Calendar of State Papers, Spain, Volume 4 Part 2, 1531-1533. Originally published by Her Majesty's Stationery Office, London, 1882.
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Additions and Corrections.
p.1. In the second note at the foot of the page allusion is made to Jerome Selade, Bishop of Vaison, the Pope's "Maestro di Casa," and Nuncio to the Emperor in Spain. Selade, however, is a mistake for Sclède, as has been shown in the Introduction to Part I. pp. xxvii. That he was bishop of Vaison, in the department of Vaucluse (France), from 1523 to 1533, appears from the Gallia Christiana, as well as from Gams, Series episcoporum totius orbis Christiani.
p. 8. Note. "para que se que quejaven de ello" is a misprint for "para que se quejasen de ello."
p. 9, line 7 of paragraph 2. (queriendose atravar comigo), read "queriendose trabar," or "atreverse comigo."
p. 11. Benedetto degli Accolti, commonly called Cardinal Ancona, wrote—among other works, one entitled: De bello a Christianis contra Barbaros gesto pro Christi sepulchro, et Judea recuperanda, lib. iv.; but as it was printed for the first time at Venice in 1532, some other of his (Accolti's) works must be meant.
p. 23. "Fortunately, the Bishop, who is also Cardinal of that place (that is, Sienna)," &c. Thus in the original at Simancas, to which a more modern hand adds, "Picolomini;" but the suggestion is erroneous, for at this time Bandini (Francesco) was Archbishop and Cardinal of Siena.
p. 34, line 12. "Don Pedro de Cardoba," read Cardoba.
p. 39. Third paragraph: "after consulting the Cardinal," that is, the Cardinal Archbishop of Palermo (Jean de Carondelet,) at this time president of the Council of the Low Countries.
p. 46. As stated elsewhere (Int. to Part I, p. xxvii.) the protest of the Lutheran Princes under No. 20 is wrongly dated Nüremberg, the 27th of May 1529. There is evidently error. The document itself was drawn up at Spires on the 19th of April, and made public, firstly by the Landgrave of Hesse, Philip, on the 5th of May, and afterwards by the Elector of Saxony (John Frederic) on the 13th, immediately after their departure from the Diet, and return to their respective estates. Only by supposing the Simancas copy, which is in a contemporary hand, to have been addressed to the Emperor from Nüremberg, can the discrepancy be reconciled.
As to the Instructions (No. 21) addressed by King Ferdinand to Diego Lasso de Castilla and Buonacursio di Grino, also dated Nüremberg, 27 May 1529, I need scarcely observe that they art="956"/> are misplaced in Bergenroth's volume, the seventh of his Collection of Papers from Simancas, No. 71. The diet there alluded to was not held until 1539; besides which, Diego Lasso de Castilla, the father of Pedro, who in 1554 came to England as ambassador of the King of the Romans, Ferdinand, on the occasion of the marriage of his nephew, Philip II. of Spain, to Queen Mary of England, was never ambassador at Rome.
p. 47. No. 21. Line 2 of second paragraph, read, "not to be charged" or "that they may not be charged, &c." The correction, however, is of no importance, since the despatch itself, as above stated, is evidently misplaced.
p. 48. Again the names of the German princes who signed the protest of Spires are incorrectly given in Mai's despatch (No. 23). Count Hanalt can only be Wolfang, prince of Anhalt; but it is not easy to determine whom he means by "two young men sons of the Mieburch (?), both dukes of Saxony." There were at this time two dukes of Saxony, John and George. The former was a son of Frederic III.; the latter, who ruled from 1500 to 1539, acknowledged Albert John Frederic of the Ernestine branch as his father. In 1532 the latter was deprived of his estate by Charles V., and replaced by Mauritius of the Albertine branch.
p. 49, last paragraph. Of the feud between the Peppoli and the Ramazotti, two noble families of Bologna, some account is given by the historians of that town.
p. 51. Fernandez's letter to the Emperor (No. 24), and the rest of the following and preceding papers relative to his Irish mission, have been abstracted by Mr. Froude in his History of England, vol. ii. In the second line of note ‡ at the bottom of the page, "esté" is a misprint for está.
p. 73. "The Papal Legate in France (Salviati) writes that King Francis gave an uncourteous answer to the Venetian Ambassador, &c. This last could no longer be Gasparo Rosso, for he left the court of France in 1528, being succeeded in that charge by Marino Giustiniano.
p. 74, lines 6 and 7. "Pietro [Paolo] Martin." Thus in the transcript from Simancas, but I suspect that "Martyr" is the true reading. If so, his family name was Vermilio,, a Florentine preacher, born in 1500, who about this time was residing at Padua in the Augustinian convent of that city. He afterwards became one of the principal champions of the Reformation, and died at Zurich in 1562.
p. 82. In the second paragraph, line 6, "Highness" is a misprint for "Holiness."
p. 83. Mai's despatch of the 15th June (No. 42) is a duplicate, with some trifling additions, of the preceding one dated Rome, the 13th.
p. 89. Margaret's letter to the Earl of Surrey (No. 43) in credence of Eustace Chapuys is wrongly addressed. Thomas Howard was no longer Earl of Surrey, but Duke of Norfolk, having succeeded his father, the second Duke, in 1524. He was, however, already Marshal of England, and it is no doubt in that capacity that the letter was addressed to him.
p. 100. The name of Christoval de Castillejo, Ferdinand's Spanish secretary, has been misprinted Castellejo. Lower down Rokendolf ought to be changed into Roghendorf or Roggendorf, his real name, the change of r into l, and vice versâ, being too frequent among Spanish writers of this time to deserve notice. Again, instead of the Diet, which could be no other that of Esslinghen, "assembly or meeting" must be meant, reichstat or reichs regiment being probably the word which Salinas translated into "regimiento," which means municipal corporation.
p. 102, first line of Note * "es lo que él [mismo] escribe."
p. 105. "That Mons. d'Humière's application." This Mons. d'Humière's is no other than Jean Brinon, seigneur de Villaines d'Humières in the dep. of Ille-et-Vilaine, president of the Regent's (Louise) Council, also of that of Rouen in Normandy, and Chancellor of the Duchy of Alençon, about whom see Vol. III. Part II. of the present Calendar.
p. 108, line 5 of the second paragraph. "I intend taking with me this good old knight of Mons. de Montmorency, together with his son, the Grand Master." The Grand Master of France and Lord High Steward of Francis was at this time Anne de Montmorency. His father Guillaume, who in 1525 was one of the signatories of the treaty of Madrid between Charles and the Regent Louise de Savoie, was still living when the peace of Cambray was made, for he is stated to have died on the 24th of May 1531.
p. 109. In the first line of the second paragraph (No. 52) Carlo, the duke of Savoy, has erroneously been designated as II, instead of III. of his name.
p. 113. I find nowhere recorded in history that Frederigo Gonzaga, marquis, afterwards duke of Mantua, applied to Charles for the hand of one of his sisters. There were only two of them living at the time: Catalina (Katharine) married to the King of Portugal, Dom Joāo III., and Maria, widow of Lewis, King of Hungary, killed at Mohatz in 1526. As to Isabella, who was the eldest of Joanna's daughters, born in 1501, and married to Christiern II. King of Denmark, she had died in 1528. Therefore, if the proposal was formally made, it must have been for the hand of Maria, then living under Ferdinand's care, and who in 1531, after the death of Margaret, became Governess of Flanders and the Low Countries.
p. 117, note †. Vasione and Selade are misprints for "Vassone" and "Sclède." See Int. to Part I. p. XXVII.
p. 124. In the letter of the Bishop of Trent (Bernardo Clesi) to Andrea del Burgo, Ferdinand's ambassador in Rome, mention is made of two individuals residing in that city, one called Il Signor Turmiano, the other "El (Il) Capeo. Castellatto." I was at a loss how to interpret the contraction Capeo., but have since discovered that it is used for Cap[itan]eo, and find that there really was at this time a captain or governor of Trent named "Castelalto," not Castellazzo nor Castellatto, as in the text.
p. 126, line 2. dat 10 de Zenaro 1525, read "dal 10 de Zenaro."
p. 127, No. 78, lines 9, 10. "from one de Good, who remained in the College Hall after the other senators." I have no doubt that "de Good" in this passage is a conventional word in cipher to designate one of the Venetian senators, otherwise I cannot guess who he may be.
p. 128. The count of Ortenburg, in Bavaria, mentioned in Salinas' despatch No. 81, was either Fernando Pedro de Salamanca, or his brother Gonzalo, denominated "El Magnifico," both of whom left Spain in the suite of Ferdinand, and became respectively his ambassadors at Rome and Venice. See Vol. III. Part II. of this Calendar, pp. 116, 628, 794, 832, 935.
p. 134, No. 84. Barrosa in line 6 is a misprint for "Barroso."
p. 144, line 26. "his orders to the Prince;" read your, since the sentence begins with "Your Majesty." This is not the only instance of the pronoun not concording with the person named. It is an oversight of mine, I confess, but the change from the first to the third person occurs so frequently in these abstracts that it is not to be wondered if his and your have been at times inadvertently misapplied. In the present instance, however, there can be no doubt as to the sense which is conveyed.
p. 149. The name of the Cardinal, writer of the letter under No. 90, though spelt "Palmeri," both in the copy and in the abstract made by Bergenroth (Vol. VIII. of his "Collection of Papers" now in the British Museum), was "Palmieri." He was bishop of Accerenza and Matera from the 15th of August 1530 to 1531.
p. 152. The archbishop of Syracosa here named was Lodovico II. Platamone, who held that see from 1518 to 1541.
p. 153 "Cardinal Cesarino and the abbacy of Monte Aragon." The abbey of Monte Aragon, near Huesca, was once bestowed by Charles on Cardinal Alessandro Cesarino; but in course of time, and upon a remonstrance of the Cortes of Monçon, maintaining that the Emperor had no right to give it to a foreigner, the abbey, one of the richest in Spain, was conferred upon D. Alonso de Castro.]
Ibid. In the same page (153) the first line of the third paragraph ought to be "The Pope since his return [to Rome] has been very ill and suffering."
p 154. "Along with the English lawyer," &c. This can be no other than Dr. Stephen Gardiner, whose arrival at Rome about this time has already been recorded. As to the Italian Silvestro Dario, auditor of the Rota, and who in 1523 appears as Papal sub-collector in England, he was in 1528 sent on a mission to Spain by Cardinal Wolsey.
p. 164, line 9. "Rovero" is a misprint for "Rovere."
p. 165. The first line of the second paragraph ought to read thus: "The Traietto affair.—Bauri (Waury) gone to be married to a daughter of the late Marco Antonio Colonna;" the subjects being two different and distinct ones. The Traietto affair, to which reference has already been made at page 160 of this volume, was no doubt the lawsuit then pending both at Rome and in Naples between the Colonna and the Gonzaga, who disputed the possession of that duchy. As to Mr. de Waury, or Bauri, Baberi, &c., as he is mentioned in these pages, his full name was Francis de Rupt "sieur de Waury in Flanders." He was attached to Bourbon, after whose death he took service with the Emperor, chiefly in Italy. He married a daughter of Marco Antonio Colonna, in whose right he claimed the duchy of Traietto, formerly belonging to Vespasiano Colonna, the son of Prospero.
p. 170. "The Pope, upon his being advised of the Emperor's landing at Savona," &c. Charles's landing was not at Savona, but at Villafranca di Nizza on the 5th of August, He went to Savona by land, and thence to Genoa.
p. 174. The letter under No. 118, said to be from Chapuys to the same (the Emperor), is from that ambassador to Margaret, the Governess of the Low Countries. Chapuys was still at Brussels previous to his journey to London, where he arrived on the 29th of August. For the same reason, at line 31 of the ensuing page, "these" ought to be turned into "those."
p. 176. In the third paragraph, beginning with the words, "A man has lately come from Florence," Mai makes a statement which is in complete contradiction with what is known of the feelings of the Florentines; yet it is so worded as to admit of no other construction. I should say, however, that the negative is wanting in the passage, and that the last line ought to be read thus: "that his (the Emperor's) wishes are [not] to re-establish there [in Florence] the rule of the Medici." Ignorant as the Florentines may have been then of the stipulations of the secret treaty made at Barcelona in July 1529, previous to Charles's journey to Italy, they might have thought that the latter would have been contented with a good sum of money or war contribution, as the penalty for their having joined the Italian league against him, and not insisted upon their returning unconditionally under the sway of the Medici, which, as will be seen hereafter, was the chief obstacle to the negociations with the Prince of Orange.
p. 177. No. 120. The Emperor's letter to Katharine in credence of Eustace Chapuys must have been written at Barcelona in July. As it is only a minute, and the date is blank,—as indeed most of those existing at Simancas,—I conclude that the despatch was made out some time before the Emperor sailed for Genoa the 27th of July 1529.
p.178. The last line of paragraph 3d ought to be read as follows: "All these considerations have moved us to try and detach Florence from the enemy, and win her over to your Majesty's side."
p. 183. The Memorandum under No. 123 was probably addressed to Mai. In the note referring to it there are two or three errata. The name of the Count of Miranda is Don Francisco de Zuñiga y Avellaneda. Salinas' name is wrongly printed Salina. And again in the following note relating to the Emperor's letter to the Pope (No. 124) "nuo genero et figliulo" is for nro genero et figliulo,—that is, our son-in-law, and son, meaning Alessando de' Medici, to whom Margaret, the Emperor's daughter, had already been promised in marriage.
p. 184, last line but one. In the presence of the Constable of Castille or of his brother the marquis de Berlanga, Don Iñigo Fernandez de Velasco, second duke of Frias, and seventh High Constable of Castille, having died at Madrid on the 17th of September 1528, was succeeded by his son, others say nephew, Don Pedro, the 3rd Duke, who to the family name Fernandez de Velasco added that of Tovar from his mother D.. Maria de Tovar. He died without succession at Madrid on the 12th of November 1559, and was succeeded by his nephew, Don Iñigo, then Marquis de Berlanga, who died at Valladolid on the 22nd of July 1585. See Salazar de Mendoza, Origen de las dignidades de Castilla, Madrid, 1657, pp. 131–3.
p. 186, No 128*. George duke of Hesse. There was no such duke, and yet Spanish writers of this time made Sassa (Saxa or Saxony) a synonym for Hassa (Hassia or Hesse), thus confounding George duke of Saxony with Philip landgrave of Hesse. See Calendar, Int. to Vol. III. Part II.
p. 192, line 16. "hasto dubio" read "harto dubio,"
p. 193. line 50. "And when the Bishop heard of it;" that is, Gabriel de Grammont, bishop of Tarbes, in Gascony, French ambassador in Rome, and created cardinal by Clement in June 1530. As to Malatesta, whose secretary is said to have fallen into the hands of the Imperialists, he must not be confounded with another of the same name, who was lord of Rimini. The former, who held Perugia, was a Baglione, whereas the latter belonged to the family of the Malatesti, lords of Rimini, Cesenna and Pesaro. Sigismondo Malatesta, son of Pandolfo, lost and regained Rimini several times during the pontificates of Leo X., Adrian VI., and Clement VII., until he was finally dispossessed in 1528. He died in exile at Reggio, leaving of Julia or Giulia Pico della Mirandola, whom he had married, two sons, Roberto and Hercole.
