A History of the County of York North Riding: Volume 2. Originally published by Victoria County History, London, 1923.
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The parish covers in all more than 13,000 acres, lying at the south end of the Hambleton Hills. It included in 1831 the townships of Byland, Newburgh, Oulston, Yearsley, Angram Grange, Wildon Grange, Thornton on the Hill and Baxby and the chapelry of Birdforth. Wass, in Kilburn, was added to Byland in 1887 and Baxby was annexed to Husthwaite parish. The soil is for the most part loam on Inferior Oolite and Upper Lias with some Oxford Clay. Rather more than half the land is under pasture. (fn. 1) On the rest various crops are raised; the land is remarkably fertile.
The village of Coxwold, which has a station on the Thirsk and Malton branch of the North Eastern railway, stands on the high road between those towns. It consists of one wide and picturesque street, sloping upwards towards its west end, from which the church of St. Michael dominates the village. Coxwold was at one time a market town, (fn. 2) and, though in the early 18th century the market had been 'long disused,' (fn. 3) some of the dignity of a town still lingers in the place. The buildings are generally modern, the cottages being of stone with tile or slate roofs. On the north side of the road, nearly at the top of the hill, is the 'Fauconberg Arms,' a late 18th-century gabled building with a Doric entrance porch, and opposite to it is a wych elm of great age. On the same side of the road, opposite to the church, is the old grammar school, now the residence of Mr. Geipel, and known as 'the Old Hall.' It was founded by Sir John Hart, kt., Lord Mayor of London, in 1603. It is a two-story building, the upper lighted by modern dormers in the roof, and is built of stone with a stone-slate roof. The remaining part of the original building, which has been much altered, is L-shaped with a chimney against the cross wall. Both wings are lighted by square-headed transomed and mullioned windows under moulded hood moulds, and in the south wall of the east wing, which runs parallel with the road, is a doorway. In the west wall of the house is a stone, only visible from the inside, inscribed with the name of the founder and the purpose of the school. At the west end of the front garden wall opposite the west entrance to the house is an original gateway with a sundial over.
On the same side of the road a little further west is Shandy Hall, probably an early 17th-century building remodelled in the 18th century. It is a rectangular two-story red brick building, the walls of which have been washed over with a stone-colour distemper, and is roofed with stone slates, while at the east end of the building is a large stone chimney. The front to the road is symmetrically designed, the wall being carried up into a gable at either end. The house has been added to at the back in recent years, and is now used as a pair of cottages. Inside on the ground floor is a panelled room. This house was for seven years the home of Laurence Sterne. He was appointed to the curacy of Coxwold in 1760 by his friend Lord Fauconberg of Newburgh Priory. (fn. 4) He speaks in one of his letters in high praise of the pleasant village: 'I am as happy as a prince at Coxwold, and I wish you could see in how princely a manner I live—'tis a land of plenty . . . all the simple plenty which a rich valley (under Hambleton Hills) can produce.' (fn. 5) In 1761 Sterne drew out a scheme for rearranging the seats in Coxwold Church, so that 'all should face the parson alike.' The letter from Lord Fauconberg's agent to his master announcing this gives an interesting glimpse of the coronation festivities at Coxwold in that year: 'Here a fine ox with his horns gilt was roasted whole in the middle of the town, after which the bells put in for church, where an excellent sermon was delivered extempore on the occasion by Mr. Sterne, which gave great content to every hearer.' (fn. 6)
Overlooking the churchyard from the west is Colville Hall, an early 17th-century stone building with gabled ends terminating with ball finials and a stoneslated roof. It faces east and west, the plan being an irregular L, with the southern limb projecting eastwards. The ground floor of the north wing is occupied by one large room, evidently the hall, with a large chimney against its west wall, but the south wing of the house has been entirely modernized. Doublehung sash windows have been inserted in place of the original mullioned ones, but in the projecting east block of the south wing, lighting the staircase, is a three-light window with a square head under a moulded label. The centre light contains some 17thcentury heraldic stained glass. In the upper part is a quarterly shield of Bellasis impaling Dearden with the hart's head crest of Bellasis over it. Under this shield is a smaller one of Paulet with a coronet.
This house must be on the site of the 'capital messuage or manor place' which was sold to William Dayvill in 1545, and was purchased by Sir Henry Bellasis in about 1608. (fn. 7) On the south side of the street is the hospital for ten old men founded by Earl Fauconberg before 1696. (fn. 8)
From the east end of the village a road runs south along the edge of Newburgh Park, which the Prior and convent of Newburgh had licence to inclose in 1383 (fn. 9); it was enlarged early in the 18th century. (fn. 10) The possessions of the priory in the parish were very extensive, as the foundation charter shows.
William de Newburgh (1136–1201) wrote here his Historia Rerum Anglicarum. (fn. 11) After the Dissolution the priory came into the hands of the Bellasis family, who converted it into a dwelling-house. The second Viscount Fauconberg married Oliver Cromwell's daughter, and it is said that the Protector's body was rescued and hidden here.
The house known as Newburgh Priory is a large irregular building consisting on plan of a central block dating in part from c. 1600, with a later wing on the east and a stable court on the west entered through an archway on the west side of the house. The earlier portion is lighted on the south or garden front by mullioned windows with three-centred heads to the lights. Adjoining the east end of this wall and the later east wing is a fine contemporary porch with stairs in its upper stories. It is of three stages, with the Doric, Ionic and Corinthian orders superimposed, and large mullioned windows in the two upper stages. Nearly opposite on the north side of the house is a porch of about the same date, with a semicircular-headed doorway flanked by Ionic pilasters supporting an entablature, above which is a mullioned window lighting the first floor and a crowning balustraded parapet with a central pediment and pinnacles. The wall to the west of the porch has mullioned windows, now rearranged. The other windows of this wall are all plain square-headed openings with large keystones. The south front of the east wing has two large semicircular bay windows of imposing proportions, with sashes in plain openings. Internally the house contains much fine 18th-century work, the finishings of the dining room and white drawing room being especially elaborate. The panelling in the porters' hall was removed from the old grammar school at Coxwold, and has many hundreds of names carved upon it. The kitchen wing is dated 1767, and has the initials v b and h b.
In the west walls of the east wing are fixed many old stones of various dates. The most interesting and the oldest of these is one of early 12thcentury date carved with two figures. One has a child upon its lap, holding a book in its left hand and an object impossible to identify in the right; on the lap of the other figure is a dish on which is placed a ram. Above this stone is a small pierced quatrefoil and a foliated circle. Between the two doorways of this wall is a coffin lid with a carved foliated cross on a trefoiled base. Over one of these doorways is an octofoiled circle, and over the other a circle of ornament, while a third doorway in a return wall in this wing has a small spandrel carved with a face. Loose stones round about the building include a stone coffin, a 13th-century moulded base and a 14th-century respond capital with carved foliage. In front of the old part of the south front stands a 13th-century font with a moulded bowl standing on an octagonal stem with small attached shafts at the angles. The base has a typical 13th-century moulding. Beneath the font is a pile of various fragments.
