searchers, two pinders and two water searchers. 'Of all these only the two pinders are now appointed.' (fn. 107) All courts are now united in the 'court leet, view of frankpledge, court baron, copyhold and customary court of the castle, manor and honour of Pickering.' It meets in October or November of every second year. (fn. 108)
The men of the royal demesne in Pickering enjoyed the following customs in the reign of King John: common of pasture for all their flocks but goats in all the king's woods belonging to the manor of Pickering, mast for their hogs without rendering pannage, green and dead wood for housbote by livery of the foresters, dry wood without livery for burning, haybote and walling for their houses, and 'harz' for their ploughs and inclosure for the hedges round the common field by view and livery of the foresters, and dry wood lying on the ground and dry wood which they could knock down by crooks. A jury said that they had these things by will of the king and sufferance of the bailiffs of the forest, without other right, and that they gave the foresters ½d. yearly for every oxgang when the foresters made livery to them for making their hedges. (fn. 109) Alleged customs of Pickering were also set forth in a series of complaints made by the inhabitants to the Crown after the death of Thomas Earl of Lancaster. (fn. 110)
The lord had, in the 13th (fn. 111) and 14th (fn. 112) centuries, rents of the sokemen, 'barones,' bondmen, cottars and 'nativi,' profits of works of the bondmen and cottars, works for repair of the mill pools, loveboons, and every third year a service called 'hirsons,' performed by the bondmen and sokemen, of repairing the palisade at the barbican of Pickering Castle. The service is mentioned in 1235 (fn. 113); in 1619 it was compounded for in every case, (fn. 114) and the composition was levied on certain lands in the honour until the second half of the 19th century, when they, like the wapentake fines and for the same reason, became impossible of collection.
Charles II in 1662 granted the tenants of the manor and soke of Pickering exemption from appearing at the assizes, (fn. 115) and confirmed to them, as tenants of the duchy of Lancaster, freedom from toll of markets and fairs throughout the realm. (fn. 116)
In 1086 the woodland belonging to the 'manor' of Pickering was 16 'leagues' long by 4 'leagues' wide, (fn. 117) and 'was co-extensive, if not coterminous, with the soke.' (fn. 118) This area afterwards formed the West Ward of the forest of Pickering, (fn. 119) the East Ward being the tract known before the formation of the honour as the forest of Scalby. (fn. 120) The forest of Pickering thus extended from the River Seven to the sea. (fn. 121) It followed the descent of the honour. (fn. 122)
Down to the early 17th century the following courts were held for the forest: an attachment court, a swainmote three times a year, a justice in eyre court, a court at Owdon on Whit Monday to give oaths to all 'fee men or forest walker,' a court on St. Cecilia's Day for receiving presentments in the East Ward, a court at Pickering on St. William's Day for giving oaths, and a court on St. Thomas's Day for receiving presentments. (fn. 123) Every town throughout Pickering Lythe that had common in the forest had four sworn 'Bilawemen' 'to make good orders with the consent of the moste parte of the Towne, and to make no lawe to punish any faulte wheare there is anie other lawe to punish that offence.' They committed their 'paines and lawes' to writing, and these were generally put in to the court leet at Pickering or else in to some mesne lord's court leet to be presented and sued. (fn. 124)
In 1494–5 the 'king's tenants, burgesses and inhabitants' of Pickering complained against the foresters in fee, (fn. 125) Lionel Percehay of Ryton and Roger Hastings of Roxby, for breach of these rights. (fn. 126) A further privilege, mentioned in 1651, was that the tenants of Pickering and Newtondale had the right to dig stone in the common quarries for the repair of their houses. (fn. 127)
The men of the vill of Pickering, in the ancient demesne of the Crown, paid aid in 1168–9 for marrying the king's daughter, (fn. 128) and tallage in 1187, 1189, 1195–8. (fn. 129) Inquiry was made in 1308 as to the Earl of Lancaster's right to tallage from his tenants of Pickering, Scalby, Easingwold and Huby, (fn. 130) and in 1313 it was stated that Pickering town and soke must pay tallage to the earl whenever the king took it from his demesnes. (fn. 131)