As to Malatesta Baglione, lord of Perugia, frequent mention will be made hereafter of him, and of his kinsman Baccio.
p. 194. "Canal of Aragon, and the Emperor's petition to the Pope about it." This canal was first projected in 1528 by Charles V. in order to connect the Mediterranean with the Atlantic; a grand idea, certainly, but one which was never carried into execution. Only 8 leagues of it were cut by 1546, and then the affair was dropped, and languished until 1770, when one Ramon Piñateli, or Pignatelli, advanced it a few more leagues, thus connecting Zaragoza with Tudela. For the expropriation of church lands in so vast an enterprise Clement's permission was needed, that being the reason why the canal of Aragon, or Acequia Imperial, as it is generally called, is so frequently alluded to in these pages. I need not add that Acequia is a word derived from the Arabic sekia, with the article As-sekia, meaning an "irrigating canal," a more modest appellation certainly, and more fitting its original navigation purpose.
p. 195, par. 2. "Alarcon writes from Naples and so does the Prince," &c. Add "from the camp before Florence," for though the latter had not yet invested, he was preparing to attack, that city.
p. 196, line 9 of the second paragraph. "Four days ago he (Campeggio) went to visit the Cardinal," &c. Wolsey was then at Esher in Surrey. The place in the neighbourhood whither Campeggio intended going to visit King Henry must be Hampton Court.
p. 197. No. 138. The writer of this letter addressed to Ferdinand, King of Bohemia and Hungary, cannot be Count Bernardo, but Count Leonardo Nogarolo, or Noguerol, the same individual mentioned at pp. 34, 168–9 of this Calendar as having been the bearer of despatches from King Ferdinand to the Emperor. He must have been either the brother or the son of another Count Nogarolo, whose death is recorded in a letter of Lope de Soria to the Emperor, dated Genoa, 17 July 1527. "Count Nogarolo (he says) is dead at Naples." He was one of the members of the Council of the Sumaria in that kingdom, and his name was Girolamo, not Leonardo as stated in Vol. III. Part II. of the present Calendar. Again, on the 19th of August of the same year, Martin de Salinas reports to the Archduke Ferdinand that one Count Noguerol had arrived at Valladolid in Spain, together with the Muscovite Ambassadors, and had been received by the Emperor on St. Peter's Day, the 29th of June. The same individual, described elsewhere as one of the Emperor's chamberlains, is said to have left Toledo for Vienna on a return mission from Charles to his brother Ferdinand, and on the 6th of September 1529 to have been sent to Bologna about the time of the Emperor's coronation.
The "Nogaroli," says an Italian genealogist, were originally French, from a place in the county of Armagnac (Gascony), called Noguerolles. They settled in Italy, and principally at Verona, as early as the time of Charlemagne. Sansovino (Origine e fatti delle famiglie illustri d'Italia, Venecia, 1670, 4to,) has a chapter on the "Signori Nogaroli" (pp. 231–42), wherein he mentions one Leonardo, third of his name, and son of Hieronimo or Girolamo, one of Maximilian's secretaries,—a fact which is likewise recorded in the Historia di Verona by Lodovico Moscardo, 1668, 4to.
p. 199. The Venetian ambassador mentioned in the second paragraph was, no doubt, Marco Antonio Venier, whose despatches from December 1530 have been abstracted by Rawdon Brown in his Venetian Calendar, &c., vol. v.
p. 201. In the third paragraph a statement is made concerning the Florentines, which I did not think worth refuting at the time, but which I find can easily be reconciled by the mere addition of one letter, an ., to the verb "casar,"—thus, cassar,—which after all is not Spanish but French. It is there said that the Florentines had given a wife to Ercole d'Este (the son of Alfonso, duke of Ferrara), and that, in consequence of that, they had given the command of a "condotta" or body of troops to Stefano Colonna, the lord of Prenestina (Prænestæ), or Palestrina, as that town in the Roman States is otherwise called. Now, as it is quite notorious that the people of Florence had nothing to do with the marriage of Ercole d'Este to Renée, countess of Chartres, daughter of Louis XII. king of France, in 1527, there must be error somewhere. The verb casaron, from "casar," means certainly "they married him;" but if one s be added,—thus cassaron,—it comes from casser in French, which has quite a different meaning. And as Miçer Mai, himself a Catalonian, was not very particular about the language of his despatches, hence the error in which I inadvertently fell at the time, and which I take this opportunity of correcting. The passage, therefore, must be read as follows: "As they (the Florentines) have cashiered Ercole d'Este, and got rid of him in that way, they have now given a "condotta" and the command in chief of their troops to Stefano Colonna, the lord of Prenestina."
p. 204, beginning of the first paragraph. "Towards securing the proposed marriage." One of the conditions imposed upon Francesco Sforza before his re-investiture of the duchy of Milan in 1530 was that of his marrying Christierna, the daughter of Christiern II. King of Denmark, and Isabella of Austria, and consequently Charles' niece. When Caterina de Medici's marriage to the duke of Orleans was first talked of, Francesco Sforza was, no doubt, persuaded to sue for her hand,—which he did ineffectually, for she ended by marrying the Duke, while he himself (Sforza) married Christierna.
p. 206. In Desmond's letter to the Emperor "Dunllynd" cannot be Dunkeld, as I then thought, but Dundalk.
p. 209. In the Emperor's letter to Lope de Soria (No. 146) there are two misprints; In prœsentia and habitari ought to be read in prœsenti and habitaturi.
p. 211, line 3 of fourth paragraph. "Wrote to him." Add "the Prince of Orange, Philibert de Chalon, at that time commander-in-chief of the Imperial Army in Italy, and about to undertake the siege of Florence."
p. 211. "Both the duke of Malfa,' &c. It has already been observed (Vol. III. Part II. p. xxxv.) that there are two towns in Italy which, from the similarity of their names, have frequently been mistaken one for another,—Melfi in the Basilicata, and Amalfi in the Principato Citeriore,—both of which were called Melfia in the Roman time. Of the former Alfonso Piccolomini was duke; Caracciolo was prince of the latter, but in 1529, owing to his rebellion, his estate and title were given to Andrea Doria.
p. 211. The kinsman of Malatesta mentioned in Praet's letter as having addressed himself to Muxetula, must be either his nephew Galeazzo, of whom more will be said hereafter, or another relative of his, named Braccio or Baccio. See pp. 63, 119.
p. 215, fourth line of second paragraph. "The Admiral of England and Mons. de Mountjoye;" that is, Thomas Howard, duke of Norfolk and Admiral of England, and William Blount, Lord Mountjoy.
p. 216. I hardly need call the attention of my readers to the fact that the memorandum presented by the English ambassadors at Rome was signed by Henry VIII., not by Henry VII., as said in the text.
p. 218. "Acequia," the meaning of which is a "canal for the purpose of irrigation," has been wrongly printed Accquia. See above, p. 961. It is a word of Arabic origin, and comes from "sekia," which in that language means an "irrigating canal."
p. 222. "Premier sommelier de corps du Roy" is the title given by Chapuys to Sir John Russell, which a note in modern hand explains by controleur de la maison du Roi. "Sommelier," in Spanish "sumiller de corps," is, properly speaking, the "lord chamberlain;" sumiller de la cava, the yeoman butler; sumiller de cortina, the groom of the Chamber. As Sir John was never controller of the Royal Household, but merely gentleman usher of the Privy Chamber, the passage must be corrected accordingly.
p. 225. The last sentence in the paragraph, "Which I have not taken, and never will take," might perhaps be rendered by "which I have not, and would never take," which seems more consistent with Henry's character and doings.
p. 235, line 20. "The duke of Suffolk, hearing of the Cardinal's arrival at Court," &c. "Le duc de Sofolch," says the copy before me, which I have since had carefully collated with its original, and yet I cannot help thinking that in this passage at least, if not in the ensuing one (p. 236), where the same duke is said to have broken out in imprecations against the Pope, Norfolk not Suffolk is meant, whose hatred against Cardinal Wolsey is well known, since he contributed greatly to his fall, and ultimately succeeded him in the King's favour.
p, 240. No. 164. "The Duchess of Savoy and her two sons." At this time Carlo III. duke of Savoy, and his duchess Beatrix of Portugal, had two sons living, Emmanuele Philiberto, born in 1528, who succeeded him, and Luigi or Lodovico, who died in 1536. See Tavole Genealogiche della Real casa di Savoia, da Felice Carrone, marchese di S. Tommaso; Torino, MDCCCXXXVII. 4to, pp. 52–5.—It is not quite clear who the "Sieur of Sarmoya or Tarmoya" mentioned in line 2 of the same despatch can be, unless it be meant for La Tremouille, whom Spanish writers of those times used to call Tramolla and Tramoya. As to the bishop of Moriana, the same mentioned already at pp. 119, 146, 172, his name was Louis, or Ludwig de Gorrevod, brother of Laurenç the governor of Bresse.
p. 242, line 15. "The governor [of Lyons], one of the Triulzi family." I believe his name to have been Pompeo (Pomponio ?), son of Giovanni, senator at Milan. The author of Les Généalogies Historiques, Paris, 1736, 4to, vol. ii. p. 439, makes one Pompeo Trivulcio governor of Lyons. If so, he must have been, when Poupet de Lachaulx was there, the lieutenant of his uncle, the Marshal Theodoro Triulzo, count of Pizzighetone in Lombardy; for, according to the best authorities, the latter was appointed by Francis to the government of Lyons in 1526, which he held till his death in 1531. Theodoro had a nephew, called Agostino, cardinal since 1517, who died in 1548.
p. 243. I was wrong in calling the duke of Orleans Charles: his name was Henri; his eldest brother, the Dauphin, was François. Both were then in Spain as hostages for the King, their father. As to Charles duke of Angoulême, Francis' third son, he was only seven years old in 1529, being born on the 22nd of January 1522. After the death of François in 1536 (12th Aug.) Henri took the title of Dauphin and duke of Bretagne, while his brother Charles had for his portion the duchies of Angoulême and Orleans.
p. 244. "Mr. d'Angoulême and his two sisters," &c. At this time King Francis had two daughters living: Madeleine, born 10th August 1520, and who died the 2nd of July 1537; and Marguerite de France, born 5th June 1523, who in 1559 was married to Emmanuel Philibert, duke of Savoy. By Mr. d' Angoulême, their brother Charles, duke of Angoulême and afterwards of Orleans, is meant.
p. 247, fourth line of second paragraph, "adds or earlier ou plus tost," read "au plus tost."
p. 247, 3rd paragraph, at the end. "Whether Mr. de Clermont comes or not." In a letter of Giovan Battista Sanga to the duke of Albany (John Stuart), dated Rome, the 29th of January 1530, mention is made of one Monsignor di Clarmont (elsewhere named Chiaramonte), whom Francis thought of sending "or had already sent" to Florence for the purpose of taking out Clement's niece, "la Duchessina," Caterina de' Medici, who was inside that city in a sort of captivity, After thanking the Duke for his services, Sanga adds: "Et massimè in beneficio della Signora Duchessina nostra, si per il maritaggio suo, si per levarla di Fiorenza, pare a sua Sant. che si Monsignor di Clermont, chè è andato hora a Fiorenza con l'autorità del Christianissimo non potrà ottenere che gli sia renduta, sariano medesimamente ostinati in non volerla dare a V. Ecc." Lettere de Principi, edit. Ziletti, Venice, 1581, vol. III, p. 187.
p. 249, line 31. "Gregory Casale," or Sir Gregory Cassalis, as he is generally designated in State Papers, &c., had been in Rome as Henry's ambassador since 1527.
p. 255, line 4 of the 3rd paragraph? plicques et replicques, read "plicques et replicques."
p. 257, par. 2. "The ambassadors of this King, &c.;" that is, Sir Nicholas Carew, Master of the Horse, or Grand Squire, and the Dean of the Chapel, Dr. Richard Sampson. Their letters of credence, dated Windsor, the 30th of September, will be found at page 259, under No. 171. These two were to go to the Emperor, already in Italy since August. On the other hand George Boleyn, and Dr. Stokesley, who had not yet replaced Tunstall in the bishopric of London, were to go to France for the purpose of inducing the Parisian doctors to conclude in favour of the divorce. In the abstract of Chapuys' despatch No. 160 (p. 238), I erroneously conjectured that Baruech or Bernech—for the name is written both ways in the same paragraph—might be meant for the Earl of Warwick, who figures occasionally in the State Papers of this time, whereas Bannes, that is, Peter Vannes, is evidently intended, since he had already been at Rome as Henry's ambassador, and been recalled.
p. 258. The bailli Damont, or d'Amont, named in Count Werdenberg's letter to the Emperor, No. 170, must be the same of whom mention is made at pp. 160–1; if so, there can be no doubt that Claude de Carondelet, seigneur de Solre-sur-Sambre, is meant, who as early as 1514 is represented as councillor and chamberlain to Archduke Philip, the father of Charles. Claude had a brother, named Jean, who was at first dean of Besançon, then provost of Saint Donat, and lastly archbishop of Palermo and primate of Sicily, and who became ultimately president of the Privy Council of the Low Countries, and Minister of Finances. Another, named Ferry de Carondelet, described as archdeacon of Besançon before 1512, belonged probably to the same family. See Le Glay, Correspondence de l'Empereur Maximilien I. et de Marguerite d'Autriche, tom. II. pp. 3, 317, 342. As to the count Gallache (Galeasso), mentioned in the same despatch (p. 259), and again in Salinas' letter (No. 172), as count Gaiaço, commanding the Venetian forces in the Mantuan along with Cesare Fragoso, and as having been made prisoner on the occasion, I have reasons to suppose that count Ludovico Gaiazzo is meant, who, after deserting the Imperial banners in 1527, took the lead of the "Bande Nere," and became eventually commander-in-chief of the Venetian infantry. (See Vol. III. part II. of the present Calendar, pp. 72, 90, 761, 873.) Werdenberg's letter, however, is dated Limad (?), which must be a place on the frontier of the Mantuan, though I have been unable to find it on the maps.
p. 261. In the note at the foot of the page "Francesco Maria" is wrong; Sforza's name was Francesco only.
p. 266. Mr. de Bredan is not, as suggested in the note at the foot of the page, Henri de Nassau, lord of Breda, but Jean de Bourgogne, lord of Bredan, already mentioned at page 98 of the present volume, and who in 1530 represented King Ferdinand at Bologna for the coronation of Charles (pp. 378, 474,) and whose irrelevant conduct in a question of precedence between himself and the English ambassador, called forth the censures of Salinas, (p. 474 note).
p. 270, last line of 4th paragraph, procero read (processo); and note § "Cremonas" for "Cremona."
p. 282. Vespasiano Colonna, son of Prospero, was duke of Traietto and count of Fondi in his own right. By his first wife, Beatrice, daughter of the Lord of Piombino (Appiani), he left one daughter, named Isabella, whom he destined to Ippolito de' Medici, Clement's nephew. The marriage, however, did not take place, owing to the latter having taken orders, and been appointed Cardinal (12 March 1528). Vespasiano's will, moreover, stipulated that in case of Isabella not marrying Ippolito, she was to become the wife of one of the Gonçaga, Luigi or Ferrante, both sons of Giulia, his (Vespasiano's) second wife.
