Spain: May 1526, 16-25

Pages 693-710

Calendar of State Papers, Spain, Volume 3 Part 1, 1525-1526. Originally published by Her Majesty's Stationery Office, London, 1873.

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May 1526, 16-25

16 May. 423. Charles de Lannoy to the Emperor.
Arch. d. Royme de
Belg. Doc. Hist.
III., f. 201.
Lanz. Corresp.
vol. I., p. 209.
Sees no symptoms of King Francis consenting to give up Burgundy. Begs for instructions how to act; also that Don Ugo de Moncada be speedily despatched [to Italy], as affairs there are in a critical condition. Desires leave to go to Naples, since he can be of no use in France; and the dealings of the Pope, England, France and the Venetians are such that his presence in that kingdom [Naples] is urgently required.
The Emperor knows what love his Grand Chancellor (Mercurino di Gattinara) bears him (Lannoy), and how he is always trying to make provisions and appointments unlikely to forward the Imperial service, such as the appointment he once thought of making of the Duke of Sessa in the room of Count di Santa Severina. (fn. n1) Hears also that the said Chancellor retains as long as he can the letters patent of the fiefs which the Emperor has been pleased to grant him, as well as of the sums of money owing to him; and has, moreover, persuaded the Emperor to keep him (Lannoy) in France, where he can be of no earthly use, and is doing all he can to injure his reputation and deprive him of the Emperor's favour.—Cognac, 16 May 1526.
French. Copy.
17 May. 424. Lope de Soria, Imperial Ambassador in Genoa, to the Emperor.
M. Re. Ac. d. Hist.
Salazar, A. 37,
ff. 251–3.
Received on the 9th instant the Imperial letter of the 27th April. Respecting the galleys there is nothing to be said. They must already be in Catalonia. Hopes that the arrival of Don Ugo de Moncada will produce a good effect, and calm people's minds. (fn. n2) The sooner he comes to Milan and Rome the better.
Thanks the Emperor for the grant of Gavi.
Andrea Doria has gone with his galleys to take service with the Pope. He left behind him, at Antibo, a nephew of his, named Antonio, who is arming two galleys. The Lord of Monaco writes, in date of the 12th instant, that this Antonio is likely to follow in the footsteps of his uncle. He is capturing all the Spaniards he can, and putting them to the oars in his galleys. Lately he had taken 30 prisoners on board a caravel bound for that port. Prompt measures must be taken if the subjects and vassals of the Empire are to cross the sea with security, and not be treated as so many infidels. (Cipher:) He (Soria) knows the way to punish these sea-robbers; and if the Emperor will only give the order, he has a plan, with the assistance of Portundo and his galleys, for putting down this nuisance and ridding the Emperor and the Signory of such dangerous enemies as the Doria family and the Fragosi are.
The Imperial army (he hears) is in great want. It is reported that the Venetians, with the consent and favour of the Pope, are about to attack the castle of Milan, for which purpose a certain number of Switzers has been engaged. The Imperial flags no longer float on the towers of the castle; they have all been removed and replaced by branches of trees. The citizens are quiet at present, but their intentions are not good (no tienen buenos los corazones).
In case of Mons. de Bourbon's journey being delayed, it would be absolutely necessary to have the Genoese galleys back for the defence of this port and city, or else that those of Naples be sent here, for certainly there is everything to fear from the attacks of the enemy.
Letters from Milan announce the sudden departure of the Papal Nuncio (Micer Bernaldino della Barba), who went to Rome post-haste without taking leave of anyone. On the arrival of this letter he (Soria) imagines that the Emperor will know the motives of his absence.—Genoa, 17 May 1526.
Signed: "Lope de Soria."
Addressed: "To the Sacred, Imperial and Catholic Majesty."
Indorsed: "The King. 1526. Lope de Soria, 17 May Answered."
Spanish. Original partly in cipher. Contemporary deciphering on separate sheet. pp. 3.
18 May. 425. The Emperor to the Duke of Sessa.
M. Re. Ac. d. Hist.
Muñoz, A. 83,
Illustrious Duke, &c.—As Don Ugo de Moncada, who left the court of France on the 22d of April last, must already be at Rome, We need not reply to the particulars of your two letters of the 23d April and 4th of May.
Up to the present time His most Serene Majesty the King of France has not fulfilled the conditions of the treaty [of Madrid], alleging the impossibility in which he finds himself of making the restitution of Burgundy, offering instead money to the amount of two millions of ducats, and declaring his readiness to comply with all other articles. We have not accepted his proposals, nor do We intend to allow of any change in this matter; on the contrary, We insist upon the fulfilment of the said stipulation, or else upon his returning [to Spain] and constituting himself a prisoner in our hands, according to his most solemn promise. Such being the state of things, the question whether a new agreement (concierto) is to be entered into with France or not depends, in a great measure, upon the settlement of our questions with His Holiness, as the negotiations [with France] must necessarily be regulated according to that arrangement. The experience of the past shows what little reason His Holiness has to complain of us, for We have always been, and are still, his most obedient and dutiful son, as well as the best protector of his Apostolic See. And yet his late practices and designs are a proof that our constant affection and filial love have not been duly appreciated by His Holiness. We sincerely hope that the arrival of Don Ugo de Moncada, who takes our final resolution on all pending matters, will convince His Holiness of our ardent wish for the welfare of Christianity at large, and that he (the Pope) will be satisfied with our arrangement, which, ere the receipt of this, you have, no doubt, concluded.
