Venice: June 1636

Pages 1-14

Calendar of State Papers Relating To English Affairs in the Archives of Venice, Volume 24, 1636-1639. Originally published by His Majesty's Stationery Office, London, 1923.

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June 1636

1636. June 3.
Senato, Secreta. Dispacci, Francia. Venetian Archives.
1. Alvise Contarini, Venetian Ambassador in France, to the Doge and Senate.
To-day the Earl of Leicester ambassador extraordinary of England, makes his public entry. He will be met at St. Denis by the Marshal de Sciattillon with the royal coaches.
Paris, the 3rd June, 1636.
June 6.
Senato, Secreta. Dispacci, Inghilterra. Venetian Archives.
2. Anzolo Correr, Venetian Ambassador in England, to the Doge and Senate.
Allowing himself to be served by a few only the king is enjoying the pleasures of the country here with every satisfaction. Stag hunting is the diversion upon which he spends most of his time, and he thinks nothing of paying for this pleasure with the fatigue of passing the whole day on horseback. Since leaving London he has not given audience to any ministers except the Ambassador Joachimi, who, having obtained permission from his masters to return to Holland for some months, merely came to take leave and to kiss hands.
M. di Beveren meanwhile remains in sole charge, employing all his tact to bring the negotiations to some end. But the difficulties he has encountered from the first become ever greater and deprive him of all hope of a satisfactory termination. In the matter of the fishermen, upon which he is especially urgent, they will listen to nothing, except on the heavy conditions already proposed. These would be very costly to the Dutch, besides amounting to an open declaration of their dependence upon this crown at sea, and they are most determined not to accept them. Thus it follows that they will either entirely lose the liberty of fishing, a matter of the utmost importance from the profits which they derive therefrom, or, if they go on, they will have to run the greatest risks and incur heavy expenditure to maintain their strength, because they will certainly meet with the most strenuous opposition from this quarter. Thus they assume a threatening aspect here against the Dutch over the fisheries and against the French for the sovereignty of the sea. The Spaniards give all possible encouragement to this by their artifices, so that unless some speedy remedy be found, the worst results may be produced with considerable disturbance of the public welfare. It is therefore a matter of astonishment that the French show so much reluctance about the restitution of the barque, (fn. 1) as one cannot understand, when they are keeping an ambassador extraordinary here so long with the sole object of arranging an alliance with this crown, why they commit hostile acts against it and refuse to listen to reason.
The affairs of the Palatine, which are the only ones that interest this country abroad, continue, as always, to be viewed without passion. The despatch of ambassadors, the detaining of the Palatine and his brother in England and every other conspicuous declaration are all done more with the idea of satisfying the world than out of real cordial zeal for their welfare. Certain it is that if greater obligations do not mature with time the Austrians and the French alike will labour in vain to obtain any favourable declaration for their side on these bases alone, as they abhor the very name, to say nothing of the actuality of a league, as something pernicious above everything else and mortal to the interests of these realms. If from time to time they let slip words of hope to one side or the other, their inner sentiments certainly do not correspond. They merely aim at keeping up an ambiguity with both and at making them jealous, to serve the interests of the Palatine family by their arts, and at least bring them to a state of moderate repose, so that they may withdraw with the more decency, without injuring their reputation, and not intervene again, or at least not until domestic affairs are in a condition more satisfactory to the king or until some unforeseen accident compels them to change their plans.
They observe with great bitterness the careless behaviour of Radolti, who does not explain the proposals which they hoped from that quarter ; and from his reserve they augur badly for what the Earl of Arundel is to negotiate with the emperor. For this reason the interposition of Denmark for the establishment of peace in Germany becomes more valueable and important to them every day, and they rely on the Swedes persisting in their demand for the inclusion of the Palatine in the accord with the other allies. It is true that they recognise the necessity for modifying the claims involved in the restitution which was absolutely promised, or of a part, since it is impossible to obtain the whole owing to the interests of Bavaria, which are inseparable now from those of the emperor.