King John in 1200 ordered the bailiffs of Pickering to let the men of Pickering have their customs as they had had them in the reign of Henry I, (fn. 132) and this may point to an early development of the borough. In the following year he granted to the men at farm the vill, with the market, mill and stock for the large sum of £40 yearly. (fn. 133) The borough is mentioned in 1206–7 (fn. 134) and the burgesses made separate appearances before the justices in eyre. (fn. 135) The burgesses had the tolls in 1276, (fn. 136) but by the beginning of the 14th century the market was in the lord's hands, the demesne land and meadow being let out at separate farm, possibly to others than the burgesses; the rent of the borough had been reduced to 15s. 9d. (fn. 137) In spite of the facts that there were many cottages and topyhold tenements (fn. 138) in Pickering and that Burgate was in 1438–9 specially described as 'in the borough,' (fn. 139) the bounds of the liberties of the town were in 1619–21 (fn. 140) described as the same as those given for the demesne at an earlier date. (fn. 141) In 1476 (fn. 142) the burgages were divided into two portions, 18½ being without the barbican of the castle; the position of the remaining 44¾ is not specified. For the most part they paid a rent of 4d., this being the same rent as that paid for a copyhold tenement, but Ralph Percehay paid 6d. for his half burgage, William West 16d. for three burgages, the burgage called Kikylpenne 5d. and a piece of waste 16d. (fn. 143)
By 1619–21 the borough was perhaps already in decay, for in a rental of that year all the burgages, with one exception, were entered under the head of 'cottages.' (fn. 144)
Little is known of the organization of the town and no mention of bailiffs has been found. The jurors of 1619–21 carefully ignored the article (fn. 145) requiring them to set forth 'what are the Customes and Liberties, boundes and limittes' of the 'hamlote and the Burrow,' together with the inquiry as to 'whether are there severall courtes kept for them and who keepe them, att what tymes,' &c. The custom in 1622 was, however, 'that Pickering towns men be tried there by these Towen Jury.' (fn. 146) Although in the 14th century they did not have the tolls of the market or fair, yet the burgesses in 1276 took toll from all merchants between the Seven and the Skitterick and between the Derwent and the place called 'Lashou,' though complaint was made that they had right to no toll except within their bounds. (fn. 147)
It seems probable that in Pickering the last remnants of borough life disappeared in the 17th century. In 1863 the management of affairs was taken over by a Local Board of Health formed under the Local Government Act of 1858; under the Act of 1894 this was replaced by an urban district council.
Pickering returned one member, or perhaps two, to Parliament in 1295, (fn. 148) but has never since been represented.
King John let the market at farm with the mill (fn. 149) and demesne to the men of Pickering in 1201, (fn. 150) and it passed with the honour to the Earl of Lancaster. (fn. 151) The burgesses, who from time to time held the tolls at farm, were accused in 1276 of taking heavy toll from merchants outside their bounds. (fn. 152) The market was in 1619, (fn. 153) and still is, held on Monday. Piccage and stowage (the right of laying goods out), also called gatelaw, (fn. 154) were not well paid and the toll corn was 'gathered by certaine poore people of the towne,' who swept the market-place for the same and were 'yearlie assigned so to do by the turne jurie at every Court holden att Michelmas.' A jury said 'the toll for the moste parte is denyed, and the fermer often like to be slayne for challenginge his due.' (fn. 155) The tolls continued to descend with the honour of Pickering (fn. 156) until the market was purchased from the duchy of Lancaster by the Pickering Local Board in 1878. (fn. 157) Edward I in 1291 granted to Earl Edmund a fair at Pickering on the vigil, feast and morrow of the Exaltation of the Holy Cross. (fn. 158) A fair was held twice yearly in 1651, (fn. 159) and is now held there every alternate Monday, chiefly for cattle. Its tolls were purchased by the Pickering Local Board with those of the market. The only places in the honour liable to pay tolls at Pickering market and fair seem to have been Scalby, Burniston and Cloughton. (fn. 160) The keepers of the market are mentioned in 1322. (fn. 161)
The family of Hastings of Allerston (q.v.) held tenements in Pickering and its neighbourhood in the 13th century. (fn. 162) In January 1390–1 Robert de Pickering, chaplain, granted his messuage in Pickering to Sir Ralph de Hastings, (fn. 163) and in 1504 Edward Lord Hastings appropriated the manor of EAST HALLGARTH to St. George's Chapel, Windsor, in part satisfaction of a legacy bequeathed by his father. (fn. 164)
A family of Brus was settled in Pickering in the 14th century. John Marshall, ancestor of an old Pickering family, married Maud eldest daughter and co-heir of a William Brus. (fn. 165) He being seised among other lands of the 'manor of Eastgate alias Estgait Hall' and land called Bruisegate in Pickering made his will in 1446. (fn. 166) Robert, the son of John Marshall and his wife Maud, was followed by William Marshall, who in 1476 held a burgage formerly owned by William Brus, (fn. 167) and in 1559 Richard Marshall and Agnes his wife conveyed their 'manor' of Pickering to Richard Walker. (fn. 168) No further history of this holding has been found.
