A History of the County of York North Riding: Volume 2. Originally published by Victoria County History, London, 1923.
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This parish was composed in 1831 of the townships of Burniston, Cloughton, Newby, Scalby, Staintondale and Throxenby. (fn. 1) Cloughton, Burniston and Staintondale were formed into the district chapelry of Cloughton in 1874 (fn. 2); the township of Newby was amalgamated with Throxenby by an Order of the Local Government Board of 1886 and Throxenby with Newby was formed into a civil parish under the Local Government Act of 1894.
The area of the old parish is 11,759 acres of land, 380 acres of foreshore, and 18 acres covered by inland water; of this, 3,977 acres are arable land, 4,745 acres permanent grass and 916 acres woodland. (fn. 3) In 1771 4,000 acres in Scalby and Throxenby or Newby were inclosed (fn. 4); these included 2,000 acres of arable in the common fields. The subsoil is Kimmeridge Clay, the soil clay, loam and sand. The lord of Pickering had 13s. 4d. from the sale of ironstone on the foreshore at Fullwood in 1322 and 3s. 4d. from stone for millstones and tombs there and on Cloughton Moor, (fn. 5) and in 1661 £4 farm of the brushwood and quarries of Fullwood and 'Gatelie' (fn. 6) (in Cloughton). Cloughton hardstone and freestone quarries are still extensively worked. A kiln in the Waste there was appurtenant to the manor of Scalby in 1313–14, as were two forges in Newby and a lime kiln on the Waste in Burniston in 1322. (fn. 7) Alum is now worked at Staintondale, and the name of 'Salt Pans' is given to a locality on the coast. The chief crops are wheat, barley, oats, potatoes and turnips. There are earthworks on the moors of Cloughton and Staintondale, (fn. 8) and Roman remains have been found in the parish.
Scalby is a pretty village on the New Cut from the River Derwent to the sea and a road that slopes gradually up from the sea to the wooded heights of Hackness. The river is here crossed by a stone bridge and the church crowns a steep bluff.
Scalby possessed a hall in the 12th century (fn. 9) and a mill worth £6 in 1164 belonging to the Crown. (fn. 10) In February 1609–10 the Crown alienated the two water-mills of Scalby, the water-mill at Longdale End on Scalby Beck and a fishery to Edmund Ferrers and Francis Phelips. (fn. 11) The romantic scenery round Scalby Mill (fn. 12) has been described by a visitor to the neighbourhood in 1798. (fn. 13) A bake-house on the Waste of Burniston belonged to the manor of Scalby in 1313–14 and 1322. (fn. 14) The green is mentioned 1675–6. (fn. 15) The Kirk House, Gild House and Horble House (fn. 16) in Scalby occur in 1652. The Gild House had been destroyed by fire shortly before 1619–21. (fn. 17) Most of the village or town is quite modern and it has increased largely in size in recent years. (fn. 18)
Staintondale and Cloughton lie about 800 ft. above the ordnance datum on moorland cliffs overlooking Robin Hood's Bay and the North Sea. On Stoupe Brow or Peak Beacon, 870 ft. above the ordnance datum, was probably the 'Cloughton Beacon' with the maintenance of which Scalby lordship was said in the early 17th century to be charged. (fn. 19)
A cross once stood on elevated ground a little north of Cloughton Church, but this was removed early in the 19th century. (fn. 20) To the south of the church is Cloughton Hall, an old building now almost entirely modernized. In the grounds stands a circular stone dovecote. The other houses in the village are more modern, the earliest being dated 1733.