Thus with the sole object of encouraging this transaction they directed the English minister at Hamburg (fn. 2) to proceed to Denmark, and it seems that they send him fresh orders every day to urge that monarch to press forward, while the Earl of Arundel, by the last letters, has been straitly charged to act in full concert with the Danish ambassadors at Vienna. Thus the ministers here are at present devoting their chief attention to this third expedient more than to any other and I am assured, by one who has some influence in the government, that in the meantime they will not cease to urge the claims of the Palatines upon Cæsar, and that Arundel is certainly to work for the advancement of a general peace, without which no agreement arranged directly for that part can be considered perfectly secure.
In France, however, they keep up the old transactions, either to keep the Austrians uneasy, or because they are really concerned about the interests of the Duke of Lorraine. The Ambassador Scudamore has sent word this week to the king that he has repeated his offices about the suggestion to restore Lorraine in exchange for the Palatinate, and he sends the reply they gave him. I must defer sending the substance of this to my next despatch, as the report is confused, though I may state that the ministers here are not pleased with it. One of them told my informant in confidence that they are sure no treaty will ever be concluded with France ; but as there is great commotion all over the world, and everything therein is by nature subject to change, it is difficult to form a true judgment about the future.
Most certainly this is the real substance of what they are transacting and discussing at the Court here just now, or at least so far as I have been able to discover it, with the imperfection of my poor ability.
The Polish ambassador (fn. 3) is expected at any moment. Since they heard that he was travelling by way of Brussels all delay irritates them and at the same time makes them jealous. Thus they do not like what they heard of his conversation with the Princess Palatine on the subject of religion, fearing that this pretext may serve to raise difficulties sufficient to break off the affair. They propose here, accordingly, to adopt the gentlest method in order not to lose this good fortune, although they would be very sorry for the young princess to adopt any religion but the one in which she has been brought up and adhered to so far.
The Duke of Bouillon, in order to obtain a more convenient and safer passage for Holland, has come this way. (fn. 4) Before embarking he saw the Ambassador Senneterre, and told him that he had orders from the king to command his Majesty's troops who are in the Netherlands, and he had sent orders with all speed to have them stopped.
I have received the State despatch of the 9th ult, with enclosures.
Totnen, the 6th of June, 1636.
June 10.
Senato, Secreta. Dispacci, Francia. Venetian Archives.
3. Alvise Contarini, Venetian Ambassador in France, to the Doge and Senate.
The Earl of Leicester has been conducted by the Duke of Scieurosa to Fontainebleau, where he was to have his first audience of the king yesterday.
Paris, the 10th June, 1636.
June 12.
Senato, Secreta. Dispacci, Haya, Venetian Archives.
4. Francesco Michiel., Venetian Ambassador at the Hague, to the Doge and Senate.
The Princess Palatine has received letters from her brother about his dissatisfaction with Radolti and with assurances of decisive action if Arundel cannot obtain a satisfactory answer. The States are much aggrieved at the humiliation forced upon a Zeeland ship by English vessels, and protest that they will never consent to the mastery which England claims at sea. Accordingly it is to be feared that while they talk of peace, we shall see a fleet that may upset everything and kindle a war that it may be very difficult to adjust. The indications are that matters are approaching this stage between England and France as well. Indeed if the English really mean to uphold the Palatine, men of understanding perceive that they are not taking the right course, because by laying claim to great privileges at sea they must inevitably clash with France and these Provinces, and they will not be able to attack the Austrians at the same time. It is not claimed that they should lay aside their own interests altogether, but they are accused of renewing their claims with so much emphasis at a most inopportune moment, considering the circumstances of the time and men say that they ought not to show themselves so sticklish so long as they need assistance and while they recognise the necessity for friendly relations with their neighbours.
The Hague, the 12th June, 1636.
June 13.
Senato, Secreta. Deliberazioni. Corti. Venetian Archives.
5. To the Ambassador in England.
We have received your letters of the 9th and 16th May. The fresh disputes with France call for deep consideration and require a corresponding attention because of the consequences that may ensue. We feel sure that you will continue your fruitful operations to supply us with information about what takes place in this most important matter.
Ayes, 77. Noes, 1. Neutral. 3.
June 13.
Senato, Secreta. Dispacci, Inghilterra. Venetian Archives.