In 1440–1 John Lascelles was reeve of Pickering (fn. 169); he was succeeded by Robert Lascelles, tenant in 1476. (fn. 170) The family continued at Pickering, and in 1619–21 it was reported that 'Roger Lascells hath buylte a howse upon the hill called Potter hill, beinge part of the Prince's waste.' (fn. 171)
In the Domesday Survey there is no mention of GOATHLAND (Godeland, xii-xiii cent.; Golanda, xii cent.; Goteland, Gothland, Goathland, xiv cent. onwards; Goydland, 1585). It was held by Henry I (fn. 174) and afterwards by the lords of Pickering, (fn. 175) and is still a member of the duchy of Lancaster. (fn. 176)
Henry I, for the soul of Queen Maud and her heirs, granted a place in Goathland for a hospital (fn. 177) and a carucate of land to 'Osmund the priest and the brethren of Goathland,' who were to have peace of the foresters and all men. (fn. 178) The brethren subsequently, with the sanction of Henry I, surrendered their hermitage to Whitby Abbey. (fn. 179) It was dedicated to the honour of St. Mary. The Abbot of Whitby in 1206 gave King John 100s. and a palfrey for confirmation of this hermitage. (fn. 180) In 1335 the abbot had a close here at a place called Frerested, (fn. 181) and in 1585 Robert Bushell (fn. 182) died seised of a 'tenement called the Armitage alias the Abbot House.' (fn. 183)
In 1086 KINGTHORPE (Chinetorp, xi cent.; Kinthorpe, xii-xvii cent.; Kintorn, xii cent.; Kenthorn, 1515; 'Kingthorpe or Kinthrope or Kenthrope,' 1681) was soke of the 'manor' of Pickering (fn. 184) (q.v.). In John's reign 3 carucates were held by the serjeanty of keeping the forest of Pickering. (fn. 185) The lord of the manor was still a forester in fee in 1586. (fn. 186)
Alan the forester of 1165–6 (fn. 187) was probably ancestor of the Kingthorpes. Alan son of Geoffrey (fn. 188) with William Boie, also hereditary forester, (fn. 189) rendered account of the issues of Pickering Forest in 1189–90, (fn. 190) and Alan de Kingthorpe (probably Alan nephew of Alan son of Geoffrey Boie (fn. 191) ) held 3 carucates in Kingthorpe in the time of John (fn. 192) as forester in fee. He was dead in 1234 when the king took the homage of Geoffrey his son for the same lands. (fn. 193) Geoffrey was succeeded by a son Alan, who married Parnel daughter of John de Crakehall. (fn. 194) Alan's sons Geoffrey and William (fn. 195) seem to have died in their father's lifetime, Geoffrey leaving a daughter Parnel, aged eight and heir to her grandfather, in 1275 (fn. 196); she was holding Kingthorpe in 1316, (fn. 197) married Roger de Mansergh (who was forester in her place and died in about 1323, leaving a daughter and heir Alice, aged eleven (fn. 198) ), and was still alive in 1338. (fn. 199) Four years before, however, she had put Edmund Hastings, junior, of Roxby, in her place as forester. (fn. 200) Edmund probably married the heir Alice, for Kingthorpe now came into his hands. (fn. 201) Kingthorpe followed the descent of the Hastings' manor of Roxby (fn. 202) through the Cholmleys to the family of Danvers, (fn. 203) Kingthorpe perhaps passing to them by the conveyance of 1627 to Samuel Rabancke and Thomas Swinfield. (fn. 204)
Sir John Danvers of Chelsea, younger brother of the first Earl of Danby (constable of Pickering Castle in 1628), (fn. 205) was owner in 1651. (fn. 206) Sir John, stepfather of George Herbert the poet and Edward Lord Herbert of Cherbury, and a regicide, died in 1655. (fn. 207) His six daughters or their descendants succeeded to his estates. Anne married Sir Arthur Porter, Lucy Sir Henry Baynton, Eleanor Thomas Walmsley of Dunkenhalgh, Lancashire, Elizabeth Sir Edward Hoby of Hackness, Katharine Sir Richard Gargrave of Nostell Priory, and Dorothy Sir Peter Osborne. (fn. 208) Edward grandson of Sir Henry Baynton, Sir Thomas Dereham, bart., and Elizabeth his wife (eldest daughter and co-heir of Sir Richard Gargrave), (fn. 209) John Osborne and Eleanor his wife, Richard Walmsley and Thomas Colt in 1664 made a settlement of the manor of Kingthorpe among others. (fn. 210) John Dutton Colt and Mary his wife and James Clarke conveyed it in 1681 to Richard Fothergill and his heirs. (fn. 211) John Fothergill and Thomas Fothergill were parties to a settlement in 1810, (fn. 212) a Captain Fothergill was owner in 1836 (fn. 213) and Thomas Fothergill in 1872 and 1873. (fn. 214) Miss Harcourt had succeeded by 1879; she married Dr. James Thornhill Ashton and is the present lady of the manor.
