Spain: September 1527, 16-25

Pages 383-396

Calendar of State Papers, Spain, Volume 3 Part 2, 1527-1529. Originally published by Her Majesty's Stationery Office, London, 1877.

This free content was digitised by double rekeying and sponsored by the Arts and Humanities Research Council. All rights reserved.


September 1527, 16-25

16 Sept. 195. The Cardinals in France to Pope Clement VII.
M. Re. Ac. d. Hist.
Salazar, A. 41,
f. 202.
The hearts of the faithful have been moved to pity by the misfortunes of the head of the Church. We, ourselves, feel them the more, constituted, as we are, by God members of that very Church. We have been moved to pity at the indignity with which Your Holiness has been treated. Pondering this in our mind, and perceiving the danger in which the Universal Church of Christ at present is, we cannot but mourn and weep at the dire calamities which have befallen
her. Our trust in, and dutiful observance of, the Apostolic Faith, makes us fear that the time has come when, the shepherd being struck, the Christian flock is about to be scattered and fall an easy prey to the wolves. We can already perceive the chain of evils coming down upon the Church through the instrumentality of those who, desecrating God's sanctuary and assailing Your Holiness' sacred person, will fully deserve in the 'Dies Iræ' the wrath of God. As Your Holiness' detention still continues, it behoves us to look out for some redress to so many evils, and implore the assistance of the faithful wherever it can be obtained. Taught by many passages of the Holy Scriptures, we have sought, first of all, by public prayers, supplications, and fasts, simultaneously instituted throughout the kingdoms of England and France, to implore divine mercy on the person of Your Holiness, and have prayed the Almighty that the head of his Church and guardian of his flock may be delivered from captivity, and restored to his former glory and independence. This we have done, whilst we entreated and requested His Imperial Majesty not to suffer that Your Holiness' person should remain longer in the hands of his soldiers, to their great infamy and dishonour. We have likewise applied for aid and assistance to the most illustrious and powerful Kings of England and France, to the former as valiant 'Defender of the Faith,' as he is, to the other as 'most Christian' monarch, begging them, for the sake of that religion which they and their predecessors never failed to profess, to protect the Apostolic See—hitherto the object of universal veneration—against the grave injuries inflicted upon it, and since prayers have been of no avail, to effect by force of arms the delivery of the Vicar of Christ on Earth from the hands of a cruel enemy.
Though we have done our duty in this respect, and entertain a hope that, through the continued efforts of the aforesaid Princes, Your Holiness' liberation will be accomplished, yet we cannot but tremble at the idea of the danger of the Apostolic See as long as Your Holiness remains in confinement. We have, therefore, met by the grace of the Holy Ghost at this town of Compendio (Compiegne) to bring about Your Holiness' liberation, sure, as we are, that if this detention were to last longer, incalculable evils might result to the whole of Christendom. We fear that His Imperial Majesty, though without attaint to his honour, may yet be like a youth who, misled by his passions, shuts his eyes to reason, (fn. n1) and, therefore, that with a view to increasing his power, and extending his dominions, he may seize the lands of the Church, and prevail upon the cardinals, now prisoners in Sanct Angelo, as well as upon those whom Your Holiness may create hereafter at his recommendation, to confirm and ratify any donation that he may obtain from the Holy See, and thus destroy the old state of the Church, whence much harm would result to us and our successors. We beseech the Almighty God to inspire the Emperor with sentiments suitable to his Imperial dignity, that lie may procure the increase and exaltation of the Apostolic See instead of wickedly and audaciously working its ruin, and at the same time to give Your Holiness such courage and strength that should the Emperor presumptuously attempt anything to the dishonour of the Apostolic See, Your Holiness may resist, and come out victorious. But as this exceeds human strength, and Divine Providence at times allows men to persevere in weakness and sin, we wish to protest, not only to Your Holiness, but to the Emperor himself, and to the world in general, that should Your Holiness separately or conjointly with the cardinals now prisoners in Sanct Angelo, through fear or upon compulsion, do anything against the integrity of the Apostolic See by way of grant, alienation, or cession of the lands and ecclesiastical rights appertaining to it, or create new cardinals through the influence and at the request of the said Emperor, then, in that case, we and all the rest of the cardinals now absent from Rome, whom God has providentially saved from the disasters and calamities attending the siege and sack of Rome, representing as we do that form of ecclesiastical dignity, of our own free will and judgment hereby declare that we shall never consent or approve any donations, concessions, or changes made under such circumstances from this day henceforward, but shall disapprove and condemn the same, and try with all our forces to undo them. In