6. Anzolo Correr, Venetian Ambassador in England, to the Doge and Senate.
The Ambassador Poygni came to see me yesterday, with his usual show of confidence. I raised the subject of the Princess Palatine's affairs. He told me of the replies to the Ambassador Scudamore about Lorraine, Scudamore pointed out that the reply given to him some months ago did not contain any precise declaration but rather an expression of regret at the mission to the Imperial Court. On this point Poigny had instructions to assure his Majesty that the only object of the mission was to demand the investiture of the Prince Palatine. Everyone was aware of this and only France remained in ignorance of it. He did not think it desirable to say any more on the subject. There was little cause for astonishment if his king felt affronted at being refused a definite answer on such slight grounds. The interests of both sides required a general peace, and this must be preceded by the complete restitution of all that had been taken by force, including Lorraine and the Palatinate. For all these reasons he thought that France would have taken his proposals into serious consideration, whereas while a clear expression of their intentions is so long deferred, he can only infer that the representations made by the French ambassadors in England with so much apparent zeal, have no substance.
But all these vigorous representations have not sufficed to stir the French to make any substantial change in what they thought fit to reply from the very first to these proposals. Thus they express themselves in the same form even now. They go about saying that whereas in their first reply to the Ambassador Scudamore they intimated that the Most Christian being without information about what Teler had gone to negotiate in Germany touching the affair of the Palatinate, or of the nature of the answer he had received from the emperor, was waiting to be enlightened on the subject, so that he might have a firm upon basis which he might take steps suitable to the state of the affair. That now, so long as Scudamore has not told them what was proposed to the emperor or his reply, they must observe a corresponding reticence, especially as they heard that Arundel had gone in the capacity of ambassador. Nevertheless his Majesty believes, in common with all Christendom that the House of Austria will never restore the states of the Palatine except by force, and he remains as ready as ever to assist the King of Great Britain, if he will do his share, for the reinstatement of the prince.
Such is the substance of what has passed. While it leads to no conclusion of any sort ; so it serves equally to arouse jealousy and disgust, because both sides, by practically masking their real intentions, keep sincerity also out of sight and only make use of artifices. The French ambassadors say this of the English, and the ministers here freely repeat the same of the French, adding that necessity compels them to think of something else than union with France.
On the other hand the upset caused by the detention of his Majesty's barque leads to the most dangerous manifestations. The ambassadors have declared frankly in Court that after a careful examination of the matter by the ordinary course of justice, it has been decided that the capture was lawfully made and ought not to be restored. They maintain that it was lawful booty because of the instructions found on the captain, by which he was bound to fight all the barques of Calais he met with, and take them to England if he could. The ministers here cannot absolutely deny this, but they justify it by saying that it was only against some barques which had done some hurt to the merchants here in the past, and not general against the whole nation. Thus the Secretary Windebank told me a few days ago that he himself signed these orders, but the Ambassador Poygne gave me a different account in the copy he showed me. He added however, that if they will agree to accept a pardon here, such as he has often arranged on similar occasions by order of his king, they will meet with no difficulty in obtaining it. But bitter feeling is greatly increased on both sides, and as the Earl of Northumberland has instructions to take the ships he meets flying the French flag, so that they are waiting to hear at any moment if anything has happened, such an incident would render an accommodation impossible.
Some of the partisans of France say she would be well able to take care of herself joining her fleet with that of the Dutch and give England causes to think more of her own preservation than of molesting others. The Dutch also threaten, being greatly offended on many accounts, especially at the severity shown recently to a ship of war on which the Ambassador Joachimi was crossing, and because another warship was taken two days ago ; but no authentic particulars are yet known of either incident. (fn. 5)
The Polish ambassador (fn. 6) arrived in this kingdom the day before yesterday. He will make his public entry to-day, and will be taken to a house four miles away from the city. I sent my coach this morning to meet him, and when he has seen the king I will pay the necessary compliments in person, although his dwelling is many miles away from here.
The king has gone to Theobalds to enjoy the hunting there for some days. The queen remains at Hampton court, and when the king returns they will proceed together to the house of Oatlands, going on very soon to some other more distant place. The plague makes great progress in London and has even spread to the villages near here.
