Elizabeth: December 1560, 11-20

Pages 440-451

Calendar of State Papers Foreign: Elizabeth, Volume 3, 1560-1561. Originally published by Her Majesty's Stationery Office, London, 1865.

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December 1560, 11-20

Dec. 12. 794. The Queen to the King of Spain. (fn. 1)
His Ambassador having asked in the King's name for a licence for Lady Dormer, (the grandmother of the Countess of Feria,) and Lady Clarentia to leave the kingdom, she replies that though the matter in itself is a trifle, yet as, if granted, it might lead to results prejudicial to the realm, she has ordered her Ambassador to communicate the grounds of her refusal to him.—Westminster, 12 Dec. 1560.
Copy, countersigned by Ascham. Add. Endd. by Cecil's secretary. Lat. Broadside.
[Dec. 12.] 795. The Earl of Lennox.
"The credit given the Laird of Galstone, sent from my Lord of Lennox's friends in Scotland."
1. To follow the Queen's advice and counsel in all his affairs.
2. To obtain her assistance for his pardon from the French Queen, and the restoration of his earldom, and the earldom of Angus to his wife.
3. If the French Queen's pardon cannot be obtained, he is still to go on with the Queen's assistance, and they will aid him.
4. They impute great sloth to him.
Orig., in a Scottish hand. Endd. by Cecil: Lady Lennox. Credit by L. of Galston. Pp. 3.
Dec. 13. 796. The Queen to Throckmorton.
1. Since his last letter, signifying the French King's answer touching the ratification of the last treaty, his Ambassador resident has declared to her that the treaty is unconfirmed, not through lack of good will on the King's part to continue the amity, but upon occasion of some differences between him and the Scots, for the redress whereof he means very shortly to send unto her two personages to declare certain points which he mislikes in the Scots, and to pass into Scotland, and there assemble a Parliament, and conclude all these controversies, and therewith confirm and ratify the treaty with her.
2. She answered that she thought this delay very strange, having on her part accomplished all things according to the treaty, while the King had not done the like on his side, which was very suspicious. That no Princess was more desirous to keep the accord than she; but if his master meant the contrary she would do her best to provide for the same. If his master would show plainness and honour, he would do well to advertise her of his meaning, either to peace or war; for if he meant not speedily to ratify the treaty, he might do well to stay his two messengers at home. She knew not why the Scots' doings should hinder the ratification of that which was due to her. If she knew that the Scots did not bear meet obedience to their King and Queen, none of such as were presently with her should come within her Court, or remain in her realm; as at their first coming she frankly told them.
3. Then, having called the Scotch Lords into the Ambassador's presence, she charged them with lack of their duty to their Sovereign. They answered that since the treaty of Edinburgh they had not given or meant any offence against the King or Queen, and desired the Ambassador to declare in her presence wherein they had given occasion of offence; who answered that he had no information but in generality from his master. She then charged them, in the Ambassador's hearing, to persist in doing their duties, otherwise she would neither think well of them or show them token of friendship.
4. She has thought meet to give him knowledge hereof, to the intent that he may declare to the King and Council the substance in effect of what she has already said to the Ambassador, telling them plainly, that if they mean not that the treaty shall be ratified out of hand, they may forbear to send the said messengers, as their coming would be but in vain; if they mean otherwise, then they may send the said personages fully authorized for that purpose.
Dec. 13. 5. He shall advertise her as soon as he can of what he does herein. She has caused the circumstances hereof to be declared to the Ambassador of Spain, and her Ambassador resident there by letters here enclosed, to be conveyed to him, with an account of the state of things in France by Throckmorton.
6. After (fn. 2) the writing hereof, she received his letter sent by Davis, mentioning the French King's death. As soon as the French Ambassadors shall notify it to her, she will forthwith send special persons, according to his advice, and such one as may afterwards occupy his room. He is to advertise her as to any notable direction taken for the governance, and inform the Estates of Scotland of any matter meet to be participated unto them.—Westminster, 13 Dec. 3rd Eliz. Signed.
Orig., with seal. Injured by damp. Add. Endd. Pp. 4.
Dec. 13. 797. Copy of the above, partly in Cecil's writing.
Endd. by Cecil's secretary. Pp. 6.