Such was the origin of the long-protracted suit tried at Rome between Ascanio Colonna, who, as Vespasiano's nephew, claimed his estates of Traietto and Fondi, and Luigi Gonzaga, surnamed Rodomonte, who ultimately married Isabella. (Ireneo Affo, Vita di Luigi Gonzaga, 1780, p. 70.) Ascanio, however, was not, as will be seen hereafter, the only competitor for the estate of Traietto, since François de Rupt, sieur de Waury, who in August 1529 married a daughter of Marco Antonio Colonna, sued also for it.
p. 286. No. 190. The Venetian Ambassador mentioned in the 3rd paragraph was Domenico Veniero;—about whom see Rawdon Brown's Venetian Calendar, vol. IV., passim. At the same time Cardinal Francesco Cornaro, also a Venetian, seems to have been occasionally accredited to Clement as extraordinary ambassador for the negotiations still pending concerning Ravenna and Cervia, which the Signory retained until 1530.
p. 288, line 4. "His niece Katharine," &c.: read "Caterina," as the Italians write her name. I need not observe, however, that Catherine in French, Catalina in Spanish, and Kathlin in German are synonymous.
p. 299. I have still my doubts as to whether Gayaz or Galliaz be intended for Galleasse (Galleazo) Visconti, who about this time was a refugee at the court of Francis, whom he faithfully served in all his wars with the Emperor; or whether count Gaiazzo or Gaiaço, the celebrated condottiero, who in 1528 deserted the Imperial banners and went over to the French, is intended.
p. 304. Who is Mr. de St. Villieury, on whom, according to Chapuys, the chancellorship of the duchy of Lancaster was conferred on More's promotion to the office of High Chancellor of England? I still conjecture that Fitz William is meant, although the change of Fitz into St. and of William into Villeurry must appear rather unusual to the reader.
p. 311. One might have thought the date of the Emperor's letter to his ambassadors at Rome, No. 199, to be a mistake, for Vandeness positively says that Charles arrived at Piacenza on the 5th of September, and staid there until the 24th. "Here he was met by [the] Admiral [of France] de Brion, named Chabot, whom the King of France sent to obtain from him (the Emperor) the ratification of the treaty of Cambray; that on the 24th he arrived at Fiorenzola, and on the 25th at Borgo San Donnino; that he was at Parma on the 26th, where the Grand Chancellor [Mercurino] di Gattinara received his nomination as Cardinal, and on the 28th at Reggio, where he was waited upon by the duke of Ferrara. On the 1st of October the Emperor was at Modena, on the 4th at the Certosa, and he arrived on the 5th at Bologna, where the Pope already was." Such is the account published by Bradford (Correspondence, &c. of Charles V., pp. 494–5) from one of the copies of Vandeness' Itinerary preserved at Vienna. But since then Mr. Gachard, the keeper of the "Archives de Bourgogne" at Brussels, has published a very correct edition of the original French text (Bruxelles, 1874, 4to.) The dates there given agree exactly with those of the letters and documents extracted in this Calendar. The Emperor left Piacenza on the 24th of October; the same night he slept at Borgo San Donnino; next day at Parma; on the 29th he was at Reggio; the 1st and 2nd of November at Modena; the 3rd at Castelfranco; and the 4th at the Certosa (or Carthusian monastery) near Bologna, which he entered in the morning of the 5th. If the Emperor's letter to his ambassador at Rome, who, as may be seen, was already in Bologna, was really written at Firençuola or Fiorenzola, the date must be September, not October.
p. 327, line 9. "Mr. Guillefort, captain of the Cinque Ports." At this time Sir Edward Guildford was captain or lord warden of the five seaport towns on the coasts of Kent and Surrey (Cinque Ports), and Constable of Dover Castle.
p. 327, line 19. "On that point, however, hardly a step has been gained." Such, at least, appears to be the meaning of Chapuys' sentence purposely copied at the foot note†. One should think that he or his secretary might have written instead, "mays [en] ce point là [rien] ne s'est pu gaigne[r]," or "ce point là n'a pu estre gaigné." Chapuys' French, as readers must have observed, is anything but grammatical and correct, and his orthography is detestable. He had one Spanish secretary, named Montoya, besides two or three more, who were natives of the Low Countries. Although all his despatches are original, and most of them holograph, I am still ready to admit that the frequent blunders and misconstructions in them must be attributed either to his secretaries or to the clerks at Brussels, whose business it was to decipher them.
p. 334, line 29. "Luigo" is a misprint for "Luigi." I have already had occasion to refer (Vol. III. Part II. pp. 792 and 1037) to the Vita di Luigi Gonçaga detto Rodomonte by Fath. Ireneo Affo, Parma, 1780, 4to, in which three Gonçaga, of the name of Luigi, living at the same time, and who have been frequently taken one for the other, are mentioned, viz., 1st, Luigi, son of Ridolfo, fourth son of another Luigi, marquis of Mantua, and who, from the fact of his being lord of Castelgiffredo, and of Castiglione delle Striviere in Lombardy, is generally designated as Luigi Gonçaga da Castelgiffredo. In 1521 he served under his kinsman the Marquis of Mantua, then captain general of the Church, in the war which Leo X. and the Emperor Charles waged against the French. That campaign, however, was unfortunate for him; he was defeated in an encounter, and received a severe wound in the leg, whence he was surnamed by some Il guercio, and by others Il Zoppo. At the end of that war Luigi repaired to Valladolid, in Spain, and obtained from the Emperor an annual pension of 1,000 gold ducats on the proceeds of the property confiscated from the "fuorusciti" of Naples. We find him again in 1524 drawing pay from the Venetians, as commander of one hundred men-at-arms or two hundred light horse. In 1526, during the famous Clementine league against the Emperor, Luigi took the part of the former; but in November of that very year he was at Governolo on the Pò, where Giovannino de'Medici, the famous commander of the "Bande Nere," received the arquebuse shot which caused his death. At the peace, in 1529, Luigi again entered the service of Charles, and was in 1532 appointed general of the Spanish and Italian infantry in the room of the marquis del Vasto (Alfonso Davalos), then leaving for the Hungarian campaign. Though this appointment does not seem to have been confirmed, owing to Marramaldo and other Italian "condottieri" having been previously designated for the command of the Imperial forces, he nevertheless proceeded to Hungary as volunteer, and gained much reputation in the campaign of 1530 against the Turks. He is accused of having administered poison to Francesco Maria della Rovere, duke of Urbino, who died in 1538, and later in 1547 of having brought about the famous "congiura di Piacenza," in which Pier Luigi Farnese, the son of Pope Paul III., lost his life. He himself died shortly after, leaving by his wife Ginevra, daughter of Niccolo Rangone, then widow of Giangaleazzo da Correggio, only one son, also called Luigi, the father of another, who afterwards found room in the Roman calendar as San Luigi Gonzaga.
Of Luigi, the son of Gian Pietro Gonzaga, descended in a direct line from Conrado, very little is known, except that he was a poet much praised by Ariosto, the Aretino, and others. Well known are his verses when, in allusion to this Luigi da Castelgiffredo, and to his own cousin Rodomonte, he says:
. . . . . . ."Ce ne son dui
Di par da Marte, e da le Muse amati,
Ambi del sangue, che regge la terra
Che 'l Mincio fende, e d'alti stagni serra."
He passed most of his time, surrounded by poets and wits, at his magnificent residence of Borgoforte, and is supposed to have died in 1549.
Of Luigi Gonzaga, surnamed Rodomonte, principal object of this note, enough has been said in the first part of the present Calendar. Yet as he has often been mistaken by grave historians with his two above-mentioned namesakes, as well as with his cousin Ferrante Gonzaga, duke of Ariano, and Prince of Molfeta; as his name appears too often in these pages in connexion with Isabella Colonna, duchess of Traietto, whom he ultimately married against the will of Clement VII., no friend of her family, I have deemed it necessary to enter into more particulars about him. For further account of the "Gonzaga" the reader had better consult another work by the same Ireneo Affo, namely, Memorie di tre celebri principesse della famiglia Gonzaga, Parma, 1787, 4to.
p. 336, paragraph 4. "Respecting the Duke Frederic, &c. En lo que toca al duque Federico," are Salinas' words; but who is meant by "the duke" is not quite clear, unless Frederic, Duke of Holstein, be intended. This latter was at the time King of Denmark, his predecessor Christiern II., called "the Nero of the North," having been dethroned in 1523. Christiern, then a prisoner, and who lived until 1559, had been married to Isabella, sister of Charles V., by whom he had two daughters,—Dorothea, who became the wife of the Palatine Frederic, and Christierna or Christina, who married Francesco Sforza, duke of Milan. Frederic of Holstein was never recognised by Charles or by his brother Ferdinand as legitimate sovereign of Denmark, and therefore the title of "duke of Holstein," given to him by ambassador Salinas, may be easily explained.
p. 341, line 21. "King Wladislas of Hungary." Substitute Louis, for such was the name of the king who lost his crown and life at the battle of Mohatz in 1526.
p. 347. The King's secretary mentioned in line 8 must have been Dr. Stephen Gardyner.
p. 348. Last line of note: "yl auoit" has no meaning whatever, and ought to be "yl l'amoit," as I have translated.
p. 353, paragraph 2. The envoy from the Pope, whom Chapuys met in London, could be no other than Paolo da Casale, the brother of Sir Gregory, Henry's ambassador at Rome.
p. 358, line 17. "True it was that, at the request of the Dean, now residing at Your Majesty's court." This was Dr. Richard Sampson, dean of the chapel at Windsor, whose departure for Bologna has already been mentioned.
p. 366, line 26. "Among them Queen Blanche and the two duchesses of Norfolk, the dowager and the young." By "Queen Blanche," Mary Tudor, King Henry's sister, formerly a widow of Louis XII., and at that time married to Charles Brandon, duke of Suffolk, is meant. White was the colour used by the widows of the French kings, which sufficiently accounts for the appellation given to Mary. As to the two duchesses of Norfolk, their names were Agnes Tylney and Elizabeth Stafford: the former was the widow of Thomas, second duke of Norfolk, who died in 1524, and step-mother to the third duke; the latter, his wife. The earls created on the occasion were, besides Thomas Boleyn, who was made earl of Wiltshire and Ormond, those of Sussex, Lincoln, and others. See Brewer, Vol. iv. p. 2718.
p. 382. No. 241. "Both the Nuncio and his brother Messire Gregoire will pursue the affair." Sir Gregory da Casale, was, no doubt, the brother of (Paolo) the Papal Nuncio at this time; but the bishopric could hardly have been promised to him, for he was a married man, and his wife was then living. Most likely, if a promise there was, it must have been in favour of Paolo himself, or of his brother the Prothonotary, who for some time past had resided at Venice as Henry's ambassador, and had been most active there and at Rome in promoting the King's divorce,—so much so that, at Henry's recommendation, he afterwards obtained from Clement the bishopric of Cividal di Belluno in Lombardy, vacant by the death of Antonio Barrozzi.
p. 393, line 4 of the second paragraph. "Laurens Sçavre." Thus I find the name of this German written in all Chapuys' despatches. Mr. Brewer, however, has always Stauber, and calls him Sir Lorenz or Laurence.
p. 395, line 15. "[London]" is wrong, and ought to be "[Rome]," for the allusion is to Grammont, not to Du Bellay.
p. 402, line 33. "For this reason it is my intention to quit Genoa in about 10 or 12 days." "Genoa" is a decided mistake for "Bologna," where the Emperor was at the time.
p. 405. "Or the Marquis of Saluzzo." After Michele Antonio, killed at the taking of Aversa in 1528, his brother Giovan Luigi, formerly a priest, succeeded. He was shortly after dispossessed by another brother, called Francesco, who is the one there alluded to. All were the sons of Luigi II., the eleventh marquis, and of Margaret de Foix-Candale. Giovan Luigi retired to France, where he died in 1567.
p. 422, line 11. "The two former go for the exclusive object," &c. Read the two latter, that is, Stokesley and Lee, the King's almoner. As to Sampson, the dean of the chapel [of Windsor], mentioned lower down, though he went also to Bologna with Clement, he does not appear to have accompanied him back to Rome.
p. 432, last line of second paragraph in 252. Their names are Croma (Cranmer) and Carmel (?)." The copy in my possession, which I have had carefully collated with the original at Vienna, reads:—
"Les dits ambassadeurs resouluement doibvent partyr demayn ou Vendredy d'icy, au moins les deux, c'est a sçavoir, Mons. de Vulchier et le Docteur Lee. L'autre (Stokesley) est encores á Paris, á poursuyr et disputer le cas de ce marriage; passant par lá ceux-cy yl[s] le emmeneront avec eux. Il[s] mennent davantage deux docteurs, l'ung theologiste et l'autre legiste, qui s'appellent Croma et Carmel (Cramel), Angloys tous deux, et chappelains ordinaires du Roy." I at first conjectured that Croma in the above passage might be meant for Cranmer, at this time employed by Henry in various missions to the Emperor, and whose letter to Charles in justification of the divorce will be found under No. 583, at page 889. But if Croma be meant for Cranmer, who is Carmel or Cramel? Chapuys and the Imperial agents at Rome, Mai, Ortiz, Loaysa, and the rest, whose information is generally derived from that ambassador's reports, always call Cromwell Cremuel or Cremel; but the future secretary had not yet risen into the King's notice, and, if he had, was not sent to Bologna on the occasion. Could not the two doctors, one a canonist, the other a lawyer, be Cromer and Cranmer? One George Cromer, already archbishop of Armagh 1522-43, and who in 1532 became Lord Chancellor of Ireland, is frequently mentioned in the State Papers, Vols. II. and III.; with regard to Cranmer there is no difficulty in assigning him a post in the intended embassy.
p. 439. The heading of letter No. 255 ought to be "Eustace Chapuys to the Emperor."
p. 447, end of second paragraph. "and he named the gentleman;" read "and the ambassador, that is, Jocquin (Gioachino), named to me the gentleman whom King Francis has sent [to Hungary] for that purpose."
p. 453. No. 258. "recovation" is a misprint for "revocation." The whole passage ought to be read as follows: "but his secretary (Count Felix's) has already in his hands the Imperial decree. As to the letters revoking his powers they shall be made out, and forwarded immediately.
p. 454, last line of second paragraph. "infants" ought to be "infantes," the plural of infante,—title given in Spain to all princes of the blood."
p. 456. No. 260. "Chevalier de Balbi to the Emperor." The corresponding note at the foot of the page ought to be worded as follows: "There was an historian of this name, who flourished between 1558 and 1618, and was perhaps the son of the Venetian here named; but who Chevalier de Balbi, as he is here named, or J. du Balbi, as at p. 184, can be, I have no idea."
p. 458. In the instructions to Praët, dated the 21st of February, Don Pedro II. Fernandez de Velasco, duke of Frias, is twice designated as "Constable of Castille," omitting "Grand" or "High," for such he was since September 1528, when he succeeded his father Don Iñigo. The charge, one of the utmost importance in the Spanish monarchy, had been hereditary in the family of the Velascos ever since 1473, when Henry IV. of Castille gave it to the Count of Haro, Pedro I. Fernandez de Velasco. (See Salazar de Mendoza, Origen de las dignidades seglares de Castilla y Leon. Madrid, MDCLVII, p. 131.)
p. 458, 4th paragraph. "Messieurs de Tarbes and de Moret." Tarbes is for Gabriel de Grammont, bishop of Tarbes in Gascony, and Moret for Charles de Soliers, sieur de Morette or de la Morette, who in 1526–7 was employed by Louise de Savoie, Francis's mother, on various missions.
p. 459. Note. By one of the clauses of the treaty of Cambray, Francis was bound to pay to Margaret, the Emperor's aunt, the sum of 25,000 crs.; but why the sum here fixed is made to amount to 100,000 crs. and how it could be deducted from the 12,000 (120,000?), is not easy to determine. After all, the copy from Simancas may be unfaithful, and the sum be one million and two hundred thousand crs., which was actually the amount paid by King Francis.
p. 459 . Note †. "Para cumplir," &c. Instead of "12 mil," as printed, 1,200,000 or "12 mil cientos" was intended, for that was the amount of ransom to be paid for the sons of Francis, from which the 100,000 crs. payable to Margaret were to be deducted. See above, p. 971.
p. 461, line 8 of 3rd paragraph. "In the jeweller's hands," add "the King's."