The abbey church of Byland stands under the Hambleton Hills, about 2 miles north-east of Coxwold. The church was cruciform, having an aisled chancel with an eastern ambulatory, measuring between the outside walls 52 ft. 4 in. in length by 69 ft. 4 in. in width, north transept measuring with its eastern and western aisles 73 ft. 3 in. in width by 34 ft. 5 in. in depth, south transept similarly aisled 30 ft. 9 in. deep and of the same width as the north transept, a crossing of the widths of the chancel and transepts and a nave with north and south aisles 201 ft. 8 in. by 69 ft. The total length of the building inside is thus 327 ft. 3 in., almost exactly the length of Beverley Minster (334 ft.), and the width at the crossing 134 ft. 6 in. The north wall of the north chancel aisle, the east wall of the ambulatory, and part of the south wall of the south chancel aisle are still standing, together with the outside walls of the north transept with its aisles, part of the south wall of the south transept, and the walls of its eastern aisle, the north and west walls of the north aisle of the nave, the west wall of the nave and the west wall of the south aisle, with a small adjoining portion of its south wall. The remains of the monastic buildings are very fragmentary.
The church was entirely built in the late 12th and early 13th centuries. The eastern portion was begun first. The chancel, transepts and the beginning of the nave are the work of a single period, after which there appears to have been a short pause before the rest of the nave was proceeded with, finishing with the west wall, which is of a decidedly 13thcentury character.
In the east wall of the ambulatory and chancel aisles are five round-headed single lights and there are three in each side wall. These are of two orders in the jambs outside, the outer square, the inner chamfered with detached shafts in the angles. Most of the shafts have disappeared. They have moulded bases, intermediate bands and carved scroll-leaf capitals; the inner order of the arch is continuous from the jambs, the outer order has a keeled bowtel between two hollows. The inner jambs and arches are splayed and have keeled edge rolls. Similar windows pierce the transept walls, the north transept having two in the aisle walls on each side and four on the north. The end wall of the south transept differed from that opposite, because the cloister and other monastic buildings were built against it. The eastern aisle retains its three windows, one on the south and two on the east, one of which has now no arch. The first one or two windows of the north aisle of the nave resembled those of the chancel and transepts; the others differ only in the absence of the edge rolls inside. At the angles and between each pair of windows dividing the walls into bays are shallow double buttresses. At the north-west angle of the western aisle of the north transept are the remains of a circular vice, which is entered from the transept. Between the windows inside are triplets of attached vaulting shafts supported on carved corbels; those to the chancel, transepts and eastern part of the nave have a keeled middle shaft between two rounds, the others in the nave have three plain rounds. The corbels of the latter have 13th-century leaf carving and the moulded capitals are of bell form; elsewhere the capitals have the volute leaf like those of the window shafts, and the corbels also differ in character. Many of the shafts have gone and all the vaulting excepting a few springing stones. Of the arcades but little remains, at least uncovered. In the south transept is the south respond of its east arcade. This is a cluster of five shafts, with voluted capitals, the central shaft being keeled and of larger diameter; the bases are now buried beneath the ground. A portion of the arch above is still standing. It is of three orders; the inner has a keeled bowtel between two round edge rolls, the middle a keeled bowtel between two hollows, while the outer has a practically similar mould. The north respond of the west arcade of the north transept is also still in place; its upper part is hidden by verdure. Three moulded bases and a sub-base are exposed in line with the west arcades of the transepts. The largest is that of the southwest compound pier of the central tower, which had four keeled shafts divided by square orders from four round angle shafts. The base mould is a hollow between two rounds, and the sub-base, which is circular, also has an edge roll. The two moulded bases to the south of it supported piers of eight clustered shafts, four pointed and four round, agreeing with the responds already described. The sub-base is that of the northernmost pier of the north transept.
Of the nave arcades only the west responds remain. These each have three engaged shafts, the middle one keeled. The base mould is a hollow between two filleted rounds, and the chamfered sub-base is semicircular in plan. The capital is a simple bell with a chamfered abacus. Over the south respond are the first few stones of the arch.
In the west wall are three doorways, one to the nave and one to each aisle. The nave doorway has jambs of four orders, moulded edge rolls and hollows, and had jamb shafts, which have disappeared, though their capitals, carved with broad leaves, remain. The arch is a large trefoiled one; its four orders are more elaborately moulded than are those of the jambs, and its label is enriched by tooth ornament. In the wall immediately above the trefoiled label are two small quatrefoil sinkings. The north doorway has jambs and arch of three orders of similar section to those of the middle doorway, but the arch is two-centred. The south doorway has the appearance of being slightly earlier than the other two; its jambs, like the other doorways, have lost their shafts, and, with the arch, are of three orders of pointed bowtels and hollows, of different section from the other moulds. The arch is very slightly pointed, and the rear arch is half-round. Above this doorway is a round-headed window.
Over the doorway outside is a row of corbels which must have formerly supported the timbers of the roof of a western porch or galilee (fn. 12) or covered way. The wall of the nave above this is pierced by three lancet windows with shafted external orders and arcading of narrow lancet arches between them and on either side supported by slender shafts with moulded capitals, annulets and bases like the jamb shafts of the windows; the arches have keeled edge rolls in hollows and tooth-enriched labels. Still higher is the lower half of a fine wheel or rose window of a diameter as large as the wall permits; its edge is moulded with rounds and hollows, but its tracery has perished. The diameter is about 26 ft., and the window is one of the largest of the type and period known. The buttresses between the nave and aisles are carried up the whole height of the walls, and the northern one still retains its plain octagonal pinnacle with a pointed cap.
In the south wall above the south-east respond of the south transept are the remains of two arcaded passage-ways in the walls above the main arcade; the arches are pointed, and their supporting shafts have gone. In this are also the remains of a circular vice. On the external face of the wall can be seen the marks of the weathering of a pent roof to the cloister. There appear to have been lancet windows above with arcading between, like those at the west end. One window jamb remains and one bay of the arcading; the buttress next to this is finished with a gablet.
A few gravestones have been exposed; one is a coffin slab with a crook, probably of the 13th century, another a slab with the matrices of the brasses of two figures under a canopy, and another with the matrix of a single figure under a canopy; there is also a broken stone coffin.