Dec. [13]. 798. Communication with the French Ambassador.
1. The writers are sent to the person addressed [the Spanish Ambassador] in order that he may communicate the following information to his master. They report the Queen's interview with the French Ambassador in the terms following.
2. The Ambassador first declared that the delay in the ratification of the treaty between England and France was caused in great part by the Scots, who had not showed the obedience they promised. The Queen answered that she thought it very strange that, she having done her part, the French King did not do his. She requested him to write frankly what she was about to say, viz., that she meant to do her best to defend herself; that she was not of such poverty nor so void of the obedience of her subjects but she trusted to be able to do this. Nor was she so faint-hearted as she feared to resist the same. She came of the race of lions, and therefore could not sustain the person of a sheep. As for the Ambassadors meant to be sent, unless they came with full commission to make an end of the treaty, it were as good they kept themselves at home. She did not see why Scotland should be a hindrance to the ratification between England and France; besides, the Scots declared that since the treaty they had forfeited in nothing.
3. The Ambassador said that he had nothing special to charge them with, and added that as his master had no navy on the sea there was no occasion for mistrust. The Queen then complained that one of her Ambassador's servants had been demanded by the Inquisition, and desired that his privileges should not be infringed.
Copy. Endd. by Cecil: Communicatio inter reginam et oratorem Galliæ. Pp. 4.
Dec. 14. 799. John Shers to Cecil.
The Bull for the continuation of the Council at Trent is published; it is in print also and abroad. A Nuncio is appointed to the elect Emperor, (for so the Bull gives him title,) and another to the French King; but since, there is certain word that he is dead. Other Bulls were appointed for the said French King, for Spain, and to the Queen. There should have come with the same Bull the Abbot Martinego.—Venice, 14 Dec. 1560. Signed.
Orig. Hol., with seal. Add. Endd. Pp. 2.
Dec. 15. 800. The Queen to the Duke of Arschot.
Has received his letter of the 12th Nov., and thanks him for the horse which he sent her. In return she sends a hackney mare as a present from her to the Duchess.
Endd.: 15 Dec. 1560. Fr. Pp. 2.
Dec. 15. 801. Note of the above.
Endd.: 15 Dec. 1560. Fr. Pp. 2.
Dec. 15. 802. John, Duke of Finland, to the Queen.
1. Was unwillingly compelled to keep back his letters to her, dated 16 Cal. Oct. [16 Sept.], which, had they arrived, would not have expressed his present sentiments, nor corresponded with his present wishes. They related to the intended journey of his brother, Prince Eric, whose departure they had shortly preceded; but the journey of both the letters and the Prince was unexpectedly interrupted. He regrets that hitherto he has not been able to testify his gratitude for the kindness shown to him by her while he visited her, which he is sure she will not misinterpret.
2. She has probably heard that his father, Gustavus, King of Sweden, died on Michaelmas Day, 29 Sept., most inopportunely for the interests of the realm. Is comforted, however, when he remembers his brother's good qualities. He is about to visit her in the hope that he may bring his brother's wishes in regard to her to a successful issue. Again apologizes for his silence.—Stockholm, 18 Cal. Jan. 1560.
Orig. Add. Endd. Lat. Broadside.
Dec. 15. 803. Another copy of the above.
Modern transcript.
Dec. 15. 804. Francis Edwards to Cecil.
1. Since his last of the 3rd, signifying the tumult at Rouen, there has been watching and warding for fear of more brabbling; but now that it is openly known that the Prince is departed, the people are quiet and much rejoiced. They are devising for the government of the new King, and that the Cardinal of Lorraine and the Duke of Guise shall be called to a reckoning. Some say secretly that the Cardinal is slain; others that there will be parts-taking, and that in the Court there is like to be such brabbling. They think themselves not well assured unless the Cardinal and his partners be clearly despatched, or at least from the King's Council displaced. Men think that the matters of Scotland will be now accorded, and say that there are 14,000 francs prepared to pay the garrisons there. Cannot perceive in these parts any matter of shipping. Is informed that the Marseilles galleys at Nantes are in number ten, with only 100 men, besides the slaves; the chief captain is at the Court. Will go to Havre. —Rouen, 11 Dec. 1560. Signed.
