A History of the County of York: Volume 3. Originally published by Victoria County History, London, 1974.
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156-8. THE HOSPITALS OF SCARBOROUGH
The Hospital of St. Nicholas.—At an inquisition held in 1297-8 it was found that both the hospitals of St. Nicholas and St. Thomas the Martyr at Scarborough were anciently founded by the burgesses of that town. As regarded St. Nicholas's Hospital the jurors made return that the goods of the hospital were used for the service of the brothers and sisters, that no one had injured or dilapidated the hospital, and that no lands had been appropriated without warrant, that its property was in the hands of the brothers and sisters, and that the bailiffs of the town with four other men of the borough audited the accounts. (fn. 1)
In 1332 Edward III granted to John the Prior and the convent of the Holy Trinity, York, the hospital of St. Nicholas 'juxta Scardeburgh' with the custody of the same, and the hospital from thenceforward became dependent on the priory. This grant was confirmed by Henry VIII on 27 October 1518. (fn. 2) In the Ministers' Accounts (fn. 3) of the property of the late priory of Trinity at York, 100s. is accounted for as the rent of all the messuages, lands, tenements, &c., in 'Skerburgh' and 'Fallegrave' belonging to the hospital of St. Nicholas of 'Skerburgh' which had been let to Hugh Hungate for thirty-three years from Michaelmas 1532, who was to pay for the same 9 score salt fishes, a barrel of white herrings, and a 'cade' of red herrings, besides 11s. 8d., all of which had been commuted for the 100s. a year.
William de Cliff, appointed 1316 (fn. 4)
William de Thweng, occurs 1406 (fn. 5)
William Calthorpe, appointed 1441, died 1457 (fn. 6)
Thomas Eyre, appointed 1457 (fn. 7)
The Hospital of St. Thomas the Martyr.—At the inquisition held in 1297-8 (fn. 8) it appeared that the hospital of St. Thomas had been founded by the burgesses, on land originally given by Hugh de Bulmer for that purpose, and that the master was appointed by the burgesses. There appears to have been considerable disturbance at one time, when a Roger Wastyse ejected William le Champneys, the master, and the brothers and sisters of the hospital, because he had given false information to the king as to a donation of land being made by Roger's grandfather in pure and free alms to the hospital.
Besides the hospitals of St. Nicholas and St. Thomas the Martyr, there were at least four others in Scarborough, which are mentioned in the will of John Stokdale, burgess, dated 8 October 1468, (fn. 9) viz., the hospital of St. Stephen, to the poor of which he left 3s. 4d.; that of St. James (6s. 8d.); that of the Blessed Virgin Mary (3s. 4d.); and the hospital of St. Mary Magdalene (3s. 4d.), which appears to have been near the castle. (fn. 10) He also left 3s. 4d. to the poor of St. Nicholas, and 6s. 8d. to those of St. Thomas.
159. THE HOSPITAL OF SEAMER
This hospital was presumably founded by one of the Percy family, as in November 1490 Henry VII presented John Sutton to the wardenship of the hospital of St. Laurence near Searner, Robert Wentlegh, clerk, having resigned, and the patronage being in the hands of the Crown by reason of the minority of Henry, Earl of Northumberland. (fn. 11)
160. THE HOSPITAL OF ST. LEONARD, SHEFFIELD
According to Mr. Richard Holmes, in his account of the Lazarite Hospital of Foulsnape at Pontefract, this was also a hospital of that order, (fn. 12) but unfortunately he does not give any authority for the statement. The hospital was founded by William de Lovetot, whose charter, a small slip of parchment with some remains of the appendent seal, was in 1869 in the charge of the Duke of Norfolk's auditor. Dr. Gatty, (fn. 13) from the witnesses' names, assigns it to the reign of Henry II. By it, William de Lovetot granted to the sick (infirmis) of Sheffield the land which Roger held by the bridge of Don, and their living (victus), which was to be taken from his mill of Sheffield. The original endowment was not large, but the hospital probably received other gifts as time went on. Dodsworth, who visited Sheffield in August 1620, says: 'There hath been a spittle there on this side the bridge.' Nothing whatever has been discovered as to its history except that in 1299 Daniel, the keeper of the hospital, complained of Maud de Beauchamp, Countess of Warwick, Thomas de Furnival, and Richard del Clogh of Hallam, for unjustly disseising him of his free tenement in Sheffield. (fn. 14) The hospital stood on a little eminence oh the east side of the town, still called the Spittal-hill. In an inquisition as to concealed lands, 12 February 1583, it is spoken of as a decayed chapel called St. Leonard's Chapel in the parish of Sheffield. In 1522-3 Dom. Edward Hadfeld was. chaplain 'apud le Spittell' at Sheffield, his stipend being £6 per annum. (fn. 15)