In 1323 the capital messuage was described as having been destroyed by the Scots, but a dilapidated dovecote and a water-mill were still standing (fn. 215); there is no longer a mill. As foresters in fee, the lords of Kingthorpe nominated two under-foresters, and Henry Cholmley claimed in 1586 that foresters and underforesters had always had one hen yearly from every 'fyerhouse' in Lockton and Newton in the forest, but said that for four years past the inhabitants of Lockton had refused the customary hens. The defendants replied that these hens had never been gathered since the Carta de Forestis, but as the foresters used to allow the owners of 'fyer-houses' in Lockton cartloads of wood for fuel at Christmas time, the inhabitants returned this courtesy by holding a feast to which nearly every householder brought a hen. Now the wood was no longer given, but the foresters wished to gather the hens as a custom. (fn. 216)
Thomas Fughel, son of Thorebrand, granted a capital messuage at Kingthorpe and 2 oxgangs held of Alan de Kingthorpe to Malton Priory in the early 13th century. (fn. 217)
Henry I granted Archbishop Gerard of York soc and sac and all customs and freedom from all customs in his lands in Pickering. (fn. 218) The Dean of York held a carucate of land in Pickering as a RECTORY MANOR, not mentioned as such after 1379. (fn. 219) It was ancient demesne of the Crown. To it belonged housebote and haybote and nuts as estovers, and the deans were quit of payment for herbage and pannage, lawing of dogs and puture in Pickering Forest. (fn. 220) They held a three weeks court for their tenants and had amendment of the assize of bread and ale. (fn. 221)
MARISHES is composed of the low-lying land north of the Derwent known in 1086 as Odulfesmare, Chiluesmares, Aschilesmares, Maxudesmares and Chigogemers. (fn. 222) Some of these places formed part of what was known in the 12th century as 'the Waste by Pickering.' Henry II gave the Waste with common of fishery in the Derwent, Costa and Rye and all the demesne waters of the forest to Rievaulx Abbey in exchange for Stainton (fn. 223); Richard I and John confirmed the grant. (fn. 224) During the reign of Henry II Stephen Mangevilein, (fn. 225) Roger de Clere, (fn. 226) William de Mandevill Earl of Essex (fn. 227) and William de Forz Earl of Albemarle (fn. 228) quitclaimed to the abbey their right in the Waste. (fn. 229) Henry II also gave Rievaulx 2 carucates of land called Kilverdmersh (fn. 230) (Chiluesmares). Robert de Roos, possibly before this, quitclaimed his right in Theockemarais and Loftmarais to the abbey. (fn. 231)
By 1334 the Waste, with half a carucate of land formerly belonging to Eustace son of John, (fn. 232) had been formed into the manors of Kekmarish, Loftmarish, Lund and Newstead, (fn. 233) the first two part of the present Marishes, the third in Kirkby Misperton, the last in Thornton Dale parish (q.v.).
The abbot's grange at KEKMARISH (? Theokemarais, Kekmarreys, Kekmaresse, Keckmarris) was mentioned in 1206, (fn. 234) and contained in 1275–6 300 acres of arable land and 300 acres of pasture. (fn. 235) It belonged to Rievaulx at the Dissolution, (fn. 236) was sold to Sir Roger Cholmley of Roxby in 1544, (fn. 237) and in 1611 was held at farm by John Cholmley. (fn. 238)
At the Dissolution LOFTMARISH (Loftmarais, Loftmarreys, Loftmaresse) belonged to the abbey, (fn. 239) and the grange, with Deerholme (Dereham) Grange, (fn. 240) was granted in February 1542–3 to the Archbishop of York and his successors. (fn. 241) The last mention found of Loftmarish is in 1649. (fn. 242)
The old manor of LUND was in Kirkby Misperton parish, (fn. 243) where part of Ryton township is still called Lund Forest, but it seems to have been the original of the present manor of Marishes. As 'the manor in the Marish called Lund,' formerly belonging to Rievaulx Abbey, it was granted in fee in 1544 to Sir Roger Cholmley with Kekmarish, 'Yowe Cott' and 'Newhouse' in Pickering parish. (fn. 244) Henry and Richard Cholmley conveyed it to Sir William Belasyse and Henry his son in 1600, (fn. 245) and it was still in the hands of this family in 1717 when the estates of Thomas Viscount Fauconberg, a Papist, were registered. (fn. 246) The present owners are the trustees of the late Mr. James Lund of Malsis Hall, Crosshills, Leeds.
There seems to be no further history for the Aschilesmares and Maxudesmares of 1086, but Odulfesmare may, perhaps, be the later Edusmarsh ('the meadow of Eduiemersc,' xii cent.; 'Edusmarsh or Howe Ing or Castle Ings,' xvii cent.), a demesne meadow lying at the junction of the Rivers Rye and Derwent. (fn. 247)
The Abbots of Rievaulx had the duty of keeping in repair 'Frerebrigg' on the Costa, by which travellers from Pickering to Malton crossed that stream. (fn. 248) This bridge was perhaps Howe (Hau, xii cent.) Bridge at the junction of the Costa and Derwent, all the old tracks converging to this point. (fn. 249) It is now a county bridge. The monks were exempt from lawing of dogs and all assizes of the forest except those relating to game, regards and hare-hunting, (fn. 250) and from all tenmentale, danegeld, aids, customs, pleas and terrene service. (fn. 251) The canons of Malton had also certain rights in this district. (fn. 252)
Other granges in Marishes are Bedford, Bellifax and Lower Bellifax, all to the west of the Pickering and Malton road. Bellifax Grange (said to be in Kirkby Misperton parish) was included in the grant of the possessions of Rievaulx Abbey to Sir Roger Cholmley in 1544. (fn. 253)
In 1086 NEWTON (Newton upon Roucliff, xivxvi cent., now Newton-on-Rawcliff) was a berewick of Pickering (q.v.). With Preston (Prestetune, 1086), (fn. 254) which has now disappeared, it formed one vill in 1284–5 (fn. 255); it belonged to the Earl of Lancaster in 1316, (fn. 256) and is now held by the Crown in right of the duchy of Lancaster.