p. 463. "A message to the Sophi of Persia," &c. The bearer must have been that same Balbi whose letters from Aleppo and Babylon will be found at pp. 184, 543 of this volume. His name was Girolamo Balbi, latinised into Balbus, and we have several books by him, such as De rebus Turcicis. De confederatione nuper inita, paceque universali, atque expeditions adversus Turcas suscipienda," oration delivered before Clement VII. in 1530, and also De futuris Caroli Augusti successibus Vaticinium (Poema), ad Carolum V. Imp. de Coronatione, the whole having been printed at Bologna per Joannem, B. Phœllum, 1530, 4to. Whether he be the same as Girolamo Balbi (Hyeronimus Balbus), bishop of Gurk, in Carinthia, from 1523 to 1535, who in 1522-3 was sent as Austrian ambassador to Adrian, seems very probable, and yet the title "cavaliere" given to him in the letter No. 260 renders the conjecture rather problematic; ( See above, p. 971.)
p. 470. In the foot-note, last line but one, Il ought to be changed into Je.
p. 474. Note. The Sieur of Bredan, mentioned in Salinas' despatches, is Jean de Bourgoyne,—a connexion no doubt,—perhaps a brother, of Philippe, who died in 1542, and of Adolf, sieur de Bèvres, and Grand Admiral of Flanders, and ambassador in England (1527), whose despatches have been abstracted in Vol. III. Part II. of the present Calendar, descended from Baudouin, the Bastard of Bourgoyne as he was called, lord of Falais, Bredan, Sommerdick, &c., natural son of Philip "the Good," duke of Burgundy. Some writers, misled by the name of one of the family's fiefs in Flanders, generally written "Breda" and "Breda" in papers and documents of this time, have wrongly supposed him to be the same as Henri de Nassau, lord of Breda. See above, p. 967.
p. 475. No. 270. "The bishop of Lincoln, and an Italian cordelier," &c. Robert Longlands, Henry's confessor, and Dr. Nicholas were the two doctors sent to the University of Oxford on the occasion.
p. 475, line 8 of the same despatch. The treasurer of the Household was then Sir William Fitzwilliam.
p. 481. No. 277. "King Ferdinand to the Emperor." Of this important letter, which was published in 1844 by Dr. Lanz, Correspondenz der Kaysar Carl, vol. I. p. 424, I have seen a duplicate which differs materially from the original [at Vienna?]. The duke of Saxony mentioned in it must be John Frederic. For "the dispute between the Vayvod and him," as in lines 12 and 13, "one" ought to be substituted, since my abstract is in the first person, and not in the third as usual.
p. 484. No. 78. "Captain Marino and his mission to Venice," read "The captain or governor of Marano."
p. 485. "Deliberatione o resposta," read "Deliberatione e resposta."
p. 488. No. 281. "Montmorency." There were two knights of this name, Phillippe and Jean.
p. 490, end of paragraph 6. "Fortuna" is a misprint for Faenza. The bishop was Rodolfo Pio da Carpi from 1528 to 1544, cardinal in 1537, who died in 1564. As to Miçer Antonio Bagherotto or Bagaratto mentioned lower down, he was a Mantuan, and had been or was still the Duke's (Frederico Gonzaga) ambassador at the Imperial court.
p. 491, line 7. "Dr. Pietro Lavorgnano." Thus in the copy from Simancas; I am, however, inclined to believe that "Savorgnano" is meant.
p. 491, line 18. "Pedro Rain, our consul in Venice." "Rain" is not a Spanish name; I would prefer "Ram" or "Ramon," as at p. 831, where an individual so called is spoken of.
p. 493, line 17. "The daughter of the King of Naples." Isabella Eleonora, daughter of Pierre de Baux, duke of Andria in Naples, and closely allied to the family of the Princes of Tarento, was married to Frederic or Fadrique, last king of Naples of the house of Aragon, who, after wandering for three years after his dethronement by the French, died in 1504. He left one son, Ferdinand, duke of Calabria, who retired to Spain, became the third husband of Germaine de Foix, and died in 1550. Frederic had also a daughter, Charlotte princess of Tarento. who in 1500 married Gui XVI., sire de Laval No mention, however, is made by historians and genealogists of this daughter, whose name, as will appear hereafter, was Giulia or Julia, though it must be observed that Frederic IV. had been previously married to Anna, daughter of Amadeo IX. duke of Savoy. All doubts are removed by a passage in Chapuys' despatch of the 23rd April (No. 290, p. 503), where he says that the Venetian ambassador (Faliero) had stated to him that "the Emperor had given the sister of the duke of Calabria in marriage to the duke of Mantua."
p. 500. No. 286. This letter seems a duplicate, with some alterations, of that under No. 285, though addressed to the Empress, instead of the Emperor.
p. 503. The bishop of Chieti or Theati, as otherwise called, in the Abruzzo, was Guidone de' Medici, who filled that see from 1528 to 1537; he was succeeded by Giovan Pietro Caraffa (afterwards Pope Paul IV.)
p. 514. "Respecting the Grand Equerry;" i.e., Sir Nicholas Carew, Grand Squire or Master of the Horse and the slight and somewhat obscure allusion made to him in the last ciphered paragraph, and corresponding note, of No. 265, p 470, though it must be said that the despatch itself is dated the 22nd, not the 24th of February as here stated.
p. 515, last paragraph of 209. "Since the Princess," &c. Chapuys' words are: "La Princesse a este dois quelle fust separee de la royne servie par les gens du roy, sans avoer trayn ne serviteurs propres; maintenant [on] luy a dresse son estat et bayllie force serviteurs et officiers. Je ne sçays dont (dou?) vient ceste bonte au temps que court, si ce nest pour la garder plus seurement, puys quil[s] ne veullent que Ion luy alle parler. Ou par aventure au moyen de ceste gracieuseté yl[s] la voudoient fere consentir a quelque chose." In my abstract the word "latter" ought to be omitted, since the passage refers entirely to the Princess Mary.
p. 520, line 2 of the second paragraph in No. 293. "On Saturday he (the Emperor) will sleep at Brizene (?)." I presume that Brixen is meant, for, by referring to the "Itinerary," I find that from the 24th to the 28th the Emperor was at Trent, and that, passing by Newmark, he reached Botzen on the 29th, and slept at Brixen on the 30th.
p. 521, line 10 of 5th paragraph in Niño's letter to the Emperor "Obrovazo near Sena" This last name is evidently corrupted, for, there is no town in Dalmatia, where Obrovazzo or Obroatzo is said to be situated, bearing the least similarity to Sena, unless it be Zara, which a careless transcriber might easily have turned into Zena.
p. 522, line 17 of 2nd paragraph. "For the brother of the Dame." George Boleyn was never accredited to the Pope; it was his father Thomas, also father of Anne, who went to Bologna.
p. 528, line 9 of 3rd paragraph. Tunstall was no longer bishop of London, having been replaced in January 1530 by Stokesly. (See p. 422.) The latter, moreover, was no longer in London, having already left on his extraordinary mission to France. The Ambassador at the Imperial court, alluded to in the first line, was Ghinucci.
p. 546, last word of paragraph 4 in No. 310. "according," read "accordingly."
p. 546. No. 311. This letter of Niño to Mai is substantially the same as that under No. 297 at page 526.
p. 549, line 4 of 4th paragraph. "Parma" is a misprint for "Padua."
p. 550. No. 313. "The Pope's Nuncio at Naples." As early as the 2nd of May 1529 the Papal Nuncio at Naples was Fabio Arcella, Apostolic Prothonotary.
p. 550. In Garay's letter No. 315. "violento" is a misprint for "violenta."
p. 562. No. 322. "From Miçer Mai to the Emperor" must be headed "to Covos, the High Commander," for it seems almost a repetition, with a few additional sentences, of No, 318 at page 554.
In the same despatch, line 10, Triulzo, the bishop of Como and Papal Nuncio in France, is represented as being on bad terms with the cardinal of his name (Agostino?). There must, however, be some mistake, for the Cardinal whose christian name was Agostino happened to be a kinsman of his, and resided then at Rome. Salviati, at that time Papal Legate in France, and a friend of the Florentines, may have been meant instead.
p. 569, last paragraph of 329. "From la Belona." Valona, or rather Avlona, is the name of a gulf and sea-port town in Albania, which Spaniards and Venetians of this time called usually La Belona or La Valona.
p. 570. "Il Buda, consistorial advocate." Might he not be Il Bucla, as at p. 835 of Part II.?
p. 574. No. 332. The initial S. before the name of Carducci must be understood as "Signor." The Bardi and Girardi mentioned in the same letter were Florentine merchants or bankers in London. Frequent mention of the former firm is made in the Venetian Calendar, chiefly of a Pier Francesco, as well as of a Francesco, and of a third named Georgio Francesco,—no doubt the one here named. As to the Girardi, I find one Niccola or Nicholas carrying on business in the city. (See Rawdon Brown, Venetian Calendar, vol. v., p. 984.)
p. 576, line 3. "Maximilian II." is a misprint for Maximilian I., the Emperor, father of Philip, and grandfather of Charles and of Ferdinand, who likewise became in succession emperors of Germany.
p. 579, last line. "That owing to the death of the lady." Henry Howard earl of Surrey, the son of Thomas third duke of Norfolk, was betrothed, if not married, one year before to Frances, daughter of John de Vere, earl of Oxford.
p. 580. "Dr. William Benet or Bennet." Mai and the rest of the Imperial agents at Rome generally mistake William Benet, whom they used to call Beneto, Benito, or Benoit, like the French, with Dr. Edmund Boner, Bonner, or Bonnart, as Chapuys writes his name. However, in the present instance there can be no doubt that the former of the two is intended.
p. 584, first line of 4th paragraph in No. 344. "The Anconitan friar;" that is, Fray Felice da Prato, whose opinion on the divorce suit will be found under Nos. 437 and 578. Note † at the foot of the page relates to him, though the sign of reference has been omitted.
p. 585. Chapuys' despatch No. 345 has been dated by mistake the 14th instead of the 10th June.
p. 686. In the foot-note "contestastemos" is a misprint for contestassemos.
p. 611. "The news of the Turk is that about 6,000 of their 'nassadites' had arrived at La Belona," &c. Twice in these pages the words "nassadita" and "nassadista" are employed as indicative of a Turkish naval force of some sort. At page 198 mariners or bargemen are, no doubt, meant; for, coming from Turkey, Strigonia or Gran (the Estzergom of the Hungarians), being situated on the confluent of the Grana and the Danube, cannot be reached coming from Turkey otherwise than by water. In the present passage the attack on La Belona, Valona or Avlona, a seaport town on the coast of Albania confirms my conjecture that river soldiers of some sort are meant. Nassad, I am told, in the language of the Magyars means a three-oared boat, or barge fit for the navigation of large rivers. In confirmation of the above conjecture I will quote the words of an almost contemporary Spanish historian; "Corporano, capitan de ciertas nasadas, que son unas barcas grandes de á dos y á tres remos por banco . . . . . . con intencion de esperar alli mas nasadas que le auian de embiar de Viena . ... Queriendo, pues, Gritti prevenir a Corporano, antes que se le juntassen las barcas de Viena, embió por el rio arriba un buen exercito de nasadas . . . . Hizolo tan bien que de de sessenta nasadas perdio las cinquenta." (Hist. Pont. Part II. p. 323.) Again, in a letter of Cardinal Campeggio to Jacomo or Jacopo Salviati, (Raab, 2nd August 1532,) published by Ziletti among his Lettere de Principi, &c., Venice, 1581, 4to, (vol. 3, p. 16) the following words occur: "Et che non si posse hauere la somma, che si disegnaua, per esserci nuova che in Buda erano giunte 300 navi dette Nazanziste del Turco, e quatro mila cavalli."
p. 614, line 2 of second paragraph. "The Grand Constable of Castille." At this time Don Pedro Fernandez de Velasco y Tobar, formerly known as marquis de Berlanga, held that high office, one hereditary in his family ever since 1473. Don Pedro was the eldest son of Don Iñigo Fernandez de Velasco, second duke of Frias (d. 1528), the same nobleman to whom Charles entrusted the custody of his prisoner Francis I., and subsequently that of his two sons, the Dauphin (François) and the duke of Orleans (Henri), who remained hostages for their father's ransom.
p. 617, line 16. The "Venetian ambassador" there named was no longer Marco Antonio Venier, for he had been replaced in September (?) 1528 by Lodovico Falier, he himself going as ambassador to Rome in the room of Suriano.
p. 619. "H. Marmier," &c. No. 368. The name of the writer seems to have been Hugo or Hugues, but the date of his letter to the Emperor is uncertain, inasmuch as the heading says the 3rd of July, whereas at the end we read the 13th. The circumstance, however, of the letter being dated at Bordeaux, far away from the Spanish frontier, which Queen Eleanor is said to have crossed on the first of the month, and of the writer describing besides the ceremonies of her reception and subsequent marriage by the bishop of Lisieux (Le Veneur) lead me to suppose that 13 July is really the date of the letter. Marmier was about this time president of Burgundy.
p. 619. "Mr. de Nemours, the count of Geneve," are one and the same, not two different persons, as might be supposed from the wording of the sentence and the prefix "Messieurs." In 1528 Francis gave the duchy of Nemours in France to Philippe de Savoie, second son of another Philippe, generally called "Sans Terre," duke of Savoy. When only five years old he was named Bishop of Geneva, then under the rule of Savoy, but he left it in 1510, and his brother the duke Carlo III. made him count of that place, and baron of Faueigny and Beaufort. Philippe then attached himself to the court of Charles, whom he followed to Spain, until, for causes hitherto unexplained, he quitted the Imperial service, and went over to France, being well received by King Francis, whose nephew he was. He died in 1533 at the age of 42, leaving one son Jaque, and one daughter Jeanne, who became duchess of Mercœur. The duchy of Nemours had been formerly held by Philiberte, the wife of Giuliano de' Medici. See Genealogies Historiques, vol. II. p. 105, and Tavole Genealogiche della Real Casa di Savoia by Felice Carrone, Marchese di S. Tommaso: Torino, 1837, in folio. As to the duke of Longueville, his brother Louis, Mons. de Nevers, &c., mentioned immediately after, their names were, 1st, Claude d'Orleans, count, and in 1505 duke, of Longueville, sovereign of Neufchâtel, count of Dunois and Tancarville, peer and High Lord Chamberlain of France. He died without posterity, being succeeded by his brother; 2nd, Louis d'Orleans, who died on the 9th of June 1537, leaving one son named François. His widow, Mary of Lorraine, married in 1538 James V. of Scotland, and was the mother of Mary Stuart. 3rd, François de Clèves, count, afterwards (in 1538) duke, of Nevers.
p. 622. I am not sure that Jaques Brinon was still in 1530 president of the Parliament of Paris, for I find in the State Papers, vol. vii., p. 593, that Guillaume Poyet, son of an advocate at Angers, filled that office in 1529; yet the circumstance of the president having resided in Spain as Louise's ambassador during the captivity of his son, which can only be applied to the former, leads me to the supposition that I was right in my conjecture.
p. 624, No. 372. "Da Rome," read "Rome," or "Da Roma," one of the two.
p. 630. Three lines before the end of the paragraph, "not harm any one but him (the Duke)" change the last three words into "himself."
p. 635, line 2 of the second paragraph. "Luis Ransom, who (?)" perhaps "Ramon."
p. 635, line 2 of the sixth. "the Balcaric islands" is a misprint for "Balearic."
p. 640, No. 377 of the 14th July. "Hesse" is a misprint for "Sassa," or "Sexa," as Spaniards of this time used to call that country.
p. 644, line 1 of the 6th paragraph. "Camerata" is a misprint for "Camarata."
p. 648. The first foot-note has no reference whatever to the asterisk placed in the third line of the second paragraph, where an allusion is made to the Baron del Borgho. It ought, therefore, to be omitted, or else transferred to the preceding page, where mention is made of Cardinal d'Osma, whose arrival in Rome as Charles's ambassador extraordinary is recorded at pp. 529, 536, &c.