161. THE HOSPITAL OF ST. MARY MAGDALENE, SHERBURN - IN - ELMET
The Monasticon (fn. 16) has the following notice of this hospital: 'Tanner says, "upon the archbishop's register about the year 1311 mention is made of an hospital here, dedicated to St. Mary Magdalene; the wardenship of which was in the archbishop's gift." 'The reference intended is no doubt to the appointment by Archbishop Greenfield on 21 May 1311 of Robert de Mysterton 'ad custodiam hospitalis nostri beate Marie juxta Sherburn.' Henry III granted protection for five years to the master and brethren of this hospital in 1261. (fn. 17) Archbishop Thoresby on 10 June 1360 appointed Richard Kay as custos of the hospital or hermitage of Sherburn. It seems that a certain ' frater Johannes de Kildesby heremita' had at that time deserted the charge of the hospital or hermitage for a lengthened period, and had gone wandering away from it, the archbishop, unwilling that it should continue bereft of its custos, appointed Richard Kay in his place.
Wardens or Hermits of Sherburn
Dom. Henry Fraunceys, clerk, 1300 (fn. 18)
Dom. Robert de Mysterton, 1311 (fn. 19)
Dom, John de Midelton, 1346 succ. (fn. 20)
Frater John de Kildesby, deserted (fn. 21)
John Alkokes, hermit, appointed 1369 (fn. 22)
162. THE HOSPITAL OF ST. MARY MAGDALENE, SKIPTON
It appears from an inquisition (fn. 23) as to the extent of the manor of Skipton in Craven taken in 1310 that this was a free chapel within the castle of Skipton, and that the advowson belonged to the lord of the castle. The chapel was called the hospital of St. Mary Magdalene, and had been founded by the alms of the said lord and the freemen of Skipton for the support of lepers. In 1327 John, Prior of Bolton, was attached to answer Thomas de Gargrave, the master of this hospital, for seizing goods belonging to it, valued at 20 marks, in 1306, the hospital at that time being vacant. (fn. 24) The goods taken consisted of corn, barley, oats, and brazen cups and plates. The master claimed 100 marks damage, and the case was sent to a jury. Whitaker (fn. 25) says: 'At Skipton was an ancient hospital, of which I find only a single notice in the person of one Robert styling himself capellanum (sic) Hospitalis de Skepton, 24 Edw. III.' (1350-1).
163. THE HOSPITAL OF ST. EDMUND, SPROTBROUGH
A licence in mortmain was granted by Edward III, 28 October 1364, (fn. 26) to John Fitz William of Emeleye,' kt., that he might grant half an acre of woodland in Sprotbrough, not held in capite, to the master and chaplains of the hospital of St. Edmund of Sprotbrough. By the time of the survey of the chantries, although still retaining the name of hospital, it was also called St. Edmund's Chapel, and had become an ordinary chantry chapel. Anthony Burdit was returned as the 'incumbent,' and it was said to be of the foundation of Fitz Williams, (fn. 27) to 'th'entente the sayd incumbent shulde pray for the soul of the sayd founder, and all Christen soules, and celebrate masse, and other dyvyne service in the chappell of the sayd hospital,' which was distant from the parish church a mile and a half. The goods were valued at 19s. 7d., and the plate at 24s. The hospital possessed lands and tenements, 'beying in dyvers places,' valued in all at £9 14s. 11d. Among them was 'j messuage with th'appurtenances called Ancres House with an orcharde and a close in tholdyng of Elizabeth Whyte wydowe.' There was also a parcel of meadow ground called 'the Ancresse Ings.' (fn. 28) It is noteworthy that the chantry of St. Katherine in the parish church of Sprotbrough 'was fyrste founded by John Fitz Williams in the sayd hospitall of Seynte Edmonde, and afterwards removed to th'aulther of Seynt Edmonde. [Qy. St. Katherine] aforsayd to pray for hys soule and all Christen soules.' (fn. 29)