The hamlet of Burniston is built along the Whitby and Scarborough road. It consists mainly of modern cottages; one, however, on the east side of the village street is dated 1680. There is now no trace of the chapel formerly existing here, but it was said in 1829 to have stood 'in the garth below the garden belonging to the Ship Inn.' (fn. 21)
The mill at Burniston was granted in the 12th century with 2 carucates of land by Uctred son of Thorkil de Cleveland to Whitby Abbey. (fn. 22)
Bordering the sea in the north of Staintondale is the district known as the Peak, taking its name from the high land which here forms the southern horn of Robin Hood's Bay. On the edge of the cliffs and surrounded by earthworks is Peak House, now known as Ravenscar Hall Hotel. John Beswick died seised of Peak House in 1593, (fn. 23) and it continued in his family for many years. Part of the present house was built by Captain Child in 1774. Further inland is Bell Hill Farm, said to be the site of the manorhouse of the Hospitallers. (fn. 24) The White Hall is the successor of a 16th and 17th-century capital messuage of that name. (fn. 25)
Scarborough Barracks are at Throxenby and account for nearly half its population. Hatterboard (Haterberg, Haverbergh, Atterbarghe), mentioned in 1167–8, is now only commemorated by Hatterboard Hill, south-west of Throxenby; it was a township in 1349 (fn. 26) and a hamlet belonging to the queen in 1577. (fn. 27) The duchy of Lancaster had a tower called Hatterburghe, but this was in decay in the time of Richard Duke of Gloucester, who annexed 16 or 17 oxgangs 'lying to it' (fn. 28) to Northstead House, which Richard 'inclosed . . . with quicke setts,' as it remained in 1634. (fn. 29) In 1563–4, when the manor of Northstead was said to be sometimes called Hatterboard, local people could point to the spot where they had 'heard say Hatterboard was.' (fn. 30) Sir Ralph Eure, the lessee in 1537, was said to be suffering the manor and house to decay. (fn. 31) At the beginning of Elizabeth's reign 'the Northstead' had a 'parliour,' an old chamber reached by wooden stairs, and 'a lowe house under it' unfit for habitation; Sir Richard Cholmley's shepherd dwelt in it until it fell down. Adjoining were an old decayed barn and the walls of other houses, which shortly afterwards fell, and an old chapel. Sir Richard Cholmley, lessee of Edward VI, used the timber of these decayed buildings to build 'an hall house, adjoining it to the said parliour.' (fn. 32) In a survey of 1650, (fn. 33) which gives the boundaries of the manor, there was said to be no house on the premises. The site of the ancient manor-house is at Peasholm, where extensive foundations of an ancient building were discovered in 1911. They lie on the west side of the road immediately below a small conical hill, with which they seem to have had some connexion. A boundary wall some 3 ft. thick appears to have skirted the site, but the remains of the actual building are very fragmentary. The most complete walls surround a square apartment 13 ft. by 19 ft. and are 3 ft. 3 in. thick with a chamfered plinth to the east and west walls. A short distance to the west was another building with remains of a vat or oven and possibly a garderobe. It is not possible from the existing remains to determine the use of the buildings, but they are evidently entirely domestic and may date from the 12th or 13th century.
'Tornelay' ('Torneslag'), perhaps Thirley Cotes, land of the king, and 'Stemanesbi' ('Stemainesby'), perhaps Newby, held by Niel Fossard of the Count of Mortain, were accounted for with the other 'manors' in this parish in 1086. (fn. 34) The Whitby and Scarborough branch of the North Eastern railway has stations at Ravenscar, at Hayburn Wyke, where there are waterfalls, Cloughton and Scalby. There are Wesleyan chapels at Scalby, Burniston and Cloughton, Primitive Methodist chapels at Scalby (1895) and Cloughton, and a Baptist chapel at Burniston. The public elementary school at Scalby was erected in 1861, (fn. 35) Cloughton in 1893, Peak in 1888, Staintondale in 1832; there is also a public elementary school at Burniston.
Scalby in the 12th and 13th centuries was a royal forest and nearly all woodland. In 1086 the wood of Falsgrave, of which Scalby formed a part, was 3 'leagues' long by 2 wide. (fn. 36) By 1154–62, however, Falsgrave (fn. 37) had lost its importance, and Scalby Forest, no doubt composed of the forest lands between the River Derwent and the sea, had come into existence. (fn. 38) The Bolebecs (fn. 39) held the bailiwick of the hay and forest of Scalby by hereditary right (fn. 40) until Osbert de Bolebec surrendered it at some time between 1252 and 1256 to the king, by whom it was granted in 1256 to Hugh le Bigod. (fn. 41) The manor, like that of Pickering, was granted to Edmund the king's son, (fn. 42) and the Earl Marshal subsequently paid 63s. 4d. rent to the lord of Pickering for his bailiwick. (fn. 43) Earl Edmund temporarily seized this bailiwick on account of forest offences committed by Roger le Bigod and his servants, (fn. 44) and it was still in his possession in 1297. (fn. 45) In 1322 and afterwards the forest is called the East Ward of Pickering Forest, (fn. 46) but in 1651 it was declared that the manor of Scalby never had been in that forest, of which the River Derwent was the eastern boundary. (fn. 47) The manor-house of Throxenby, of which Christopher Keld of Newby died seised in January 1644–5, was called Forester's Lodge. (fn. 48)
