Spain: August 1527, 1-15

Pages 311-323

Calendar of State Papers, Spain, Volume 3 Part 2, 1527-1529. Originally published by Her Majesty's Stationery Office, London, 1877.

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August 1527, 1-15

1 Aug. 140. The Duke of Ferrara to Alonso Sanchez.
M. Re. Ac. d. Hist.
Salazar, A. 41,
f. 112.
His letter of the 27th ult. has come to hand. Begs him to write as often as possible concerning the state of affairs, and will be grateful to hear the news, for although he cannot at present accept the office which His Imperial Majesty has been pleased to confer on him, for the reasons stated in the enclosed copy of a letter which he has sent to Spain, yet he takes unflagging interest in the Emperor's prosperity.—[Ferrara], 1st of August 1527.
Addressed: "To the Magnifico Alonso Sanchez, Imperial ambassador in Venice."
Italian. Contemporary copy in Sanchez'. handwriting. 1.
1 Aug. 141. Secretary Perez to the Emperor.
M. Re. Ac. d. Hist.
Salazar, A. 41,
f. 62.
B. M. Add. 28,575,
f. 305.
Encloses duplicate of his letter of the 21st, sent by way of Gaeta. Has nothing to add except that the Pope and his cardinals, as well as all the servants and vassals of the Emperor, are anxiously expecting his arrival, or else instructions as to what they are to do. A Spaniard who left the Imperial Court on the 29th of June, and has lately come to Rome on business, says that the vessel on board of which he sailed brought no letters from home, at which the Pope is much disappointed,—so much so, that on the 28th ult. he despatched one of his chamberlains [to Genoa] to ascertain whether really no news had come, so anxious is he to know if any resolution has been taken in his affairs.
The Germans are still urging that the Pope and cardinals should be sent to Gaeta, but they insist upon the Viceroy first giving securities for the payment of the 250,000 ducats promised by the Pope, exclusive of their share in the 150,000 which they and the Spaniards "were to receive, and which have not yet been paid in full owing to the bankers who took the contract being unable to fulfil it, for the two following reasons: one that the Viceroy can no longer lend them the 20,000 on Benevento; the other that the plague is making such ravages, both here and at Naples, that no man can be found to stand security for another. All which prevents the settlement of these debts, and consequently the march of the Imperial army on Lombardy, where, according to the late news, a considerable force of French and Switzers is shortly expected.
(Cipher:) Alarcon says that the Pope talks of going to Spain and holding an interview with the Emperor, but he thinks that he will not be able to go for want of money.
(Common writing:) The deputies appointed by the Germans and Spaniards have agreed to ask for the revocation of Cardinal Frenesis' (Farnese) appointment as Legate. They do not wish him to go to Spain, but recommend in his stead the Datary Bishop of Verona, and the Archbishop of Capua, accompanied by Don Ugo. They have accordingly applied to the Viceroy for permission for the Datary to go to Naples. The Pope affects disappointment at this, (cipher:) but is in reality glad that Cardinal Farnese is objected to.
(Common writing:) Advices from Venice of the 25th and 27th June state that Lautrech is shortly expected with 800 lances and 12,000 Switzers. The infantry force, when complete, is to amount to 30,000, of whom 10,000 are to be paid by the King of England. (Cipher:) It is also announced that the governor of the castle of Milan is only waiting for the arrival of Lautrech to raise his standard for King Francis, and has accordingly despatched messengers (proprios) to Venice and to Lyons to that effect. It is to be presumed, however, that Leyva, who has been informed of that traitor's plans, will be on the alert.
Revolution in Bologna. Refusal of the inhabitants to grant Count Guido Rangone and Count Gayaço passage through their territory. It is, however, reported that they have since marched by another route at the head of 4,000 men, and that their intention is to fortify Palma (Parma).
The confederates passed their forces in review the other day. They have only 14,000 men in Lombardy. The Duke Francesco [Sforza] intended to overrun the Milanese and destroy the corn fields, but Leyva was on his guard.
Discovery of a conspiracy at Sienna.
The Germans still insist upon the Pope leaving Rome, but they do not wish him to go to Gaeta.
The Prince of Orange, they say, has gone to Sienna, there to wait for the Emperor's orders.