164. THE HOSPITAL OF SNAITH
In a roll of Pleas of the Crown of the time of Edward I the jurors of the soke of Snaith reported that unknown malefactors had killed Roger Blakedog 'in a certain hospital outside the town of Snaith which is called Dor'. (fn. 30)
165. THE HOSPITAL OF ST. MARY, STAXTON
The position of this hospital is still indicated by a farm called 'Spital House,' in a hamlet of the parish of Willerby in the East Riding. In 1297 the hospital paid 4s. 8d. as its ninth, (fn. 31) and in Kirkby's Inquest (fn. 32) it is recorded that there were 7 carucates of land in Staxton, of which the hospital of St. Mary held 1 carucate in alms, of the gift of Gilbert de Gaunt. The hospital belonged to the priory of Bridlington. (fn. 33)
166. THE HOSPITAL OF TADCASTER
A hospital must have been founded at an early date in Tadcaster, as about 1186 Maud de Percy, Countess of Warwick, finding that the revenues of the hospital were greatly reduced, made it over to the abbey of Sawley. (fn. 34) The infirm inmates agreed to the grant on condition that the monks provided for them as domestici fratres and did not remove them. (fn. 35) Richard de Percy afterwards confirmed to the abbey a carucate of land which used to belong to the hospital of Tadcaster. (fn. 36) The hospital possibly continued in use as a leper-house, as John Gysburne, citizen and merchant of York, in 1385 (fn. 37) left 5s. 'damui leprosorum de Tadcaster.'
167-9. THE HOSPITALS OF TICKHILL
There is an undated letter of Archbishop Walter Gray, (fn. 38) apparently of the year 1225, addressed to the clergy and laity of the deaneries of Doncaster and Retford, exhorting them to contribute towards the brothers of St. Leonard of Tickhill, whose sad condition he recommends to their charity. (fn. 39) That it was a leper-house is evident from a protection granted by Henry III on 8 September 1236, for the lepers of the hospital of St. Leonard, 'Thikehill,' for three years from the Nativity of the Blessed Virgin Mary (8 September). (fn. 40) It was possibly identical with
The Hospital in the Marsh.—Archbishop Melton on 19 June 1325 commissioned John de Sutton, rector of Hemsworth, to visit on his behalf the hospital or chapel in the marsh near Tickhill, by whatever name it was called, and the brothers, priests, servants, and ministers living in the same hospital or chapel, and to inquire into its defects, and matters pertaining to it, and the excesses of the forenamed persons, and to correct the same. (fn. 41)
According to the Monasticon this hospital or chapel was afterwards annexed to the small Benedictine abbey of Humberston in Lincolnshire, and, as part of the possessions of that house, was granted in the first year of Queen Mary to Thomas Reve and George Cotton. (fn. 42)
The Maison Dieu.—It is quite possible that this represents the ancient hospital of St. Leonard, and Langdale seems to take it for granted that it is the same, (fn. 43) but there are no deeds or charters extant relating to the foundation and endowment of the Maison Dieu, which is one of the charities of Tickhill. It
was rebuilt in 1730, and contains eight separate tenements for as many poor persons, and the charity is under the management of three inhabitants of the parish called Maison Dieu masters, who are nominated once in three years by the inhabitants and occupiers of the almshouse, each of the trustees acting exclusively in the direction for one year. The income arises from the rent of 29 a. 0 r. 18 p. of land, two houses, and rent-charges of £1 2s. 2d. Each of the poor persons, usually widows, receives 6s. a month, and they have divided among them £2 at Tickhill Fair, and £1 on the rent day, and they receive each of them one load of coals per annum. The residue of the rents is applied in support of the almshouse and the buildings on the charity estate. (fn. 44)
170. THE HOSPITAL OF ST. LAWRENCE, UPSALL-IN-CLEVELAND