Of the monastic buildings the only parts standing are the east wall of what was probably the frater and the north wall of the kitchen east of it on the south side of the cloister garth, which was of an extent unusual in Cistercian houses, measuring about 145 ft. square. The frater was about 100 ft. long, and all but about 15 ft. of the wall is standing; in it are two windows, apparently lancets, but too much overgrown to be examined properly. The chamber to the north-east of it (adjoining the cloisters) is about 31 ft. 6 in. by 29 ft. The cellarium below the novitiates' wing, extending southward from the west end of the nave, is about 185 ft. long by 32 ft. wide, but there are only mounds to show its exact extent. To the south-east of the monastic buildings one of the mounds has been partly uncovered and shows a piece of walling with a semioctagonal respond which has a plain bell capital, and the springing stone of a plain chamfered vaulting rib. From its position it probably formed part of the infirmary buildings.
The park, which the abbot had licence to inclose in 1380, (fn. 13) has disappeared. An earlier abbot obtained a grant from Robert Dayvill of permission to make a fish pool in Robert's land, 'opposite Cambesheved,' now Camshead Grange. (fn. 14) The granges of Angram, (fn. 15) a large red brick house of the early 18th century, and Wildon lie further west. The latter consists of a collection of half-ruinous buildings standing round a farmyard. There is a brick chimney stack of the 17th century, but the date of the buildings, which are of rubble, is uncertain. Wildon Grange had a mill, built on the 'Mylnestede,' granted by the abbot to Richard Lascelles in 1529. (fn. 16) North-west of Byland Abbey the land runs up to a high ridge known as the Shaws Moor, where the Scots defeated the army of Edward II in 1322. (fn. 17) One point of the way down into the valley is still called 'Scotch Corner.'
Oulston, the Ulvestone of the Priory charters, stands at the south end of Newburgh Park. There is a small village of 150 inhabitants, with a Wesleyan chapel. The Roman Catholic chapel, built here by Lady Mary Fauconberg in 1795, (fn. 18) is now disused. South-west of Oulston is the hill from which the township of Thornton takes its name. Parts of the walls of Thornton Hill farm-house appear to be old, and extensive foundations have been found close by.
Baxby, once part of Thornton-on-the-Hill, is separated from that township by Husthwaite, with which it is now amalgamated. All that remains is the manor-house and the water-mill on Elphin Beck. In 1606 there were two 'capital messuages' at Baxby, the manor-house and a second called 'Skonoker House.' (fn. 19) The mill, with another which has disappeared, formed for centuries a part of the manor of Thornton-on-the-Hill. (fn. 20)
Yearsley is a small village at the eastern end of the parish, and was the original residence of the Colvills of Coxwold. Thomas Colvill had licence to impark his wood of Buksendike here in 1347, (fn. 21) and complained in the next year of poachers in his park at Yearsley. (fn. 22)
A mill at Yearsley belonged in the late 16th century to the Fairfax family of Gilling. (fn. 23)
Yearsley has a chapel of ease to Coxwold, built in 1839, and a Wesleyan chapel. An Inclosure Act for the moor to the north-east was passed in 1867. (fn. 24)
COXWOLD, before the Conquest, was held by Copsi, who had soc and sac, toll and theam and all customs here. It was then worth £6. In 1086 its value had risen to £12, and it was among the possessions of Hugh son of Baldric. The vills of 'Ireton,' Yearsley, Ampleforth, Osgodby, Thirkleby and Baxby, apparently all formed part of the manor. (fn. 25) Coxwold came with Kirkby Moorside (q.v.) to Robert de Stutevill, and afterwards to Niel Daubeney, (fn. 26) the founder of the house of Mowbray. The barony of Mowbray was claimed by the Stutevill family in the reign of Henry II, (fn. 27) and they received from the Mowbrays lands amounting altogether to nineteen knights' fees. In return they released their claim on the barony, mentioning especially 'Cukewald and Cukewaldshire.' (fn. 28) The overlordship followed the descent of Thirsk (q.v.), of which Coxwold was held. (fn. 29)
Thomas Colvill was enfeoffed by Roger de Mowbray in the manors of Coxwold, Yearsley and Oulston at some time before 1166. (fn. 30) His heirs for several generations were all called Thomas, (fn. 31) and are difficult to distinguish. A Thomas de Colvill, grandson of the first, confirmed in 1236–7 grants made by his grandfather to Byland Abbey. (fn. 32) Both in 1284–5 and 1316 a Thomas Colvill was in possession. (fn. 33) The last of these seems to have had two sons, John and Thomas. Thomas succeeded him at Yearsley and John at Coxwold. (fn. 34) The latter held the manor till about 1347, (fn. 35) when he was succeeded by Thomas, (fn. 36) probably son of the brother who held Yearsley. (fn. 37) Margaret Eure (fn. 38) claimed a third of the manor against Thomas as dower, and seems to have secured it, for shortly afterwards only two parts of the manor were in his hands; the remaining third was held by a Margaret Darell. (fn. 39) Thomas granted his two-thirds of Coxwold before 1355 to Thomas Ughtred for life, with remainder to himself and his heirs male, (fn. 40) and contingent remainders to his brothers George and William and their heirs male, the heirs male of Thomas Ughtred, and the right heirs of Thomas Colvill. The third part held by Margaret was entailed in the same way. Thomas Ughtred was in possession of the manor in 1355, and received a confirmation of the original grant to Thomas Colvill. (fn. 41) After his death and the death of Margaret Darell Thomas Colvill came again into possession of the manor. (fn. 42) He was succeeded by his son Thomas, (fn. 43) who died without heirs male in 1405. George and William Colvill also died without heirs male, and the manor was inherited by Thomas, the great-grandson of Thomas Ughtred the elder. (fn. 44) His heir Robert Ughtred (fn. 45) conveyed the manor in 1455 to his son Robert. (fn. 46) The younger Robert had to defend his claim in or about 1463 against John Percy of Kildale, the right heir of Thomas Colvill, (fn. 47) who declared that the latter had enfeoffed Robert Ughtred in trust. He retained the manor and was succeeded by Henry Ughtred, who settled the manor on his son Robert and Elizabeth his wife, daughter of William Fairfax, serjeant-at-law. (fn. 48)
Shortly afterwards the manor passed into the possession of the Fairfax family. (fn. 49) In 1535 John Gascoigne conveyed it to Guy Fairfax, George Shaw (or Shay) and others, (fn. 50) who were probably trustees for William Fairfax of Steeton, the brother of Elizabeth. William Fairfax and George Shaw were in possession in 1545, when they sold the manor-house to William Dayvill. (fn. 51) In 1558 William Fairfax died seised of the manor. (fn. 52) His eldest son Guy was a lunatic, (fn. 53) and his natural heir would have been Thomas, his second son. (fn. 54) Thomas, however, was disinherited, and all the family estates that were not entailed were left by William Fairfax to his son Gabriel and his heirs with reversion to a younger son Henry and his heirs. (fn. 55) Gabriel Fairfax was holding the manor in 1565 (fn. 56) and was succeeded by his son William. (fn. 57) The disinherited Thomas Fairfax was declared in his inquisition to have been successively 'dispossessed' by these two lords of the manor. (fn. 58)
In 1586 William Fairfax and his wife Mabel sold more land to the Dayvill family, (fn. 59) and in 1590 they sold the rest of the manor to Sir William Bellasis. (fn. 60) William Bellasis died seised in 1604 of all the manor of Coxwold except the messuages and lands sold to the Dayvills. (fn. 61) These were acquired by his son Sir Henry Bellasis in 1608 from Sir David Foulis, who had lately purchased them from the Dayvill family. (fn. 62) From this date Coxwold followed the descent of Newburgh (q.v.).