The Marquis and Bishop of Astorga are still at Civittà Vecchia. They are expected here this week, for no other purpose than that of kissing the Pope's foot, and then sailing for Spain, after calling on the Viceroy at Naples. Knight Commander Mayorga has assured him (Perez) that the Marquis no longer intends speaking to the Pope about his marriage.—Rome, 1st of August 1527.
Signed: "Perez."
Addressed: "To the most Sacred, Imperial, and Catholic Majesty."
Indorsed: "To the King. 1527. Rome. Perez. 1st of August."
Spanish. Original partly in cipher. Contemporary deciphering on separate sheet, pp. 3.
2 Aug. 142. The Emperor to the King and Queen of Portugal. (fn. n1)
S. L. 1,553,
f. 55.
B. M. Add. 28, 576,
Is very sorry for what has happened at Rome; could not help it. His soldiers perceiving that no treaty made with the Pope had been-faithfully observed, and that the one with the Viceroy was likely to share the same fate, determined to march on Rome in spite of their generals. Though the excesses and cruelty of the exasperated soldiery have not been so great as his enemies chose to represent at the time, he is still very sorry for what has happened. He can assure them that he has felt the disrespect (desacato) of his troops towards the Apostolic See more than he can express, and certainly would have much preferred to be conquered than conqueror under such circumstances. Begs for their help and assistance to promote general peace.—Valladolid, 2nd August 1527.
Spanish. Original draft in the handwriting of Alfonso de Valdés.
2 Aug. 143. The Emperor to the King of Portugal.
M. Re. Ac. d. Hist.
Salazar, A. 41,
f. 65.
Most beloved King, our brother, &c,—Though We are sure that through various channels you must already have heard of the Roman disaster, We cannot but inform you how it came to pass, that you may give us advice and assistance on a matter that so greatly concerns the service of God and the welfare of the Christian Republic. Truly We have hitherto done so much for the peace of Christendom, and the honour and preservation of the Apostolic See, that nobody can entertain doubts of our good intentions; for in the first place, when We could have easily revenged the injuries received at King Francis' hands, and ŕecovered the lands which that Monarch has so unjustly usurped from us, We preferred, for the common welfare of Christendom, giving him his liberty to carrying on war for our own private interest. As to the Roman Church itself, it is notorious how bitter were the complaints which, during our stay in Germany, were made by the States of the Empire, begging us to redress the injuries received from the Holy See. Yet perceiving that their request could not well be granted without detriment to the authority of the Roman Pontificate, We preferred, very much against our will, to leave Germany discontented rather than impair and lessen in the least the credit and authority of the Apostolic See. Hence it was that Pope Leo X. and Adrian VI., aware of our good intentions, joined us in the task of fostering the welfare of Christendom. Our Holy Father Clement VII. then succeeded to the Pontificate, and, forgetful of the favours granted by us to the Christian Church in general, and to him in particular, allowed himself to be led astray by certain malignant parties about his person; so that, instead of maintaining as a good shepherd the peace concluded with the King of France, he bethought him of making war upon us. No sooner therefore was the French King set free than the Pope made with him, and with some of the Italian potentates, a league to expel our armies from Italy, and take away from us the kingdom of Naples. Seeing ourselves thus compelled to take up arms in our own defence, We protested first to him, and afterwards to the College of Cardinals, that no one must complain if the Apostolic See suffered in the contest. Our protests, however, were of little avail, since not only did they (the confederates) carry on the war they had commenced, but persisting in their wicked purpose, they broke the truce concluded with Don Ugo de Moncada, in such a manner that after the accomplishment of an act so detrimental to ourselves and so profitable to them as the French King's liberation was, seeing ourselves abandoned by all, and finding no good faith anywhere, We placed our cause in God's hands, and sent to Germany for reinforcements, that We might gain by force what could not be obtained from love or honour. As the Pope's troops, moreover, had seized a portion of our Neapolitan kingdom, our generals, without consulting us, decided to give succour wherever the danger was greatest, and took at once the road to Rome. Hearing of the approach of our army, the Pope then concluded a truce with the Viceroy (Lannoy), but on such conditions that his reluctance and ill-will were plainly visible. Nevertheless, in order to show how different were our feelings We accepted the truce, much preferring to suffer humiliation and shame than take revenge of the wrongs We had received. But before our ratification of the terms had actually reached Rome, our army, fearing less this second truce should be as openly violated as the first made with Don Ugo, unmindful of, and in opposition to the will of their generals, prosecuted their march on Rome, where they committed the excesses of which his brother of Portugal must have heard, and which, though gross enough, have not been so great as the enemies of the Empire wish to represent. Nevertheless, though We firmly believed that the Roman disaster was more owing to a visitation of the Almighty than to the power and will of man, and that God, on whom We place all our trust, permitted that the injuries We had received should be avenged without will or consent of our own, yet We have felt so much this want of respect (desacato) to the Holy See that really and truly We should have preferred to be vanquished rather than to come victorious out of such a contest.