The State despatches of the 16th ult. have reached me this week.
Totnen, the 13th June, 1636.
[Italian ; the part in italics deciphered.]
June 19.
Senato, Secreta. Deliberazioni. Corti. Venetian Archives.
7. To the Ambassador in England.
Events in Italy, showing that Rohan is acting in concert with allies, calling for great circumspection on the part of Venice. The emperor is pressing for the diet at Ratisbon, at which the choice of the King of the Romans and a truce with the Swedes are to be discussed, as well as the question of the Palatinate, for which they are awaiting the arrival of the Earl of Arundel. The appointment of Prince Casimir, brother of the King of Poland, to his regiment, throws light on the affair of the marriage with the Palatine princess. All this is for information.
Approval of his decision to leave London and to follow the Court, in order to avoid the plague.
Ayes, 76. Noes, 1. Neutral, 2.
June 19.
Senato, Secreta. Dispacci, Haya. Venetian Archives.
8. Francesco Michiel, Venetian Ambassador at the Hague, to the Doge and Senate.
The Ambassador Joachimi has spoken in the Assembly about the English claims at sea and their demands for a licence from fishermen. The Prince says that the States would take a high tone if they were not at war with the Austrians, and once a truce is concluded they will put forward their own claims and go to war with England if they continue in this state of mind. I hear, however, that all the merchants submit, because they do not want to run risks. Even war ships do the same, though the States pretend not to know. But with the fishermen it may be different, as in that case interest, which has more influence with this people than questions of reputation, may lead to great disorders.
The English have seized a Dutch ship in the Thames, but the States do not resent it, as they admit that the ship was attacking a Dunkirker in the river. (fn. 7)
The French announce that what the King of England told the Princess Palatine he had written to the emperor, is not true. That the English will unite with the Austrians and attack these Provinces. That they care nothing for the Palatine House, and so forth, the result of passion and of the fear of a breach between England and France.
The Hague, the 19th June, 1636.
June 20.
Senato, Secreta. Dispacci, Inghilterra. Venetian Archives.
9. Anzolo Correr, Venetian Ambassador in England, to the Doge and Senate.
The seizure of the Dutch ships is confirmed. The king has received letters this week from the Earl of Northumberland, who writes that some of his ships fell in with a Dutch one taking the Ambassador Joachimi, and compelled the captain to render the obedience he had neglected either from ignorance of his duty or from carelessness of the consequences. They also found another warship of the States which had pursued and taken a tartana of the Dunkirkers right into one of the ports of England. He took possession of both claiming them as lawful booty, the more so because the Dutch, not content with having violated the king's orders at sea, had also set foot on land, pursuing the Dunkirkers who took refuge there to have to save their lives. But the Ambassador Beveren, who is deeply grieved to see the first blows of this fleet fall upon his country, says he is very well informed of the truth of the matter and gives a different account. He says that from the ship conveying Joachimi they demanded not only what they might rightly claim, but something unreasonable that was never done. Not content with a salute from the guns and the lowering of the standard, the English wanted all the sails completely lowered, a thing that could never be conceded except to force. The Dunkirk tartana was not taken in the ports of England, but surrendered to the Dutch on terms in the middle of the sea, as it chanced to find itself separated from many others which had captured four Dutch barques ; so he maintains that they have no reason here to take that action in here, and this time their severity has entirely passed the bounds of discretion. Meanwhile he is carefully preparing to defend his case at length before his Majesty, not only upon these incidents, but on the whole question. At the same time he declares frankly that his masters certainly will not put up with so hard a servitude for long, as their forces are quite strong enough, if they like to use them, to exact a proper respect from anyone soever.
Thus whereas it was thought that this ambassador might serve as the instrument to establish a closer union between those Provinces and this crown it would seem that the occasion rather presents itself to him to break off all good relations. But he is and wishes to be a discreet minister above everything, and although he speaks somewhat sharply yet he shows great tact in keeping things in the proper way. He quietly uses his knowledge of the fact that the depression of his masters is not desired, in the interests of England herself, and of the security which she derives from them, and although they are very ardent about the dominion over these seas, they will not, on that account decide upon an open rupture with the States, and so he is not without hope of leaving everything before his departure in a quieter and safer condition than before.