We implicitly believe His Holiness' assertion that he has been, and is still, warmly solicited by the French, though these last publicly state the reverse.
To your despatch, brought by your servant Pero Hernandez, a suitable reply was made, which he himself took back.
With regard to your surmises about England, time will show if they are well founded or not.
Our army has been supplied with money till the arrival [there] of Mons. de Bourbon, who is only waiting for the Spanish galleys to join the Genoese now at Barcelona.
Respecting Micer Bernardino della Barba,—who left Milan and went to that city (Rome) by post, at His Holiness' command as it is said, but in reality in consequence of the suspicions that hang over him,—you may show His Holiness the judicial inquiry instituted at that city, the declaration of witnesses and so forth, provided his complicity be sufficiently proved, for otherwise it would be better to dissemble and let the affair pass unnoticed.
The explanation you give of Count Rangone's late behaviour seems to us reasonable. But what you say about the Turk gives us much pain and anxiety. We will prepare for the emergency, and do everything in our power to arrest his progress. Indeed, We would already have done so had His Holiness granted us the Crusade in time, as We have so often requested him to do.
We are of opinion that the Archbishop of Capua (Schomberg) ought to be persuaded not to quit Rome until the present business is settled.—Granada, 18 May 1526. (fn. n3)
Post data.—Your letters of the 18th, 25th and 26th April have just come to hand. No answer is required to them, since Don Hugo must already be in Rome, and it is to be hoped that the negotiation has by this time been brought to a close, according to our instructions and wishes. Should it fail, there will be need of fresh counsel (nuevos consejos), and therefore We are anxiously waiting for advices.
Indorsed: "The King to the Duke of Sessa, 23 May."
Spanish. Original draft, corrected by Gattinara. pp. 2.
18 May. 426. The Duke of Sessa, Imperial Ambassador in Rome, to the Emperor.
M. Re. Ac. d. Hist.
Salazar, A. 37,
f. 264.
His letter of the 10th was written and closed when the Emperor's, of the 27th of April, came to hand. Is very glad to hear that what he (Sessa) said to the Pope, in pursuance of the instructions brought by Pero Hernandez, has given satisfaction; and also that Don Ugo de Moncada is coming. If he arrives soon, and brings, as reported, full powers to treat, he (Sessa) has no doubt but that the negotiations will be brought to a satisfactory issue. Commander Herrera is leaving [for Spain] and will be able to inform the Emperor by word of mouth much better than he (Sessa) can do in writing.
(Cipher:) Since the arrival of this last courier the Pope appears in better humour. This he (Sessa) has heard from various parties, for, owing to the plague which broke out in his house, he has been unable to stir out or call upon His Holiness. Has been told that the Legate in Spain (Salviati) writes that Don Ugo is bringing a suitable answer, besides the grant of all demands respecting the Pope's own private interests and those of his friends, more even than he asked for at first. (fn. n4) That the Emperor proposes the draft of the treaty to be sent back [to Rome] to be amended by the Pope. Notwithstanding all these assurances, the Pope fears that His Imperial Majesty may come to a new agreement with the French King, and that is the reason why he and the Venetians still go on negotiating. He (Sessa) fears that mutual engagements have been taken, which may prevent the Pope from subscribing to the conditions, however advantageous they may be for him.
The Colonna affair is in a worse plight than ever it was, and the enmity grows greater every day. Knowing that the real cause of the Cardinal's absence from Rome is very different from that which has been stated, and being, besides, well acquainted with the condition and humour of the parties, he (Sessa) has avoided mixing himself up with it. He will henceforwards implicitly obey his instructions respecting this particular.
(Common writing:) Reports progress of ecclesiastical affairs in Rome. Cardinal Campeggio and the abbey of San Juan del Poyo. Priorates of Exea [in Aragon] and San Marçal. Disputes between Cardinal Cesarino and Ascanio Colonna to be determined by law. Canonry in favour of Juan Rodriguez, servant of the Grand Chancellor (Gattinara), to be settled with Gibraleon. Presentation for the abbey of San Juan de la Peña. San Isidro and Master Luis Coronel, &c.
Is very sorry indeed that the delay in granting such applications and forwarding similar affairs, according to the wish of the parties interested, should be imputed to negligence or want of zeal on his part. Takes God to witness that he does more to promote the interests of the parties than he would to save his own soul (que haria para salvarse). If people could only read his answers [to the Roman officials], they would see that he does his duty, and more than his duty.—Rome, 18 May 1526.
Signed: "El Duque de Sessa."
Addressed: "To the most Sacred and Invincible Emperor, the King of Spain and of the two Sicilies, our Sovereign and Lord."
Indorsed: "To the King. 1526. Rome. Duke of Sessa, 18 May. Answered."