But since such has been and is the will of God, who out of his infinite mercy will often permit great evils to prevail in this world in order that blessings still greater may accrue to mankind, as We have not the least doubt has been the case on the present occasion, it befits us all to thank him for his favours, and do what may best promote his glory, the honour of his Church, and the common weal of Christendom, to ensure which We are determined to lavish everything We possess in this world, to our very life's blood, that the errors and civil wars being put aside, We may devote all our strength to crush the enemies of our Christian religion.
We therefore request you, our most beloved cousin and brother, as earnestly as We can, that since you have always shown by your deeds such good-will towards the honour of God and increase of his Holy Catholic faith, you will assist us in this undertaking, that We may with your help and advice redress the evils of Christendom and destroy its enemies, &c (fn. n2) —Valladolid, 2nd August 1527.
Spanish. Original corrected draft in the handwriting of Secretary Lallemand. pp. 3½.
3 Aug. 144. The Emperor to Pope Clement VII.
S. E. L. 1,994,
f. 586.
B. M. Add. 28,576,
f. 311.
The Bishop of Worcester (Ghinucci) is about to leave for Rome. Thinks it his duty to recommend so worthy a person, who has always rendered good service both to him (the Emperor) and to the Pope.—Valladolid, 3rd August 1527.
Latin. Original draft, .. 1.
4 Aug. 145. Secretary Perez to the Emperor.
M. Re. Ac. d. Hist.
Salazar, A. 41,
f. 67.
B. M. Add. 28,576,
f. 312.
Enclosing, as he does, the duplicate of his despatch of the 1st inst., and knowing that Alarcon too writes in cipher, he (Perez) will add but little. (Cipher:) Can assure His Imperial Majesty that unless proper provision be soon made for this army, an order sent for the captains to join their companies, or else a good peace concluded, affairs are in such a plight that if the remedy to be applied does not come quickly it will be of little avail. If the Emperor's authority is to be maintained the administration of Rome must be speedily provided for, for although some officials have been appointed, and are actually discharging their respective duties, they know that this state of things cannot last long, and therefore are conducting themselves in a very different way from that which they would no doubt follow if they knew that they were to remain in office Were the government of Rome in good hands, and the plague to abate in its intensity, he (Perez) has no doubt that many families would return to the city.
(Common writing:) The Emperor's letter of the 17th of June has come to hand. Will attend to the affairs of Palencia and Oviedo. The Viceroy writes to say he has received orders from Court to offer the Pope the tribute and the white horse (hacanca), the ceremony to take place on the day of Our Lady.—Rome, 4th August 1527.
Signed: "Perez."
Addressd: "Sæ. Cesæ. Cathocæ. Mati."
Spanish. Holograph partly in cipher, pp. 2.
6 Aug. 146. The Duke of Ferrara to his Ambassador at Venice.
M. Re. Ac. d. Hist.
Salazar, A. 41,
f. 115.
(Cipher:) Is in receipt of his letters of the 16th, 24th, and 28th ult., enclosing one from Alarcon. To the latter's exhortations the ambassador is to answer in conformity with the reply he has addressed both to the Prince of Orange and to the Viceroy. That ought to be sufficient, but in case it should not, he (the ambassador) must openly declare to Alarcon, in whom he (the Duke) mostly trusts, that he is as well disposed as ever he was to the Emperor's service, but that the brutal and furious assaults (li furiosi et bruti sobbissi) of the soldiers, first against Mons. de Bourbon, and afterwards against the Viceroy, Marquis del Guasto, and Prince of Orange, their rebellious spirit and constant mutinies, have been the cause of his not accepting at present the command of so undisciplined a set of men. Were he to do so, his own honour and reputation might be seriously compromised, without any advantage resulting to the Emperor. The ambassador is besides to remind Alarcon and the Marquis that unless the Imperial army is made to quit Rome immediately, and proceed to Lombardy, the Emperor's supremacy in Italy is lost for ever, and that the Imperial soldiers have already gained so much by their late victories that they ought not to clamour, as they do, for the arrears of their pay, but on the contrary ought to lend what money they possess for raising new levies of men, and maintaining the Imperial sway in Italy, "et quello danaro hanno guadagnato lassando aparte lo honor suo che importa piu."