Again, to the second foot-note on the same page (648) the following addition might be made: "A son of this count of Luna, the brother of Cardinal Quiñones, is said to have been taken prisoner by pirates in the Mediterranean. He was married, as it would seem, to a daughter of Jacopo Salviati. See Rawdon Brown's Ven. Calendar, vol. v., p. 707.
p. 672. "The first person," &c. Master Thomas Abel, of whom more will be said hereafter.
p. 673. In the same despatch (No. 396) a note has been omitted to the effect that Henry's first secretary, charged with the delivery of the message to his Queen, was no other than Stephen Gardyner, just returned from his embassy. As to Katharine's almoner I have been unable to ascertain his name; but the individual alluded as having gone to Paris for the purpose of agitating in that capital the divorce question, and who on his return to London expressed his surprise at so many doctors of La Sorbonne being ready to uphold and defend the Queen's cause, must necessarily be Reginald Pole, who is well known to have incurred the King's displeasure in consequence.
Again, the paragraph beginning "The King," &c., faithfully transcribed, and since then most scrupulously collated, stands in the original as follows: "Sire, Le roy avoit interponse (interprins?) de pesecuter les prestres et prelatz qui sestoint ayde de la legation du Cardinal; maintenant yl a remis la querelle sur le bureau, et est a craindre quil ne face priue[r] de biens et benefices la plus part de ceux quont tenu pour la royne. Cest le droit moyen de tirer ung argent innumerable, et de tenir tous les prelatz en subiection pour les fere consentir et condescendre a favouriser et assister a la celebration de ce marriage, le quel yl a tousjours dit vouloyt fere par l'aduys et auctorite de lesglise Anglicane." The verb "interprins" and the words "sur le bureau" might be rendered by "undertaken" and "has now laid the measure before Parliament."
The relative of Gregoyre da Casale or Sir Gregory Cassalis, as he is generally designated in State Papers of this time, must be Francesco, Vincenzo, or Raffaele, all of whom are mentioned in Rawdon Brown's Venetian Calendar, as well as in Brewer's Letters and Papers, vol. iv., for although Sir Gregory had a younger brother, named Paolo, who in Dec. 1529 came to London as Papal nuncio, he only stayed a fortnight, and returned to Rome.
p. 676, line 3 of second paragraph. "Accompanied by the sieur de Praët." It is doubtful whether Antoine du Prat, Cardinal of Sens, and Francis' High Chancellor, be not meant there instead of Louis de Flandre, sieur de Praët, especially as it is said lower down that he (King Francis?) had left commission to the Imperial ambassador to attend [in Paris] to Queen Eleanor's act of renunciation, which had not yet been drawn according to his wishes. The ambassador might be Bonvalot, who, as recorded elsewhere, remained in charge of the Imperial embassy in Paris.
p. 677, line 4. "The project of marriage between Isabella Colonna and the abbot of Farfa has been abandoned." "Isabella" is evidently a mistake for Claudia, the daughter of Giulio or Julio, and niece of Pompeo Colonna, whose marriage to the ex-abbot of Farfa, Napoleone Orsino, was so violently opposed by Ascanio and the rest of the Colonnese that it never took place at all, although it must be said that a great authority in genealogical matters expresses a doubt on the subject, and in one or two instances calls Claudia Colonna the wife of that turbulent ecclesiastic. See Litta, Famiglie Italiane, under Colonna and Orsini. The statements made from time to time by the Imperial ambassadors are so contradictory that it is almost impossible to arrive at the truth. Compare Mai's despatch under No. 383, p. 609, where he says that, having fallen in an ambush laid by Ascanio Colonna, the ex-abbot escaped with the greatest difficulty, losing on the occasion "both his mistress and his sons," and another of the 15 June (No. 352, p. 594), where he asserts having received a letter from Pompeo informing him that Julio had exhibited papers and deeds to prove that "the marriage could not be prevented."
p. 678. Of this Carlos Torrellas, who most likely was the brother of D. Pablo, the canon, residing at Venice in 1530, (p. 696,) mention is made in a "History of Aragon," comprising 15 years of the reign of Charles V., from 1525 to 1540, by Diego Joseph Dormer (Zaragoza, 1697, folio). It is there said (p. 499) that D. Carlos Torrellas was imprisoned in consequence of his refusing to appear as witness, and give evidence against the Archbishop D. Juan de Aragon, accused of having had something to do with the murder of Don Francisco de la Cavalleria on the 1st of April 1526. As Don Carlos was a Knight of Santiago, and perhaps also in orders, the Emperor had naturally to apply to Rome for a brief dispensing Torrellas of his oath. This Clement would not grant, and consequently on the 4th of September 1530, the Emperor being at Augsburg, wrote to Micer Mai, urging for the brief, adding, "as to the Archbishop's person no mention is to be made whether to impute criminality, or proceed against him, for under present circumstances it would be highly inconvenient."
In 1534 this same Carlos Torrellas had a quarrel with D. Martin de Gurrea, in which the bishop of Huesca tried in vain to interfere. See ibid., chap. LXXII, pp. 479–82. The allusion made in Mai's letter has, however, reference to Torrellas' former affair at Rome, and to the application made for a brief authorizing him to break his oath, and declare. See No. 405, p. 686, where mention is again made of this affair.
p. 680, No. 402. The death of the Prince happened at Gavinana, "presso alla montagna di Pistoia," "Facendo," says Guicciardini, the historian, "offizio di home di arme, non de capitano, spintosi temerariamente innanzi fu ammazzato." Istoria d'ltalia, lib. xx. Gavinana, I must observe, is often called by Mai and others, Favignana and Gaviñana.
p. 686, No. 405, second line of paragraph 2. "Pirans" is a misprint for "Pisans."
p. 688, No. 410. On the margin of Muxetula's despatch to the Emperor (15 Aug. 1530, No 410), where Clement's opinion about Genoa and its defences (defenderla) is recorded, is a note in Secretary Idiaquez' hand thus worded: "As long as Andrea Doria keeps his engagements there is no fear at all." The note itself is not in Bergenroth's copy from Simancas, but in this as in other instances the omission must be attributed to carelessness of the clerks, not always faithful to their task. Idiaquez, whose proper name was Alonso, and who will be mentioned hereafter as having obtained a commandery in the military orders of Calatrava or Santiago, perhaps in both, was a native of San Sebastian, in the Basque Provinces. At this time he appears as one of Charles's Secretaries of State under Francisco de los Covos, but he soon became member of the Emperor's Privy Council, whom he followed in his various journeys. He was slain in 1547 at the crossing of the Albis or Elbe, in Germany.
p. 690, line 9 of 2nd paragraph. "The Chancellor (Cromwell)" is a decided mistake, for Sir Thomas More held still the seals of that office, and, besides, Cromwell was never High Chancellor of England.
p. 691, foot-note †. "a ses princes" is a misprint for "a ses priuees chasses."
p. 693, line 12 of paragraph 3. The word translated by "men of letters" is the Spanish letrados, from "litterati;" but at this time the word meant rather a "clerk" and a "lawyer."
p. 696, line 2. "Don Rafael de Coma by name;" elsewhere (pp. 737) "Como," which seems a preferable reading.
p. 697. "The bishop of Chieti, Giovan Pietro Caraffa." Was he really bishop of Theati or Teate? for according to Gams Series Episcoporum, that see was held by Guidone de' Medici from 1528 to 1537. See above, p. 973.
p. 701. "Viscount of Erol;" read Evol or Ebol. His name was D. Ramon de Só de Castro y Pinós, an Aragonese nobleman.
p. 701. "Cardinal Ravenna writes that his brother Ancona," &c. Instead of "brother" read "nephew," for such was Benedetto degli Accolti, cardinal of Ravenna, of Pietro, cardinal of Ancona.
p. 701. "Andrea Doria and Pedro Bazan," &c. Thus in Mai's despatch, No. 418; but I am inclined to think that Alonso is meant. See pp. 567, 706, 763.
p. 703, No. 420. The rumour said to have been current at Rome of Albany having gone thither in Sept. 1530 for the purpose of marrying his son to Caterina is nowhere confirmed; the same ambassador says elsewhere "his brother" which is more likely.
p. 703, No. 419. To the 8th article of the memorandum on the divorce the words "on France," between "war" and "better," have been omitted. In the same document, under No. 11, "Alexander, Pope," is evidently an error for Julius II., who granted the dispensation for Katharine's second marriage.
p. 704–5. Perez de Nueros, whose Christian name was Juan, was not an ordinary courier, as stated at p. 700, but Charles's treasurer, and paymaster-general to the Imperial fleet. He had in 1527 distinguished himself greatly during the siege of Naples by Lautrec, as well as in the celebrated sea fight where the gallant Ugo de Moncada fell. He had a brother, named Jayme, who served in Milan. The report that he was slain by Neapolitan "fuorusciti," owing to his carrying despatches concerning them to Cardinal Pompeo Colonna, was very current at the time. See Dormer, Anales de Aragon, p. 485.
p. 706. Chapuys' two despatches of the 4th and 5th September are substantially the same, though addressed respectively to Margaret and to Charles. That, however, of the 20th, said to have been also addressed to Margaret, is not to be found in the Vienna Archives.
p. 741. "The naturalisation of Miçer Silvestro," &c. One Miçer Silvestro, or Silvestre, secretary to Cardinal Ancona (Benedetto degli Accolti), had at this time great influence with the Imperial ambassadors at Rome, as appears from the following passage of a letter from Mai to Covos, dated 2 Oct. 1530, of which no abstract has been given, owing to its contents being almost similar to those of No. 454. "En Mantua supliqué á su Magd. por unas naturalezas para varios de estos Italianos que nos sirven bien. Concedieronsenos tres en Aragon. Una de ellas era para Micer Silvestro, el auditor del Cardenal Ancona, que es la persona que como á su Magd. digimos en Mantua, el arzobispo de Jaen (Fr. Esteban Gabriel Merino) y yo, es el que lo gobierna todo en casa de aquel cardenal. Pediala el Silvestre para poder gozar 600 ducados de renta [eclesiastica] en Castilla. Digeronme entonces que supiese de él si se contentaria con que la naturaleza fuese en Aragon. Vino ahora con el de Ancona, y me dijo que sino podia ser en Castilla, que fuese en Aragon, pero que mas querria menor cantidad de ducados en Castilla que en los reynos de Aragon."
p. 743, note. The word "bagas" is evidently a mistake for hacas, as was no doubt intended. "Haca," now written jaca, is the Spanish for "hack."
p. 757, line 4 of 2nd paragraph. "and daughter also of the Duke's brother," change "brother" into "sister," or hermano into hermana, for Caterina's mother was Madeleine de la Tour d'Auvergne, whose sister Anne had been married to John Stuart, duke of Albany.
p. 758. The inundation of Rome, caused by excessive rains and the overflowing of the Tiber, is graphically described in a letter of Francesco Guicciardini, the historian, to the duke Alessandro de' Medici, dated the 13th of October. "The water reached the steps of St. Peter; and Clement, who was returning from Ostia, was obliged to pass two whole days at Santa Agatha and Monto Cavallo before he could reach his palace in safety." "Il danno (he says) é stato grandissimo, che ad una città afflitta e consumata come questa è parso un' altro sacco." Lettere de Principi, Venetia, 1581, vol. ii., pp. 201–3.
p. 764, No. 461. "The Vayvod has an agent in France," &c. Frequent mention has been made of a secretary, agent, or ambassador of John Sepuse, alias Zapolsky, vaivod or governor of Transylvania, now pretending to the crown of Hungary. Besides the bishop, who in 1528–9 had resided at the court of France, one Corsini (Andrea), and a certain Bioderos are mentioned.
p. 764, last note at the foot of the page. "Ladislas" is a mistake for "Louis," the last King of Hungary of the Jagellon dynasty, slain at Mohatz in 1526; the husband of Mary, the dowager queen of that country, and subsequently governess of the Low Countries for the Emperor.
p. 771. The marquis named in Ferdinand's letter to High Commander Cobos (No. 466) was probably Don Bernardo de Sandoval y Rojas, second marquis de Denia, the same nobleman to whose keeping Joanna, the mother of Charles, was entrusted by Ferdinand, her father. According to a custom very prevalent in Spain, one of his sons, Don Enrique, took his mother's name.
p. 774, last line but one. "sailor" is a misprint for "tailor."
p. 776, The Dean mentioned in line 1 of 4th paragraph might be Jacopo de Banisiis, who in papers and letters of this very year is frequently designated as el Dean, le Doyen, Decanus. He was formerly one of Maximilian's secretaries, and, from the familiar manner in which Salinas speaks of him, I am inclined to believe that he was still in Ferdinand's employment.
p. 777. "Cingolo militare," Italian order of chivalry instituted about this time. Again, three lines before the end of the page. "The Duke" read "the dukes."
p. 779. "Letters have since come from the King of England." Though enclosed, as it is said, in Mai's despatch, they are not in Simancas.
p. 782, line 3 of last paragraph. "The remaining daughter of Montferrato;" that is, Mary, second daughter of Guglielmo, and sister of Bonifazio VI. She was married by proxy to Frederic, duke of Mantua, but her marriage being annulled, she retired to a convent and died in 1530. Margaret, her sister, was married in 1533 to the said Duke, after annulling another previous marriage by proxy to Giulia, the daughter of the King of Naples.
p. 799, line 6 of third paragraph. "The removal of the communion reed." It was not until I had consulted one of the learned Fathers at Farm Street, and received the following answer in writing, that I made up my mind to translate "le cane" or "la cane" by communion reed:—"A compromise was agreed between the Lutherans and the Emperor, under which the latter permitted them communion in both kinds, conditionally, on their receiving the cup through a 'reed' or 'cane' This, I believe, was what the Lutherans desired the removal of." I still had my doubts on this point, and thought that "cane" might be an error or "lapsus calami" of Chapuys for "canon," or rather the tablet placed on the altar of every Catholic church where mass is celebrated. In this opinion I was confirmed by the Rev. Father Knox of the Oratory, Brompton, who, being consulted by me on the subject, answered that "cane" in the passage alluded to is really meant for "canon of the mass."