the event, moreover, of Your Holiness being taken away from this world—which we hope will be as distant as possible—we intend, without the assistance of the cardinals now in captivity, or of those whom Your Holiness may have thus created, to make a new election at such a sure and safe place of meeting that every one of the absent cardinals may attend. Nor shall we in anywise obey the Pope elected by the said cardinals within Sanct Angelo, were they to make such election. And whereas, as long as Your Holiness is surrounded by the Imperial troops, it is impossible to go to Rome, or wherever else Your Holiness may reside at the time; and whereas that circumstance might be the cause of this present war—which we are all bound to put an end to—continuing with greater fury than ever; as the profits and emoluments of such creations might after all result in favour of Your Holiness' detainer, and consequently retard the much desired liberation, it seems to us a very good and ripe opportunity to look out for a more efficacious remedy for such evils, since such an example might in future times prove injurious to the Roman Church by taking away part of its authority and possessions. We therefore beg and request that, taking into consideration the above facts, and the evils that might arise therefrom, Your Holiness may be pleased to provide for the wants and imminent danger [of the Apostolic See], and supply your own absence (. suplir su absencia) by intrusting to another [prelate] your authority and power, that measures may be taken for alleviating rather than increasing present disasters (su desastrado abuso).
It is, however, our duty to inform Your Holiness that even in the event of this our request not being, from any apprehension whatsoever, granted, as reason demands, we shall never be found deficient in that solicitude, care, and respect towards the Holy See, and above all for Your Holiness' liberation, which constitute the principal object of our wishes. At any rate we humbly beg that all the profits and emoluments which in similar cases appertain to the Holy See should be entirely reserved for the time when Your Holiness recovers liberty, persuaded, as we are, that in so doing great service is done to the Roman Church and Apostolic See, to Your Holiness in particular, and to all Christendom in general, since taking such profits and emoluments out of the hands of Your Holiness' present detainers will be tantamount to shortening your captivity.
To remove any malicious or sinister interpretation of these our sentiments, we hereby declare that no hope of profit or personal advancement, no enmity, lust of honour, nor any other similar consideration prompts us in giving the above wholesome advice, but that we are only influenced by the respect we bear to Your Holiness, and by our wish for your speedy liberation, by the dignity of the Apostolic See, and the preservation of the emoluments and privileges belonging to it, as well as by the common welfare of Christendom. For which we promise to work henceforward in such a manner that we may not be deemed to have failed in our duty, &c.— Datum in Compendio (Compiegne), 16th of September 1527.
Follow the signatures: Thomas Cardinal Eboracensis Legate; Jo. Cardinal de Salviatis, Legate; Cardinal de Bourbon; Jo. Cardinal de Lorrena; A. Cardinal Senoncensis (Antoine du Prat, Cardinal of Sens), Chancellor of France. (fn. n2)
Spanish. Contemporary copy, pp. 2½.
16 Sept. 196. Alonso Sanchez, Imperial Ambassador in Venice, to the Emperor.
M. Re. Ac. d. Hist.
Salazar, A. 41,
f. 204.
This morning the Signory received letters from their ambassador, who is with Lautrech, announcing that on the 12th, at the 22nd hour, Alessandria capitulated, The conditions are not stated, but the fact is none the less true. (Cipher:) The possession of Genoa thus secured, the enemy is sure to go to the Duchy of Milan, which requires a large force and plenty of stores for a successful defence. Knows nothing about the Imperial army. His last news came in a letter of Andrea del Borgo, dated from Ferrara the 9th inst., stating that one Antonio de Udena (fn. n3), who had left Rome on the 27th of August, had arrived in that city with a message from the Marquis del Guasto and Hernando de Alarcon. Those captains wrote to the Duke (Alfonso d' Este) that on the previous day an agreement had been entered into, in the Viceroy's name, with the Imperial soldiers. On the payment of certain sums in money, and the promise that the remainder of their arrears should be paid at short dates, the men had consented to quit Rome and march wherever they were ordered. Guasto and Alarcon wrote in high glee about it; they expected to start at the beginning of this month, and were confident of victory. The better to ensure success, they had written to the Duke [of Ferrara] to provide food and money for 8,000 more Germans, who were coming down. His informer (Borgo) does not explain whether the expected succour was being sent by the King of Bohemia of his own accord, or had been applied for by the Imperial captains to fill up the ranks of the lansquenets, awfully thinned, as it is said, by the Roman, plague. However this may be, it is to be feared that if the Imperialists cannot make their way into Lombardy with their present resources, an increase of their number is not likely to help them much, as it will only create confusion and want, especially if Genoa is not retaken.