The Polish ambassador had his public audience yesterday at Hampton Court. After that he desired at once to see the king, queen and the Prince Palatine privately. He stayed much longer with the queen than with any of the others, but it has not yet been possible to find out with certainty what he negotiated with any of them, except that he thanked the king for his aid in assisting the disputes between Sweden and Poland. It is already stated that he has no power to conclude anything about the marriage with the Palatine princess, and they fear that the difficulties raised on the score of religion are merely a pretext for breaking off the business entirely, as the lukewarmness shown by Poland in the conduct of this affair does not at all agree with the ardour with which the king there was supposed to desire it.
The councillors and secretaries of the Prince Palatine here begin to say that it might be better for the interests of their master that this marriage should be made with some prince of Germany, who could uphold his claim more appropriately, as it should be less difficult for a prince of the empire to undertake the direction, with supporters near at hand, than for the King of Poland, who, although more influential and powerful, is a long way off, and generally diverted by matters of grave consequence for his own kingdom, so that he cannot always be in the position to bear so great a burden even if he wishes.
But who can this prince be, now that Germany is laid waste everywhere, who is powerful enough and willing to make this marriage ? It is not very easy to see, so people conclude that the Palatines use these arts to help the business or else to save their face in case the result they desire is not achieved.
No later news has come from the Earl of Arundel besides what arrived from Frankfort. He is to wait for the emperor at some place between Vienna and Ratisbon, where it is suitable for him to be admitted to audience, and it seems that he has decided to stop at Linz, whence they hope soon to have some advice of his negotiations by a special messenger.
The king's barque arrested at Calais has now been sold, after the decision that it was lawful booty, as they would not accept its restitution here as an act of grace.
The Duke of Bouillon has passed this way without seeing his Majesty. They are the more displeased at this because he visited the Ambassador Senneterre and the Dutch ambassadors. The ambassadors apologise declaring that he only stayed a few hours here, and was obliged to proceed with all speed to Holland in order to stay the French troops who were embarked at Rotterdam. (fn. 8)
At the beginning of next week the Court will proceed to Oatlands, to remain there about three weeks. To avoid difficulty in obtaining quarters I decided to forestall them and have found a dwelling that will suffice not more than a mile from there.
Cersey, the 20th June, 1636.
June 21.
Senato, Secreta. Dispacci, Costantinopoli. Venetian Archives.
10. Piero Foscarini, Venetian Bailo at Constantinople, to the Doge and Senate.
The Emino of the Arsenal has now been appointed Capigi Larchiaisi, and is in great favour with his Majesty. He is a very wary and subtle individual. His appointment was unexpected and bears little relation to his office of Emino. I propose to send him a present, as the English ambassador, who is his great friend, represents him to me as a man of extraordinary capacity, equal to conducting the greatest affairs, and possessing an intimate knowledge of naval matters.
The Vigne of Pera, the 21st June, 1636.
[Italian, deciphered.]
June 22.
Senato, Secreta. Dispacci, Germania. Venetian Archives.
11. Giovanni Battista Ballarino, Venetian Secretary in Germany, to the Doge and Senate.
The Earl of Arundel arrived at Linz two days after I left. (fn. 9) On the road he met and conferred with the King of Hungary, who received him with extraordinary marks of honour and esteem, expressing his sincere desire to see all the present differences adjusted. The emperor, equally anxious to honour him, has given orders for him to be freely defrayed with all his suite, which is not usual with ambassadors. He also took the earl to the chase and sports, always showing him remarkable courtesy. This indicates his Majesty's propensity towards an accommodation. However they have not yet entered into the merits of the affair, and will not utter a word without the Count of Ognat, who is still convalescent at Vienna, and does not propose to travel at present. The nuncio also claims to be heard before anything is arranged about the Palatine family. He asserts that he wants to be present in order to oppose a conclusion. But it is not really so, indeed I have been assured in confidence that he will forward an agreement, although with circumspection. Some weeks ago he told me that the Most Christian ought not to mind an alliance between Austria and England. The latter only had sea forces, with which they had not been able to do anything to speak of against Charles V, at a time when England had Calais and was allied with France. He said that their forces would only serve to injure the Dutch at sea. What Baglioni dislikes most of all is the report that the Earl of Arundel will try to arrange for his king's interposition for a general peace, as this would take the affair out of the pope's hands.