From some deeds in the Guisborough Chartulary (fn. 45) it appears that William Pinchun, c. 115070, (fn. 46) gave half an acre of arable land and half an acre of meadow to the hospital of the lepers of Upsall. About 1180 (fn. 47) Walter de Upsall confirmed to the house of the sick of Upsall an acre of land which Ralph his father had given for the good of his, and his wife's and children's souls; in return the hospital should provide for him so long as he lived. In a grant by Walter de Hoton (fn. 48) to the hospital of St. Leonard of Lowcross certain of the lands are described as being on the east side of the hospital of Upsall, showing that both hospitals were then in existence. Early in the next century, however, (between 1213 and 1234) (fn. 49) Walter de Percy and ten other persons whose ancestors had endowed the hospital of St. Lawrence of Upsall transferred those grants to the lepers of Lowcross, and this no doubt marks the end of the hospital of Upsall. Rather later, Alan de Bulleford released to St. Leonard of Lowcross and the lepers there whatever claim he had, or might have, in the croft and dwelling 'ubi quondam fuit Hospitale S. Laurentii de Upsale.' (fn. 50)
171. THE HOSPITAL OF ST. MICHAEL, WELL
This hospital was founded in 1342 by Ralph Nevill, kt., lord of Middleham, (fn. 51) pro remissione peccatorum meorum, as he states in the foundation charter. It was dedicated to the honour of Almighty God, the Blessed Virgin Mary, blessed Michael Archangel, and All Saints, and was to be called the hospital of St. Michael. It was intended for the increase of divine worship, the maintenance of poor pitiable persons, and other works of piety, in perpetuity. For this purpose the licence of King Edward and also of Robert de Wodehous, Archdeacon of Richmond, had been obtained, and the founder endowed it with the capital messuage of Well, called Houd, and a number of other tenements in Well which are fully described in the charter, as also the advowson of the church of Well. All were conferred on Dom. John de Stayndrop, chaplain, the master, and the priests and the poor brothers and sisters dwelling in the hospital. The master was to have with him, dwelling in the hospital, two fit priests, wearing closed supertunics of black or blue woollen cloth, with a cloak of black cloth, which vesture the master also was to wear. There were to be twenty-four poor and sick or feeble persons dwelling together in the same house, and the master and priests were to say and sing all the canonical hours, as also three masses each day devoutly.
In 1342 Archbishop Zbuch, (fn. 52) on the ground that the endowments were insufficient, granted the hospital power to appropriate the church of Well to their uses, a due portion being assigned to a vicar, who should reside and have cure of souls.
By his will, of 1386, John Nevill of Raby desired his executors to buy the advowson of a church worth 40 li. or 80 marks and appropriate it to the hospital of Well; from this revenue the master was to receive 10 marks yearly, and each brother or sister 2d. or 3d. daily, and from any surplus as many chaplains were to be maintained as the money would permit. (fn. 53)
In 1535 (fn. 54) Richard Threpland was master, and the total revenue of the hospital amounted to £42 12s. 3d. The number of inmates had been reduced to fourteen bedemen, who daily prayed for the souls of the founders. In the certificates of chantries (fn. 55) George Nevyll is returned as master. The hospital was of the foundation of Rauffe Nevyle, to the intent that there should be a master, two priests, and twenty-four poor folks called 'eremettes' to pray for the king and queen, the founders, and all Christian souls. The twenty-four poor folk were, besides their lodging, to have a loaf of bread daily, half a gallon of ale, and 4s. each yearly. For a long time there had been but fourteen poor folk, and 26s. 8d. apiece for their 'dueties and dyettes.' The lack often of the poor folk was alleged by the master to be due to the loss of the profits of the parsonage of Well, by decay of tillage in the parish. The goods were valued at £19 10s. 2d., and the plate at £4. 6s. The total revenues were £65 5s. 7d., less outgoings of £16 15s. 3½d., leaving a clear total of £48 10s. 3½d.
Masters of Well Hospital
John de Stayndrop (first master), 1342 (fn. 56)
Thomas de Aykeskarth, occurs 1390 (fn. 57)
John Bosville, occurs 1413 (fn. 58)
Richard Threpland, occurs 1526 (fn. 61)
George Nevyll, D.D., occurs 1546 (fn. 62)
172. WENTBRIDGE LEPER HOUSE
The only known allusion to the former existence of this house is contained in the will of John de Gysburne, citizen and merchant of York (1385). (fn. 63) He bequeathed 5s. domui leprosorum apud Wentbrig.