Right of free warren was granted to Thomas Colvill in 1257, (fn. 63) and confirmed to his successors. (fn. 64) In 1304 a weekly market in the manor of Coxwold with an annual fair on the eve and day of the Assumption of the Blessed Virgin were granted to Thomas Colvill. (fn. 65) This grant was renewed to later holders of the manor, and the fair was in existence in 1792. (fn. 66) Both market and fair, however, have now disappeared.
Both the religious houses in the parish held lands in Coxwold. Roger de Mowbray granted 10 oxgangs with the church to the Prior of Newburgh in 1145 (fn. 67) and 4 oxgangs were added in 1341 by John Colvill. (fn. 68) They were granted after the Dissolution, with the exception of the rectory, to Anthony Bellasis, (fn. 69) and followed the descent of the Bellasis estates. The priors enjoyed free warren in Coxwold. (fn. 70)
The Abbot of Byland had a grant of pasture land and a fish-pond in Coxwold from Thomas Colvill in 1237. (fn. 71) After the Dissolution his possessions here were granted to the Archbishop of York (fn. 72) and Sir William Pickering. (fn. 73)
ANGRAM GRANGE was one of the farms of the monks of Byland. After the Dissolution it was granted with other property of the abbey to Edward Archbishop of York in 1543 in exchange for lands of that see. (fn. 74)
The land was taken over by the Ecclesiastical Commissioners and purchased from them before 1852 by Sir George Wombwell, bart. (fn. 75)
There were two water-mills described as 'in Baxby,' but they had a separate descent. Like most of the parish, it was held of the Mowbray fee, (fn. 76) and was frequently linked with Thornton-on-theHill as Thornton-cumBaxby, (fn. 77) the overlordship of both places following the same descent.
Down to the 16th century a family bearing the name of the place had possession of the estate. (fn. 78) The last mention of the family occurs in 1539, when William Baxby led men to a muster from Thornton-cum-Baxby. (fn. 79)
John Chambers is said to have married a Baxby, (fn. 80) perhaps a co-heir, for he dealt with a moiety of the so-called 'manor of Baxby' by fine in 1560. (fn. 81) In 1581 John Chambers, probably his son, (fn. 82) settled the manor or capital messuage on himself for life with remainder to his son George. He died in possession in 1606. (fn. 83) Twenty years later George Chambers sold the manor to Sir Thomas Bellasis. (fn. 84)
In 1641 the manor was in the hands of the family of Sandys. (fn. 85) Richard Sandys sold it in 1659–60 to William Kitchingham, (fn. 86) from whom it seems to have passed by the marriage of Anne Kitchingham with Arthur Thornton to the latter family. (fn. 87)
A later Thornton conveyed this estate among others to Thomas Plowman in 1789, (fn. 88) apparently for the purpose of a sale to Mr. Thomas Woodward of Aldwark, who is said to have acquired it in 1791. (fn. 89) His family was still in possession of the manor-house in 1890.
BIRDFORTH (Brudeford, xiii cent.; Byrdford, xvi cent.), though it was later to give its name to the wapentake, does not appear in the Domesday Survey. (fn. 90) The vill must, however, have been so called in 1170, when the wapentake is mentioned as 'Brideford.' (fn. 91)
The manor formed part of the honour of Eye, and was held of the king in 1284–5 by the Earl of Corn wall. (fn. 92) It is described down to the 15th century as held of the fee of Cornwall. (fn. 93) In the reign of Elizabeth, however, it was held of the Earl of Leicester as of his manor of Raskelf, (fn. 94) and the overlordship subsequently followed the descent of that manor (fn. 95) (q.v.). The family of Malebiche had a mesne lordship here under the Earls of Cornwall. (fn. 96)
In 1219 Richard Maunsell held land here which had been granted to his brother Robert by a certain Henry, grandfather of John Maunsell. (fn. 97) He was succeeded by Richard son of Richard, who in 1247 granted the manor for life to another Richard, called Richard Maunsell, senior, with remainder to himself and his heirs. (fn. 98) The agreement was not kept, and Richard, senior, settled tenements in Birdforth in 1261 (fn. 99) on his son John, against whom Edmund son of Richard son of Richard claimed two parts of the manor in 1277. (fn. 100) John in 1284–5 was holding the vill of Edmund. (fn. 101) Two of the 4 carucates there were held of him by Ralph Nevill, who had an under-tenant Henry Maunsell. (fn. 102)
John was still in possession in 1300–1, (fn. 103) when he settled the manor on Richard Maunsell, who was probably his son, and the heirs of Richard. (fn. 104) The manor descended in this family until the time of William Maunsell, who was dead before 1524, leaving two daughters and co-heirs, (fn. 105) Anne and Joan. Of these Anne married Christopher Thomlinson, and Joan Mathew Metcalfe; Joan and Mathew were called upon in 1524 by Anne and her husband to make partition of the manor. (fn. 106)
In 1552 John Thornton, who was the son-in-law of Christopher Thomlinson, (fn. 107) came to an agreement with Roger Metcalfe, doubtless the heir of Mathew and Joan, concerning the manor of Birdforth, (fn. 108) and from this date the Maunsell estates in Birdforth were held by the two families of Thornton and Thomlinson, each family describing its share as the manor.
John Thornton died in 1586, leaving a grandson and heir John, a minor. (fn. 109) The latter was succeeded by his son Thomas, (fn. 110) who in 1631 sold the manor to Sir Thomas Dawnay. (fn. 111) It remained in the Dawnay family, following the descent of Sessay (q.v.). The present Viscount Downe is lord of the manor.