In the 13th century Adam de Pickering held land here; his son John died childless and was succeeded by his brother Thomas de Pickering. (fn. 257) John granted a tenement to Sir William de la Launde and Eustacia his wife for a term and this Thomas afterwards released to them in fee. (fn. 258) William son of William de la Launde sold the holding to the Prior of Malton. (fn. 259)
The church of ST. PETER AND ST. PAUL is a large cruciform building consisting of a chancel 47 ft. by 24 ft. 3 in. with an organ chamber on the north and a chapel on the south 18 ft. by 13 ft. 9 in., north transept 26 ft. by 18 ft. 6 in., south transept 26 ft. by 17 ft. 6 in., nave 75 ft. by 22 ft. 6 in. with north aisle 56 ft. by 9 ft. 6 in. and south aisle 58 ft. 6 in. by 7 ft. 9 in., south porch and western tower 13 ft. 6 in. from north to south by 14 ft. 6 in. from east to west. The total length is 143 ft. 6 in., all the measurements being internal.
A church stood here in Saxon times, but only a fragment of a cross-shaft remains of this period. The earliest existing portion of the building is the north arcade and aisle of the nave, which date from the middle of the 12th century. It is probable that this first Norman church had transepts and a central tower, as there is ample evidence of the former existence of a western arch to the crossing. It can, however, have stood only for a short period and probably disappeared during the extensive alterations undertaken about 1190, when the south arcade and transept arch were built and the south aisle added. After this the massive west tower was erected, and then the south transept about 1220. During the 14th century the chancel was widened and entirely rebuilt, with the two transept arches and the north transept, various alterations were made in the north aisle and the western part of the south aisle was rebuilt. At the same time the south porch was added and the upper part of the tower reconstructed to receive the stone spire. In the 15th century the south chapel was built on to the chancel and a north chapel was probably built during the same period, but this has entirely disappeared. The two western bays on the south of the nave were reconstructed at the same time. Late in the same century the nave clearstory was built and the embattled parapets added externally. This was the last pre-Reformation alteration. The church was extensively restored in the years 1876–9 and the organ chamber is a modern addition.
The 14th-century chancel has a large five-light traceried east window of that date with a segmental pointed head and trefoiled lights. In each side wall are two three-light windows with pointed heads and uncusped tracery, probably not original. Between the two on the north is a modern arch to the organ chamber standing on the site of the destroyed Brus chapel mentioned by Leland as 'a chapel . . . of the north side of the body of the Quier.' In the north wall is a plain aumbry. The triple sedilia in the south wall date also from the 14th century and have crocketed gables over springing from sculptured heads, including those of a bishop and a priest. The two dividing piers have attached shafts with carved capitals bearing grotesques. The piscina further east is similar in style with a small gable and side pinnacles, all crocketed. The centre window on the south side now opens into the upper part of the south chapel, the large door of which is below and cuts into the lower part of the window. Further west is a priest's door of the 14th century. The lofty chancel arch is of the same date and consists of two pointed chamfered orders springing on each side from massive corbels, which were apparently brought far out to support the rood-beam. The south chapel is a 15th-century building and was formerly divided into two floors. The lower is lighted by three-light windows in the east and south walls with square traceried heads and has a doorway in the west wall with a blocked 'low-side' window adjoining it. Into the upper floor the middle chancel window opened, and the room was also lighted by a small two-light window in the south wall. It is finished externally with an embattled parapet and has a gabled roof running north and south.
The north transept has been entirely refaced both inside and out and the windows are modern restorations in the style of the 14th century. In the east wall is one window of three lights and another of two, and in the north wall is a three-light window of 'Decorated' character. It is probable that the transept was rebuilt in the 14th century. The arch opening into it from the nave is pointed and of two chamfered orders, probably of this period, but the responds are of mid-12th-century date; they are semicircular and have capitals ornamented with grotesque heads at the angles and rude conventional foliage with square abaci. The south transept is also refaced inside and out. It has a range of three lancet windows in the east wall with the blocked opening of a fourth cut into by the arch respond. It is difficult to account for this blocked opening, as the respond is rather earlier in date; it may, however, be merely an error in setting out. Another restored lancet pierces the south end of the west wall, and in the south wall are three trefoiled grouped lancets, all entirely modern, with a small original pointed piscina below them. This transept is faced externally with modern ashlar and has a low gable. The arch between it and the nave is similar to that on the north and is a 14th-century rebuilding. The responds are of the late 12th century and have each three attached shafts, the central one larger and brought to a point on plan and the side ones circular. They have moulded bases and the capitals were recut when the arch was altered, the abacus being changed from square to octagonal. While there is no evidence that a central tower was ever erected, it is obvious that a western arch once completed the crossing. The responds on either side have been cut back, leaving a plain but somewhat uneven face, and on the north side the wall east of the former respond is thicker than that of the nave arcade to the west of it. It is possible that the arch was removed when the scheme of painting the nave walls was undertaken.