2. P. S.—On the 12th the garrison here was discharged; a few remain with the new captain. They think that M. De Fosse shall have his place. All shipping has ceased; those he wrote of in his former letter are despatched. The heads of the Congregation intend in the Christmas holidays to preach openly.—Dieppe, 15 Dec. 1560. Signed.
Orig. Add. Endd. Pp. 3.
Dec. 16. 805. The Queen to the Earl of Lennox.
Whereas he has sent her with his letters the Laird of Gaston for her pleasure to be declared, and favour shown for the furtherance of his causes in Scotland, whereunto it appears by Gaston's credit that divers friends solicit him to dispose himself; she is sorry, in respect of his particular cause, that the death of the French King does so alter the time, or suspend the judgment of what is meet, that it seems requisite for a season to forbear for his causes, and himself also to stay, not doubting but that it will give her better occasion to further the same. She has caused the Earl of Pembroke and Cecil to declare her meaning at more length to the bearer, whom she thought meet not to have stay any longer. Commendations to her dear cousin, the Earl's wife.—16 Dec. 1560.
Draft by Cecil, and endd. by his secretary. Pp. 2.
Dec. 16. 806. Cecil to the Earl of Lennox.
Upon the coming of the Laird of Gaston, the writer immediately presented his [the Earl's] letters to the Queen, together with his whole credit concerning the Earl's affairs, setting them forth in good sort. These the Queen at length offered to certain of her Council, and specially to the Earl of Pembroke. After this time chanced the intelligence of the late French King's death, whereupon she stayed the purpose which before she meant in his cause. Until time better demonstrate what is meet for her, she would that the bearer should return without tarrying any longer. Cecil is sorry for the stay of the Earl's matters, although he perceives great likelihood that they shall hereby be better.—Westminster, 16 Dec.
Draft in Cecil's writing, and endd. by his secretary: 16 Dec. 1560. Pp. 2.
[Dec. 16.] 807. Border Court at Jedburgh.
1. All the gentlemen and possessors of lands within the Middle Wardenry and the principals of clans of East and West Teviotdale, were convened, and were shown that the coming of the Earl [of Arran] to the Borders was chiefly for two respects. First, to entertain the peace of the Queen of England's realm and subjects, and to suppress all such persons as are thieves and commit robbery in England, which was so common, that in times byepast it was esteemed no offence, whereupon followed great disorders. Therefore he commanded them to enter into a perpetual bond that if anyone dwelling in their houses or on their lands should commit any attempt against the subjects of England, they should permit him to be punished according to the laws of the Marches; and if he could not be apprehended, then he upon whose lands he dwelt should recompense the scaith and damage. This bond appeared to them very hard and strange, yet they agreed immediately; so that now they must either expel the truce-breakers or answer for their faults.
2. Further, the Earl declared that any person committing any injury against England should not only undergo the punishment prescribed by the laws of the Marches, but should also bear his hatred and indignation, both the thief and the thief's master, as if it were committed against himself. As for any attempts made since the treaty of peace, the aforesaid gentlemen shall make full redress, according to the laws of the Marches.
3. Before the coming there of the Lord Lieutenant, proclamation was made, charging all persons who had suffered theft or injury by the inhabitants of Teviotdale to give in their complaints, certifying them that justice should be done; and clerks were sent to receive the complaints. The offenders agreed amongst themselves and satisfied the complainers, so that no plaints were heard. The chief occasion of this was that in this Court of justice they proceeded not in the same manner as was customary; that is to say, the thieves for a sum of money given to the Treasurer of the realm obtained pardon for their offences ere ever they came in judgment, and so escaped, and the complainers got no satisfaction. The Lord Lieutenant declared that he was not come to sell crimes for silver, but to cause justice to be executed in all sorts, as he would answer to God.
4. Further, all that made bond in the time of the Queen Regent and Duke were content to renew it, excepting in the point of sitting under assurance of England. It was added to the said bond, that every man should assist his neighbour in punishing the thieves, and that for the slaughter of any thief there should be no feud borne upon the slayer, how "sib" soever the thief were unto them; this was not only in the bond, but they all made faith and solemn oath to the Lord Lieutenant to observe the same.