In the foot-note itself, line 2, "du prestres" ought to be "du prestre" or "des prestres."
p. 801, line 46. "And that the Dansich (Dantzig)," &c. The sentence ought to be read thus: "and that the Dansich (Dantzigers) in the said country were Lutherans."
p. 807, 4th paragraph in cipher. "Notwithstanding Gonzaga's and Soria's strenuous efforts," &c. According to Orlando Malavolti, Historia de' fatti e guerre de' Sanesi (Venetia, MDCXCIX, 4to), the troubles at Siena orginated in this way:—Soon after the surrender of Florence, Lope de Soria, the Imperial agent and commissary so frequently mentioned in these pages, was dispatched by Ferrante Gonzaga to Siena for the double purpose of adjusting matters between that Signory and the "fuorusciti" or emigrants, and communicating the orders he had received from the Emperor to have his troops quartered within their territory. Neither request seems to have been attended to by the party in power, for shortly after Gonzaga's men entered Lucignano and sacked it (p. 781). From Pienza, where he took up his quarters, Gonzaga kept threatening the Sienese until an agreement was made, importing that the government of the Signory should pass into other hands, the emigrants (fuorusciti) be recalled, their property and rights restored, and the inhabitants of some of the "Monti," who, in consequence of a previous revolution, had been entirely excluded from the administration of the country, again allowed to take part in it, The Cardinal Archbishop of Siena (Francesco Bandini), Lope de Soria, the Imperial Commissary, the duke of Malfi (Gio. Battista Piccolomini), Gio. Palmieri, and Antonio de' Vecchi, having been appointed for the purpose of framing a new constitution, a proposal was made by them for the emigrants to be reinstated in all their rights; the "Monte di Nove" to have a full share in the government of the country; a "balia" consisting of twenty members to be appointed under the intervention of the "Capitano del Popolo," as well as of the duke of Malfi, the Imperial commander. The proposed agreement, however, was rejected by the "Nove," as not sufficiently equitative; and, notwithstanding Soria's efforts, and the subsequent departure of the Duke for Naples, after resigning his post of commander of the forces, the troubles of Siena increased,—the "popolari" and "reformatori" came to hands, and the "Nove," who were in a minority, were again expelled from the territory of the Signory.
p. 808. No. 496, being a despatch of Mai, has been headed by mistake as if it were addressed by Don Pedro de la Cueva to Covos.
p. 814, first line of paragraph 2. "As soon as the death of the Archbishop was known here." There were at this time only four archbishoprics in Castille, namely, Toledo, Santiago, Seville, and Granada; two more in Aragon, i.e., Tarragona and Saragossa. This latter see was still held by a relative of Ferdinand the Catholic, whose death will be recorded at page 838.
p. 815. The Cardinal alluded to in the Abbot's letter (No. 506) was, most likely, Domenico Cupi, bishop of Trani and Cardinal, to whom a pension of 10,000 ducats in England had been offered by Sir Gregory Casale in Henry's name, if he only would promote at Rome the divorce suit.
p. 818, line 11 of 3rd paragraph. "I should rather think that instead of the book they intend printing," &c. Evidently one of those written by Robert Wakefield, printed in 1530, and which Bishop Fisher undertook to refute.
p. 830. "Il Sorma," in Nino's despatch No. 519, is probably the Gaspar Sormano of Manfredo's letter to the Duke of Ferrara (No. 376).
p. 832. Whilst abstracting Chapuys' despatch of the 4th December (No. 522) I omitted to say that both text and translation are to be found in Bradford's book at pp. 331–7.
p. 847. Bishop Fisher's book alluded to in Chapuys' despatch of the 17th December (No. 539) must be the one entitled Gravissimœ atque exactissimœ censurœ, &c., as at p. 832, note. The former, first printed at Alcalá de Henares in Spain, was the "Apologia.".
That mentioned in the placard or defamatory libel against the archbishop of Canterbury, said to be the work of an English priest residing abroad, must be the Practice of Prelates, by William Tyndale, printed, as is well known, in 1530.
p. 854, 4th paragraph. "The son of the Princess' governess;" that is, Reginald Pole, whose mother, Margaret Plantagenet, countess of Salisbury, was then Mary's governess.
p. 858, line 2. "An Italian of the Order of St. Francis;" that is, Dr. Nicholas, the Italian Friar; about whom see State Papers, vol. i., p. 337 and p. 972 of the present compilation, Add. & Cor.
p. 872, paragraph 2, line 30. "The Marquis della Mirandola, the old one." I am not aware that there was ever a marquis of that title. Gian Francesco Pico della Mirandola, count of Concordia, and lord of Mirandola, a strong castle on the Burana in the duchy of Modena, was the eldest son of Galeotto Pico, whom he succeeded in 1509, though he was some years after dispossessed by his own brother, Lodovico. Restored to his estate by the assistance of Hercole d'Este and Pope Julius II., Gian Francesco maintained himself in possession of la Mirandola until he was murdered in 1533, as related, by his nephew Galeotto, son of Lodovico.
p. 874. "Poggilonsi," in paragraph 3, is a misprint for "Poggibonsi."
"Maria Brandini," in line 4 of the next, ought to be "Mario Bandini," the brother of Francesco, the archbishop of Siena from 1529 to 1588.
p. 882. "Granville," in paragraph 2, a misprint for "Granvelle;" and in line 2 of the 4th, "Palaçuelos" for "Palaçuelos de la Sierra."
p. 885. "Cuevo" is a misprint for "Cuero." In note ‡, instead of "1580" read "1606," the year in which the first edition was printed, the former date being that of the year in which the pilgrimage was undertaken.
p. 883. With regard to the paper under No. 572, it must be observed that, though somewhat different in context from 419 (p. 702), it seems only a corrected draft, with such additions and suppressions as the state of the divorce suit at the time required. Nor are these two the only drafts preserved at Simancas. There is a third, the contents of which are divided into three distinct parts; namely: 1st, Memorandum of letters to be addressed to various persons concerning the marriage (matrimonio) of the Queen of England to Henry. 2nd, Instruments and deeds (escrituras) which may at present be useful for the defence of the Queen's rights. The originals to be procured in the most authentic form possible, duly attested by public notaries, and forwarded to Rome. The heirs of Secretaries Miguel de Almazan at Saragossa, those of Hernan Dalvarez (d'Alvarez) at Toledo, as well as those of Mossen Coloma at Valencia, will probably be able to say where, and in whose hands. the said instruments and deeds are. 3rd, Instruments and deeds to be procured in virtue of the compulsory letters.
This last part is, perhaps, the one which differs most from Nos. 419 and 572. For instance, article, the fifth, is thus worded: "Scrupulous search to be made for the original powers granted by the Catholic sovereigns, Don Fernando and Doña Isabel, to Hernan Duque de Estrada, their servant, that he might claim and ask from the King of England [Henry the VII.], father of the present one, the 100,000 ducats constituting the Princess of Wales's dower, and request the said King to allow the Princess to return to Spain with her household servants, &c., to look out for the letters of the said Hernan Duque de Estrada, informing King Ferdinand that the English King (Henry VII.) would not let their daughter, the Princess, come back, not return her dower. Also for the letters which the same King Henry wrote on this matter, excusing himself, and most particularly two of them in which he asks for a prorogation of the time at which he was bound to refund the money of the dower, alleging that he had actually refused another marriage for his son (Henry) with a larger dower for the sake of cementing the alliance of England and Spain.
"Besides the above, a search must be instituted for a letter of the present King of England (Henry VIII), stating that he had actually consummated his marriage with Katharine, that he was pleased, and that his coronation and the Queen's had taken place with due solemnity; the date of the letter being 1509."
p. 5. The Sieur de Bossu mentioned in par. 1. as having been the bearer of Charles's letter to his sister Mary, the widow of Louis King of Hungary, appears to be the same person alluded to in vol. iii. part I. p. 561, as having left Lyons for Madrid with despatches. His name was Jean Hennin, Sieur de Bossu, in Brabant. In 1531 the Emperor appointed him to the office of Master of the Horse, or Grand Equerry, in the room of Mr. de Montfort, who had died in April 1530. See Bradford's Itinerary of Charles V., p. 497, where he is erroneously named Jean Hainn, seigneur de Bosse. In 1719 one Thomas Philippe Hennin de Bossut was archbishop of Mechlin (Malines) and Cardinal.
p. 10, last line. "A book by Petrus de Palude." Pierre des Marais (?) For a refutation, by Nicholas Harpsfield, of the passage alluded to, see A Treatise on the pretended Divorce between Henry VIII. and Catharine of Aragon, lately edited by Nicholas Pocock for the Camden Society, pp. 75, 77, 83, 100, 118, 121.
p. 47, first line to be punctuated as follows : "had actually left that city; 20,000 are still wanting," &c.
p. 47, No. 423, the last paragraph. "The Milanese ambassador here." Two were the agents of Francesco Sforza, duke of Milan, at Rome from 1529 to 1531; that is, Galterio Corbeta, a lawyer mentioned at p. 65 as a friend of Miçer Mai; and another, whose name is not given, but who seems to have resided at Rome during the greater part of 1529, before his master, the Duke, was officially re-invested in his duchy. Once or twice in these pages Girolamo Morone, or his son the Bishop, are mentioned as having charge of Sforza's affairs at the Papal Court; but which of them is here intended cannot be easily determined. His colleague at the court of France was probably Taberna or Taverna (Giovan), the brother of Francesco, the Chancellor, who came to London as ambassador in 1533.
p. 56, line 3 of last paragraph in No. 632. "He has." Intercalate "Mai" between brackets.
p. 59. Romaricomonte is not an abbey in the kingdom of Naples, as I was led to suppose from certain passages of Sandoval's Historia del Emperador V., lib. xvi., but one in the department of the Vosges in France, now called "Remiremont," and in former time Avendi Castrum, or Romarici Mons, from the name of its founder St. Romaric, in 620.
p. 80. Sir Gregory Casale's cousin, mentioned in the third paragraph, must be Raffaele, who about this time was employed by Henry. Sir Gregory had three brothers: Paul (Paolo); Giovanni, the Prothonotary, English ambassador in Venice; and Francesco, who was the youngest. Raffaele and Vincencio were his cousins. See above, p. 978.
p. 88, last paragraph of No. 654. "as the "Bachelor and Don Hernando will no doubt, both report." Who these two individuals were is not easy to determine; most likely the agents of the Archbishop (Tavera), to whom Mai writes from Rome. In the foot-note referring thereto, I conjectured that Davalos might be one of the two. But I was mistaken, for that lawyer's Christian name was Rodrigo, not Hernando or Fernando; and, besides, his arrival at Rome, as Katharine's proctor in the matrimonial suit, did not take place until June 1533. True, Charles's general, the gallant Marquis of Pescara (Don Fernando Davalos d'Aquino), is frequently designated in these pages as Don Hernando Davalos, but the conjecture would be altogether inadmissible, that captain having died in Dec. 1525.
p. 89, No. 657. "The Sienese have told the captain and the men." Most likely Field Marshal Urries, who, as recorded at p. 68, was sent to Siena with 500 Spanish infantry to maintain order in that city.
p. 90, first line. "And the league of Sweden was being made:"—"y dicen que la liga de Suecia era hecha." Thus in Mai's despatch, but it is evidently a mistake for "la liga de Suabia," or Suabian league.
p. 96, first line. "And that the day before the finest and most learned preacher." I presume that the preacher alluded to is William Tyndale, who was actually arrested in March, and owed his deliverance principally, as here stated, to King Henry.
p. 128, No. 698, line 2 of the second paragraph. The words "Garcia de Loaysa" to be placed between brackets, since they are intended as an explanation of the preceding, "Monseigneur or Monseñor d'Osma," which bishopric he held from 1525 to 1532, when he was promoted to that of Siguenza.
p. 129. At the end of line 1 of foot-note the article la has been omitted.
p. 139, No. 707, line 2 of second paragraph : "with the Pope's permission" ("con permiso del Papa"). Thus I find it in Muxetula's original despatch, but the sense, in my opinion, requires "without (sin) permission."
p. 146. The two papers (Nos. 712 and 713) relating to Florence are evidently misdated. The surrender of that city took place on the 11th of August 1530, the evacuation of Malatesta Baglione and his auxiliaries in the following September, and the entrance of Count Lodrone with the Imperial garrison in the first days of October. In 1531, in the month of April, Cardinal Ippolito de' Medici made an unsuccessful attempt to enter the city, and deprive his brother Alessandro, then residing at the Emperor's court in Germany, of the sovereignty. It was not until the ensuing month of May that the Florentine deputies (Ruberto Acciajouli and Luigi Ridolfi) took at Ghent the oath of allegiance to the future duke, whose reception in Florence took place on the 5th of July. According to Mecatti, Storia Cronologica della città di Firenza, Napoli MDCCLV., p. 625, the Duke arrived at Prato in June. On the 24th the city sent four magistrates to visit him: Guido or Guidone de' Medici, archbishop of Chieti, Francesco Minerbetti, Archbishop of Torre (Turritanus), Matheo Strozzi, and Palla Rucellai. On the 3rd of July Benedetto Buondelmonte being still "gonfaloniere," Muscettola arrived with the Imperial diplomas. Two days after, on the 5th, "a veintitre ore giunse a Firenze il duca Alessandro dalla porta a Faenza, e andato prima alla Nunziata passò poi al suo palazzo, dove fu riverito, ed inchinato dai primari dalla città Il ditto Duca, il Mussettola e el Nuncio Apostolico con un numerosissimo treno di cittadini resi ando a palazzo dove la Signoria le ricevette, andandogli encontro fino alle scale."
p. 185, line 4 of second paragraph. "The bishop of Auxerre (Tinteville)." His true name was François d'Inteville, though it is frequently found in documents of the time as Dinteville, Tenteville, or Tynteville. His brother John, who was bailli de Troies, came to England in 1533 as ambassador.
p. 186, line 2 of second paragraph in No. 745. "is now being forwarded," &c.; add "to him at Naples," where Don Iñigo de Mendoza was then residing.
p. 200. The book mentioned in paragraph 4 is "A Glasse of Truthe," of which there are two editions without date. A reprint of it has appeared in the new edition of Burnet's Records of the Reformation, by Pocock. It is anonymous, and must have been first printed before the 24th of June 1531, since Chapuys' despatch bears that date.
p. 205. In the first foot-note the date of July 1535, given as of the duration of Andrea, M. Palmeri as bishop of Accerenza and Matera must be a mistake; for, according to Gams, his successor, Gio. Michaele Sarraceni, was already bishop of that place in June 1531. By Clement's niece in the second note, Giulia, the duchess of Camerino, is meant, not Caterina, as might be inferred. Giulia was the daughter of Giovan Maria Varana and of Caterina Cibo, and granddaughter of Francesco, count d'Anguillara, and of Madalena de' Medici.
p. 214. The book mentioned in Ortiz' despatch of the 19th July (No. 766) can be no other than that of Robert Wakefield, which Bishop Fisher subsequently refuted in his well-known work "Gravissimæ et exactissimæ Academiarum censuræ." See "Treatise of the pretended Divorce between Henry VIII. and Catharine of Aragon;" by Nicholas Harpsfield, LL.D., lately edited for the Camden Society by Nicholas Pocock, M.A.; London, 1878.
p. 217. Ortiz's despatch, No. 767, has been signed by mistake "Garay."
p. 219. "Luigi Gritti," in line 2 of No. 770, is a mistake of the writer it was Giorgio, his brother, who was taken prisoner by Scalenga, the governor of Asti, and then released. See pp. 196–7, 204, 209–10.
p.225, line 3 of 4th paragraph. "An abbot of Chalex (sic)." Having looked in vain for an abbey of this name in Migne, as well as in the Gallia Christiana, I am much inclined to think that Chalex is a corruption of "Chablais" (Caballica), that part of Savoy from which the counts who preceded Amadeo VIII. (afterwards Pope Felix V.), the first duke, took their title of "counts of Chablais and Aosta," by which they were known in the thirteenth century.
p. 230, No. 779. "Micer Mai" in the second paragraph is a mistake; substitute "Eustace Chapuys."
p. 232, par. 2. "Isola (Ischia)." The family of Davalos, to which Alfonso the marquis del Vasto belonged, were originally from Spain, from the town of Avalos in Rioja, and descended in a straight line from Ruy Lopez Davalos, or de Avalos, grand constable of Castille, surnamed "el Bueno" or "the Good," under the reign of Henry IV. After the disgrace and death of Ruy Lopez in 1428, his sons and relatives retired to Naples, where they fixed their residence, and entered the service of the kings of the house of Aragon. Hernando, marquis de Pescara (Peschiara), the representative of the elder branch of the family, having died without male children in 1525, the same year of the battle of Pavia, his nephew Alfonso, marquis del Vasto, succeeded to the estate. His usual residence was Ischia, a small island at the mouth of the gulf of Naples, generally called Insola and Isola.
p. 237. "measures (procurations)" is a mistake for "powers of attorney."
