Spain: November 1523

Pages 591-596

Calendar of State Papers, Spain, Volume 2, 1509-1525. Originally published by Her Majesty's Stationery Office, London, 1866.

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November 1523

6 Nov.
S. E. Pat. Re. Cap. c. l. Cas. d. A. L. 6. f. 2.
608. Ferdinand, Infante Of Spain and Archduke Of Austria, Imperial Lieutenant-General, to Count Antonius De Comitibus Paduæ, Imperial Treasurer.
On his way to the Prince of the Moscovites he is to see the King of Poland, and to ask him to become a party to the general treaty of peace in Christendom which the Pope is now negotiating, in order that a common war against the Turks may be carried on with more vigour. The Emperor has offered the King of France a truce of three years, and has used all his influence with the King of England in order to persuade him to conclude a similar truce with France.
Affairs of Poland, Russia, Hungary, &c.—Vienna, the 6th of November 1523.
Latin. Copy. pp. 5.
6 Nov.
S. E. Pat. Re. Cap. c. l. Cas. d. A. L. 6. f. 3.
609. Ferdinand, Infante Of Spain and Archduke Of Austria to the Count Antonius De Comitibus Paduæ.
This document is another copy of the same instruction.
18 Nov.
M. Re. Ac. d. Hist. Salazar. A. 29. f. 423.
610. The Duke Of Sessa, Imperial Ambassador in Rome, to the Emperor.
The Cardinal de Medicis is elected Pope. He is entirely his creature. His (the Emperor's) power is so great that he might "convert stones into obedient sons." The Cardinal Colonna has made his submission.
Milan, Genoa, &c.—Rome, the 18th of November 1523.
Addressed : "... always victorious Cœsar ... Sicily ... our sovereign Lord."
Indorsed : "To the King. Rome, 1523. Duke of Sessa. The 18th of November. Answered."
Spanish. Autograph. p. 1.
19 Nov.
S. E. L. 2003. f. 127.
611. Election Of Pope Clement VII.
Pope Adrian VI. died on the 18th calend (fn. 1) of October 1523, leaving behind him the reputation of having been very stingy and very weak. (fn. 2)
The Cardinal of Volterra was set at liberty.
The cardinals present in Rome at the death of Pope Adrian were—
Cardinal Bishops.
Bernardinus Carbajal, Spaniard ;
Soderini, Cardinal of Volterra, Florentine ;
Nicolaus Fiesco, Genoese ;
Alessandro Farnese, Roman ;
Antonio Monte, from Arezzo.
Cardinal Presbyters.
Petrus de Accoltis, from Arezzo ;
Achilles de Grassis, from Bologna ;
Laurentius Pucci, Penitentiarius, Florentine ;
Giovanni Piccolomini, Sienese ;
Julius de Medicis, Vice-Chancellor, Florentine ;
Andrea de Valle, Roman ;
Giov. Bapt. Pallavicini, Genoese ;
Scaramuccio Trivulzio, Milanese ;
Pompeo Colonna, Roman ;
Dominico Jacobacius, Roman ;
Laurentius Campegio, from Bologna ;
Ferdinandus Ponzeta, Neapolitan ;
Silvius Passerini, from Cortona ;
Francesco Armellino, Camerarius, from Perugia ;
Guillermus Raimundus Vich, Spaniard ;
Egidio, from Viterbo ;
Cristophoro Dominico Numali, from Forli ;
Wilhelmus, Bishop of Tortosa, Fleming.
Cardinal Deacons.
Marco Cornelio, Venetian ;
Sigismondo Gonzaga, from Mantua ;
Innocentius Cibo, Genoese ;
Paolo Cesi, Roman ;
Alessandro Passerini, Roman ;
Giov. Salviati, Florentine ;
Nicolao Ridolphi, Florentine ;
Hercules Rangone, from Mantua ;
Aug. Trivulzio, Milanese ;
Francesco Pisani, Venetian.
Troubled state of Italy.
Preparations for the conclave.
Custody of the city.
The cardinals were divided into two parties ; one of which was formed by the 19 elder cardinals, all of them hostile to the Cardinal de Medicis. The other party was formed by the 13 younger cardinals, all of whom were created by Pope Leo X.
The King of France declared himself openly against the election of the Cardinal de Medicis.
The Cardinal Monte very much desired to become Pope, and asked the Cardinal de Medicis to give him three votes of his party if [blank]. The Cardinal de Medicis, not believing that [blank], promised him eight votes.