Indorsed : "Cyfra del Duca di Ferrara al suo ynbasciatore."
Italian. Contemporary copy. 1.
4 Aug. 147. Antonio de Leyva to the Emperor.
M. Re. Ac. d. Hist.
Salazar, A. 41,
f. 117.
Wrote more than two months ago to the Viceroy of Naples (Lannoy), and to the rest of the Imperial commanders and ministers [in Italy], informing them of the strait in which he is for want of money and provisions. Has on various occasions despatched messengers to them; Hortega, whom he sent, on hearing of Bourbon's death, Grupem (Gruppen?), who started about the middle of June, and Baraona, who went at the beginning of July. Has received no answer, save two very short and unsatisfactory letters, one from Don Ugo [de Moncada], the other from the Abbot of Najera. Has written likewise to the Duke of Ferrara, but since he took possession of Modena he no longer condescends to answer his letters, though before that he used to write almost every day, that he [Leyva] might help him at Roncille (Roncillone), which he did with very good grace. Has written to him again recently by express messenger. Knows not what his answer will be, or whether he will answer at all. As to the orders he [Leyva] has received to serve under the Duke [of Ferrara] or the Prince [of Orange], as it may be, he can only declare once for all that he will obey anyone, even a stick (obedeceré aunque sea á un palo).
Has hitherto succeeded by fair speeches in persuading the people of Parma and Piacenza not to admit the Venetians or the Duke Francesco (fn. n3) within their walls, though they have been much pressed by the contrary party. But as the Papal brief for the final delivery of those cities, according to agreement, has never come, he (Leyva) is much afraid that he has lost his time, and that the expected arrival of the French forces will disarrange all his plans.
The late Duke of Bourbon took upon himself to sell various estates belonging to this fiscal chamber (camara) in favour of several Imperial servants who certainly deserved this well, as a reward for their fidelity. But in his opinion Bourbon did wrong, because though he might give away the property of the emigrants (foraxidos), he was not justified in alienating the Crown lands. Has therefore avoided touching them. It is for the Emperor to decide whether the alienation is to continue or not.
Should the Emperor come to an agreement with France, it will be the easiest thing possible for him to subdue the whole of Italy with the very money which King Francis is to disburse for the ransom of his sons, since by applying the same or part of it to the support of his armies he will be able to subdue his opponents.
After the above was written advices have been received of the 28th ulto., stating that the King of France had sent orders to the warder of Musso (fn. n4) to invade this Duchy with 2,000 Switzers and as many Grisons, and that the said warder had come as far as a place called Carato. (fn. n5) This intelligence and the want of money to pay the Germans obliged him (Leyva) to retreat from Marignano and come to Milan. He arrived on Sunday, rested all Monday, and on Tuesday night determined to go and meet the said Switzers, all belonging to the cantons nearest to Milan, and the best soldiers among them. They were commanded by one Amandrocolo (sic), a captain of great military reputation, very much esteemed by his countrymen, and "compadre" of the King of France. Carato, where the said Switzers and Grisons were, was represented to be a place without walls, and yet of easy defence, owing to its commanding position. Left Milan at night, after making his men put on "camisas benditas." Count Alberigo Beljoioso remained in command of the capital. Arrived before Carato at three in the afternoon, but as the road was long, and the Germans were behind, the men were obliged to wait, and do in broad daylight what it had been intended to do at night and in the dark. The enemy, therefore, had plenty of time to prepare. The place was attacked on three different sides by the Spaniards, Germans, and Italians, easily carried, and the enemy driven to the other end of an enclosure surrounded by thick hedges. The men, however, began to sack the houses, upon which the Switzers rallied and drove them out of the place. Another attack was then made, which had a similar issue, the men again falling to plunder the houses, and being repulsed, until having reformed the three attacking parties, he (Leyva) told them that whoever should leave the ranks for the sake of plunder, as long as there was one of the enemy alive, would be punished with death. It was agreed with Count Lodovico Beljoioso, who commanded the Italians, and with the colonel of the Germans, that both should attack conjointly with him (Leyva) when the latter blew a trumpet, which was done, and with such fury that the Switzers and Grisons could not resist the onset, " though I vouch to Your Imperial Majesty that they fought like so many devils; so much so that we were obliged, in order to put an end to the fight, to kill nearly all of them. One thousand Switzers with their captain-general, Amandrocolo, (fn. n6) remained on the field of battle, as well as eleven of their colours (banderas) and other spoils; four of their captains were taken prisoners. As to the Grisons very few escaped alive, for they fought desperately; but as the town was attacked on three different sides their real loss cannot be calculated. As to myself, I can assure Your Imperial Majesty that never since the beginning of my military career have I been in a hotter encounter, or in greater danger of my person. Twice I was so hotly pressed by the enemy that I though I should never have escaped alive. About 15 of my best Spaniards were slain, and Arevalo, captain of my own body guard, dangerously wounded, as well as another Burgundian captain, who behaved most gallantly on the occasion. The warder of Mus contrived to escape, mounted on a swift Turkish horse."