p. 238, last paragraph. "Bishop [of Tarbes]" read "Bishop [of Auxerre];" that is François D'Inteville, mentioned at p. 233, though it must be remarked that on the 30th of August 1530 Muxetula mentions already his (expected ?) arrival at Rome (part I. p. 688); that in June 1531 he had not yet arrived (part II., p. 184); that again, at p. 231, Muxetula positively announces his arrival, &c. Contradictions of this kind are unavoidable in a compilation of letters and despatches not always rightly calendared.
p. 239. "Agrippa" is Henricus Cornelius Agrippa de Nettesheim (1486–1535), who in 1530 printed a tract of 20 pp. now exceedingly scarce, with the following title: Caroli Quinti, cum Hispaniarum tum duplicis Germaniæ et Romanorum Archiregis, utriusque Coronationis Historia. Excudabat Martinus Cæsar. Agrippa was a native of Cologne, where he exercised as a physician. After giving lessons in that town as well as at Dole, in Burgundy, London, Paris, and Turin, he went to Lyons, where his talents in medicine soon brought him into notice, and raised him to the post of chief physician to the Regent, Louise de Savoie. Exiled, however, from France, for reasons not sufficiently explained, he took refuge in Flanders, and was kindly received by Margaret, the Governess of the Low Countries. It was then that he composed the above-mentioned work on Charles's coronation at Bologna, besides another printed the year before. Declamatio denobilitate et proœcellentia feminœi sexus. Antwerp, 1529,—in which he praises his benefactress (Margaret of Austia). It was also whilst residing in Flanders under the patronage of the Emperor's relative that he was requested to write against Henry's intended divorce. Agrippa returned to France, and died at Grenoble in 1535. That Queen Katharine herself, and the Imperial ambassador, Eustace Chapuys, urgently requested him to write against the divorce, appears evident from the fact that letters, probably intercepted, of that ambassador to Agrippa are still preserved. See Brewer's Calendar, vol. v., pp. 416, 843.
p. 246, No. 793, last paragraph. "The two Queens, our sisters;" that is, Mary the widow Queen of Hungary, then Governess of the Low Countries, and Eleanor, Queen of France, who, it is to be presumed, attempted about this time to hold a conference for the purpose of settling the differences between Charles and Francis, as Margaret and Louise de Savoie had done two years before at Cambray. The interview, however, did not take place.
p. 253. Chapuys' despatch. No. 802, is misplaced. Though dated the 1st of October it belongs to the year 1532. See Introduction.
p. 256. line 9 of last paragraph "These latter," &c. The sentence might be made clearer by inserting the word "English," thus: "and that certain Irish have likewise left their country for the purpose of helping the Scots. The English, on the other hand, do not neglect to fortify their own frontiers."
p. 257."Intends bringing with him as a counterpart for the Lady (Anne Boleyn)," &c. The sense requires "intended." Madame d'Alençon was Marguerite de Valois, or d'Orleans, as some genealogists call her, daughter of Charles, count of Angoulême, and consequently sister of Francis I. She married Charles IV., duke of Alençon, after whose death, in 1525, she became the wife of Henri d'Albret, surnamed King of Navarre.
Madame de Vendôme, metioned lower down, was Françoise d'Alençon, who married twice: 1st, François II. d'Orleans, duke of Longueville, in 1505; 2nd, Charles de Bourbon, duke of Vendôme, in May 1513.
p. 265. "Monsieur de Bayonne" in paragraph 4, line 5, is, no doubt, intended for Jean du Bellay, bishop of Bayonne since 1526, and who in Nov. 1532 became bishop of Paris. His brother Guillaume is generally designated in these pages as Monsieur de Langeais, from the name of his estate in Indre et Loire (France). The distinction I consider of some importance, inasmuch as both having been ambassadors of Francis in England at the same time, they have been frequently mistaken one for the other.
p. 304 line, 13 of No. 844. "Pirro de Cipizano." Whether this Pirro be the same Col. Pirro Colonna serving under Chalon, mentioned at pp.606–7 of the First Part, I am not able to decide. I am, however, much inclined to believe he was the same, and that the circumstance of his being a native or feudal lord of Cipizzano or Stippiciano, may have given rise to his surname. It must be said, however, that Mecatti, in his Storia Cronologica della città Firenza, vol. ii., p. 636, matter of Pirro Colonna and Pirro or Piero Stippiccciano, two different persons, "E percio all' ultimo di Luglio, sulle ore due di notte, con Pierro Stippicciano Colonello imperiale, con Pirro Colonna, e con Ridolfo Baglioni, parti (Vitello) colle genti in ordinanza inverso Prato."
p. 306. "However this may be, His Holiness is thinking of sending the Abbot of Nero to France." The words underlined are a mistake, Nero is not the name of a place, much less of an abbey, but that of a Florentine family, often mentioned by Varchi, Segni, and other historians. In 1527 one Marco del Nero, son of Simone, went to Lautrec's camp, as ambassador of Florence, and died a prisoner in Naples after the defeat of that General in 1528. There were besides him Agostino, Filippo, Francesco, and Giovanni, all belonging to the same family del Nero or dei Neri, one of whom might be the "abbate del Nero" mentioned by the Imperial ambassador (Sylva) as likely to be sent by Clement on a mission to Francis. One Giovanni di Nero (del Nero), in particular, is mentioned by the former of the Florentine historians above quoted, as having been exiled thirty miles out of Florence for having taken part in the conspiracy of Luigi Alamani in 1530. See Varchi, Storia Florentina, pp. 9, 31, 47, 54, 63, 120, 149, 163, 180, 187, 190, 293, 346, 399, 453, 458. Once or twice in Vol. III., Part II., of the present Calendar, Erasmo Doria, nephew of the celebrated Admiral Andrea, has been described as "abbot of Nero;" it is a mistake, to be corrected by the reader.
p. 322. "Two Germans," &c. These were William, count of Nova Aquila or Aquila Nova, lord of Bedber, and John Geogreff, lord of Augermont; the former for Juliers, the latter for Cleves, of which two duchies, then united under one head, Geogreff was chancellor.
p. 323. The foot-note to be modified as follows: Further researches prove to me that "palauderias" badly written, and that "palanderias" is meant. Indeed, by referring to Lonicerus, chronica Turcorum, Francfort, 1584, 8vo, vol. 2, p. 16, I find the following passage: "palandarias quibus equi et impedimenta vehuntur."
p. 337, line 3 of second paragraph. "accompanied by a secretary of the duke of Albany." His name was Jean Barbon. See Michel, Les Français en Ecosse, vol. i., p. 375.
p. 338. No. 866 is from Mai to Commander Covos; not from Chapuys, as the despatch has been headed by mistake.
p. 346. No. 875, "News from Poland," seems to be a letter of intelligence from some Imperialist to a friend at Rome. No doubt it was originally written in Latin, and then translated into Spanish for the ambassador Mai to forward to Spain. It conveys intelligence of certain intrigues going on at the court of Sigismond. That for Lasky, the Hironimo or Girolamo mentioned at pp. 101. 127, &c., is intended, seems likely enough; but who can "Lobozky, his nephew," be, it is impossible for me to determine. Munckwitz, or Mynkwitz, and Witzhum are proper names of two Saxon families; and among the councillors of the Elector John of Saxony there appears about that time one named Minkwitz. Janux is most likely meant for John Sepuse or Zapoli, vaivod of Transylvania, of whom frequent mention has been made in these pages, the more so that Janos is the Hungarian for John or Jean. As to the "Oppel Vicedmis," neither the present editor nor Herr Paul Friedmann, who has been consulted and kindly helped to the inquiry, have been able to advance a conjecture, unless they be meant to represent the name and title of some governor or viceroy of Transylvania, the original dominions of Zapoli before he pretended to the crown of Hungary.
p. 427. "On Easter Day" &c. Friar Peto, of the Franciscan convent at Greenwich, was the preacher on the occasion. The Royal chaplain, who on the Sunday after preached in favour of the King's divorce, was Dr. Curwin (Kirwan ?), the same who in 1541 became dean of Hereford, and archbishop of Dublin in 1555. As to Father Elston or Elstowe, the guardian or warder of the same convent, who replied to the chaplain's sermon, he was banished the kingdom, together with Peto and other brethren of the same community. The latter, however, does not seem to have been the provincial of his Order, as Chapuy entitles him; the fact of his having attended one provincial council at Canterbury, and two more at Toulouse in France, not being a sufficient reason for that ambassador's assertion.
p. 466. "In this same declaration Master Taillop agreed," &c. On the margin some clerk wrote Taillebot, which I erroneously took at once for Talbot. There can be no doubt, however, that Wallop (Sir John), who about this time went as ambassador to France, is meant.
p. 471. In addition to the first foot-note to Helwighen's report, I am bound to say that John Barlow, dean of Westbury, is really the person alluded to.
p. 497. "The King has not yet decided," &c. The names of the noblemen to whom Henry, according to Chapuys, thought of entrusting the government of his country during his absence, seemed to me to be Fitz Walter and Bourchier, lord Berners, the nearest approach, as I then imagined, to Millort Fiçuatre and Millort Burguen or Burguer, as Chapuys' secretary spelt those governors' names and titles. As to the former there could be no doubt; my conjectures as to the latter were, however, erroneous; the nobleman whom Chapuys designates under the title of Lord Burguen was George lord Avergaveny or Burgaveny, about whom see Brewer, Letters and Papers, vol. iv., p. 1331.
p. 497. Katharine's chaplain was, no doubt, Thomas Abel, who was arrested and sent to the Tower on this occasion. As to his book, if he ever wrote one against the divorce, it was never printed, and therefore no idea can be formed of its contents.
p. 512, last line but one in paragraph 2. "Brian Tuke" is an error for "Sir Francis Brian."
p. 513, line 4 of second paragraph. Falier was no longer ambassador, having been succeeded by Carlo Capello.
p. 519, line 3. "before they passed cape Malio." Elsewhere "Mallio;" perhaps Mallia in Thessalia, not far from mount Œta and the Thermopylæ.
Ibid. note †. Sandoval (Hist, del Emperador Carlos V. lib. xx.) speaks at length of the resolute defence of the citadel of Günz or Guinz, as he calls it, by its governor Niccolizza. It is situated in Hungary, in the comitat or county of Eisenburg, and not to be mistaken for another Günz, or Guneburg, in Bavaria. See also p. 254, where it has been called Gurk by mistake.
p. 523. In addition to the foot-note relating to Chapuys' despatch No. 1003 (which ought to have been postponed, since the sign of reference does not belong to it, but to Ortiz's letter immediately preceding), I must again declare that being almost a repetition of No. 802, the document was copied twice by the scribes at Vienna, and the two transcripts placed respectively under 1531 and 1532, as if they were two different despatches,—one addressed to the Emperor, the other to Mary the governess of the Low Countries. Hence arose my own mistake, which I only discovered too late, and when most of the volume was in print.
p. 529, line 12. "For I am told by the mayor of London, who has charge of the processions in the City," &c. In the second paragraph the archdeacon mentioned was Nicholas Hawkins, whose uncle, Nicholas West, was bishop of Ely from 1515 to 1533. In the French notes at the foot of the page several misprints have escaped my observation. Line 1, "quelque funoyere" ought to be "quelque fumoyre," which word Chapuys often employs as synonymous of "fumée;" "quelle aure" in the 5th is meant for "qu'elle auroit;" and again "la jour" ought to be "la journee," or "le jour." These last, however, and several more throughout my quotations from Chapuys' correspondence, are not to be attributed to the printers, nor to the clerks in the archives at Vienna, but are exclusively gross blunders of that ambassador or of his secretaries, whose knowledge of the French language was, as observed elsewhere, very imperfect. See my own remarks in the Introduction to this Part and the preceding.
p. 565. "Montpezat," that is, Antoine des Près, sieur de Montpezat, of which name there are two places in France,—one in the department of Ardèche, the other in Tarn et Garonne. He it was who, after the battle of Pavia (Feb. 1525), went to France to announce to Louise de Savoie the defeat and capture of her son.
p. 575. The name of the "Scottish ambassador" mentioned in the third paragraph of Chapuys' despatch (No. 1041) was probably Sir William Scott of Balweiy (see above p. 568) or else Sir Thomas Scott of Pitgorno.
p. 602, line 3. "The bishop Davoie, who holds tor the Queen." Could John Clerk, bishop of Bath and Wells, who at this time was one of Katharine's Council, together with Fisher, Dr. Ridley John Barlow, bishop of St. Asaph, and others, be meant?
p. 613. In addition to the second foot-note relative to Beauvoix or Beauvoir, and my own conjectures on he true spelling of that name, I must state that Mr. Francisque Michel has cleared up this doubtful point in his late learned compilation entitled : Les Français en Ecosse, et les Ecossois en France, where the name of the French ambassador is written Beauvois and Beavois. See Vol. I., p. 396.
p. 628, No. 1058. "member of Parliament representing this city of London." His name Temses. See Harpsfield, p. 197.
In the foot-note "le royne" is a misprint for "le roy ne."
p. 631. Paragraph about the Swiss, beginning with the words "It might." Instead of "this King" read the "latter King," since Francis, not Henry, is the one alluded to.
p. 635. No. 1060 is headed, in Bergenroth's copy at least, "Cardinal Palma to the High Commander," as printed, and yet there was at that time no cardinal so named. I must therefore conclude that it is a blunder of the scribe, and that Palmeri or Palmieri (Andrea Matheo) is meant, especially as he is frequently mentioned in these pages, and was in correspondence with the Emperor or his ministers. See Part I. p. 149, and Part II. pp. 196 and 205.
Ibid. The sieur de Hesdin mentioned in Chapuys' despatch of the 15th April, No. 1061, must be that Jean d'Hesdin, of whom frequent mention has been made in Vol. IV., Part I., of this Calendar.
p. 647. Among the noblemen and officials designated to form part of the duke of Norfolk's embassy to Francis, Chapuys mentions the abbot (bishop?) of Winchester (Stephen Gardyner) and the controller. This last could be no other than Sir William Paulet appointed in the room of Sir Henry Guildford. See above, p. 967.
p. 659, last line of No. 1066. "The affairs of his two brothers;" that is, Francisco and Juan. See Introduction to Part I., p. xvii.
p. 662. In the foot-note, "to the Emperor" ought to be "to Covos," for it was to this latter that the Archbishop's despatch was addressed. See above, p. 635.
p, 666. Add at the end of line 3 "by," as otherwise the sense is incomplete.
Ibid., line 7. "Leyva's opinion on the Monferrato." The possession of Monferrato was long a subject of dispute between the duke of Savoy (Carlo III.) and he of Mantua (Frederico Gonzaga). Upon the death of Giovan Giorgio Paleologo, formerly bishop of Casale, and abbé of Locedio, who died without male issue on the 13th of April 1533, there only remained of his lineage two nieces, both daughters of his brother and predecessor Bonifacio VI., who died in 1530. The elder, Maria, had been married to Frederico Gonzaga, but the marriage having been dissolved, she retired to a convent, and died in September 1532. Whether she was, or was not, the same "marchioness of Monferrato" mentioned at page 678 as having been promised to Francesco Sforza, duke of Milan, and whose hand the Prince of Orange solicited for himself as early as August 1530, is very questionable. At any rate her sister Margaret became the wife of Frederico Gonzaga, who, after discarding Giulia of Aragon, to whom he had been betrothed, ultimately secured that Princess's hand, and, with it, the possession of Montferrato, much to the annoyance and disappointment of Carlo III. of Savoy, who claimed it as a descendant of Aimon, count of Savoy, married to Yolanda of Monferrato. Equal claims were put forward by the Marquis de Saluzzes, whose mother Giovanna or Jeanne was the daughter of Guglielmo Paleologo.
p. 669. The third paragraph of Chapuys' despatch to the Emperor, No. 1072, reads thus in the original: "Au dit vii. jour, environ les viii. heures du matin, je me trouvay a vuasmaystre on estoint assembles en conseyl le Chancellier, les contes de Vulchier et Excez, le seigneur de Rochefort, le tresourier, le contrerouleur Cremuel, les deux chiefs juges de toute Angleterre, les docteurs Fox et Sampson, et autres. Les deux ducs ne s'y trouvarent (sic) car ylz estoient allez en leurs maysons loing dicy." As will be observed, my abstract omits the name of the first, that is "the Chancellor," or Sir Thomas Audeley, and then makes only one of Cromwell and the controller, whereas they were two distinct officials, that is, Thomas Cromwell, at this time keeper of the Crown jewels, and Sir William Paulet, controller of the Royal Household since 1530. I need scarcely remark that Chapuys' despatches, almost entirely written without punctuation, give frequently rise to mistakes of this sort, especially when deciphered by ignorant clerks.