Spanish. Original partly in cipher. Contemporary deciphering on separate sheet. pp. 2½.
18 May. 427. The Marquis del Guasto to Captain Juan Baptista Gastaldo y Gutierrez.
M. Re. Ac. d. Hist.
Salazar, A. 37,
f. 267.
(Cipher:) Some days ago you were informed of the desperate state of affairs here. On the 12th inst. the Germans came and asked for leave to go home, saying they could not stand it any longer. They had no cash, and the price of provisions was high. In order to calm them, every sort of promise was made, which we have not the means of keeping, so that if we are not quickly provided with money to pay them, there is no telling what will happen to us. You know what sort of people the Germans are. I have sent my secretary to Genoa to procure funds. Should the Abbot of Najera not obtain in Genoa the 10,000 ducats, which he is trying to borrow from the bankers of that place, my man is to call upon Juan Baptista Ferraris—who has always helped us on similar occasions—and obtain the said loan at any rate of interest whatsoever. I hear that he has already got 4,000, and is likely to have the rest soon.
I hope that the money which Don Ugo is said to be bringing will come soon. Though in small quantity, it will be a great relief in our present need.
I had written thus far when the news arrived that 2,000 men had gone into Crema, and that at Bergamo certain men-at-arms had been quartered. Edicts had been posted up, ordering all beasts of burden (fn. n5) in the Cremasco to be brought to the capital—all of which, if I am not mistaken, are evident symptons that the Venetians intend to relieve this castle, if they can. Immediately upon the receipt of this intelligence, I sent orders to the different corps of this Imperial army quartered round Milan to be on the alert, and when they saw certain fire-signals to hasten to the city. Guards have been doubled and patrols kept day and night; in fact, every precaution has been taken, for we hear that the Milanese are continually plotting against us and are in daily communication with the Confederates, knowing very well that the castle cannot hold out longer than the ensuing month of June.
All this gives me and Leyva great anxiety, as you may imagine, and makes us wish for the Emperor's visit, sure as we are that the very moment he puts his foot in Italy all these intrigues and difficulties will cease; the Italian potentates will lower their heads (abaxaran las cabezas), and His Imperial Majesty will not have to spend so much money as he does at present; but if the Emperor decides to come over, his intention must be kept as secret as possible till the very moment of his embarkation at Barcelona, for fear of these people meeting and collecting their forces to prevent his landing. For it is a known fact that both the Pope and the Venetians have placed double posts between France and England and this country, so as to be able to inform their allies, as well as the Grisons and Switzers, of all the Emperor's movements.
Respecting what you tell me, that His Imperial Majesty has seen with displeasure the grant made by us of certain offices [in Milan], you will say, in our discharge, that up to this moment nothing has been given away except to captains of many years standing, who have lost their arms and legs in the service, or are so poor and infirm that they cannot earn their livelihood otherwise, and that the offices and charges we have conferred upon them are precisely those which some of the people now in the castle with the Duke held formerly. If His Imperial Majesty disapproves of the grant, nothing so easy as to remove the officers and subtract from their pay whatever they may have received as proceeds of the said offices or salaries; and that you may judge whether any of the said moneys and grants have fallen to my lot, (fn. n6) I will tell you that since your departure [for Spain] I have ordered two of my estates in the kingdom of Naples to be sold. Those which I own in this Duchy are mortgaged, as I told you in a former letter, and would have been sold had I found a purchaser. Only the other day a castle of mine, with a rental of 800 ducats annually, I gave away to Juan de Urbina, to keep him contented, because he is a very brave officer and deserves it well.
With regard to the robberies and the redemptions on plunder (robar y rescatar) said to have been extorted by the officers and soldiers of this Imperial army, I am glad to hear that the Emperor judges aright of me. This, however, ought not to be held in the light of a service done to His Majesty, but merely as a satisfaction to my own honour and principles; and since I myself was never guilty of such dirty acts (suciedad), I must be believed when I say that I should have punished the defaulters had it always been in my power to do so. As it is, Federico di Capua has been deprived of his company; two captains of infantry were beheaded by my orders, and three more cashiered. Methinks that equal notice ought to be taken at Court of our good as of our bad deeds; but the truth is that the evil complained of, though much exaggerated, has been so general that I should have been obliged to have had all the army beheaded to a man.
I am in great fear lest the troops we have lately sent to Piedmont for quarters should create some scandal there. The country people refuse to receive them, and ill-treat them whenever they find them separated or dispersed; and yet we do not know where else the men can be lodged. You may assure His Majesty that I feel and lament more than anyone can the ravages, past and present, committed by the Imperial soldiers, much more than if they were executed upon my own lands and estates.
Addressed: "To Don Juan Baptista Castaldo y Gutierrez, at Court."
Indorsed: "Deciphering of a letter from the Marquis del Gasto, 18 May 1526."
Spanish. Original in cipher. Contemporary deciphering on separate sheet. pp. 4.
18 May. 428. The Abbot of Najera to the Emperor.
M. Re. Ac. d. Hist.
Salazar, A. 37,
f. 277.