The expedition was so quickly planned and achieved that we returned to Milan before the confederates at Marignano had been apprised of our departure. The affair upon the whole was a glorious one, and especially opportune, for I hear that four more companies of Switzers who were on their way to this Duchy, hearing of the disaster which befell their comrades, have since returned home. Hears also through his spies in France that it has been resolved to send an army to Genoa, or else to Parma and Piacenza, to meet ours at Rome. No sooner was he informed of it than he sent orders to Count Babtista Lodron to keep himself in readiness with his 2,000 Germans at Alessandria, and to the commander of the Italian infantry, at Genoa, to take up positions at Tortona with 1,000 men to stop the enemy's march, or succour that city in case of need. The Switzers arrived at Asti on the 28th ulto., and marched all night, believing they could easily surprise the two companies of Germans quartered at Castellaço, an open town without fortifications of any kind. Our people were so badly informed that they never heard of the enemy's movements until they were actually at the gates. They defended themselves stoutly, and had time to retire to a place in the neighbourhood called El Bosque (Boscho), which is well fortified, and where, in anticipation of an attack upon Genoa, he (Leyva) had placed one company of Italian infantry and another of light horse, as it is on the road to that city. The enemy followed them thither, and have since blockaded the place, but Count Lodron is at Alessandria with his 1,000 Germans, and will no doubt be able to relieve it.
The French are advancing, and Lautrech is already reported at Suze.
Begs leave to recommend to the Emperor's attention and favour the Milanese gentlemen whose names are comprised in the enclosed list. (fn. n7) Three of them in particular have done and are still doing such service that he (Leyva) really thinks it would be impossible for the Emperor to find better servants anywhere. One is Bartholomeo de Magis, who has hitherto acted as treasurer to this army; the other Antonio Rabia, who is at the head of the commissariat (viveres); the third Luis de Galera, attached to the ducal chamber (camara ducale). Count Lodovico Beljoioso and his brother Alberigo do all they can. Both are excellent officers, and enjoy much credit in this city and the whole of the Duchy.
Count d'Egmont is now entirely cured of his wound. Had he been allowed to follow the expedition to Carato, he certainly would have gone. He is in command of the men-at-arms, and can be thoroughly trusted, such are his fidelity and courage.
A week ago Count Federigo Borromeo deserted and went over to the enemy. He has an estate here which yields about 2,000 cr. a year. Count d' Egmont wishes for it and has applied to him (Leyva) for the grant. Could only offer him the rent as a reward for his services; begs His Imperial Majesty to give him full possession to encourage others, &c— Milan, 4th August 1527.
Signed: "Antonio de Leyva."
Addressed: "To His most Sacred, Imperial, and Catholic Majesty."
Indorsed: "To the King. From Antonio de Leyva, 4th August."
Spanish. Original, pp. 4.
6 Aug.
M. Re. Ac. d. Hist.
Salazar, A. 41,
f. 70.