Noistot, the 22nd June, 1636.
June 24.
Senato, Secreta. Dispacci, Francia. Venetian Archives.
12. Alvise Contarini, Venetian Ambassador in France, to the Doge and Senate.
The English ambassador extraordinary is paying his visits to the ministers, thus confirming that he did not pay the usual compliments at his first audience. They think he is waiting to hear from England the reply given by the emperor to the Earl of Arundel before he opens his negotiations.
Paris, the 24th June, 1636.
June 26.
Senato, Secreta. Dispacci, Haya. Venetian Archives.
13. Francesco Michiel, Venetian Ambassador at the Hague, to the Doge and Senate.
The Princess Palatine told me she had heard from Prussia that the king of Poland insists upon a change of religion, as otherwise the estates of the realm will not approve of the marriage. Accordingly it is expected that the affair will fall through, since the ladies are obstinate and the Princess's mother inclines to think that the king has cooled and raises this difficulty in order to make it appear that the breach came from her side.
The Hague, the 26th June, 1636.
June 27.
Senato, Secreta. Dispacci, Inghilterra. Venetian Archives.
14. Anzolo Correr, Venetian Ambassador in England, to the Doge and Senate.
Besides the compliments already related the Polish ambassador announced the ardent wish of his king to marry the Palatine princess, above all on account of the connection with the English crown. He said that certain difficulties still remained in the way of a final settlement, and as his king could not remove them he hoped that his Majesty here would exert himself to that end. Here he touched on the point of religion, showing that if the change did not come from the princess's side, he could not treat of any thing further, as the constitutions of the realm and the king's oath to observe them did not permit it. Although the ambassador advanced this suggestion gently the king grew quite heated at it. He said he thought the ambassador had come to further the marriage treaty not to break it off. He could not help feeling the utmost astonishment, after he had contributed so much for the welfare of the King of Poland and shown such readiness to do everything to please him, at finding such a poor response to his friendship, when they came to make such utterly unreasonable proposals to him in a matter of so much consequence. The interests of his niece would never make him forget those of his own reputation. Anyone who tried to injure that in any way soever was not his friend, and would indeed put him to the necessity of seeking revenge at the risk of all he possessed. The sharpness of this reply did not allow the ambassador much latitude for his answer ; but he justified his master with propriety in a very modest and civil manner, though it availed nothing to assuage his Majesty's passion. In order that he might not see him again, the king told the ambassador that if he had anything better to propose he should make his exposition to the secretaries of state.
Although somewhat dashed by this encounter the ambassador set forth his instructions more freely before the queen, pointing out the harm the tranquillity of Poland might suffer by this mixture of religion in the royal house. He urged her very strongly to make every possible effort to soothe his Majesty and induce him, if not to permit, at least not to thwart the arrangements which might be made for maturing this affair to the satisfaction of both parties. She promised everything, but has done little, as she is usually reluctant to interfere in matters of grave consequence, especially those which concern the interests of the state.
He had no better fortune with the secretaries of state, as they kept exactly to the terms of his Majesty's reply. They expressed themselves, indeed, more directly, saying that he had great reason for offence, since they wished to make him the instrument for violating his niece's soul, to adopt a religion which he himself disapproved. It was well known that the custom in Poland was to leave every one's conscience free, and they ought not to set limits to any one, least of all a princess of such rank. The queen here enjoys the rites of her own faith without hindrance, although they differ entirely from those of the king and from those which his realms are required to observe, with severity. It is only reasonable that the same should be done in the present case, as there are fewer obstacles, owing to the liberty of the Poles. It was not a novelty for his king that the princess should follow the doctrine of Calvin, but it was something very novel that difficulties should be raised upon that point here, after the matter had been in negotiation for such a long time. If they meant that they did not want to go any further, they could do so undisguisedly, and it might possibly cause less resentment here.