The nave has an arcade of four bays on each side to the west of the transept arches. The northern dates from about 1140 and has plain semicircular arches of a single order springing from cylindrical piers and half-round responds. The capitals are scalloped, with square abaci, but the bases are modern restorations. The south arcade is of rather later date, about 1190, and here also the arches are semicircular and of two chamfered orders. The piers are square with a half-round shaft on each face, with capitals having voluted angles and square abaci. The two western arches on this side, though retaining the round form, were reconstructed in the 15th century and the last pier and west respond are octagonal, with moulded capitals of the same date. The clearstory was added late in the 15th century and is pierced by a two-light square-headed window to each bay. The main roof over is of the flat, tie-beam type, and was renewed or repaired in 1833–52. The west wall with the tower arch is modern restoration. The walling of the north aisle is apparently original 12thcentury work, but the openings in it are all of later date. In the first bay is a three-light 14th-century window with a pointed head and net tracery. Further west in the third bay is a north door, largely modern, and beyond it another three-light 14thcentury window. At the west end is a restored single-light window. The roof of this aisle dates from the 15th century, but the work is plain. The eastern portion of the south aisle is of early 13thcentury date, but in the first bay a large late 13thcentury three-light window has been inserted. The pointed south door is of the 14th century and has a pointed segmental rear arch; within it is a mutilated stoup with a round basin. The whole of the western half of the aisle was rebuilt at this time, and in the fourth bay is a pointed three-light 14th-century window. One of the early 13th-century buttresses with a gabled head remains to the east of the porch, but is much restored. The aisle has a modern roof and is finished externally, like the main nave walls, with an embattled parapet. This feature, however, is lacking to the north aisle. The south porch is a late 14th-century building with a moulded two-centred outer arch, diagonal buttresses of several offsets and an embattled parapet.
The western tower is three stages high, of which the lower two date from the end of the 12th or the beginning of the 13th century. The south-west angle is supported by a clasping buttress, and in the northwest angle is the circular vice. Subsidiary flat buttresses are carried up the centre of each face. The west window on the ground stage is a threelight opening of 14th-century date. The bell-chamber stage was largely rebuilt in the same century and has a pointed two-light window in each side. The embattled parapet is enriched, below the crenels, with a band of flowing tracery and a series of shields bearing the Passion emblems and three leopards passant for Lancaster.
The font is a composite construction of various dates, the circular bowl may be early, and below it is a moulded circular necking. There is an entry in the registers that the font was broken up in 1644. (fn. 260) The pulpit is a circular wooden one dating from the middle of the 18th century.
The church contains a number of fine effigies of the Brus and Rawcliffe families. On the north side, below the chancel arch, is a recumbent cross-legged figure in mixed mail and plate of circa 1340–50, probably representing Sir William Brus, who founded a chantry here in about 1334. At the head are two angels and at the feet a dog. He carries a shield of the arms ascribed to Brus in the Boroughbridge Roll, a saltire engrailed and a chief indented. The roundel on the right elbow is ornamented with a leopard's face. Just within the north transept is the bust and head of a mutilated alabaster effigy. The figure is in armour and dates from the middle of the 14th century, but the arms are gone. In the south chapel are two handsome alabaster effigies, probably of David de Rawcliffe and Margery his wife. The male figure is in armour of about the year 1400 with a wreathed bascinet, a collar of SS and a surcoat with the arms of Rawcliffe: On a cheveron between three lions' heads a chess rook. The feet rest on a lion, from whose mouth issues a scroll, and the head is supported by two reclining angels. The female figure has also two angels at the head and two dogs at the feet; she wears a cote hardie and a long cloak corded across the breast. She likewise wears the SS collar. This monument is probably that referred to by Leland as a Brus: 'I saw 2 or 3 Tumbes of the Bruses, wherof one with his wife lay in a Chapel on the south side of the Quirr and he had a Garland about his helmet.' At the west end of the south aisle is a fragment of the shaft of a Saxon cross with carved knotwork and a dragon on the reverse side.