148. Alonso Sanchez, Imperial Ambassador in Venice, to the Emperor.
(Cipher:) Wrote on the 27th ulto., stating that the Duke of Ferrara would most likely decline the charge of commander-in-chief. Was quite right in his judgment, as appears from his own despatch, and from the private letters which the Duke himself has addressed him, and of which a copy is enclosed. (fn. n8) Will answer him in a suitable manner and acquaint the Viceroy, Antonio de Leyva, and Lope de Soria at Genoa with the Duke's determination, that each of them may act in accordance with it. The confederates are fully aware of the offers that have been made to the Duke Only the other day the Pope's Nuncio (Averoldi) and the Florentine ambassador, who resides here, called upon the Ferrarese, and told him that they could not imagine how his master could accept such an office under present circumstances, unless he had entirely lost his senses (que su amo fuesse tan loco). They represented the state of affairs as being entirely in their favour. The Signory requested him not to help the Bentivogli, and his answer was that he could not help it, as he had taken engagements with them. Hears that those parties are now 10 miles from Bologna, and that they intend, with the Duke's assistance, to enter the city.
Three days ago the Pope's Nuncio (Averoldi) received a Papal brief, in date of the 23rd ulto., commanding him to repair immediately to Bologna, and assume the government of the place as Papal Legate. The brief was brought by a messenger, who left the castle of Sanct Angelo secretly; but the Nuncio, it appears, refuses to go thither, on the plea that the Bolognese will not obey him.
It has been publicly announced in this city that Mons. de Lautrech and the Switzers will soon be in Italy. The former was to have left Lyons on the 23rd. Enclosed are copies of letters from the Bishop of Trent, announcing that the Switzers have already entered Italy. Cannot believe his report, for Lope de Soria says nothing about it.
No positive news of the Imperial army. Some say that it has actually evacuated Rome, but that its destination is unknown. No great results, however, can be expected, unless discipline is re-established and the soldiers paid. According to all accounts they were still on the lands of the Church collecting the sums which the Pope had promised by the last capitulation. Is the more inclined to believe this, that since the 10th of July, when the army is said to have evacuated Rome, it has made but little progress in its march. Has no means of ascertaining the truth, for although he has written several letters to the Viceroy, he can get no answer.
All things considered, an honourable peace would be most desirable at the present juncture. If it cannot be secured the army must be paid, or else the disorderly state of the men may be the cause of serious disasters.
There is here (in Venice) great scarcity of wheat; the prospects of the next harvest are anything but good. None is expected from Cyprus, and the arrivals from Ravenna are neither so abundant nor so frequent as these people imagined at first. The Turk, hitherto, has not granted them permission to export it from his dominions. It would therefore be advisable also to close the ports of Apulia (Puglia) and Sicily from them.
Has been told that letters have been received from Lautrech, dated Lyons, the 23rd July, saying that he had delayed his departure because the King of France had written to ask King Henry of England to contribute one third of the expenses of the war in Italy, and was waiting for the answer; that the Cardinal of England had crossed the sea [to France], and was to hold an interview with the King. The English resident ambassador (Prothonotary Casale) has had letters from his brother Gregory, who was once at Rome, but is now at Paris, confirming the above news, and likewise that the French ambassador at the Imperial Court (the Bishop of Tarbes) had written to say that the overtures for peace had been answered in so unsatisfactory a manner (con tan magra respuesta) that the negotiations must needs be broken off. The French King had publicly said to his courtiers that it would be a shame for him or any other Christian Prince to tolerate the Pope's remaining longer in captivity. He had uttered many threats on that occasion, and announced that he counted upon the assistance of his brother of England. Indeed Cavalier Casale wrote on the 24th to his brother the Prothonotary, now English ambassador to this Signory, that the King, his master, had engaged to pay 10,000 Germans, most of whom were already enlisted, and the remainder soon to join their companies. Count Guido Rangone has a "con- dotta" of 60 lances, for which the King of France has promised to pay him 5,000 ducats a year.
The Duchess of Urbino (Eleonora Hippolita di Gonzaga) has obtained from the Signory permission to go to Padua for the benefit of her health. She will probably he as closely watched there as she was here. Her son (Guidibaldo della Rovere), however, remains still in Venice.
P.S.—This is the triplicate of a despatch forwarded by way of Genoa, and which it is to be presumed has never reached its destination owing to the defeat (desbarate) sustained in that city.—Venice, 6th August 1527.
Signed: "Alonso Sanchez."
Addressed: "To His most Sacred, Imperial, and Catholic Majesty."
Indorsed: "To the King. 1527. Venice. From Alonso Sanchez. 6th August."
Spanish. Original entirely in cipher. Contemporary deciphering on separate sheet pp. 5.
9 Aug. 149. The Emperor to Charles de Lannoy.
S. E. L. 1,554,
f. 587.