It is the opinion of the Marquis del Guasto and Antonio de Leyva, as well as that of Lope Hurtado and the rest of the Imperial officers and ministers in this Estate, that peace ought to be made one way or other with the French King. Without his assistance there is no league possible against the Emperor, and no force in Italy to prevent his coming. Otherwise, the Pope, the Venetians and the rest of the Italian powers will unite to check the Emperor's aggrandisement, which they fear above all things, and in which they will never trust, whatever concessions are made to them (aunque se les de carta blanca). The agreement with the French King and the Emperor's visit to Italy to be effected as quickly as possible, not to give time for the plans of the Confederates to get to maturity, or for the King to forget the Emperor's generosity in granting him his freedom, the good treatment and many services he has experienced in his kingdoms, the health which God restored to him that there might be peace among Christians, and, lastly, the treaty which he concluded and signed only two days ago. (fn. n7) —Milan, 18 May 1526.
Indorsed: "To the King. 1526. Milan. Abbot of Najera. Deciphering of his letter (fn. n8) of the 18th May."
18 May. 429. Prothonotary Caracciolo, Imperial Ambassador in Venice, to the Emperor.
M. Re. Ac. d. Hist.
Salazar, A. 37,
ff. 269–71.
In pursuance of the orders received, in date of the 27th of April last, to repair to Milan and wait for the arrival of Don Ugo [de Moncada], to confer with him on the negotiations with the Signory, he (Caracciolo), though still very weak from his past severe illness, and occasionally visited by fever, has made every preparation for his journey. The Signory having, out of respect for the Emperor, and with all courtesy, furnished him with a litter (lectica) and other necessaries for the road, he intends to start to-morrow morning.
From the ambassadors' joint despatch His Imperial Majesty will already know the news of this city. That which is public and true is given as such; all other intelligence as doubtful. (Cipher:) Considers the arrival of Don Ugo with the Emperor's final resolution a very important step under the present circumstances, especially when it is known that the King of France is in continual communication with these people (the Venetians), and that the rest of Italy mistrusts the Emperor.
(Common writing:) Recommends his colleague, Signor Alonso [Sanchez], who remains at his post, and will act as Imperial ambassador, treasurer and purveyor (proveditore) to the army during his absence.—Venice, 18 May 1526.
Signed: "El Protonotario Caracciolo."
Addressed: "Sacræ, Cesareæ, Catholicæ Majestati."
Indorsed: "To the King. 1526. Venice. Prothonotary Caracciolo. Answered."
Italian. Original partly in cipher. Contemporary deciphering on separate sheet. pp. 2½.
20 May. 430. Prothonotary Caracciolo and Alonso Sanchez, Imperial Ambassadors in Venice, to the Emperor.
M. Re. Ac. d. Hist.
Salazar, A. 37,
f. 279.
Received the Imperial letter, in date of the 27th of April last. There is nothing to say in answer, except that I (Prothonotary Caracciolo), in obedience to the Emperor's commands, and though still very weak, leave for Milan to-day, there to wait for Don Ugo de Moncada. (Cipher:) I (Alonso Sanchez) will remain at Venice to protract the pending negotiations as much as possible.
The persons in whose favour the Emperor is requested to write to His Holiness are Fray Pablo Sanchez and Galceran Capello, a native of Valencia. (fn. n9) The former wishes for a bishopric, and might be recommended for one of those that are vacant in Naples. In doing this His Imperial Majesty actually gives nothing of his own, for His Holiness fills up the greater part, if not all the benefices that become vacant in that kingdom. Capello wants a post of President in the Sumaria of Naples. These are two of the individuals whom the ambassadors recommended some time ago as being very faithful to the Empire and in a position to render effectual service.
(Cipher:) Were told some days ago that the Signory had ordered their ambassador at Rome (Marco Foscari) to wait upon His Holiness and inform him that the castle of Milan was in great want of provisions, principally of meat and wine. That there was urgent need to succour it, and that if His Holiness wished, a plan for its relief might be discussed and adopted. The Pope's answer was that it was madness to think of taking up arms against the Emperor without ascertaining first what the King of France intended to do. As far as he (the Pope) was concerned, he would rather not enter upon such a scheme (el no queria empacharse en cosa tal). The same person to whom the ambassadors owe this information, asserts that this last courier from Rome brings letters from their ambassador (Foscari) saying that the Pope had re-considered the matter and was now of their opinion, namely, that a blow ought to be struck in favour of the Duke [of Milan], and that if the castle could be relieved, the opportunity was not to be lost. In consequence of which the Signory have been holding, lately, their usual secret meetings. The ambassadors, however, have heard that in the midst of their deliberations a letter came from their secretary in France (Andrea Rosso), dated the 3d inst., (fn. n10) informing them of the arrival [at Cognac] of the Viceroy and Alarcon, and that the political relations between the Emperor and the King were very close. The said secretary wrote under the impression that some sort of new agreement (accordio) would soon be effected, owing to which piece of intelligence these people are in suspense and do not know what to do (estan parados y sobre de si).