It was a custom of Pickering in 1622 that the tenants of the lordship of Scalby, i.e., in Burniston, Cloughton, Newby and Throxenby, should pay half a peck of oats yearly to the woodward of Erith (Erigh, Earth) and Fullwood (Furwood, Fewelwood) for every oxgang of land held of Scalby. (fn. 49)
The early history of the mesne borough here is obscure. The men of the vill appear to have held it at farm as early as the 12th century, for in 1201 the farm was raised from £15 16s. to £24 (fn. 50); in 1276 it was said that 'Scalby with its soke is in the hands of the men of that soke at farm for £35,' the grant being ascribed to Henry III. (fn. 51) This amount was still paid in 1439–40 as farm of 'the demesne manor of Scalby with the soke there.' (fn. 52) Scalby made separate presentments before the justices in eyre. (fn. 53) It was in 1359 governed by two bailiffs and keepers of the demesne manor, who were elected at St. Luke's tide and took oath in the lord's court. (fn. 54) The bailiffs are mentioned in 1634. (fn. 55) The freeholders claimed the right of changing the officers of their three weeks court. (fn. 56) In 1622 it was said that men of Scalby lordship were tried there by a Scalby jury, but no other customs have been preserved nor has any mention of burgage tenure been found. (fn. 57)
Tenants of Scalby, Burniston and Cloughton held at farm for £4 yearly piccage, stowage and gatelaw Erith and Fullwood, (fn. 58) but some twenty-seven years before 1619 a man demanding the gatelaw of a passenger was slain, 'synce which tyme the gatelaw hath not bene gathered,' said the jury in 1619. (fn. 59) This toll in 1598 was said to be in the hands of the lord. (fn. 60)
In 1086 SCALBY, Burniston, Cloughton and Stainton were soke of the king's manor of Falsgrave, (fn. 61) and continued to be demesne of the Crown until 1267, (fn. 62) when Henry III granted the manor to his son Edmund, (fn. 63) who in the same year received the honour of Pickering (q.v.). For some time Scalby was not accounted a member of that honour, (fn. 64) but had become so by 1316. (fn. 65) It has ever since descended with Pickering (fn. 66) (q.v.) and is now held, as are the manors of Burniston, Cloughton, Northstead and Throxenby in this parish, by the Crown in right of the duchy of Lancaster.
BURNISTON (Brinitun, xi cent.; Brinistun, Briningeston, xi–xv cent.) belonged to the fee of Roger le Bigod in 1284–5, (fn. 67) and was, no doubt, part of his bailiwick of Scalby seized by the king and granted to the lord of Pickering. The manor subsequently descended with Scalby as its soke.
William de Percy gave to Whitby Abbey 2 carucates of land here, and the Conqueror, his sons, Pope Eugenius III and Henry II confirmed the grant. (fn. 68) At the time of its dissolution the abbey received 74s. 9d. rent from Burniston. (fn. 69) In an early list of customs the men of Burniston were said to give the abbot tol and tac, merchet and one-thirteenth of the grain they ground. (fn. 70)
A certain amount of land here once belonged to the fees of the Earl of Albemarle. (fn. 71)
CLOUGHTON (Cloctone, Cloctune, xi-xiii cent.; Cloghton, xiii-xiv cent.; Cloffton, xvi cent.; Clawghton, Clowghton, xvii cent.). Besides 4 carucates, soke of Falsgrave, there were here in 1086 2 oxgangs in the fee of the Count of Mortain, previously held by Gunneuare as a 'manor,' and 1 carucate previously held as a 'manor' by Ligulf, but then held by Richard under William de Percy. (fn. 72) Like Burniston it became soke of Scalby (fn. 73) instead of Falsgrave and descended with Scalby. (fn. 74) The remaining 1 carucate 2 oxgangs formed part of the Percy fee in 1284–5. (fn. 75) This land was apparently held by Henry de Duggelby, whose son Adam granted 'new land called Brankenthwaite and Storthes in Cloughton' to the Dean and Chapter of St. John, Beverley, before 1235. (fn. 76) Adam de Duggelby was the tenant in 1284–5 and was succeeded by a son of the same name, who in 1299 granted the capital messuage here with 3 oxgangs and 2 crofts to the canons of Bridlington. (fn. 77)
Deponents in 1563–4 said that the manor was called both Northstead and Hatterboard, while others denied that it was ever known as Hatterboard. (fn. 80)
At Hatterboard the Friars Minor of Scarborough had licence from Henry III to build a priory in 1245 (fn. 81); they subsequently removed to Scarborough. Hatterboard escheated to Edmund Earl of Lancaster as overlord, and in 1304 his son and successor Thomas had licence to enfeoff Master William de Pickering of the lands of the Friars Minor here, 1½ acres in extent, inclosed with a stone wall and built upon with houses. (fn. 82) In 1339 Sir William de Braose (fn. 83) granted his lands here to Alexander de Barugh. (fn. 84) These lands were called 'Sparowe Land' in the 16th century, when it was a tradition that Richard III purchased the manor, near his favoured town of Scarborough, from one Sparowe. (fn. 85) The Crown has ever since retained the manor and had already commenced by 1529 the practice of leasing it for life to the successive constables of Scarborough Castle. (fn. 86)