The next day Cardinal Monte had 16 tickets in his favour, and three cardinals went over to him. Had the Cardinal de Medicis given him the promised votes, he would have been duly elected. But the Cardinal de Medicis did not do so, as he had promised to give the votes of his party only in case that Monte should have 18 votes in his favour without counting the votes of the cardinals who went over to him.
The elder cardinals were indignant at the behaviour of the Cardinal de Medicis, and decided not to vote for any of the party of the Cardinal de Medicis. The Cardinals Sta. Croce, Farnese, Jacobacius, and Ponzeta, who had promised him their votes, retracted their promises.
The Cardinal de Medicis offered all the votes of his party to the elder cardinals, who did not accept his conditions.
In the scrutiny of next day the Cardinal Armellino had 13 votes. The junior cardinals did not vote.
On the 8th calend of November (25th October), both parties, that of the elder as well as of the younger cardinals, swore not to elect any Pope belonging to the other party.
Pridie calend. November (31st October), Albertus Pius, (fn. 3) ambassador of the King of France, arrived, and exhorted the cardinals soon to elect a Pope. The junior cardinals decided that any one of them, before delivering the tickets, ought to show them to two cardinals of their party.
The Cardinal Farnese exhorted the other cardinals to elect a Roman as Pope.
Tertio non. (3rd November). The Cardinal Jacobacius had 10 votes.
The Cardinal Cesi exhorted the cardinals, in a vehement discourse, to make a good election.
Quarto Id. (10th November).
Bonifacio Ferrero, (fn. 4) Cardinal of Ivrea, entered the conclave.
The Cardinal Soderini and the Cardinal of Mantua, who were of the French party, begged the Cardinal Colonna to give his votes to the Cardinal Fiesco. Colonna was indignant at this demand, and reconciled himself with the Cardinal de Medicis. Colonna tried to persuade the Cardinal Cornelio to give his vote to the Cardinal de Medicis. The Cardinal Cornelio, who was an old enemy of the Cardinal de Medicis, endeavoured first to dissuade Colonna, and when he saw that that was impossible, he begged time to think about the matter. Colonna assembled all the senior cardinals and conferred with them on the election of the Cardinal de Medicis. As he did not find them much inclined to give their votes to the Cardinal de Medicis, he proposed to the Cardinal de Medicis to give the votes which he had at his disposal to the Cardinal Cornelio, who had already so many votes that, with the addition of those of the Cardinal de Medicis, his election would have been carried. But on more maturely considering the matter, both Colonna and De Medicis were afraid that a schism of the Church would be the consequence of the election of the Cardinal Cornelio. They, therefore, decided to insist on the election of the Cardinal de Medicis, and to try to wear out the patience of their adversaries. As, however, their adversaries remained firm, they began to fear the defection of some cardinals of their party. To prevent that, the Cardinal Colonna rose and said, "All who wish to have Julius for Pope and to preserve the (Christian) Republic intact follow me!" (fn. 5) The disputes of the cardinals then ceased. They asked a short time for deliberation, after which Julius, Cardinal de Medicis, was elected Pope by the inspiration of God. That God inspired his election is clear, as neither the Emperor nor the King (of France) had been able to influence even such cardinals as had their bishoprics in their states.
The Cardinal de Medicis assumed the name of Clement VII.
Latin. Copy, made in the Papal Archives by Johannes Berzosa, at the command of King Philip II. of Spain. pp. 18.
19 and 20 Nov.
M. Re. Ac. d. Hist. Salazar. A. 29. ff. 428-430.
612. Lope Hurtado De Mendoza to the Emperor.
In order to have the Pope for his friend he must gain his servants.
Colonna has behaved well, and deserves the places which De Medicis formerly held. His influence on the other cardinals is great.
The Cardinals Ancona and Santi Quatuor remain in the same posts which they occupied under Pope Leo.