He (Sanchez) was the first to convince the King of Bohemia of the necessity of making fresh levies, and therefore is glad to hear that the lansquenets are coming down. True it is that, as there is no money to pay them, new difficulties are in store for the Imperial captains, since German soldiers are known to be quite unmanageable unless they receive their pay regularly. Anything, however, is preferable to leaving Lombardy and other estates in the hands of the enemy. He (Sanchez) does not hesitate to say that, even with this expected succour, the Emperor's affairs in Italy are in a very critical state. The Duke of Ferrara will not lend money unless he sees things improving, and a few thousand lansquenets without pay are not likely to turn the balance in our favour.
At Mantua certain cardinals have held a meeting, at which Ciuo (Cibo) and Fernes (Farness) are said to have been present. The latter was allowed to come out of the castle of Sanct Angelo on the plea of going to Spain as Papal Legate. What the subject of their deliberations has been he (Sanchez) cannot say for certain, but surely it must have been unfavourable to the Emperor. Has been told that the Pope has lately issued a brief or bull contravening that of one of his predecessors, in which it is established that the election of a new Pope is to take place precisely in the city where the other dies. The new brief directs that the election is to be held at Venice, Mantua, or Turin, and if it cannot take place in those cities, at Bologna or Florence. If therefore the meeting of the aforesaid cardinals has been convoked for the purpose of giving them cognizance of a brief of this sort, no good can be expected to come therefrom. Will not fail to communicate any information he can get on the subject, but in the meanwhile his opinion is that an honourable peace is far preferable to this state of things, for time presses, the enemy gets stronger every day, the Emperor is too far off, and when provision is at last made it generally comes too late.
The English ambassador (Prothonotary Casale) is gone to Mantua for the express purpose of holding a conference with the cardinals there assembled, and persuading them to go to Avignon. This he does, as people say, by order of the Cardinal of England (Wolsey), who is aiming at the Pontificate, in case of the present Pope dying.
(Common writing:) Micer Andrea del Borgo also writes that on the 6th inst, the ex-Doge of Genoa (Antoniotto Adorno) and Lope de Soria arrived at Reggio, where the Duke of Ferrara was staying at the time.
Would have closed this despatch and sent it off yesterday, only that he wanted to hear the news about Alessandria confirmed. It is unfortunately too true. The terms of the capitulation are that the Germans are to go home through the Venetian territory with banners unfurled; the Italians to take service with the French.—Venice, 16th September 1527.
Signed: "Alonso Sanchez."
Addressed: "To the Sacred, Imperial, and Catholic Majesty of the Emperor, our Lord."
Indorsed: "To the King. 1527. Venice. Alonso Sanchez. 16th of September."
Spanish. Original mostly in cipher. Contemporary deciphering on separate sheet, pp. 4.
17 Sept. 197. Lope de Soria to the Emperor.
M. Re. Ac. d. Hist.
Salazar. A. 41,
f. 216.
(Cipher:) Should Genoa be retaken, the Emperor must at once appoint a governor of his own choosing. This arrangement, which would be agreeable to God, and highly beneficial to the Emperor, cannot fail to meet with the approbation of the Genoese in general, for whenever a chief of one of the two parties, Fragosi or Adorni, happens to exercise the supreme power, justice is not done, but on the contrary in city is destroyed. A trusty warden (alcayde) should also be appointed to the castle, that the city may be successfully defended against the enemy and kept in subjection.
Although the Doge did not take the needful measures for the defence of Genoa and the castle, but, as well as the citizens, was wanting in energy on a late occasion, yet His Imperial Majesty ought to acknowledge their services, and show them favour, especially to the Doge, who, after all, has always been faithful to the cause. He (Soria) has often heard him say that, should he return to Genoa, he should not like to be Doge as before, but only governor in the Imperial name, for then he would not be responsible for the sums spent in its preservation and defence. But whatever the Doge's wishes may be, Soria is of opinion that, in the event of Genoa being retaken and a governor appointed, a foreigner would be preferable to any Genoese partisan, whether Fragoso or Adorno, and therefore that the former one might be rewarded in some other way.