The ambassadors do not vouch for the truth of any of the above reports; but such is their importance that they have deemed it their duty to inform His Imperial Majesty thereof. Have also written to the generals (capitanes) at Milan, and to the Duke of Sessa at Rome, that they may be on their guard.
The Milanese ambassador (Taverna) has had two audiences with the Signory. Their informer tells them that the object of the visit was to ask for help in his master's name.
His Imperial Majesty may be sure of one thing, namely, that this Signory gets very correct advices from Spain. They know already of Don Ugo's commission and intended journey, and also that I, the Prothonotary, was to meet him at Milan.—Venice, 20 May 1526.
Signed: "El Prothonotario Caracciolo," "Alonso Sanchez."
P.S,.—At the time that I (Alonso Sanchez) close this letter, my colleague, the Prothonotary, has left for Milan.
Addressed: "To His Sacred, Imperial and Catholic Majesty."
Indorsed: "To the King. 1526. Alonso Sanchez, 20 May."
Spanish. Original partly in cipher. Contemporary deciphering on separate sheet. pp. 4.
21 May. 431. Alonso Sanchez, Imperial Ambassador in Venice, to the Emperor.
M. Re. Ac. d. Hist.
Salazar, A. 37,
f. 285.
The same person who communicated to him (Sanchez), and to his colleague, the Prothonotary, the intelligence about France contained in their joint despatch of yesterday, has called to say that the Venetian secretary in that country, Andrea Rosso, writes, in date of the 4th, making a different statement. He says that the King of France was ready to sign the treaty of League as soon as the mandates arrived. He would never make restitution of Burgundy; would offer instead a small sum of money (poco dinero), and that on condition that the King of England should be paid what was owing to him. The latter, it was reported, was persuading his colleague of France not to fulfil the conditions of the treaty, and was for that purpose offering him money and everything else. The King of France had told him (Andrea Rosso) that he would never consent, as long as he lived, to the Emperor's coming over armed to Italy, or acquiring more possessions in this country than he had now, but, on the contrary, would do all he could to have them reduced. The Viceroy (Charles de Lannoy) was close by at a village the name of which escapes him; but the King said he did not mind keeping him there waiting, as he himself waited long enough in prison. Rosso writes also that what the King told him at his first audience had been said out of anger and spite at hearing that the Pope had robbed him of Andrea Doria's services, but that having since received Capino's explanation of that affair, he was perfectly satisfied.
Respecting the proposed relief of the castle of Milan, he (the ambassador) has no further intelligence to communicate. He is on the alert.
(Common writing:) Last Saturday the Bishop of Bayus (Bayeux) was upwards of one hour and a half with the Signory. He has returned this morning and spent another hour with them. The Milanese ambassador (Taverna) has likewise been [at the College] for half an hour; for what purpose the ambassador cannot say, certainly not for the Emperor's good.—Venice, 21 May 1526.
Signed: "Alonso Sanchez."
Addressed: "To the Sacred, Imperial and Catholic Majesty of the King, our Lord."
Indorsed: "To the King. 1526. Alonso Sanchez, 21 May."
Spanish. Original partly in cipher. Contemporary deciphering on separate sheet. pp. 2⅓.
24 May. 432. The Abbot of Najera to the Emperor.
M. Re. Ac. d. Hist.
Salazar, A. 37,
f. 293.
Wrote on the 17th inst. (fn. n11) what His Imperial Majesty will see by the enclosed duplicate of his despatch. Has nothing to add, except that on Whit-Sunday (Pascua de Spiritu Santo) the Germans who are in guard (à la custodia) of the castle of Milan mutinied for their pay. The Marquis del Gasto and Antonio de Leyva ran to the spot and appeased the tumult, promising the mutineers to have all their arrears paid up at the end of the present month and every successive stipend when due. In consequence of which he (the Abbot) came here to Genoa to see if he could, with the assistance of Lope de Soria, the Imperial ambassador, procure any funds. 10,000 cr. (escudos) have been found on bills payable at Naples on the 25th of June next; but even that sum would not have been obtained had not Secretary Seron, (fn. n12) —who, happening to be at Asti, came down to Genoa to see him (the Abbot),—assured the bankers that the bills should be duly paid. The arrears of the German infantry amount to 23,000 ducats, and if they are not paid in full, as promised, there will be surely another mutiny worse than the last.
The people of Piedmont have risen in arms against the troops sent thither for quarters. Half a company of light horse, consisting of 50 men, had been plundered (despojada) by the country people; but the rest of the force, having collected together on the frontiers of the county of Asti, attacked six companies (banderas) of Piedmontese infantry that were pursuing them out of the country. The said light horse had suddenly turned round upon them, and given them a good drubbing (una mala mano), taking one of their banners and slaying a good number of the Piedmontese; after which they (the Imperialists) had gone into the Astesano and taken up their quarters there. The Duke [of Savoy] has sent a message to the Marquis and to Leyva, begging that the men may not return to Piedmont, and promising some sort of subvention if they will only remain where they are now. The offer has been accepted, though we are much in doubt whether—when the troops are once out of the Duchy—the inhabitants will consent to pay one single quatrino, even at the Duke's bidding. Knight Commander Herrera has arrived; both he and the Abbot leave to-morrow for Milan, with the 10,000 cr. (escudos). Milan and the rest of the Duchy are tranquil waiting for the remedy that is to come from Spain and save them from their sufferings.