The heir of Christopher Thomlinson was George Thomlinson, his son, (fn. 112) who settled his manor of Birdforth on his son Peter and Cecily his wife. (fn. 113) Peter had livery of the manor in 1572, (fn. 114) and died six years later, leaving a son George, an infant. (fn. 115) George had livery in 1605. (fn. 116) In 1625 he granted the manor to Sir Thomas Dawnay and other persons in trust. (fn. 117) It is possible that a conditional remainder was granted to the Dawnays. Thomas Thomlinson, son of George, (fn. 118) compounded for his estates in Birdforth in 1646, (fn. 119) and George Thomlinson 'of Birdforth' was presented for recusancy in 1690. (fn. 120) His daughter and heir Elizabeth married Thomas Conyers of Layton, (fn. 121) Durham, whose son John registered the manor among his estates in 1719. (fn. 122) The heirs of the latter were his distant cousins George Baker and Thomas Maire. (fn. 123) Nothing more is heard of their manor, and it seems probable that it passed to the Dawnay family and was united with the estate purchased from the Thorntons.
A third manor can be traced in Birdforth. The Thomas Maunsell who in 1253 received with Richard Maunsell a grant of free warren in Birdforth (fn. 124) was probably the ancestor of Henry Maunsell, tenant of 2 carucates in 1284–5. (fn. 125) Henry also held land in Winton and Hallikeld. (fn. 126) His lands in both places passed to the family of Sigston, John Sigston having married his daughter and heir Joan. (fn. 127) 'John son of John,' as this John de Sigston was generally called, paid subsidy in Birdforth in 1301–2. (fn. 128) Shortly afterwards tenements in Birdforth were settled on John de Wassand and Joan his wife, (fn. 129) and John de la More and Beatrice his wife, (fn. 130) with remainder in one case to the right heirs of Joan and in the other to John son of John de Sigston. The exact relationship of Joan and Beatrice to the Maunsells or the Sigstons does not appear, but the settlement was probably carried out by the elder John Sigston. (fn. 131) His son John was in possession of his estate in Birdforth in 1348. (fn. 132) It followed the descent in his family of Sigston (fn. 133) (q.v.) till the end of the 15th century, when it was in the possession of Dame Margaret Pigot. (fn. 134) In 1513, however, it appears among the lands of John Slingsby of Scriven, who held it of the heirs of Henry Maunsell. (fn. 135) His son Thomas also died in possession of this manor, (fn. 136) and in his case Christopher Thomlinson and John Thornton are named as the persons of whom it was held. After the death of Thomas no mention of this estate has been found.
A grant of a market and fair in Birdforth was made to Thomas and Richard Maunsell in 1253, with the grant of free warren. (fn. 137) There is no other record of the existence of this privilege, so the market and fair presumably disappeared at an early date.
BYLAND (Bella Landa, xii cent.) was originally part of the waste land of Roger de Mowbray's manor of Coxwold. He granted it in 1147 to the Cistercian monks from Furness, who had first settled at Byland on the Moor, subsequently called Old Byland. (fn. 138) The monks lived at first in the western part of their Coxwold territory, which was known as Stockyng. (fn. 139) In 1177 they removed to a site 'between Whiteker and the foot of the hill of Cambe, near Burtoft and Bersclyve,' and there built their abbey. (fn. 140)
At the Dissolution the demesne lands of Byland were worth £8 5s. 6d. (fn. 141) They were granted with the site of the abbey, the church and steeple, water-mill and closes to Sir William Pickering in 1540. (fn. 142) He was succeeded by his son William, (fn. 143) who in 1577 settled the estate on his daughter Hester wife of Sir Edward afterwards Lord Wotton. (fn. 144) Her son and heir, Pickering Wotton, (fn. 145) died without issue, and her second son Thomas Lord Wotton inherited the estate. (fn. 146) He died in 1630 without male issue, his co-heirs being his four daughters (fn. 147); these were Katherine wife of Henry, styled Lord Stanhope, the heir of the first Earl of Chesterfield, and afterwards Countess of Chesterfield in her own right by a grant of 1660, Hester, afterwards the wife of Viscount Campden, Margaret, who married Sir John Tufton, and Anne, who married Sir Edward Hales. (fn. 148)
Probably some of the shares were acquired almost immediately by the family of Stapylton of Myton, who owned the site of Byland in the 18th and 19th centuries. (fn. 149) Sir John Tufton and his wife conveyed their part to John Gray in 1651 (fn. 150) and Sir John Hales had the share of the youngest sister as late as 1708. (fn. 151) A conveyance of one-third of the manor was made by the executors of Katherine Lady Grey to John Creed and others in 1685. (fn. 152) In 1784 a moiety of one of the fourth parts was conveyed by Henry Goodricke and his wife Anne to John Johnson. (fn. 153) The shares seem to have all passed finally to the Stapylton family. The site remained in their hands till 1893 at least, but is now the property of Sir George Wombwell, bart., of Newburgh Priory.
NEWBURGH was amongst the lands of Robert de Stutevill (fn. 154) granted to the Mowbray family by Henry I. When Roger de Mowbray founded the priory of Newburgh (fn. 155) he granted 'the land on which the priory was built, and all the land which lay towards the east of Coxwold past the fish pond, bounded by a river called Holebech, which falling from the hills flows through the midst of the aldergrove into the aforesaid fish pond.' (fn. 156)
The value of the site and the demesne lands in 1538 (fn. 157) was £20 2s. 8d. Anthony Bellasis, the king's chaplain, and one of the commissioners for visiting religious houses, received in 1540 a grant in fee of 'the house and site, church, steeple and churchyard of the same, the manor of Newburgh, and the granges of Scorton and Brink.' (fn. 158) This grant was followed in 1542 by a lease of the same lands and buildings to William Bellasis, nephew of Anthony, and Margaret Simson, his grandmother, for twenty-one years. (fn. 159) In the same year a payment was made by the Crown to Thomas Woodward and John Winter, evidently 'fishing grantees,' for expenses in declaring a 'false purchase' by Anthony Bellasis of certain lands of the monastery of Newburgh. (fn. 160) The title of the Bellasis family was finally made secure by a grant in 1546 to Margaret Simson, Anthony Bellasis and William Bellasis. (fn. 161) Newburgh remained in the possession of William Bellasis, who died a knight in 1603, and his heirs. The priory was the chief residence of the family from the time of the Dissolution. The son of Sir William Bellasis was created a baronet in 1611, (fn. 162) and his son was raised to the peerage as Lord Fauconberg in 1627 and Viscount Fauconberg in 1643. (fn. 163) He was forced to compound for his estates as a Royalist in 1646. (fn. 164) His grandson and heir Thomas was on the side of the Parliament and married Cromwell's third daughter Mary.