The Duke of Ferrara, since taking possession of Modena and Carpi, has done absolutely nothing for the Imperial service, though he might have been of much use, especially for the recovery of Parma and Piacenza.—La Mirandola, 17th September 1527.
Signed: "Lope de Soria."
Addressed: "To the most Sacred, &c."
Original entirely in cipher. Contemporary deciphering on separate sheet p. 1.
[18] Sept. 198. Instructions to Micer Antonio.
M. Re. Ac. d. Hist.
Salazar, A. 42,
f. 455.
You will tell the Emperor that advices from Genoa of the 14th inst. Have been received, stating that Alessandria [della Palla] surrendered the day before. The garrison to go out freely with their arms and baggage to any place except Pavia or Milan. Letters from Savona add that the surrender was brought about by treason, and that the besieged had been allowed to retire to Pavia, but more credit is attached to the news from Genoa.
Micer Ansaldo [Grimaldo] writes from Montogio on the 11th inst., advising the departure from Rome of the Imperial army, and requesting, as the road to Genoa is now occupied by the enemy, that he (the Bishop) would transmit to Spain the despatches from Rome as well as any letters of Leyva. Has done so, as His Imperial Majesty will see by the enclosed.
It is reported that Monsignore di Lautrech has sent for Signor Teodoro Triulzi to consult him as to which city he had better attack first, whether Pavia or Milan, and that Teodoro, in consequence, left Genoa on the 14th, leaving behind him as his lieutenant Andrea Doria, with eight galleys and six more that are to be armed at the expense of that city. This, it is added, has been done by order of the King of France.
Advices from Piedmont state that on the 8th inst. the English ambassador (Casale) arrived at the French camp, bringing with him 100,000 angelots of gold. The enemy's forces consisted of 500 lances, 10,000 Switzers, and 10,000 French and Gascons, which number was being daily increased by Italian recruits.
The only way in which the impending evil could be averted was considered by all wise men to be that His Highness the Infante [Ferdinand] should come at the head of a strong army.
His Imperial Majesty should nevertheless send reinforcements from Spain, not indeed in large numbers, all at once, as was done when the Viceroy came (como fu fatto cum el Sor. Viceré), thus putting the enemy's galleys on the alert, but gradually, in small detachments, which might easily be sent afterwards to Naples by way of Sardinia. (fn. n4)
Indorsed: "News from Lombardy. 1527."
Italian. Contemporary copy. pp. 3.
19 Sept. 199. Prothonotary Caracciolo.
M. Re. Ac. d. Hist.
Salazar, A. 41,
f. 220.
Since his despatches of the 26th ult. and 7th inst. Alessandria has capitulated. The Germans are to go home, so that with them and those from Bosco we have lost about 1,700 men. Our forces are so diminished thereby that we shall scarcely be able to defend Milan, Pavia, Como, Trezzo, Lecco, and other places in Lombardy. Leyva, however, will do his utmost to keep his ground. He has here at Milan about 3,300 Germans and as many Spaniards, exclusive of the men-at-arms and light cavalry. Two thousand Italians under Count Belgioioso have been sent to Pavia. The worst is that there is no money to pay and feed these forces, and as to extorting any more from the Milanese, it is quite out of the question. The soldiers are living at the expense of the citizens, whose lamentations and tears are really heart-rending.
No news of the Imperial army.—Milan, 19th September 1527.
Signed: .Protonotario Caracciolo."
Addressed: "Sacræ, Catholicæ, et Cesareæ Majestati."
Italian. Holograph entirely in cipher. Contemporary deciphering on separate sheet, pp. 2.
24 Sept. 200. Secretary Perez to the Emperor.
M. Re. Ac. d. Hist.
Salazar, A. 41,
f. 222.