[Dec. 16.] 5. After the Earl's coming they received some complaints of the inhabitants of Liddlesdale; for whom order was taken that they should make full restitution for all attempts committed against England since the peace. Albeit of old they committed sundry attempts against the English, yet of late they have ceased, and since the beginning of the siege of Leith have suffered very great injuries both in their persons and goods; whereof if they get due redress before the Warden, they will be able to make redress of the attempts committed by them. For redress of the attempts committed by them against Scotchmen, a Court will be held on the 23rd and 24th inst., by Lord Borthwick, and a bye-Court in January. The like of this was never done before. The Lord Lieutenant will send Sir David Hamilton of Preston to see whether Lord Borthwick does his duty, and a company of harquebussiers to assist him against the disobedient.
6. After the coming of the narrators they understood of some notable offenders, and the Lord Lieutenant directed charges to the possessors of the lands where the said offenders dwelt, comanding them to put them before him upon the morning after the charge. The answer was that they had fled, carrying away their goods; therefore they had assigned to them till the 10th of January next to compear in Edinburgh before the Lords of the Secret Council, and show their diligence in apprehending the defaulters, and uplifting their goods for the Queen's use, putting their wives and bairns forth of their rooms. Which charge they willingly received.
7. There were great variances among the inhabitants of Teviotdale by reason of deadly feuds, and for slaughters committed of old; whereof never had they that bore the authority done justice, and which had been a great hindrance to justice; as, for fear of their party, they dare not assist the Warden at the days of truce, nor yet travail in their lawful business, for they were ever in point to slay or be slain, where they foregathered with their enemies. The Lord Lieutenant has therefore caused all between whom there was any feud to give and take effectual assurance till the first Sunday after Pasch, and they have promised by amicable composition and good arbitration to decide all controversies.
8. There is an attempt committed by John Haliburton of Murrayslaw upon Willie Nickson, (called Gimmerhorn,) an Englishman, prisoner to the Laird of Farnihurst, which John is in ward at Edinburgh, until the said Gimmerhorn convalesce of his hurting or not. There is also one face of a public kirk erected in Jedburgh, and ministers, elders, and deacons appointed; the like shall be done over the rest of the wardenry. There was some disorder committed before both the Wardens by the Laird of Ormiston in Teviotdale and John Rutherford of the Knowe, whom the Lord Lieutenant brought with him, and put them in ward till they be punished. Having been informed that certain of the clans of East Teviotdale had made a league for the hindrance of justice, and to stop the making of redress to England, the authors of this conspiracy have been summoned to appear before the Council upon the 10th January, to undergo the trial and punishment of their faults.
Copy, in a Scottish hand. Endd. by Randolph: Nov. 1560. Extract of those things that were done at Gedworth, by my Lord of Arran for order upon the Borders. Pp. 4.
Dec. 17. 808. The Council in the North to the Queen.
1. Have kept a session of Oyer and a general gaol delivery at York Castle, whereat were arraigned and condemned eleven persons; ten for sundry murders and felonies, whereof eight were executed, and two by their clergy committed to the ordinary, and the other, for seditious words against the Queen, was punished upon the pillory with loss of his ears, and imprisonment.
2. The greatest trouble amongst the people is concerning the basest sorts of testons, which are refused to be taken, to the great murmuring of the poor, who, having little money to spare, greatly fear lest they should be left on their hands at the end of the four months for which they were proclaimed to be current. If the Queen would either send down good money to be exchanged, or else proclaim that the base testons should be received as bullion at the mint for two or three months, they think it would much quiet the people. The country has also in some parts been troubled with untrue rumours that the Queen would have after a certain day 10s. for every marriage, 6s. 8d. for every burial, and 3s. 4d. for every christening, and in some places that she would have all men's cattle being unmarked; the which false rumours, by the apprehension and punishment of some evil persons who were the false reporters thereof, are now well stayed.—York, 17 Dec. 1560. Signed: Thomas Gargrave, Nicholas Fairfax, William Vavasour, John Vaughan, Henry Savile, Christopher Estoft, Francis Frobisher, Thomas Eynns.
Orig. Add. Endd. Pp. 2.
Dec. 17. 809. Sir Thomas Gargrave to Cecil.