173-4. THE HOSPITALS OF WHITBY
The Hospital of St. Michael.— The origin and early history of this hospital are contained in two documents in the Whitby Chartulary. (fn. 64) In 1109, during the abbacy of William de Percy, the first abbot, a leper named Orm sought from the abbot and convent a place where he might make his habitation. A place afterwards called 'Spitylbrydg' or 'Ad Pontem Hospitalis,' was granted him, as well as a corrody of seven loaves and seven lagenae of ale weekly, and a daily service of meat or fish, such as the convent had. Afterwards others, lepers or not, were permitted to live at the hospital, and it was agreed by Abbot William, as well as by his successors, Abbots Nicholas and Benedict, and their convent, that when an inmate of the hospital, leprous or not, died, the body was to be brought to the monastery to be buried there by the monks. One of the monks was appointed master of the hospital, but neither he, nor the brothers or sisters of the hospital, were to admit anyone to it except through the abbot, because, it was said, the original alms came from the mensa of the abbot and convent. The hospital had its own chaplain with cure of souls there. The alms originally granted by Abbot William to Orm were granted in perpetuity to the hospital, as well as land near the hospital, called the Hospital Croft. A monk named Geoffrey Mansell, who was suspected of leprosy by Abbot Benedict and certain of the monks, was sent there and lived at the hospital many years and died there. He cleared the land at 'Helredale,' now called Spittal Vale, and cultivated it.
Robert de Alneto, who is heard of elsewhere as the hermit of Hode who received Abbot Gerald and the convent after they left Calder, was master of the hospital; he appealed to Gundreda the wife of Nigel de Albini and mother of Roger de Mowbray, and she gave to the hospital of St. Michael 2 bovates of land at Honeton with a toft, which the monks of Rievaulx held of the hospital, paying 6s. yearly rent for it, and Aelred, Abbot of Rievaulx, with his convent, undertook to help the inmates by giving them yearly, on the feast of St. Martin, their old vestimenta. During the troublous times of the reign of Stephen, William, Earl of Albemarle, destroyed the vaccary of the monks of Whitby at Kesbec and their mansiones at Thornaby; and Abbot Benedict, fearing other mischief and knowing the kindliness of the earl towards the poor and lepers, let the lepers and brothers of the hospital have their money at Bilroche (Billery). Earl William spared the place on account of the lepers. Abbot Richard I granted to St. Michael's Hospital and the brethren a traveller's corrody, founded in the monastery. He also, by Peter Danum, monk and master of the hospital, granted a place called 'Le Rigge' at Helredale, which the brothers cleared and cultivated; and Walter de Rosels gave to God and St. Michael and the brothers of the place a toft and 1 acre of land at Easington.
The Hospital of St. John the Baptist.— On 8 January 1320 the king granted to Robert de Hemyngburgh, king's clerk, the custody of the hospital of St. John the Baptist, Whitby, with writ of aid for the said Robert directed to the brethren and sisters of the said hospital. (fn. 65) In 1407-8, as the result of an inquisition, the jurors stated that there was no hospital of St. John the Baptist of Whitby of the foundation of the king or his progenitors. (fn. 66)
175. THE HOSPITAL OF ST. NICHOLAS, YARM
According to Tanner this hospital was founded by some member of the Brus family before 1185. (fn. 67) It seems, however, more probable that the founder, if not Alan de Wilton himself, two of whose charters are printed in the Monasticon, (fn. 68) was at least a member of that family, and that members of the Brus family, as chief lords, confirmed and added to the grants made by others.
Alan de Wilton (who died in 1230-1) (fn. 69) granted to God, blessed Mary, blessed Nicholas, and to the hospital of Yarm and the brothers there, 12 bovates of land in Hutton-juxtaRudby, Upleatham, and Middleton-juxta-Leven, for the maintenance of three chaplains and thirteen poor persons in the hospital.
Peter de Brus I (who died 1222) (fn. 70) confirmed to God, blessed Mary, and the hospital of St. Nicholas, and the brothers there, the free multure at all his mills and pasturage for their cattle which Robert de Brus (the founder of Guisborough) granted them. Peter de Brus I also confirmed the grants by one Ailwin, by Adam de Brus his father, by William de Wilton, and by Marmaduke de Thweng. He also gave eight tofts in Yarm, one of which is described as 'juxta castellarium.'