News has just been received that Diego de Figueroa, whom the Viceroy of Naples was sending with despatches to Spain, has been murdered at Porto Ercole. It appears that the brigantine in which he sailed from Gaeta was obliged from stress of weather to put in at that port, where several galleys of the enemy happened to be at anchor. The Grand Master of St. John (Villiers de l'Isle Adam), perceiving the danger, had the Spanish brigantine placed in the midst of his own galleys, which did not prevent her being boarded by three armed barges from Doria's galleys, when the master of the vessel, Figueroa himself, and part of the crew were barbarously murdered. It was in vain that the Grand Master's people, hearing the rumour, hastened to the spot; they arrived too late to prevent mischief; they, however, captured the barges, and would have hanged the culprits had not the crew of the Spanish brigantine interfered in their favour. A new master and crew were then appointed, and the vessel sent to Civittà Vecchia, where she is now lying. Among those saved from the massacre was a servant of the Marquis del Guasto, who left this on the 20th ult. with despatches for Lope de Soria to forward [to Spain]. Among them was one of his (Perez) in date of the 18th, the duplicate of which was to be given to the said Figueroa. Hears, however, that the papers were not lost in the affray, and, therefore, has reason to believe that the above-mentioned letter, as well as another of the 2nd inst., written since, have reached their destination.
Since then the Marquis del Guasto has left Rome for the purpose of visiting the Viceroy at Aversa, and informing him of the terms offered to the Germans. The Viceroy then wrote to Alarcon, enclosing letters for the captains of the lansquenets, requesting them to appoint deputies to go and discuss with him the articles of the agreement. It is yet uncertain whether the lansquenets will accept the proposition; if they do, he (Perez) will not fail to acquaint the Emperor.
(Cipher:) Alarcon was further requested by the Viceroy to call on the Pope and inquire what sort of security he was prepared to give [for the money] in the event of his being set at liberty. The answer was that he was ready to give anything that might be required, whether in the shape of hostages or of cities and castles in his estate, besides creating four cardinals [at the Emperor's pleasure]. The Viceroy wishes, naturally, to know, before he conies here, how matters stand. Every day Alarcon writes to him the substance of his conferences with the Pope, and presses him to come to Rome to settle this business at once, and take command of the Imperial forces. Meanwhile we are doing everything in our power to content the Germans and Spaniards, so that they may inflict the least possible harm on the Romans, who feel this quartering of troops upon them almost more than they did the sack of their houses and the horrible excesses that followed it. For this reason, and in order to prevent the soldiers from seizing food wherever they can find it, Alarcon and the rest of the captains have determined to issue to each man one and a half "real" per day to buy provisions with. An attempt has been made besides to send the Germans out of Rome but it has failed, as they would not go without an order from their commanding officers. The Spaniards, however have consented to go to the Borgho, which has had the effect of quieting in some measure the fears of the Romans.
The commutation of the penance imposed on those who took part in Bishop Acuña's execution has been accomplished at last. The ambassador of Portugal [Don Martin] is the bearer of the brieves?
News from Venice state that there is great scarcity of bread and meat in that city. The Signory in consequence has ordered certain of her galleys to sail to the coasts of Sicily and Calabria, and bring thence all the wheat they can seize on our vessels. Has communicated this information to the Viceroy.
The other day Andrea Doria captured a bark, on board of which were 18 Spaniards. Every one of them was put to the oars, except those who were invested with the orders of priesthood.
A Spaniard named Polanco, whom Master Salamanca despatched some time ago to the King of Bohemia, has come back, bringing very satisfactory news from those parts. The Queen had been delivered of a son. Negro, at the head of 20,000 horse, was waging unrelenting war against the Vayvod, and had promised to march also against the Turk as soon as Hungary was subdued. King Ferdinand, on the other hand, had taken possession of a large city in that kingdom. An uncle of the Grand Turk (Solyman) had revolted and slain upwards of 20,000 of that Sultan's men. Letters from the King of Bohemia had arrived, thanking the Germans and the whole of the Imperial army for their praiseworthy conduct and valiant achievements in the last war, though Polanco says that when he heard of the excesses committed by his countrymen [at Rome] he was anything but pleased.
The Marquis of Astorga has been so ill at Civittà Vecchia that his life was despaired of. He is now better, and is to be brought here for recovery.
The confederates lose no opportunity of injuring us. The other day, whilst the Count of Sanct Segundo, from the Parmesan, and other Italian condottieri, were quartered at an abbey with about 400 of their followers, the Marquis Saluzzo came suddenly upon them with his bands, routed them, and took the Count and four of his principal officers prisoners. This Count of Sanct Segundo is the same who before the sack of Rome deserted the League, and came over to us.
This castle of Sanct Angelo is being provisioned. Viceroy sends daily wine and stores, not only for its garrison, but also for those of Ostia and Civittà Vecchia. Rome is getting free from the plague, though fever and ague still prevail. Provisions abound, and if it were not for these Germans and Spaniards most of the Romans would willingly return home.