This viscount leased the manor to Thomas Ingram and Francis Gerrard, to hold for eighty years, if the viscount or his wife Mary lived so long, at the rent of a peppercorn. (fn. 165) He had warrant in 1668 to preserve game within 4 miles of Newburgh. (fn. 166) In 1689 he was created Earl Fauconberg. (fn. 167) His nephew and heir Thomas succeeded him in 1700, and was himself succeeded by his son Thomas. With Henry, son of the younger Thomas and fifth viscount, the male line failed, and the estates passed first to his daughter Charlotte Bellasis (fn. 168) and then to her nephew Sir George Wombwell, (fn. 169) whose son is the present lord of the manor.
The Prior of Newburgh in this manor had free warren, granted in 1252, (fn. 170) and 'toll, team, soc, sac, and infangentheof,' by grant of Henry III. (fn. 171) In 1383 he had licence to impark the wood called Newburgh Park. (fn. 172) This park still forms the grounds of the manor-house.
OUTSTON (Ulveston, xiii cent.; Ulleston, xvi cent.) is not mentioned in the Domesday Survey, but was with Coxwold in the hands of Roger de Mowbray in 1145, when he granted to the priory of Newburgh 1 oxgang in Oulston. (fn. 173) The boundaries of the manor were surveyed by twelve men of Coxwold, so that the other grants to the priory should not encroach upon it, and Roger compensated the farmers of Oulston for the loss of the oxgang. (fn. 174)
The manor was granted with Coxwold (q.v.) shortly afterwards to Thomas de Colvill, (fn. 175) whose descendants held it till the middle of the 13th century, (fn. 176) and subsequently had a mesne lordship. (fn. 177) In 1251 Thomas Colvill conveyed the manor of Oulston to John Prior of Newburgh to hold by foreign service and suit of court, (fn. 178) and the priors held it till the Dissolution. Most of the land seems to have been granted out to various tenants. (fn. 179) In 1428 only 2 of the 6 carucates in the vill were in the prior's own hands. (fn. 180) For some time after the Dissolution it remained in the hands of the king's bailiffs. (fn. 181) In 1562 it was granted by Elizabeth to Roger Cholmley of Roxby and his heirs. (fn. 182) In the same year he conveyed two messuages here to William Dayvill of Coxwold, (fn. 183) and two years later he sold the manor itself to Christopher Redshawe. (fn. 184) William Redshawe died in 1587 seised of the manor, out of which he had granted annuities to William Giffrason, William Blumer and others. (fn. 185) His nephew and heir William Redshawe, (fn. 186) who took the name of Tancred, (fn. 187) sold it in 1601 to Sir William Bellasis. (fn. 188) From that date it has followed the descent of Newburgh (fn. 189) (q.v.). Sir George Wombwell is the present lord of the manor.
THORNTON-ON-THE-HILL (Thorrenton near Ulveston, xiii cent.) came with the rest of this district into the hands of Roger de Mowbray, and was held of him and of his descendants as of their manor of Thirsk. (fn. 190)
The tenants of the manor from the 12th century onwards were the family of Dayvill or Davidvilla. (fn. 191) In 1275 John Dayvill was holding the manor, and was heavily in debt to Jews. (fn. 192) The most valuable part of his property in Thornton-on-the-Hill was his mill, (fn. 193) which was worth £8 13s. 4d. The demesne land was worth £1 17s. and the demesne messuage 10s. One of his creditors must have been the Peter Byset (or 'le Taburner') who in 1276 agreed that John might re-enter upon his manor here on payment of 578 marks. (fn. 194) Before 1307 the manor had been leased by John Dayvill to Isabel Vesci for her life. (fn. 195) She was still holding it in 1322, when he conveyed it to John de Ellerker, senior. (fn. 196) In 1328 John de Ellerker seems to have distrained on Isabel to get possession of the manor. (fn. 197) She died soon afterwards, however, (fn. 198) and in 1331 Robert Dayvill, son of John, quitclaimed his right also to John de Ellerker. (fn. 199) The Ellerkers remained in possession at least till 1337, (fn. 200) but before the close of the reign of Edward III the manor had passed to a William Sessay. (fn. 201) Emma Sessay, presumably his daughter, married Thomas Darell, and two parts of the manor were settled on them and their heirs. (fn. 202)
Thomas Darell appears to have been living at Thornton-on-the-Hill in 1373–4. (fn. 203) His son William (fn. 204) in 1383 made an agreement with his father's widow by which she gave up her third of the manor for a money rent. (fn. 205) William was still in possession in 1428, (fn. 206) when his son and heir Richard also held some lands in Thornton-on-the-Hill. (fn. 207) After the death of Richard his daughter Elizabeth, who had married John Manstone, (fn. 208) made a successful claim to the two parts of the manor which had been entailed. The history of the third part is uncertain. John and Elizabeth Manstone were dead in 1464, (fn. 209) apparently without issue, for Margaret, sister of Richard, succeeded. (fn. 210) Her daughter and heir Elizabeth (fn. 211) must have been the Elizabeth Vavasour who with her husband William Vavasour was in possession of the manor of 'Thorntonsuper-Montem' in 1470. (fn. 212) Elizabeth was a widow for a considerable time, and during a period of sickness, when, as she afterwards declared, she was 'not of whole mind,' she was induced to grant her two parts of the manor to Thomas Darell. (fn. 213) He was the head of the family of Darell of Sessay, but nearly enough related to Elizabeth to be able to pretend to her that he was her heir. (fn. 214) She afterwards tried to get the conveyance declared invalid, but apparently without success. She died in 1498, (fn. 215) and Thomas Darell took possession of her estate, but shortly afterwards was expelled from it by force. (fn. 216) Before his death in 1502 (fn. 217) John Higham, who claimed through Alice, a daughter of the first Thomas Darell of Thornton-on-the-Hill, was successful in establishing his right to the estate. (fn. 218) The defendants in his suit were William Bishop of Carlisle, Thomas Wortley and others (fn. 219); it seems, therefore, that Thomas Darell had already conveyed it to the trustees who were directed in his will to make estate to his wife Margerie. (fn. 220)
In 1506 John Higham, who had taken the name of Thornton, conveyed the manor to Richard Cholmeley. (fn. 221) The latter died in possession in 1521, (fn. 222) his heir being his brother Roger. Roger was succeeded by his son, another Sir Richard Cholmeley, (fn. 223) who left the manor to his son and heir Francis, with remainder to his younger son Henry. (fn. 224) It came into the hands of Henry, who in 1595 sold it to Thomas Dutton. (fn. 225) His successor William Dutton conveyed it to David Foulis and William Fleetwood, (fn. 226) who in 1608 sold it to Sir Henry Bellasis. (fn. 227)
In 1337 John de Ellerker received a grant of free warren in his demesne lands here. (fn. 230)
YEARSLEY (Everslage, xi cent.; Eversley, xiii cent.; Yereslay, xv cent.) was part of 'Cukewaldshire,' (fn. 231) and in the 11th century was in the hands of Hugh son of Baldric. (fn. 232) Later it passed with Coxwold (q.v.) to the Mowbray family, and was held of their manor of Thirsk till the overlordship fell into abeyance. (fn. 233)
Yearsley was one of the three manors of which Thomas Colvill was enfeoffed by Roger de Mowbray in the middle of the 12th century. (fn. 234) Till the beginning of the 15th it followed the descent of Coxwold (fn. 235) (q.v.) in the Colvill family, except that in the case of Yearsley there was no interruption in the descent. The heir of Thomas Colvill, who died in 1405, (fn. 236) was a distant cousin John Percy of Kildale, (fn. 237) who, however, forfeited his lands in the same year. (fn. 238) Yearsley, with lands in Upsland, Kilburn and Thirsk, was granted for life to William Yearsley, (fn. 239) who is described as a brother of Thomas Colvill, and may have been holding the manor of him before his death. He must subsequently have had a grant of Yearsley in fee, for it remained in his family, (fn. 240) and in 1410 he had a release of it from William Dayvill and his wife Margaret, (fn. 241) who probably based her claim on a connexion with the Colvills. (fn. 242)
In 1500 Joan widow of Thomas Yearsley claimed against William Wildon of Fryton dower in certain lands in Yearsley. (fn. 243) John Wildon was holding the manor in the reign of Henry VIII (fn. 244); his wife Thomasina (fn. 245) perhaps married as her second husband Leonard Marton, for in 1560 Leonard, Thomasina his wife and William Wildon sold Yearsley to Sir William Bellasis. (fn. 246) From this date the manor followed the descent of Newburgh (fn. 247) (q.v.).