By a second charter (fn. 71) Alan de Wilton granted the hospital of St. Nicholas to God, St. Mary, and St. John the Evangelist, of Healaugh Park, and the canons there, for the health of his own soul, and those of Avice his wife, and Mary his late wife, his brothers, sisters, ancestors, and successors; those of Peter de Brus I and Joan his wife, William the son of Peter de Brus, and for the good estate of Walter [Gray], Archbishop of York, Matthew, Archdeacon of Cleveland; Thomas, Alan's brother; Peter de Brus II and his wife, and William de Tamton and his wife.
This grant of the hospital by Alan de Wilton certainly points to him as its founder, and the mention of the two Peters de Brus is so expressed as to imply that Peter de Brus and his son William were dead, which would limit the date of this grant of the hospital to Healaugh Park as between 1222, when Peter de Brus I died, and 1230, when Alan de Wilton died.
This grant of the hospital was confirmed by Peter de Brus II, (fn. 72) together with a number of grants made to it subsequently, it would seem, to those confirmed by Peter de Brus I. The Healaugh Chartulary contains copies of several gifts of land in neighbouring villages.
Upon the gift of the hospital to Healaugh Park the prior and convent granted the wardenship (fn. 73) to Nigel de Rungeton (fn. 74) and Geoffrey, son of Hugh of Yarm, saving to the convent the supreme wardenship. Nigel de Rungeton and Geoffrey were to find a chaplain to celebrate in the hospital and a clerk to serve him, besides seven poor persons to be fed and clothed there. The first witness to this deed is Thomas de Wilton, the brother and successor of Alan de Wilton. This, again, points to the hospital having been of the foundation of that family.
A rental of 2s. at Lackenby, referred to in the foregoing grant, was given by Hugh de Lackenby to God, St. Mary, blessed Nicholas, and the brothers and sisters of the hospital, out of certain lands (named) in Lackenby for maintaining a lamp to burn before the great altar in the church of St. Nicholas of the hospital during the performance of divine service. (fn. 75)
Some time between 1262 and 1280, when Ralph de Irton, who was a witness, was Prior of Guisborough, William de Percy of Kildale granted to the Prior and convent of Healaugh Park the chapel of St. Hilda at Kildale with its endowments, the obligation being that the canons of Healaugh Park should maintain two chaplains to serve the chapel. (fn. 76) William de Percy died in 1295 and was succeeded by Ernald de Percy IV, (fn. 77) who obtained a return of the gift which William de Percy dudum concessit, and made a re-grant by which the prior and convent were to maintain one chaplain at St. Hilda's, and out of that part of the original endowment lying in Crathorne were to maintain a chaplain at St. Nicholas Hospital, who was to celebrate in the chapel for the soul of William de Percy, his ancestors and heirs, in perpetuity. (fn. 78)
In 1546 the chantry was said to be 'of the foundation of the late Erle of Northumberland.' (fn. 79) Francis Edward was the chaplain, the intent being to say mass in the chapel and pray for the souls of the founder and all Christian souls. The stipend was a yearly rent of 106s. 8d. from the late monastery of Healaugh, and the chapel a mile from the parish church. In 1548, (fn. 80) when William Burdon, aged thirty-six, was chaplain, the same stipend from Healaugh is mentioned, but the obligation is changed to that of doing 'divyne service to the inhabitants thereabouts being distant from the parishe churche a myle.' There was evidently a desire to spare the chaplaincy and represent its duty as conformable with the altered forms of religion.
After the hospital became dependent on the priory of Healaugh Park one of the canons appears to have taken charge of it as master, although not holding that title. (fn. 81)
In the Ministers' Accounts of Healaugh Park (fn. 82) for the year Michaelmas 1535 to Michaelmas 1536, 30s. are accounted as the rent of three closes in Yarm, called Spittell Closes, in the tenure of Matthew Metcalfe; 16s. as the rent of a messuage and garden adjoining in the tenure of William Oldfield, chaplain, late one of the canons, with 18d. as the rent of his camera for the year.