The French are besieging Alessandria, (fn. n5) and intend, before they come here, to attack Leyva at Milan. It is to be hoped that before they can accomplish their plans this Imperial army will pay them a visit in Lombardy.
No further news from Genoa, except that the Doge had surrendered the castle, and gone to La Mirandula. The ambassador Soria was with him.
Has just heard the answer which these Germans make to the Viceroy's proposals. They will not appoint a deputation as requested. They demand, however, proper security for the 250,000 owing to them, besides three months' pay down. If these terms are not complied with, they will go home. Their captains say that they cannot prevent this, and that all they can do is to remain at Rome and not follow their men. An express has been sent to the Viceroy acquainting him with this resolution. Should his answer come before closing this letter, the Emperor shall be informed by this post.
The Duke of Camerino (Giovanni Maria Varana) died some time ago, leaving one only daughter [Giulia], who is heiress to his estate, under the guardianship of his widow, a sister of Cardinal Cibo. (fn. n6) After the Duke's death, the Duchess for greater security sent her daughter to a place of safety, upon which a bastard son of the Duke appeared, took possession of Camerino, and imprisoned the widow. (fn. n7) Some time after Sarra (Sciarra) Colonna, colonel of Italian infantry, entered Camerino. Now they say that Guido Rangone, who is in favour of the Duchess, and has hastened thither with some forces of the confederates, is besieging them both, whilst Alarcon is making preparations to assist the besieged, and will most likely soon send to their relief some companies of Spaniards and Italians with a few light horse. There is a report here that 150 beasts of burden (azemilas), which Sarra (Sciarra) Colonna was sending out of the castle laden with clothes and valuables (ropa), had been captured by armed peasants in the neighbourhood. If the report be true, that would show that Colonna does not consider himself safe at Camerino.
Letters have arrived from the Viceroy, dated Aversa, the 13th ulto. He says in very clear terms that, unless the Imperial army takes a most solemn engagement to march on Lombardy, he will not move from where he is. The French and Venetian fleets are likely to invade Naples, and he must needs attend to its defence. He writes to Alarcon begging him to go with the army according to the Emperor's orders and promises to send 100,000 ducats as soon as possible. The 100 Germans who were here at Rome to receive the 100,000 of the Pope went away ill-contented, threatening that all their comrades would soon go to Naples. We wrote to them requesting that they would send a deputation to the Viceroy respecting the securities for the 200,000 ducats [of the Pope] and whatever else was owing to them since they entered Rome. We promised them two months' pay within 15 days, amounting to 52,000 ducats, out of which they have already received 10,000 on account. Cannot say what the Germans will answer, but is very much afraid that they will reject these offers, come to Rome and commit excesses, and then go home or pass over to the enemy, which is still worse.
The Viceroy still insists upon the Datary, Bishop of Verona (Gianmatheo Giberti), and Jacopo Salviati being sent to him, but it is not likely that they will go until the Germans are appeased, and some settlement made with them, for the Pope can come to no decision (no sabe en que se determinar), and the above-mentioned cardinals will not like to leave Rome without first knowing his intentions.
The Marquis of Astorga and his uncle, the Bishop, arrived on the 16th; the former, very weak from his late illness, was carried in a Sedan chair. Both lodged at a house which the Bishop of Salamanca (Francisco de Bobadilla) had prepared for them. The Bishop called the next day on the Pope, and was very well received.
On the 19th intelligence came of the arrival at Ciyittà Vecchia of the general of the Franciscans and of Mons. Millao (Migliau), who immediately after their arrival there started for Naples in search of the Viceroy. Two brothers of the Count of Aguilar, and two more gentlemen whose names he (Perez) does not know, came by the same vessel, but did not confirm the news, at which the Pope is very much disappointed, for when he heard that the general [of the Franciscans] was coming he showed great joy. As Alarcon was the other day informing him of the statement made by the above-mentioned gentlemen, the Pope exclaimed, "For God's sake hold your peace, and do not destroy my last hope" News are expected from the Viceroy from hour to hour. We shall soon hear whether the general has really come, and what commission he has; also what the state of the Viceroy's health is, for they say that he is suffering from fever, and that one of the Pope's physicians, named Maestro Fernando, in whom the Viceroy has great confidence, has gone to visit him.