Johan Matheo is Datary, and his opinion is asked upon all kinds of business. The Pope likes him much.
The Archbishop of Capua and Augustino Folleta are at the head of foreign affairs.
The Archbishop of Capua is satisfied, but Johan Matheo and Augustino complain that the promises made to them are not fulfilled. Thinks it necessary to fulfil them without delay.
Alberto di Carpi is a "devil." He knows all and meddles in everything. Although ambassador of the King of France, he has greatly contributed to carry the election of De Medicis. He must either win him over or destroy him. Thinks that he is, at all events, dangerous in his place as French ambassador in Rome.—Rome, the 19th of November.
Post datum.—The Pope gives his cardinal's hat to the Archbishop of Capua.—Rome, the 20th of November.
Indorsed : "To the King. Rome, 1523. Lope Hurtado. The 20th of November."
Spanish. Autograph in cipher. Contemporary deciphering. pp. 2.
30 Nov.
M. Re. Ac. d. Hist. Salazar. A. 29. f. 496.
613. The Prothonotary Caracciolo to the Emperor.
Had a long conversation with the Pope, who told him that his intention was to continue as Pope the unlimited and indissoluble friendship he had shown him (the Emperor) when he was cardinal. He added that the Duke of Sessa had, among other things, urged him to ratify the league (fn. 6) which Pope Adrian had concluded. He was willing, he said, to pay his portion of the expenses of the army, and to exhort the Venetians to fulfil their obligations towards the league, in order that the attempts of the French might be frustrated ; but having been elected Pope so short a time ago, he does not intend openly to declare himself the enemy of any prince of Christendom.
Besides, he said, one of the articles of the agreement made in the conclave was that without the consent of the College of Cardinals he should not begin war nor make peace. As the Turks threaten to conquer Christian states, it seems to him that it is his first duty as Pope to bring about a general peace of all Christian princes, and he begs him (the Emperor), as the firstborn son of the Church, to aid him in this pious work.
Answered the Pope that with a good conscience he might enter a league, the object of which was to secure peace and safety to Italy, especially as he had already been a member of it when he was a cardinal. Nor was any danger to be apprehended for him or for the Apostolic See, as he (the Emperor) had on his side the King of England, Germany, Hungary, and all the princes of Christendom, with the exception of the King of France, who is the disturber of the peace of Christendom.
His remonstrances remained without effect, and his Holiness repeated that he could not openly declare himself in favour of a league against France. He would, he said, try to conclude a general truce among all Christian states.
Thinks it would be best not to put too strong a pressure on the Pope. The French, who are the natural enemies of the Apostolic See, will soon offend the Pope.
The Pope desires to show him (the Emperor) confidence, and to place the house of De Medicis under his protection for ever.—Rome, the 30th of November 1523.
Addressed : "To his sacred Majesty."
Indorsed : "To the King. From Milan. 1524. (fn. 7) Prothonotary Caracciolo. The 30th of November. Answered."
Italian. Holograph, partly in cipher. Contemporary deciphering. pp. 5.


  • 1. 14th September.
  • 2. "Avarior judicatus est et inertior."
  • 3. Albertus Pius, Count of Carpi.
  • 4. Bonifacius Femerias, Cardinalis Iporegieñs in the copy. Bonifacio Ferrero, Bishop of Ivrea, and Cardinal of the title of St. Nero and St Achilles.
  • 5. .. "Surgens Columnencis dixit qui volunt Julium Pontificem et salvam rempublicam me sequantur..."
  • 6. The league between the Pope, the Emperor, the King of England, the Duke of Milan, Venice, &c.
  • 7. The indorsement, although contemporary and in the hand, as it seems, of the Secretary Francisco de los Covos, is apparently incorrect.