It is customary for the steward of the manor on accepting office to vacate his seat in Parliament. (fn. 87)
STAINTONDALE (Steintun, xi-xiii cent.). Henry II in 1158 gave to Rievaulx Abbey the Waste below Pickering in exchange for Stainton 'which Walter de Gant gave to Rievaulx for building their abbey.' (fn. 88) The 'lands of Stainton on Blakey Moor to the green way and Steindic, and as the green way and Steindic go round to the sea,' were afterwards granted by Richard I to the Knights Hospitallers, (fn. 89) and were known as the manor of STAINTON HOSPITAL. The manor was seized by the Crown on the dissolution of the order of Knights of the Temple on the pretext of a grant by King Stephen to that order, but a jury found that there had been no such enfeoffment, (fn. 90) and the Knights of St. John came into possession. William Hay died seised of tenements 'commonly known' as the manor in 1602. (fn. 91) Thomas Chandler and Abigail his wife with James Cooper and Elizabeth his wife conveyed two-thirds of oneeighth of the manor to Thomas Foster in 1808. (fn. 92) It is now in the possession of the freeholders, who, as successors of the Templars, are exempt from service on juries. (fn. 93) In the 16th and 17th centuries the chief freeholders were members of the families of Stockdale, Beswick, Parker, Hay, Green, Robinson, Harrison and Watson. (fn. 94)
Two carucates in THROXENBY (Thurstanby, xiii-xvi cent.; Turstanby, Thorstanby, xiv cent.; Thrustanby, xv cent.; Throssonbye, Throstonby, xvi cent.) belonged to Henry de Percy in 1284–5, (fn. 95) and the manor subsequently descended with the Percys' manor of Seamer (q.v.) until 1536–7, (fn. 96) when Henry Percy Earl of Northumberland conveyed both, among other lands, to the Crown. (fn. 97) From this time it seems to have followed the descent of Scalby, and is now held by the Crown in right of the duchy of Lancaster. (fn. 98)
The park and hallmote are mentioned in 1314–15. (fn. 99)
The church of ST. LAWRENCE consists of a chancel 35 ft. 8 in. by 17 ft., nave 35 ft. 6 in. by 20 ft. 3 in., south aisle and porch and west tower. The total length is 89 ft., all the measurements being internal.
The earliest work remaining in the church dates from about 1180, when the south nave arcade and the chancel arch were built. The chancel was reconstructed in the early part of the following century, and in the 15th century the nave arches were apparently reconstructed together with much of the north wall. Late in the 16th or early in the 17th century the present west tower was built and some work appears to have been done in the chancel towards the close of the latter century. The church has been drastically restored in modern times and the south aisle and porch are entirely modern. The east wall of the chancel has also been rebuilt and the south wall refaced.
The chancel has a modern three-light east window and in the north wall are two 13th-century lancet windows and a third now blocked. A blocked door on this side led to a destroyed vestry, of which traces are visible on the wall outside. In the south wall are two other lancet windows. The chancel arch dates from about 1180 and springs from responds having each three attached shafts, the centre one being of bowtel form and all having moulded capitals with square abaci.
The nave is of three bays, and in the north wall are three two-light windows, all modern. The external buttresses of this wall date from the 15th century. The south arcade has cylindrical piers with moulded bases and capitals with square abaci of the same period as the chancel arch. The arches themselves appear to have been reconstructed in the 15th century and are not sprung quite centrally from one of the piers. The south aisle has been entirely rebuilt and widened and has a three-light east window.
The square west tower is three stages high and finished with an embattled parapet. The heavy buttresses at the angles have numerous offsets and a subsidiary buttress is carried up the centre of the west face. The bell-chamber is lighted by a two-light transomed and square-headed window in each face and contains three bells, the first inscribed, '1674 Omnia mors poscit, Johannes Bosse vicarius'; the second, '1674 Breve et irrepabile tempus S.S. Ebor'; and the third, '1674 Concordes nos estote vos S.S. Ebor.' The plain circular font dates from the 13th century and the octagonal pulpit is a poor specimen of Jacobean work. The communion table is of the same period and has massive turned legs; and against the western nave pier is a Jacobean almsbox with the inscription 'Pra Remember the Power' cut in the pier. Within the altar rails on the north side is a 13th-century slab with a floreated cross in low relief.