No news from Rome or Venice, except that couriers between those two cities are very frequent, and that posts have been placed at certain distances through Switzerland to communicate with France. The negotiations of the Confederates with this latter country are conducted with great activity (con toda caldeza); but if the Emperor makes any agreement, no matter what, with France, and comes to Italy without loss of time, all these intrigues will end in smoke. No stir either among the Switzers.
The news that came the other day, of the castle of Mus having been taken by our men, proved false; indeed, the affair seems to have been quite the reverse of what was at first reported. The garrison had, it appears, been dealing treacherously (trato doble), and when our men presented themselves to take possession, as agreed, a sally was made and 14 Spaniards were killed.
Private letters from Court, of the 1st and 2d inst., advise Don Ugo's departure [from Spain]; but no news has as yet come of his having reached the court of France, or of his bringing any money. Indeed, the bankers and merchants of this place maintain that their correspondents [in Spain] do not mention in their letters that any bills bad been drawn [upon them], which naturally increases our anxiety about the fate of this Imperial army.
This city is in some danger of Andrea Doria, now at Rome, making a sudden attack whilst the Signory's galleys are at Barcelona, and those of Naples far away. The commander of these last has been written to, and ordered to come [to Genoa] anyhow. He (the Abbot) is afraid the galleys will not come until the whereabouts and operations of 24 Moorish galleys (fustas), lately arrived on the coasts of Sicily, are ascertained—Genoa, 24 May 1526.
Signed: "El Abad de Najera."
Addressed: "To the most Sacred, Imperial and Catholic Majesty."
Indorsed: "To the King. 1526. Genoa. The Abbot of Najera, 24 May. Answered."
Spanish. Holograph. pp. 3.
24 May. 433. Lope de Soria, Imperial Ambassador in Genoa, to the Emperor.
M. Re. Ac. d. Hist.
Salazar, A. 37,
f. 289.
His last, of the 17th inst., went by a servant of the Duke of Bourbon. He now sends the duplicate. The Abbot of Najera and Secretary Seron are now here, trying to procure money to pay the Germans [at Milan]. The Imperial army (cipher) is greatly distressed for want of funds and provisions; everywhere the country people rise in arms against it, as the soldiers commit all manner of excesses, which remain without punishment. The Piedmontese have taken up arms, plundered (desvalijado) a company of Italian light horse, and slain some of them, especially at a place called Puerin, belonging to the Duke of Savoy. The light horse retaliated, and, having attacked their opponents, routed them with heavy loss.
(Common writing:) Affairs at Milan are going on smoothly. The garrison of the castle is in want of provisions. Many die of the disease called modorrilla. It is even reported that the Duke (Francesco Sforza) has died of it.
No particular news either from Rome or from Venice; (cipher) but all Italy is awake, expecting the signal to take up arms against His Imperial Majesty.
This city is in danger; people suspect that Andrea Doria and the Fregosi are planning something with the Pope's consent. The galleys that took Mons. de Bourbon to Spain ought, therefore, to return as soon as possible; also those of Naples. Hears that 22 sail (fustas) of Infidels are on the coast of Calabria, and that they have burnt a galley called La Calabresa, belonging to one Tiberio de Soria. The plague has broken out at Rome, and in the very house of the Duke [of Sessa]. There have also been [at Genoa] two or three cases of it within the last eight days.
Whilst writing the above, Commander Herrera, warder (alcayde) of Pamplona, has arrived. He comes from Rome and Sienna, and will go to Milan in company with the Abbot, specially summoned by the generals (Guasto and Leyva). Since the Commander's departure [from Rome], letters have come from that city, reporting that Andrea Doria was with his galleys at Civita Vecchia, and was soon to go to Rome, and that the Datary (Giovanni Matheo Giberti) had sent him an escort of 30 horsemen. Rooms had been prepared for him at the Datary's palace.—Genoa, 24 May 1526.
Signed: "Lope de Soria."
Addressed: "To the Sacred, Imperial and Catholic Majesty."
Indorsed: "To the King. 1526. Genoa. Lope de Soria, 24 May. Answered."
Spanish. Original mostly in cipher. Contemporary deciphering on separate sheet. pp. 3.
25 May. 434. Charles de Lannoy to the Emperor.
Arch. d. Royme de
Belg. Doc. Hist.
III., f. 205.
Lanz. Corresp.
vol. I., p. 210.
Has received by Don Hugo the Emperor's holograph letter; also the despatches brought by Betencourt; for all of which he returns his most grateful thanks. Has forwarded home by the last courier all the papers sent in by the King of France, and also those of the Queen Regent of France (Louise de Savoie) in answer to the remonstrances addressed to both concerning the treaty of Madrid; lastly, what the King himself intends doing. As to the surrender of Burgundy, he (Lannoy) sees no chance. Would to God he had never mixed himself up with those affairs, and that the Emperor had consented to relieve him (Lannoy) from his charge, as he often requested whilst at Toledo!