Gives him the same intelligence respecting the base money and the false rumours as is contained in the Council's letter to the Queen of the same date; adding that the rumours appear to have had their rise in the vicinity of Lincolnshire. Would be glad to repair to London to finish his old suit, but being appointed Vice-President of the Council, he has no authority so to do. Desires the Queen's licence to appoint one to occupy his place during his absence.—York, 17 Dec. 1560. Signed.
Orig. Hol., with seal. Add. Endd. by Cecil's secretary. Pp. 3.
Dec. 17. 810. Mundt to Cecil.
Wrote last on the 3rd, since which time he has learnt from one who came from the Elector Palatine, that the Electors and other Protestant Princes would meet in January, or a little later, in Thuringia, which is on the boundaries of Saxony, and near Misnia, where the Elector of Saxony lives. The recent death of the French King will probably put off this meeting; for the Princes proposed to write from the assembly to the three Estates of France, who were to have been convened in December, concerning the restoration of Metz to the Empire, as if they did not know that Metz must be recovered by arms, and not by writing. No news from Switzerland, except that their dispute is deferred to the Epiphany, when all the cantons will assemble to discuss the matter.—Strasburg, 17 Dec. 1560. Signed.
Orig. Hol., with seal. Add. Endd. Lat. Pp. 2.
Dec. 17. 811. Obsequies of Gustavus, King of Sweden.
1. The King departed about 6 o'clock in the morning of the 29th of September, very godly and christianly, for in his sickness he gave over his power to his eldest son, Duke Eric, and desired only to hear of God and His Word. His corpse was richly embalmed. On the eighth day following, the corpse was princely apparelled in a long gown of black velvet; about the cincture thereof was written in silver and gold, "Gustavus," with a crown upon his head, a sceptre in his hand, and a sword by his side, being all of silver and gilt. Being so apparelled, he was laid in his hearse by the highest Bishops and noblest Knights of the realm, and so lay until "Alhallentyde," when the chest was shut up and enclosed in black velvet, with a cross of gold upon it. He lay in the same hearse eight weeks in the palace at Stockholm, covered with a cloth of gold.
2. The 17th of December the King, with two of his wives, before deceased, were with great pomp and solemnity carried into the archbishopric of Upsal, with great lamentation, in this wise following, and eight days before and after all the bells in the towns and villages were rung for one hour.
3. First, there was a horse-litter, being very great and square, with four pillars at the corners, gilted, wherein the two Queens, Katherine and Margaret, were laid, and the King between them. The litter was covered with black velvet, with crowns of gold and pearl embroidered thereupon and the King's arms in the midst, and upon the sides were the Queen's arms, as low as the ground, and at the head and feet were the King's arms wrought in gold, and an angel upholding each of the arms. Within the litter were the pictures of the King and the Queens, apparelled as they had been living, the Queens being in gowns of black velvet, with guards of gold upon them, and each had a crown upon her head and a sceptre in her hand of silver and gilt. Under neath the crown were coifs of gold. The King had a crown upon his head, and a sceptre in one hand, and an apple with a cross upon it of gold in the other, dressed in a black velvet gown, with a cape of powdered "armynes" [ermines], which gown was garnished with letters of silver and gilt, and a "carkenet" of gold about his neck. They seemed to be alive.
The Departure from Stockholm.
4. First went 700 lanceknights on foot; after them came 200 horsemen, all in black array; then came 200 scholars and 405 priests, all of whom sang Psalms. After them followed four heralds with their coats of armour; then came twenty-four "trusshes," or men on horsehack, who carried twenty-four arms of as many countries whereof he had been King and Lord. After them came a Knight bearing the head banner of the arms of Sweden, followed by another Knight with the King's shield and helmet; upon the helmet a golden crown. Then other Knights carrying the King's armour complete, and one the King's sword, naked. All these Knights were apparelled with black cloth, and their horses likewise, down to the ground.
5. Then came the litter, which was carried with four black horses, covered with black velvet to the ground. After the litter came a Knight leading the King's horse (for his own saddle), trimmed so as the King was accustomed to ride. After this came Duke Eric, his eldest son, alone; then John, Duke of Finland, and Duke Magnus, his brother, together, and after them Duke Charles and Earl Etzarte, together; and by them there went on foot 150 [men], all in black. Then came the King's daughters, namely, Ladies Cecilia, Anna, Sophia, and Lady Elizabeth; and after them the Queen, each riding in a "sleade" alone, all covered and trimmed with black. After them came all the Ladies, 100 in number, and then the Lords of the Court, to the number of 300 horse; then followed 1,500 Dutch horsemen.