The church of ST. MARY THE VIRGIN, Cloughton, is a modern building in the style of the 15th century, consisting of a nave, chancel and north transept. The old church was pulled down in 1831, and consisted of nave, chancel, south porch and western bellcote. Two views of it are preserved at the vicarage, and show that there was originally a north aisle to the nave, four bays long, the arches of which are shown blocked. The present building was largely restored in 1889–90, and has a five-light 'perpendicular' east window and a large window in the south aisle commemorating Sir Frank Lockwood, Q.C., M.P., Solicitor-General 1894. Two arches open into the north transept. On the south wall is a tablet to Mr. William Bower of Cloughton (d. 1698) and Priscilla his wife, with the arms, Argent a cheveron between three griffons' heads razed sable with three molets argent on the cheveron. In the western bellcote are three bells, the first dated 1897, the second inscribed, 'Gloria in altissimo Deo S.S. Ebor 1694,' and the third, 'Soli Deo gloria S.S. Ebor 1694.'
As Scalby was demesne of the Crown the church with its chapels also belonged to the king. During the anarchy of Stephen's reign it came into the possession of Eustace son of John who held the castle of Malton against the king. (fn. 100) Eustace, with the consent of Archbishop Thurstan, granted the church to Bridlington Priory in 1135–40, the grant being confirmed by King Stephen and Henry II. (fn. 101)
The priory from the beginning held the church appropriated, (fn. 102) and there is record of a vicar being instituted early in 1236–7. (fn. 103) After the Dissolution Edward VI granted the rectory and the advowson of the vicarage in 1547 to the Dean and Chapter of Norwich, (fn. 104) who have ever since been patrons. (fn. 105)
The Prior of Bridlington was presented at the forest eyre in 1334, and established his immemorial right not to have his dogs lawed in the forest in the soke of Scalby, 'saving the rights of the king and the earl.' (fn. 106) The canons were also acquitted (1154–62) of pannage for their hogs in Scalby Forest. (fn. 107)
A chapel at Burniston is mentioned in 1590. (fn. 108) The church of Cloughton was said in 1346 to be a chapel annexed to Scalby, (fn. 109) and its continuance was recommended in 1548 as it served for a chapel of ease to the parish church, 5 miles away. (fn. 110) It then contained a chantry. (fn. 111) Leases and conveyances of Cloughton Chapel were made in 1568 and 1591, (fn. 112) and in 1611 James I granted it to Francis Morice and Francis Phillips, (fn. 113) who sold it in the same year to Francis Etherington of London. Francis Etherington in 1615 alienated it to Stephen Langdale, William Wood and Richard Rogers, who conveyed it in the same year to Christopher Keld, in possession in 1626. (fn. 114) A further conveyance was made in 1650. (fn. 115) The inhabitants of Cloughton and Staintondale in 1626 buried their dead at Scalby. (fn. 116) Cloughton, with Staintondale and Ravenscar, was constituted a separate parish in 1884.
The chaplain of Hatterboard is mentioned in 1285. (fn. 117) The chapel (probably at Northstead) (fn. 118) was turned into a stable in the latter half of the 16th century by one William Flintoft. (fn. 119)
The charity known as Christopher Keld's Hospital consists of four almshouses in the High Street, occupied by widows, and is endowed with 6 acres or thereabouts, let at £16 5s. a year, the net rents being paid to the inmates. By a scheme dated 1 October 1907 the legal estate in the premises was vested in the official trustee of charity lands, and administering trustees appointed; they are authorized to sell the existing almshouse buildings with the site and garden, and to substitute pensioners for the almspeople, who are limited to three in number, being poor widows or widowers, to be selected in rotation from the townships of Scalby, Newby and Throxenby.
In 1714 Sarah Knowsley by will devised 3 acres in Falsgrave, Scarborough, the rents to be applied in the distribution of bread among the poor of the townships of Scalby, Burniston and Newby. The land has been sold and the proceeds invested in £632 10s., with the official trustees, the dividends of which, amounting to £15 16s., are duly applied under the title of the Whitebread charity.
A sum of £9 a year is likewise paid by Sir Edward Donner, bart., of Oak Mount, Fallowfield, Manchester, in lieu of fuel allotments awarded in 1777; this is distributed as to £6, part thereof, among the poor of Scalby, and as to £3 among the poor of Newby. An ancient payment of 5s. a year out of a field in Burniston, known as Hodgson's rent-charge, appears to be no longer collected.
Township of Burniston.—By the award of 1777 30 acres were allotted for the poor of this township. By deeds in 1845 the allotment was conveyed in consideration of a rent of £5 10s., which is distributed among the poor in articles in kind.