The interesting series of mural paintings which cover the nave walls is the most remarkable feature of the church. They were first accidentally discovered in 1851, when the whole series was uncovered, only to be again concealed almost immediately afterwards by whitewash. During the restoration of 1878 portions of the paintings again came to light and the series was again recovered in a much damaged state. Since then the paintings have been restored, but are still of considerable interest, as the modern work has been accomplished with both taste and skill. The whole of the series, with the exception of one small figure on the north side, appears to date from the middle of the 15th century, the paintings occupying all the north and south nave walls above the arcades and between the clearstory windows. Taking the subjects from the west end, the first on the north side is an armed figure of St. George on horseback, slaying the dragon. The figure is more than life size and extends up between the clearstory windows. Above the second pier from the west is a very fine figure of St. Christopher crossing the stream. He leans heavily upon his sprouting staff and around his right leg twines a serpent. To the left of the picture a hermit, holding a lantern, awaits the saint. This figure also is of colossal proportions. In the next spandrel to the east is a representation of Herod's feast, with a long table at the back. On the right Salome dances and the Baptist warns, on the left the saint is executed, and in the centre Salome bears his head on a charger. The costumes here are perhaps of the late 14th or early 15th century. Above this subject is a Coronation of the Virgin, with a choir of angels behind a rampart at the back. In the next spandrel is the martyrdom of St. Edmund the King. His naked figure, bound to a tree and pierced with arrows, occupies the centre, and at each side are two archers. A scroll on the right is inscribed, 'Heven blys to hys mede, Hem sall have for his gud ded.' Above this, and separated from it by a diapered border, is the martyrdom of St. Thomas of Canterbury. Beneath a four-arched feathered canopy are the four armed figures of the knights. St. Thomas kneels at the altar at one end and behind him stands the attendant priest holding his cross. The armour is of the type used in the time of Edward IV. The paintings on the south side are generally on a smaller scale. To the west of the south transept arch is a series representing the history of St. Catherine of Alexandria, the subjects of which are: (i) St. Catherine rebuking Maxentius for idol worship, (ii) St. Catherine taken to prison, (iii) The saint arguing with the king's wise men, (iv) Massacre of the wise men converted by the saint, (v) St. Catherine in prison, (vi) St. Catherine scourged, (vii) Again thrown into prison, (viii) Visited by the Empress Faustina, (ix) St. Catherine on the wheel, (x) St. Catherine taken to execution, (xi) Awaiting her execution. The seven corporal acts of mercy are next represented in a broad band running above the south nave arches. Between the clearstory windows, above this band, is a much damaged painting supposed to represent the Assumption. In the next clearstory space is the burial of the Blessed Virgin, with a row of apostles in front and the Jewish prince 'Belzeray' sitting astride the coffin. (fn. 261) Below this and in a line with the seven acts of mercy is a series of Passion scenes: Christ healing the ear of Malchus, Christ before Pilate, the Scourging, Christ bearing the Cross, the Crucifixion, the Descent from the Cross, and the Entombment. In the left spandrel of the arcade below is the Descent into Hell, represented by a dragon's mouth, and on the right-hand spandrel is the Resurrection. Between the clearstory windows above is a group of apostles, but the subject of the painting is uncertain. Possibly it is the death of the B.V. Mary. At this point the paintings stop somewhat abruptly.
The church of ST. MARY, Goathland, is a good modern building consisting of aisleless chancel and nave, central tower and south porch, the style being free 'Perpendicular.' The building dates from 1895, when it replaced a poor structure erected in 1820 on the destruction of the mediaeval building. The old pulpit and font are preserved in the present church, the former, of the 17th century, being octagonal, and having the upper part of each face carved with conventional foliage. The stone font has a circular bowl and stem and a square base. It dates, perhaps, from the 14th or 15th century and was found in a farm-yard.
The plate includes a fine mediaeval chalice of about 1450 with a shallow circular bowl and hexagonal base. This with a paten of the same date was alienated from the church in the 19th century, the chalice being fortunately recovered, while the paten now belongs to Kirk Hammerton. There are also a modern set of plate and an old pewter flagon.
The registers previous to 1812 are as follows: (i) mixed entries 1669 to 1736 (no marriages were celebrated here after 1731); (ii) 1733 to 1809. The years 1809 to 1812 are missing, but transcripts are preserved in the Diocesan Registry, York. The remaining registers are preserved with those of Pickering.
The church of ST. JOHN, Newton, is a small building in the Early English style consisting of a nave and chancel without division, a north vestry and a south porch. It is six bays long in all and has three lancets in the east end and two at the west, with a bellcote containing one bell. The high-pitched roof is open to the ridge. It was built in 1870 to replace a wooden building of 1689.
At Marishes is a small red brick church built in 1861 in 13th-century style with a west porch and a timber flèche over the chancel. It is a chapel of ease to the church of St. Peter and St. Paul, Pickering.