6. On the 21st December (St. Thomas's Day) the body was buried very solemnly, with much lamentation. The hearse was brought into the church and set down. Then all the late King's worthy deeds were openly declared in the pulpit, both how he came to the crown and reigned, how he had amended the realm, and how he had kept it in peace. Then there was sung a Psalm, and a sermon was preached. After the sermon the hearse was carried behind the choir into a vault to be buried, and as soon as they had entered the same, the Knight who carried the sword (whose name was "Hereswant") stood at the door of the vault, and cried three times, "The high and mighty King Gustavus is dead." When he had done this he delivered the sword to the newly elected King, Duke Eric, and said that he should take the sword and so rule therewith as his father had done before him. As soon as the sword was delivered, all the trumpets sounded three times. After that the King delivered the sword again to him, and made him Chief Marshal of his realm; then the young King departed thence, and upon Christmas Day he came again to Stockholm, and at his entrance there was fired a hundred pieces of ordnance.
Copy. Endd. Pp. 3.
Dec. 19. 812. Lord Grey to Cecil.
Upon receipt of his advertisement of the French King's death, he posted the tidings to the Duke of Châtellerault at Edinburgh, who marvellously rejoiced therein, and despatched a man of his with speed to his son at Jedburgh with the letter. But long before his arrival, having received the same news from Lord Grey, he had sent it likewise with diligence to his father. When such agreeable news comes to him, he will not fail to participate it with friends. Through the Laird of Cessford's good will to justice, he hopes to frame the Borders to perfect tranquillity. Now that Northumberland is reformed, it is expedient that he had his commission of Oyer and Terminer, to the end that, all offences being perfectly sifted and bolted out, nothing prejudicial to quiet may be left unredressed. Desires to know what is to be done with John Brenton (a thief), whom he detains in ward.—Berwick, 19 Dec. 1560. Signed.
Orig. Add. Endd. Pp. 2.
Dec. 20. 813. Adolph, Duke of Holstein, K.G., to Cecil. (fn. 3)
His envoy lately sent to the Queen has informed him that Cecil has graciously received the letter of the writer, and expressed his goodwill towards him. Begs that he will assist his envoy in furthering the writer's cause with the Queen.— Gottorp, 20 Dec. 1560. Signed.
Orig. Add. Endd. by Cecil's secretary. Lat. Pp. 2.
Dec. 20. 814. Circular of the Duke of Châtellerault and Others.
The Lord of St. John's having now returned from France with answer to the affairs committed to his charge, and seeing that the same is ordered to be declared to the Estates, and that in the meantime the French King has died, the writers advertise the person addressed thereof, in order that he may convene with them to consult upon the Lord of St. John's answer, and as to what is their duty towards their Sovereign. For this purpose he is to be at Edinburgh on the 15 January next.—Edinburgh, 20 Dec. 1560. Signed: James, James Hamilton, Menteith, James Stewart, Erskine, Rothes, R. Boyd.
Orig. Endd. partly by Cecil, partly by Randolph. Pp. 2.


  • 1. Another copy occurs in the MS. Reg. 13 B. 1, fol. 33 b.
  • 2. From this point the draft (see next article) is in Cecil's hand.
  • 3. Adolph, Duke of Holstein, to the Queen.
    Dec. 22.
    B. M. Nero, B. iii. 155.
    His Ambassador having written that he has been kindly received by her, he thanks her for her goodness. Is grieved to hear that she has not been in good health. Since the writer's departure from England this has always been a cause of anxiety to him. Reminds her that before he left England she promised that she would return a definite answer, by his messenger, in regard to the matter which had been in progress even before he came into England; and he asks her now to inform him [the writer] what he may hope. Trusts that she continues in the same kind and affectionate sentiments in which she promised to remain.— Gottorp, 22 Dec. 1560. Signed.
    Orig. Hol., with seal. Appended is the motto, Spero dum spiro, in the Duke's writing. Lat. Pp. 2.
    Dec. 22.
    B.M. Sloane, 4152, 137.
    Another copy of the above.
    Forbes' transcript.