B. M. 28,576,
f. 314.
Recommends to him very warmly the person of the Bishop Worcester (Ghinucci), auditor of the Apostolic Chamber, and orders him to favour the said bishop in all his affairs and in his intended petition to the Apostolic See.—Valladolid, 9th August 1527.
Latin. Original draft .. ½.
9 Aug. 150. The Emperor to the Abbot of Najera.
S. E. L. 1554.
f. 586.
B. M. Add. 28,576,
f. 315.
In favour of George Fruntsperg.
Spanish. Original draft. 1.
15 Aug. 151. Hernando de Alarcon to the Emperor.
M. Re. Ac. d. Hist.
Salazar, A. 41,
f. 77.
B. M. Add. 28,576,
Writes in commendation of certain ambassadors of the Republic of Sienna who are about to leave for Spain. As the Siennese have always been faithful and done great service, especially when the Imperial army last gassed through their territory, he has no doubt that their petition will be attended to.
Has written twice or three times lately about the state of affairs at Rome, and the necessity there is of a prompt remedy to the evils impending there. As the promises so often made to the soldiers have not yet been fulfilled; as out of the 150,000 cr. only 80,000 have been paid, and the Viceroy has not sent the 20,000 he promised, it naturally Mows that the men are more exasperated than ever, and threaten to retire to the kingdom of Naples and live there at the expense of the inhabitants until they are paid in full. Such indeed appears to be the determination of the Spaniards and Italians if the money is not forthcoming. As to the Germans they are daily threatening to come to Rome, and take the Pope and the cardinals with them wherever they go. Every hour we expect a mutiny. Has written several times to the Viceroy explaining the state of things, and begging him to come [from Naples], as he once promised. His answer is that despatches lately received from Spain will prevent his coming, as his presence is required at Naples, but that the Marquis of Guasto will leave to-morrow with as large a sum as can be collected, and most of the captains of infantry now in Naples.
(Cipher:) Respecting the appointment of the Duke of Ferrara to the command of the Imperial army, the report is that he will not accept it; indeed Lope de Soria writes that he has already declared so. No wonder; for being the person he is, and having obtained all he wanted, he is not likely to accept a charge of so much responsibility. He ought, however, to consider that all he has won in this war comes through the Emperor's favour. The Prince of Orange is too young and wants experience; it is therefore urgent for the Emperor to select another general-in-chief. Would to God he had health and strength enough to accept the charge which the Emperor has been pleased to confer on him, but the truth is that he is so exhausted and in such bad health that he is only thinking of going to Spain and passing the remainder of his days in the service of God and His Majesty. Begs to be excused if, owing to these reasons, he does not accept the Emperor's favours.
(Cipher:) The Pope and the cardinals wish very much to be acquainted with the Emperor's determination. Knowing, as they do, that the matter has been submitted to the Viceroy, they are anxiously expecting news from that quarter. As long, however, as the Imperial army remains in a mutinous state, as it is at present, he (Alarcon) cannot imagine how any good can be expected from it. Nor is it probable that they will be persuaded to go to Lombardy, since French and Swiss are already in the plains of Italy, whilst the French fleet and Andrea Doria are blockading Genoa.—Rome 15th August 1527.
Signed: "Perez" (fn. n9)
Indorsed: "Duplicate sent by way of Sienna and signed by Perez."


  • n1. João III. and his wife Catalina, the sister of Charles.
  • n2. A summary of this letter will be found in Sandoval, Hist, del Emperador Carlos V., lib. xvi. § 9.
  • n3. Francesco Maria della Rovere, Duke of Urbino, or Francesco Sforza?
  • n4. Gian Giacomo de' Medici, move commonly called "II Medeghino," son of Bernardo de' Medici and Cecilia Serbellone, Milanese nobles. A good account of him and his doings may be found in Pietro Angelo Lavizari, Memorie Istoriche della Valtellina. Coira, MDCCXVL, 4to. At page 88 is an account of his defeat at Carato, there called Carate.
  • n5. Fourteen miles from Milan.
  • n6. Called Amantocle in Caracciolo's despatch of the 31st July, No. 139, p. 310.
  • n7. Not in the volume.
  • n8. See above, No. 140, p. 311.
  • n9. After Perez's signature is a note stating that, not having been able to enter Sanct Angelo at night and obtain Alarcon's signature, he (Perez) signed the letter himself.