Ibid. In the first foot-note in French the last word ought to be "convenir."
p. 672, line 7. "it may at all times;" read "they." Chapuys' private letter to Mr. de Granvelle, giving further details of his interview with the members of the Privy Council on this occasion, is not preserved, that I am aware, in the Imperial Archives of Vienna.
p. 673. The foot-note ought to read as follows: "Ce que esperoye (esperois) y cognaissant le roy ayant un peu sequestre son affection ou passion pour la dame."
p. 674, line 3 of second paragraph. "Benet," between brackets, is wrong; it ought to be "Boner (Edmund)," who returned about this time from Rome, where he had been working unsuccessfully for Henry's cause.
p. 675. I should say that the Order to be bestowed on the occasion of Anne Boleyn's coronation was not that of the Garter, but the less ancient and less esteemed of the Bath; but thus it appears in Chapuys' original despatch, or rather in the deciphering.
p. 688. A copy of the proclamation alluded to by Chapuys is preserved at Simancas, and the transcript of it in Bergenroth's collection; the original is in the Record Office.
p. 700, last paragraph of No. 1077. "at Bridewell," between brackets, may be after all a hazardous explanation of the preceding word "Palace," since it is more likely that Henry on this occasion should go to York House, or Whitehall, as it was afterwards called.
p.717. Second paragraph of No. 1089. If the count della Novellara here mentioned is the same Hannibale or Annibale of pp. 454, 467, where he is described as being a confidant of King Francis, and therefore working secretly at Venice against the Emperor's interests in Italy, it must be supposed that the Imperial ambassadors at Rome and Venice had been able to operate his conversion.
p. 727. The foot-notes to Chapuys' despatch of the 11th July (No. 1100) contain various misprints: "rayne gloyre" in the first ought to be "vayne gloyre;" "deliuver" in the second ought to be "deduoer;" "le" is for "la;" and "subicate" for "subiecte."
p. 740. By "King of the Easterlings or Austerlins" their consul or governor is, no doubt, meant.
p. 742, last paragraph. Leonelo was not the brother, but the son, of Alberto Pio da Carpi.
p. 754. In the ciphered paragraph Chapuys speaks of a mission to Germany composed of an English Lutheran and a German. Who were they (?) About this time, or rather in the first days of August, Dr. Stephen Vaughan is said to have been sent by Henry on a mission to John Frederic, duke elector of Saxony. See Froude, History of England, vol. ii. p. 146. His German companion was Christophorus Montaborinus, about whom see Gairdner, vol. vi., p. 396.
p. 763, line 14 "Ansalde" is a misprint for "Ansaldo," the Genoese banker of the Grimaldo family, who was to be the depositary of the funds of the League. See p. 763.
p. 782. "Ockin or Ocken" mentioned in the second paragraph, is Ockham in Surrey.
p. 786. The whole of paragraph second, beginning with "should your Majesty," requires correction, as, owing to the transposition of letters at the end of the lines in that sheet's last revise, several misprints have been observed by the editor when it was too late to attend to them. Appended to the same despatch of the 3rd September (No. 1123) is a detached memorandum, apparently in Le Sauch's handwriting, thus worded: Les noms des herectiques angloix que furent brusles aux champs ce mois de Juilliet, et l'année passée, sçavoir, le tailleur, et le procureur de ceste cittée, puis le nommé Fritte (Frith), Bayname (Bainham), et aultres. By " le tailleur" Andrew Hewet is meant; John Frith or Fritte was burnt at Smithfield.
p. 787. "The Duke of Richmond," &c. Henry Fitzroy married Mary Howard, daughter of the Duke of Norfolk, on the 25th November 1533.
p. 795, line 3 of second paragraph. "mal playeante" is a misprint for "mal playçante." or .mal playsante," as Chapuys himself wrote; for the despatch, though partly ciphered, is entirely in his own hand.
p. 796. The last paragraph is rather obscure, owing to bad punctuation in the original. Let it be read thus: "The Duke supposed that I was fully informed of the fact [that the fleet of the Hollanders had put to sea], and as sailors of all nations (he said) were known to be generally ill-disposed, he and the Council requested me in the King's name to write to your sister [Queen Mary], the governess of Flanders, to issue orders, &c.
p. 798. "Hearing that the duke of Suffolk," &c. Twice in this paragraph the Chancellor of England is alluded to as sitting above the duke of Suffolk. And finding that the clerk, or whoever had the care of deciphering Chapuys' despatches, had intercalated the word "Cromwell," I, without further consideration, copied the blunder, for that personage was never High Chancellor, but Keeper of the Crown Jewels and privy councillor. It was Sir Thomas Audeley, formerly Speaker of the House, who, on More's resignation in 1532, was promoted to that high post, though he did not receive the seals of his office until the 26th of January of the ensuing year.
p. 807, line 3 of first paragraph. "A brother of the Chevalier." I presume that Prothonotary Giovanni da Casale, the ambassador at Venice, is meant.
p. 807. "Don Garcia de Toledo" in the first foot-note is a mistake for "Don Pedro, marquis de Villafranca."
Ibid. The count of Siruela there mentioned was Don Christoval de la Cueva y Velasco, second son of Don Beltran, first duke of Albuquerque by his third wife, Doña Maria de Velasco. The first count of Siruela (Don Francisco de Velasco) having died in 1504 without male children, his only daughter, Doña Leonor, became heiress to the estate, and married Don Christoval de la Cueva, her first cousin, who, according to a custom still prevailing in Spain, became count of Siruela. That he was Don Pedro, foster brother, appears quite evident from a passage in Cardinal Osma's letter (No. 550, p. 859), where, addressing secretary Covos, he says, "I have done my best for Don Pedro de la Cueva here, at Rome, firstly because I knew his father well, and secondly owing to the esteem and friendship I entertain for his half-brother, the count of Siruela." As to the individual named "Guillelmin" I must say that I have in vain looked in the genealogical records of the time for some relative of the Cueva or Velasco, whose name was Guillelmo or Guillen. I am therefore inclined to think that the individual named Guillelmin, which after all is nothing more than a diminutive of Guillelmo or Guillermo, that is Wilhelm, must have been some page or buffoon, perhaps a dwarf, already a fashionable appendage to every Spanish courtier, since Charles himself had many in attendance, and among others one named Francesillo, supposed to have written a burlesque chronicle of that Emperor, which was for the first time printed at Madrid in 1855 among the Curiosidades Bibliograficas in vol. xxxvi. of Aribau's Bibliotheca de Autores Españoles.
p. 811. The reference in the second foot-note is erroneously given. Instead of "p. 805," as printed, it ought to be "p. 810."
p. 817, line 5 of second paragraph. "The King has deputed one Dr. Bonart, a native of Lucca," &c. Strange as the statement at first seemed to me of Dr. Edmund Boner, the person alluded to in that passage being a Luquese, I had no option, as the passage in my copy from the Vienna Archives reads as follows: "Touchant la revocation des ambassadeurs d'Angleterre estant a Romme ce roy en a usé comme le Pape, que revocqua le sien sans luy faire escripre, comme jay çi-devant aduertye vostre maieste, mays au lieu de ceulx quil a reuocqué au dict Romme yl y a deputé le docteur Bonart, ung Lucquois, quest son secretaire et collecteur du Pape en ce royaulme." It was not until lately that, having had the passage carefully collated with the original, I discovered the omission of the conjunction et which changes materially the sense, making of one person two, namely "Dr. Edmund Boner, and a Luquese, his (Henry's) secretary and Papal collector in England, both of whom are sent to replace the English ambassadors at Rome. The secretary was Peter Vannes.
p. 823. No. 1134. "Relief of Coron,"—separate from the rest of the paragraph, which refers to quite a different subject.
p. 829. No. 1136. "Romaricomonte suit," &c. Frequent mention has already been made (Part I. pp. 707, 717, and Part II. 744, 806) of a suit tried at Rome concerning the abbacy of a convent of the order of St. Benedict, called Romaricomonte, now Remiremont, in the dep. of Vosges (France).
Ibid. "The Duke of Malfa (Amalfi) and Pirro de Xipiciano." The former's name was Alfonso Piccolomini, and he was still commanding the Imperial garrison at Siena. As to Pirro da Cipiçano, so called from the name of a castle in Tuscany, probably Chippizzano, he was, as I imagine, one of the Colonna. He it was who, during the siege of Florence, revealed, to the Prince of Orange a plot of the Florentines to poison Clement. See p. 304.
p. 844, No. 1146. "[Margaret]" in line 11 is a mistake for "[Caterina]."
p. 848. [Madeleine] de la Tour d'Auvergne was married to Lorenzo de' Medici, whom Leo. X. had made duke of Urbino in 1516. That explains why Clement called his niece Caterina "la Duchesina," or the "little duchess," and would never recognize Francesco Maria della Rovere as owner of the duchy. Madeleine had a sister, who married John Stuart duke of Albany.
p. 850. Luigi Gonzaga, Isabella's husband, died in the first week of December 1532 from a gunshot wound received at the siege of Vicovaro, whilst trying to reduce the ex-abbot of Farfa, that turbulent Napoleone Orsino, of whom frequent mention occurs in these pages. Luigi, who at the time of his death was only 33, left a son named Ves-pasiano, then about one year old, who succeeded to the estate. See Ireneo Affo, Vita di Luigi Gonzaga detto Rodomonte, Parma, MDCCLXXX. pp. 116–27.
p. 857. It is hardly necessary to observe that the Nun mentioned in the first paragraph was Elizabeth Barton, the "Nun of Kent." The truly impartial manner in which Chapuys speaks of her is, however, very remarkable.
p. 851. In Salinas' despatch (No. 1150) the last paragraph has, by the insertion of a sentence which ought to have been suppressed, become almost unintelligible. Read as follows: "The Emperor, it would appear, has again written to the Pope, and I conclude that there is some sort of secret understanding between his Holiness's private secretary, Sanga, the successor [in that office] of Jacopo Salviati, the father (?) of the cardinal, and Mr. de Granvelle."
Ibid., last paragraph. "The cardinals' hats," &c. The brother of the duke of Albany was Alexander, bishop of Murray.
p. 858, No. 1152. Of the two spies apprehended by the captain-general of Croatia, and sent to Lubiana (Laibach in Illyria), Codroip was, no doubt, an Italian originally from Codroipo, in the delegation of Udine in Friul; as to Pelon (?), he was a resident at Marano in the same delegation.
p. 864. Chapuys' words leave no doubt: "Il y a cinq jours que vint au roy ung courier despeche de Marseylle par ses ambassadeurs, le quel ne leur doit avoer apporter (sic) choses playsantes aux mines quilz tiennent a la court. Deux jours apres son arrivee fust despeche le frere du duc de Norphoc en poste, et lon dit quil deust aller en la court de France, mays a ce quay entendu yl ne va que a Paris pour comme procureur du Roy estre compere de Madame d'Alençon."
p. 866. "The bishopric of Huesca," &c. After the death of Don Alonso de Só, Castro y Pinós, son of Viscount of Evol, who filled the see of Huesca in Aragon until 1527, Charles presented his own con fessor, Don Diego Cabrera or Cabrero,—for I find his name spelt both ways,—who, however, does not seem to have taken possession of his bishopric. Thereupon D. Felipe de Urries, son of the lord of Nisano, who in 1517 had obtained from Pope Leo X. the post of coadjutor to the bishop of Huesca, D. Juan de Aragon y Navarra, with the future succession, renewed his claims, both at Rome and in Aragon, though ineffectually; for Charles, wishing to remunerate Cardinal Campeggio's services in the divorce case,—perhaps, too, to indemnify him for the loss of his bishopric in England, that of Salisbury,—presented him to that of Huesca. Campeggio's bulls were issued on the 2nd of September 1530, but he did not go to Spain, having sent thither his own nephew, Marco Antonio, who in 1531 (8th March) effectually took possession of the see. In consequence, however, of an act of the Cortes of Saragossa determining that in future no foreigner should be appointed to a see in the Spanish dominions, the Cardinal had to renounce, and was subsequently transferred to the see of Mallorca in 1532, whence he was promoted to Tarragona in March 1534.
Ibid., para. 2. "Yesterday morning," &c. According to Stow, Annals of the Reformation, pp. 370-1, six were the ecclesiastics executed on this occasion, namely, two Benedictines, two Franciscans, and two priests; Chapuys, as has been seen, increases their number to eight, including a hermit and a layman. The names of the sufferers were Edward Booking and John Dearing, of Christ Church, Canterbury; Richard Risby, and Hugh Rich, of the same religious house; Richard Masters, parson of Aldington, and Henry Hold or Gold, priest.
p. 868, line 1 of the third paragraph : "Respecting Carnisecca's letter." In his despatch from Marseilles of the 14th October 1534, (fn. n1) Count Cifuentes, in answer to a question from the Imperial Court as to who had given him the information contained in a previous despatch respecting Clement's movements, has the following: "The Pope's affairs are now in the hands of a servant of Nicholas Schomberg, named Carnisseca, who, before becoming one of this Pope's secretaries, had been one of that Archbishop's most favorite servants. It was through him (Carnisseca) that I heard the intelligence forwarded to your Majesty on the 7th of May about a proposed interview at Perpignan, which idea the Capuan himself partook of and repeated to me afterwards." (fn. n2) From these words of the Imperial ambassador at Rome, then with Clement at Marseilles, it is reasonable to conclude that the Secretary alluded to is no other than. Pietro Carnesecchi, the intimate and most valued friend of Cardinals Pole, Sadoletti, and Bembo, a member, we are told, of a Florentine family of high rank, that had always followed the fortunes of the Medici, and who in 1567 was tried and sentenced to death by the Inquisition at Naples. But who is Carnizuza, about whom a most reverend cardinal at Rome wrote the intemperate and highly abusive letter, which will be abstracted in the next volume of this Calendar, remains to be seen.
p. 928. Among the members of Henry's Privy Council mentioned in Chapuys' despatch of December 1532, Guildford (Sir Henry) is counted as being at the time Comptroller of the Royal Household, which office he is known to have resigned as early as the 6th of June 1531, having been succeeded in it by Sir William Paulet. See above, p. 177. One of two things, therefore, must have happened: either the document itself was wrongly dated, or else the word "feu" (late) must have been omitted, and ought to be intercalated. Further on, at page 932, the same Sir Henry is mentioned as one of the Privy Councillors who on the 21st of November discussed with Chapuys and Le Sauch some of the conditions of a revised treaty of commerce between England and the Low Countries, as well as the locality in Picardy or Flanders where the conferences were to be held; but that proves nothing in favour of Chapuys' assertion, as Sir Henry may still have retained his place in the Privy Council.
p. 934, line 9 of second paragraph. The date of the treaty of commerce there alluded to is 1523.