The Germans have sent in their answer at last, They refuse sending a deputation [to the Viceroy], and insist upon being paid in full and at once. They declare that if within three days' time no money is forthcoming, they will desert from the Emperor's service, and look out for another master, or come to Rome to be paid. They complain that no one promise made to them has ever been fulfilled. In order to quiet them, Alarcon is about to send Don Antonio de Ixar (Hijar), who came last from Naples, requesting them to wait 15 days for their two pays, on condition that if by that time they are not paid, he (Alarcon) and Hieronymo Moron will deliver themselves into their hands. The said Ixar takes with him all the money that could be procured in Rome, and orders to allot the Germans better quarters, where they may live more at ease, and have food at discretion, for they complain that the Spaniards have better ones and abundance of provisions, whilst they have to spend daily at least one real for bread. Don Antonio departed on this errand on the 21st. He has not returned yet. He was formerly attached to the Prince of Salerno, but has since had a quarrel with him, in consequence of which he has come to serve in this army. He is a brave and experienced officer. (Cipher:) Should he not succeed in his mission, the Germans will inevitably return to Rome and completely destroy the city.
(Cipher:) There is some suspicion that Cardinal Colonna is secretly stirring up these Germans to behave as they are doing, for they say he would much prefer the Pope not treating for his ransom, but remaining in captivity, &c.
(Common writing:) Alarcon has just informed him that he is about to despatch a messenger to Spain. As he is writing home he (Perez) need not enter into more details, save saying that the Germans are expected in Rome to-morrow without fail, as they would not subscribe to any of the terms proposed by Don Antonio [de Hijar] in Alarcon's name. They come resolved not to stir from Rome until they are paid. To a Spaniard who begged and entreated them not to remove from their quarters, but wait patiently until funds came from Naples, they answered in a passion, "We shall go to Rome and set fire to it, and then sell it to the Venetians or to the League, for we would rather make our peace with the Pope and become his friends than consent to the Emperor profiting by our conquests." These very words he (Perez) saw written down in a letter which a Spanish soldier called Luis de Baeça addressed the other day to Alarcon. The Spaniards are still at their own quarters, and there is no tidings of their coming to Rome. It is believed that if they do come the Germans will be more guarded in their conduct. At any rate Rome is in a fright at their coming.
A servant of the Papal Nuncio, at the Emperor's court, has arrived. He tells the Pope that the Emperor is better disposed than ever to restore him to liberty, and to the possession of everything he had before. The Nuncio writes in the same strain, and the consequence is that His Holiness is full of hope, and anxiously awaiting the arrival of the general of the Franciscans and of Mons. de Vere (Veyre) whose landing at Gaeta is now confirmed, though the Viceroy's serious illness is likely to cause some delay—Rome 24th September 1527. '
Signed: "Perez."
Addressed: "To the Sacred, Imperial, and Catholic Majesty."
Indorsed: "To the King. 1527: From Rome. Secretary Perez. 24th September."
Spanish. Holograph partly in cipher, Contemporary deciphering between the lines, pp. 5½.


  • n1. "Y temiendo de la Cesarea Magestad, sin perjuycio de la honra, lo que en razon de un hombre mancebo [se] muestra, en el qual las mas vezes vence y reyna el apetito, y reynando este en todos los miembros no admite ley de spiritu ni razon."
  • n2. This letter appeared first in Le Grand III., 4. The Spanish translation is slightly different.
  • n3. See above, p. 370; his real name was Antonio da Udine.
  • n4. There is no date to these instructions, drawn no doubt by Agostino Grimaldo, Bishop of Grassa and Lord of Monaco, for one of his Secretaries going to Spain. As they are followed in the Academy's volume (A. 42, f. 456) by an account of the taking of Genoa, on the 18th of August, and mention is besides made of that of Alessandria, on the 13th of September, I have not hesitated to place it here. It must, however, be observed that some historians, like Paolo Jovio and others, place the loss of Alessandria and even the sack of Pavia (5th of October) before the surrender of Genoa, against the opinion of Guicciardini, Du Bellay, Tarcagnota, and the rest, which agrees better with the facts adduced in the correspondence of Soria, Sanchez, Leyva, &c.
  • n5. It was taken on the 12th. See above, p. 386.
  • n6. Caterina Cibo di Massa, widow of the last Duke, and niece of Pope Leo. X.
  • n7. Mateo Varana, son of Ercole; though the person who accompanied Sciarra to Camerino is generally called Rodolfo.