The church of St. Peter and St. Paul, with all its chapels, was given by Henry I (1103–8) to Gerard Archbishop of York (1101–9). (fn. 262) Pickering with other churches was annexed as a peculiar to the deanery of York, and in 1334 the dean and chapter stated that they had acquired this possession by exchange with Archbishop Gerard. (fn. 263) The Deans of York continued to present to the living until 1858, when the advowson was transferred to the Archbishop of York. (fn. 264) A vicarage was ordained in 1252. (fn. 265)
During the 17th century it was the custom of the deans to lease the rectory for three lives. (fn. 266) The rectory included Pickering, Goathland, Kingthorpe, Newton, Allerston (q.v.), Ebberston (q.v.), Ellerburn (q.v.) and Wilton townships and continued in the possession of the Deans of York until 1844, when it was vested in the Ecclesiastical Commissioners. (fn. 267)
In 1334 William Brus of Pickering had licence to grant tenements in Pickering, Middleton and Kingthorpe to a chaplain to perform divine service daily in the parish church of Pickering for the souls of the said William and his ancestors and for the souls of his departed kinsmen (fn. 268) Master William de Pickering and Master Robert de Pickering, (fn. 269) in succession Deans of York. (fn. 270) This was the chantry of St. John, dissolved in the time of Edward VI. (fn. 271)
The service of our Lady in Pickering Church was endowed by the parishioners to find priests 'to pray for the prosperytye of the parochians lyvynge, and the sowles departed, and to syng devine service in the sayd churche.' (fn. 272) John de Pickering, rector of St. Mary's Church, York, who died in 1394–5, made various bequests to the high altar and left a green cloth to the altar of St. Mary here. (fn. 273) The master of the gild of the Blessed Mary in the church held three-fourths of a burgage in 1476 (fn. 274); in the middle of the following century the revenues of the 'Lady Guild' supported the grammar school. (fn. 275)
A chantry of the chapel of St. Nicholas in Pickering Castle was of the foundation of the Duke of Lancaster to say mass in the castle and to pray for his soul and all Christian souls. (fn. 276) Edward IV established a chantry mentioned in 1485, in honour of our Lady, in the Castle chapel. (fn. 277)
William Lascelles married Janet sister of Sir David Rawcliffe (fn. 278) in the early 14th century, and in 1418 Joan mother of William Lascelles bequeathed 13s. 4d. to the vicar of Pickering to pray for her. (fn. 279)
In the late 12th or early 13th century there was a chapel at Goathland (fn. 280) apparently dependent on the hospital of St. Mary there. The inhabitants obtained licence to bury their dead there in 1635. (fn. 281) The living was a perpetual curacy, now a vicarage, in the gift of the Archbishop of York. William Hewson, theological writer, was incumbent in 1848. He had permission to live at Whitby, as there was no house for him in Goathland. (fn. 282)
There was a chapel at Kingthorpe in the 15th century when Sir Edmund Hastings sued the vicar of Pickering for refusal to find a priest to say mass there. (fn. 283) The perpetual curacy of Newton does not seem to be mentioned until 1735. (fn. 284) It is in the gift of the archbishop.
Charities founded by Viscountess Lumley, by deed poll, 8 October 1657, consist of (a) the Grammar Schools at Thornton Dale and Pickering now amalgamated and carried on in buildings erected at Pickering in 1905–6 at a cost of about £5,000. (b) For non-educational purposes. The endowment comprises 190 acres at Thirsk, 216 acres at Thornton Dale and 5 acres, or thereabouts, at Wrelton; also the school buildings and a field in Pickering in hand, old school buildings, a house and garden and about 14 acres in Pickering. The income from real estate in 1911–12 amounted to £642.
By a scheme, 14 July 1899, the trust estate is subject to annual payments of £160 for the almshouses in Thornton Dale, of £75 for almshouses at St. Botolph's, Aldgate, London, of £20 for apprenticing, and of £15 for the York Prison charities. A fixed payment of £25 a year is also made to the elementary school at Sinnington, and £48 a year is payable to an investment account with the official trustees. By a further scheme made by the Board of Education, 15 October 1909, the foundation is constituted a public secondary school for boys and girls, with a preference to those born in or resident in the parishes of Sinnington, Thornton Dale and Pickering.
The Free school was erected in 1828, and is endowed with land in the parish, acquired in 1770, containing about 30 acres, producing £40 a year. In 1765 Thomas Mitchelson, sen., by will dated 3 October, gave to the trustees of the school £50, and in 1792 Thomas Mitchelson, jun., gave £70, the interest thereof to be applied to the purchase of English school books. The legacies with an additional sum of £15 16s. 3d. were laid out in 1799 in the purchase of £150 Navy 5 per cent. annuities, now represented by £157 10s. consols, the income of which is applied to the purchase of books for the Free school and for the National school erected in 1857.
In 1886 John Skelton, by will proved at Oxford 30 November, bequeathed £1,000, represented by £1,121 17s. 5d. 2½ per cent. annuities with the official trustees, the income to be distributed at Christmas for the benefit of the poor resident in Pickering. The income, amounting to £28 1s. 8d., is applied in the distribution of coals, groceries and meat by means of tickets on tradesmen.
The Independent chapel is endowed with 4 a. 2 r. and cottage and yard, producing £20 10s. a year, and with £1,500, representing legacies of £500 each by the wills of George King, 1846, Robert Kitchin and Mathias Sidgworth, 1868, producing at £3 per cent. £45 a year.
In 1896 Robert Fletcher, by will proved at York 16 July, directed one-third of his estate to be invested and one-half of income thereof to be given in January and July to the poor of the Independent chapel and the other half to the Church Missionary Society. The charity was made subject to the life interest of the testator's widow, and has not apparently come into operation.
Chapelry of Newton (-onRawcliff).—The school was founded by will of Richard Poad, date not stated, and is endowed with 25 acres of land, producing about £34 a year. The school is regulated by a scheme established by an order of 10 December 1857 of the county court of Yorkshire, holden at New Malton. In 1894 new school buildings were erected. The official trustees hold a sum of £147 14s. 9d. consols, which under an order of 8 May 1900 is being accumulated for the replacement of £400 borrowed on mortgage towards the cost of the buildings.