Among Don Hugo's instructions one is that he (Lannoy) is to go to Naples. Has thankfully received the intelligence. The opinion, however, both of Don Hugo and of Mons. de Praet is that he must remain until the answer to be given in the Emperor's name to the King and to Madame [Louise] has arrived. Has, in the meantime, sent orders to Naples to have the galleys fitted out.
The King of France has told him (Lannoy) this very day that Pedro Navarro had applied for permission to wage war on the Turks. Lannoy observed that he (Navarro) had better wait until all parties were ready, and that five large ships should be sent to him for that purpose. The King replied that he had already provided him with eight or nine ships and four galleons of his own. He afterwards said he had news from Spain that his son, the Duke of Orleans, was unwell. Told him that the air and temperature of Spain certainly disagreed with him and with his brother, and that for that very reason he (the King) ought to fulfil at once the conditions of the treaty of Madrid, and send for his sons and for his wife (Queen Eleonor). His answer was that he wished to please the Emperor above all things. Madame (Louise), on whom he (Lannoy) called afterwards, in company with the King, made a similar protest, adding that she hoped to content His Imperial Majesty and execute all he wrote about. His (Lannoy's) reply was that no better satisfaction could be offered to his master than that of seeing the conditions of the treaty fulfilled, and that they all hoped such would be the case. Fancies that the King and Queen are dissembling, and intend to turn, for their profit, elsewhere, wherever they best can.
Begs again for leave to depart [for Italy], after intrusting his mission to the person who may be the Emperor's ambassador at the time. Mons. Daubreuq is being sent to Rome by King Francis. Believes he is sent for no other purpose than because Don Hugo is going thither.—Cognac, 25 May 1526.
Signed: "Charles de Lannoy."
French. Copy.
25 May. 435. The Duke of Sessa, Imperial Ambassador in Rome, to the Emperor.
M. Re. Ac. d. Hist.
Salazar, A. 37,
ff. 295.
Wrote on the 18th inst. by Commander Herrera and by the ordinary post, giving all news he had up to that date. As the Commander's sudden departure and his own were caused by certain rumours of plague at Rome, and he (Sessa) could not see the Pope at the time, he was unable to report on certain expressions of His Holiness at the time the Commander took leave of him, which he will now relate for His Majesty's information.
(Cipher:) The Commander told him (Sessa), whilst on their journey, that the Pope, in his last audience, owned that he had made an agreement with the King of France; which intelligence took him (Sessa) so much by surprise that he decided to shorten the days of his absence, though he might suffer in consequence. He accordingly, upon his return to Rome, and on the last day of Easter, went to the Palace, and asked His Holiness if what Commander Herrera had told him was true. His answer was that the Commander had misunderstood him, as he only said what he had oftentimes declared to him (Sessa) on former occasions; namely, that he had always wished to be the friend and ally of His Imperial Majesty, but had never found a fit opportunity for such a step. That, despairing of ever attaining the object of his wishes, as well as of Don Hugo's arrival, he had been obliged to look for assistance and security in other quarters, and to put himself in such a condition as not to be any longer at the mercy of fortune. That whatever form of security he might adopt, his object was to promote universal peace, not to create disturbances and bring on war.
This is in substance what the Pope owns to having said to Commander Herrera on the subject, without, however, declaring to him (as the Commander asserts) that he had actually taken an engagement. This he maintains he never did, and has assured him (Sessa) that he should see with pleasure Don Hugo's arrival in Rome, though (he added) it was quite plain that Don Hugo's journey through France was intended merely to gain time, since, in case of his not obtaining anything at that Court, he had been instructed to proceed to Italy; so that it seemed as if the negotiations with himself (the Pope) and the rest of the Italian Princes were to be regulated by the good or bad success of the ambassador, whilst at the French court, which was very contrary to His Imperial Majesty's avowed intentions. The Pope ended by saying he was resolved to wait patiently for the issue. He had not yet decided on the line of conduct he should follow. He rather hoped that the Viceroy (Charles de Lannoy) would come to some agreement with France, and that the Florentine ambassador (Capino), to whom the conclusion of the negotiations had been intrusted, had not yet returned.
(Common writing:) There are letters from England, advising that the ratification of the peace with France had been celebrated there with great pomp and solemnity. Cardinal Alboracense (fn. n13) said mass, and the President of Paris (Selve) made a peroration, wherein, after returning infinite thanks to the English King for his master's liberation—which he said was entirely due to his exertions—he announced to his audience that his master would henceforth live under great obligation to his brother of England, and employ in his service his person, his fortune, and his realms. From which sentiment and others which the said President is said to have expressed on that occasion, the partisans of France (los francesantes) in this city draw the inference that no agreement at all is to be made between His Imperial Majesty and him; for otherwise, they say, the French ambassador would not have gone so far in his praises of the English King.