The liberties of this manor included the free warren which was granted to Thomas Colvill in all his demesne lands in 1257. (fn. 248) A later Thomas Colvill received licence in 1347 to impark his wood of Buksendike in Yearsley. (fn. 249) The park was in existence in the next year, (fn. 250) but is not again mentioned.
WILDON GRANGE was a farm of the Abbots of Byland. Its site was granted by Roger de Mowbray to the first abbot. (fn. 251) The grange was built by the advice of certain vassals of Roger de Mowbray, who are described by the third abbot as veterani et emeriti milites, and who were apparently benefactors of the abbey. (fn. 252)
Shortly before the surrender of the abbey the abbot granted to Richard Lascelles a 'mylnstede to build a mill upon in the manor of Wyldon.' (fn. 253) This probably refers to Wildon Grange, though it is not elsewhere called a manor. A mill was subsequently an appurtenance of the grange. (fn. 254)
In 1543 Wildon Grange was granted with Angram Grange to the Archbishop of York. (fn. 255) It was taken over by the Ecclesiastical Commissioners, but the buildings were given back to the archbishop as part of his endowment. (fn. 256) The Ecclesiastical Commissioners are still the landowners.
The church of ST. MICHAEL consists of a chancel 38 ft. 6 in. by 17 ft. 1 in., nave 59 ft. 9 in. by 28 ft. 8 in., south porch and an octagonal west tower 11 ft. 11 in. wide. These dimensions are all internal.
The building dates from about the middle of the 15th century excepting the chancel, which was rebuilt in 1777, and has a modern east window of three lights under a traceried four-centred head. In 1912, since the accompanying plan was made, a window was inserted in the south wall of the chancel, which till then had no side windows. In the westernmost of the three southern bays is a modern doorway. The chancel arch is of two continuous hollow-chamfered orders and has a three-centred arch; the stonework was hidden until a few years ago by a coating of Georgian plaster.
All the windows of the nave—five in the north wall and four in the south—are similar in detail and each consists of three cinquefoiled lights under a traceried four-centred head. Below the fourth on the north side is a blocked doorway of two hollow-chamfered orders with a four-centred arch under a square head; in one spandrel are the letters I H S and in the other apparently a monogram A R. Set in the blocking wall is a square stone panel and a crown. In the south wall near the east end is a trefoiled piscina with a mutilated basin, and next to the south doorway a holy water stoup with a four-centred head; its basin is also broken away. The south doorway has moulded jambs and a pointed arch. The porch has apparently been rebuilt with the old material; it has an outer archway similar in detail to the inner doorway, and is lighted on either side by plain rectangular lights. The western part of the nave is occupied by a wood gallery carrying the organ; this hides the archway from the nave to the tower, which is two-centred and of two chamfered orders dying on to the walls.
The tower rises in one unbroken stage and becomes a true octagon in plan above the nave roof; it is strengthened at the angles by buttresses of seven stages with diagonal faces above the first stage, terminating in diagonal shafts, from which spring small flying arches abutting against pinnacles which rise above the parapet at the angles; these pinnacles have crocketed finials cut off at the top. The pierced parapet is made up of a series of cinquefoiled ogee-headed openings with foliated finials. The west window of the ground stage is of three cinquefoiled lights with a traceried fourcentred head. The bell-chamber windows, of which there are eight, are each of two cinquefoiled lights with traceried four-centred heads; they are divided by transoms with cinquefoiled heads below. The walling throughout is of ashlar. The side walls of the nave are divided into five bays by buttresses of similar character to those of the tower. The diagonal shafts above the top offsets have flying arches behind them which support grotesque gargoyles, and on the north side they finish with crocketed finials; these finials are missing on the south. The parapets are pierced by trefoiled openings and are embattled. They are divided into six bays by pinnacles with crocketed finials. The chancel parapet is made to match the nave.
The chancel has a modern flat oak-panelled ceiling with painted shields at the central intersections. The nave ceiling retains some of its old moulded timbers, but in the main is a modern restoration; the bosses at the intersections of the ribs appear to be mostly original, but have been repainted. There are various devices of beasts, birds and monsters and grotesque heads, together with some shields, among which are the arms of Colvill, Mowbray, Stutevill and Wombwell quartering Bellasis. The roof of the porch has some old moulded timbers and a boss carved with the head of a man carrying a red bag or parcel on his shoulders.