Has no news from Milan; but from what he hears at Rome and the stir they are making, he fancies that the castle must be reduced to great extremity. Some say that the Venetians and the Pope are about to send troops to its assistance; and certainly the negotiations between those two powers are decidedly more active now than they ever were. On the other hand, he (Sessa) has not yet heard of any armed movements, and yet these are not things likely to be accomplished by prayers. (fn. n14) (Cipher:) The Pope, however, denies that there is any thought of taking up arms.
There are also rumours afloat that the Duke of Milan is dead, which might be a good thing for him and the others (para él y los otros).
(Common writing:) Among the articles of the treaty which the Pope and the Venetians have been, or are still, negotiating with France, one is said to be that the King [of France] is to leave the possession of the estate of Milan either with Francesco Sforza or with his brother Maximilian. (Cipher:) This is a mere joke (burla); but the truth is that they have offered him their assistance to conquer that Duchy. He (Sessa) knows this from a very good source, though they assert the contrary in public, for the satisfaction of the people here.
The article concerning Naples has been drawn with the Pope's will and consent. He (Sessa) still persists in his opinion, namely, that if the King of France were to fail in his old engagements, or to refuse to make a new agreement with the Viceroy (Charles de Lannoy), and were Don Hugo to come [to Italy] in time, the Pope would rather accept middling conditions from His Imperial Majesty than very good ones from France, a country on which they cannot and do not place the least reliance.
(Common writing:) Andrea Doria is here. He has been very well received and entertained by the Pope, with whom he has taken service on conditions mentioned in his (Sessa's) former despatch. Doria has called on him (Sessa), saying that as long as he was in the service of France he could not help making war upon us, as he best understood it; but that now that he is in the service of the Pope—one of the Emperor's allies—he will be able to show how sincerely devoted he is to the Imperial cause. He (Sessa) made him a suitable answer.
Having learned, some days ago, that the said Andrea Doria has on board his galleys nearly 300 Spaniards, taken prisoners during the last war, he (Sessa) has made pressing application to the Pope to obtain their liberty. He answered that this was no concern of his, and only affected the King of France. It had been stipulated that prisoners of war of both nations should be mutually returned; and it was but just that the ambassador's demand should be granted. If the King of France would only send, as he was bound to do, his letters patent or some other sort of guarantee and compensation to Andrea Doria, he (the Pope) would help and do his part. In the meantime, if he could redeem any of them by giving others in exchange, he would do it with pleasure. He (Sessa) has often applied to His Holiness on behalf of these prisoners, but has never been able to obtain more than the above-mentioned promise. Would to God he could with his own fortune accomplish their liberation!—Rome, 25 May 1526.
Signed: "El Duque de Sessa."
Addressed: "To the most Sacred and Invincible Cesar, King of Spain and of the two Sicilies, our Lord and Master."
Indorsed: "To the King. 1526. From the Duke of Sessa, 25 May."
Spanish. Original by duplicate, partly in cipher. Contemporary deciphering. pp. 5½.


  • n1. Whilst Lannoy commanded the Imperial army in Lombardy, Andrea Caraffa, Count of Santa Severina, was appointed to replace him. See Parrino, Teatro Eroico e Politico de Governi de Vicere di Napoli, 1692, vol. i., p. 103.
  • n2. "Que aprovechará mucho por lo que conviene al servicio de Su Magd. y asosegará los corazones." Don Hugo left Toledo on the 24th of March, and France for Rome on the 22d of April.
  • n3. This letter is in duplicate in A. 37 at fol. 308 and 310, one being dated the 13th, the other the 18th May. As the Emperor did not reach Granada until the 4th of June, there must be an error in the date. As it is, its import is very similar to that of the 12th. See above, No. 420, p. 691.
  • n4. "En beneficio particular suyo y de sus amigos y aun adelante de aquello."
  • n5. "Que todos los caballos de basto del Cremasco se reduciesen á Crema." Basto, which is also called albarda in Spanish, from an Arabic word, means, in old Italian, a "pack-saddle," or quello che in vece di sella portano le bestie da soma.
  • n6. "Y porque veais si he tomado yo algo desto."
  • n7. "Y á que el Rey se olvide de la liberalidad que V. Magd a usado en darle libertad, y de las otras buenas obras y servicios que en sus reynos ha recibido, y de la salud que Dios le ha dado para tener paz con los Christianos y de la que con V. Mag. ha capitulado y firmado dos dias ha."
  • n8. The letter itself is not in the volume; only the deciphering in Soria's hand.
  • n9. "El otro se llama Galceran Capello, Valenciano." From Valencia on the Pò, or from Valencia in Spain? The former conjecture seems to me the most plausible, as Capello is the name of a Venetian family.
  • n10. Several letters of Andrea Rosso to the Doge and Signory, dat. 1, 7, 10, and 11th May, have been abstracted by Rawdon Brown, Venetian State Papers, &c., vol. III, pp. 545–8. None, however, bear date of the 3d, though their contents are substantially the same as those given by the Imperial ambassadors.
  • n11. The Abbot's last despatch is dated the 18th. See No. 428 p. 700.
  • n12. Juan Seron, Secretary to the Viceroy of Naples.
  • n13. The Cardinal of York.
  • n14. "No es cosa para hacerla con oraciones."