The font is a modern panelled one of stone. There is much late 18th-century woodwork retained in the pulpit and seats. In the chancel are four large monuments against the side walls. At the northeast is the elaborate monument of William Bellasis, who died in 1603; on it is his recumbent effigy beside that of his wife. He is dressed in plate armour with his sword and dagger, his head resting on his helmet, his hands in prayer, and his feet on a stag's head; the lady is in a long dress, a bonnet on the back of her head, and her feet resting on a lion. On the front of the base are three panels, in each of which is the kneeling figure of a man. At the back is a shallow recess with a depressed arch on Corinthian columns. The cornice above is surmounted by inscribed panels surrounded by various coats of arms. Above is a shield of Bellasis of eight quarters. Opposite is a large marble tomb to Barbara daughter of Henry Cholmeley and wife of Thomas Bellasis Viscount Fauconberg and Baron Yarm, who died in 1618. It has the kneeling effigies of the viscount and his lady and at the ends are Corinthian columns which support an entablature and pediment with a second curved pediment above upon which are their arms. The north-west monument is in white marble and is to the Hon. Henry Bellasis, son of Thomas Viscount Fauconberg, who died in 1647, and to Thomas Bellasis Earl Fauconberg, who died in 1700. The latter married first Mildred Saunderson, daughter of Nicholas first Viscount Castleton, and secondly Mary the daughter of Oliver Cromwell. Standing upon the monument is the figure of Henry in Roman dress and that of the earl in the dress of the period holding his coronet, both with full-bottomed wigs. In the south-west is a modern Gothic monument to Henry Bellasis Earl Fauconberg, who died in 1802.
The traceried heads of all the nave windows, excepting the south-west, retain their original 15thcentury glass in a more or less perfect condition. Many are fragments only; in others are angels and saints, bishops, priests and other figures.
There are three bells: the treble cast by Pack & Chapman, 1771; the second is dated 1652 and inscribed 'Soli Deo Gloria Pax Hominibus'; and the tenor, which is inscribed + fiat volvntas tva pater omnepotens (sic) in Roman characters, was probably cast about 1575.
The plate includes two cups with covers, each inscribed 'Coxwold'; one has no marks, the other has the York date mark for 1627 and the maker's mark C.M., for Christopher Mangey. There are two patens, one with the Bellasis arms and crest and the London date mark for 1654 and maker's mark G.B.; the other of Queen Anne's reign, given by Sir George Wombwell, bart., in 1904.
The chapel at BIRDFORTH consists of a chancel measuring internally 13 ft. 8 in. by 10 ft. 10 in. and a nave 36 ft. by 15 ft. The building evidently dates from the 12th century, but has been partly rebuilt in later times, probably in 1585, the date inscribed on a panel in the chancel. The east and only window in the chancel is doubtless of this date and has two elliptical-headed lights. In the south wall are indications of a small blocked rectangular light near the chancel arch, and a change in masonry suggests the filling in of a larger one further east. In the north wall is set the carved stone panel bearing the date 1585; it has a shield with the arms of Thornton impaling Maunsell, with the letters I T and A T, for John Thornton and Anne his wife, daughter of Christopher Thomlinson and Anne Maunsell; in a top corner is another small shield with a bend.
The chancel arch is a plain round one of stone, square in section. The north jamb has been splayed off towards the nave and a part of the south jamb towards the east; the plain abaci are double-chamfered.
The only north window of the nave is a late or modern rectangular light, doubtless opened out for the pulpit. In the south wall are two modern two-light windows and a doorway of new stonework. Between the windows outside can be seen a small blocked round-headed 12thcentury window. The west window is a single elliptical-headed light, probably of the 16th century. Higher up can be seen another small blocked round-headed light. The roofs are gabled. On one of the tie-beams is cut the date '1702 B.'
Coxwold Church was granted to the Prior and convent of Newburgh by Roger de Mowbray in 1145, (fn. 257) and confirmed to them by the pope in 1199 (fn. 258) and by several subsequent royal grants. (fn. 259) The family of Alan Buscel had some right in it in the 13th century, but he (fn. 260) and his heirs (fn. 261) quitclaimed it to the prior. At some unknown date the church must have been appropriated to the priory. (fn. 262) The maintenance of a curate at Coxwold appears among the prior's expenses at the time of the Dissolution. (fn. 263)
The rectory was granted with the advowson in 1547 to the Master and Fellows of Trinity College, Cambridge. (fn. 264) From the time of the Commonwealth down to 1839 they were held on lease by the lords of the manor of Coxwold. (fn. 265) In his will dated 1649 Thomas Lord Fauconberg left his right in the tithes of Coxwold, 'wrongfully detained' from him by his daughter-in-law, to his grandson and heir Thomas Bellasis. (fn. 266) After 1839 the right of presentation was exercised by Trinity College till 1899, when the advowson was conveyed to the Archbishop of York. (fn. 267)
In the charter of foundation granted by Roger de Mowbray to Newburgh the chapels of Silton, Thirkleby and Kilburn are said to be dependent on Coxwold. (fn. 268) In the papal confirmation of 1199 the chapels of Silton and Birdforth are mentioned. (fn. 269) Of these Thirkleby was treated as an independent church in the 16th century. (fn. 270) The advowson of Birdforth seems to have been granted with that of Thirkleby to the Archbishop of York, and in 1786 it was described as a chapel of Thirkleby. (fn. 271) In 1856 it was united with Husthwaite, both livings being described as perpetual curacies, to form a single benefice, to which the respective patrons, the Archbishop of York and Trinity College, Cambridge, were to present alternately. (fn. 272) In 1864, however, the patronage of the united benefice was transferred entirely to the Archbishop of York. (fn. 273)
A chapel at Oulston is mentioned in 1498, when Elizabeth Vavasour of Thornton-on-the-Hill left it a set of vestments. (fn. 274) This chapel was granted to Richard Hill and William James in 1572. (fn. 275) It has now ceased to exist. (fn. 276)
The free school, founded in 1603 by Sir John Harte, Lord Mayor of London, is extinct, the old schoolhouse having been sold in 1894 and the proceeds invested in £773 6s. 3d. consols with the official trustees. The dividends, amounting to £19 6s. 6d., are, together with a fixed annual payment of £36 13s. 4d. issuing out of the manor of Nether Silton, now paid to the school erected in 1863 by Sir George Orby Wombwell, bart. (fn. 277)
Thomas Earl Fauconberg built a hospital for the dwelling of poor aged and impotent men, and by deed dated 27 February 1696 endowed the same with a fee-farm rent of £59 issuing out of the manor of Barwick upon Tees in this county, which now belongs to the trustees of Sir William Turner's Hospital, Kirkleatham. The endowment is applied in payment of pensions quarterly to the ten inmates and in providing them with coats and coals. There was formerly a hospital for women, which seems to have fallen into decay.
Poor lands, consisting of an estate of 16½ acres in the township of Husthwaite, known as Beacon Banks, let at £21 a year, and 7 acres of land in the township of Easingwold, acquired in 1743, let at £8 15s. a year. The net rents are distributed half-yearly in January and June (in 1904 twenty-two poor people received from 10s. to £1 each), also in doles to poor widows and coals at Christmas.