The ambassador replied that to give satisfaction to the estates his king could not behave differently, although he was very eager to carry the business through, possibly at all risks. One who spoke for others could not go beyond his limits, although personally he wished to give every satisfaction. These were only beginnings (principii), and if regarded less severely some mitigation might be found such as to satisfy all parties. The secretaries, however, did not change their original tone. They seemed disinclined to continue the conversation, and so the interview terminated.
In spite of all this the ambassador wished to try his fortune with the Archbishop also, possibly hoping that he might find him more ready to approve his proposals, and use him to recommend them to his Majesty, as one reputed to be a great friend to the Catholics, and who certainly possesses more influence with the king at present than any one else soever. But where he expected to find more mildness he encountered greater severity, indeed such angry words that he cannot complain of them enough. The archbishop told him he had made a great mistake if he addressed himself to him with the idea that he would find him so weak as to yield to his persuasions, and to undertake, contrary to his conscience, to his duty as a minister and to his unstained loyalty, to persuade the king to do what he disliked so much. Whatever the outcome might be, the only recommendation he would attempt or listen to would be to rebuke an act unworthy of his greatness, which would leave an everlasting stain visible on his reputation. If the King of Poland intended to conclude this marriage he must try some other way. This one was certainly the worst of all and the most dangerous. Protestations and violence only impressed vile spirits born for servitude, not princes, who are magnanimous and generous by nature and cannot endure to be treated basely. He went on with this outcry and such biting remarks, without affording the ambassador an opportunity to say a word in defence of his cause. He also showed very scant respect for him personally, and so let him leave full of dissatisfaction.
With the Prince Palatine the ambassador did not go beyond simple terms of courtesy and the expression of the excellent intention of his king to confirm the friendship which he professes by a closer union. He found a middle course about titles, to avoid disputes. He spoke in German and used a word by which he said it would not be easy to distinguish whether he meant Prince or Elector.
I have had all the above particulars from the ambassador himself. He goes about protesting loudly to everyone, saying that he has been received, not as the ambassador of a great king but as if he were a charlatan. He protests that he has done his duty in every particular and if they do not give him better answers, he will depart. He will at least have the consolation of having served his king well, and in the assurance that if the negotiations do not go any further, the fault will not be his but entirely due to the stiffness of England.
He proposes to take leave of his Majesty on Monday, and will proceed to France to carry out at that Court other commissions which he holds. He leaves a report that he will return here very soon to carry out such orders as may arrive in the meantime, but he told me very clearly that if he comes back it will only be for the greater convenience of his journey. Meanwhile the discontent and perplexity of the Court are as great as the dissatisfaction of the ambassador. No one has much hope of the matter being arranged at any time. This insistance on the point of reputation does not meet with the approval of everyone, as such good fortune, once lost, may not easily recur. It is quite true that it does not seem right to them that they wished to treat of religion here from the other side, indeed so improper that it makes them dubious as to whether the Poles did not want to make a pretext for getting out of the business, into which they entered of their own accord by means of this same Zavaschi when his Majesty was in Scotland. However this may be, it is certain that delay cannot fail to be pernicious to the business, as the Austrians, who would dislike the conclusion so much, only want time in order to upset it.
In the mean time they will send Gordon from here to Poland, to forestall any ill offices which Zavaschi may perform by his letters, and assuring that crown that they are as friendly towards him as ever. He will have to find out if other means remain for the conclusion of the marriage.
Cersey, the 27th June, 1636.
15. Anzolo Correr, Venetian Ambassador in England, to the Doge and Senate.
The Dutch ambassador has not yet spoken about the ship seized by the Earl of Northumberland's squadron, (fn. 10) but is awaiting full particulars of the circumstance. His hopes are fainter than his rights as he remembers the ill success of Joachimi on similar occasions. I went to see him the day before yesterday and found him in great agitation, lamenting the lack of good correspondence for his masters at this Court. He complains that eleven of the sailors of the ship taken last year (fn. 11) are still in prison, and no food is supplied to them. He assured me he had freely told the Secretary Coke that they could hardly treat the Dutch worse than they are doing just now if they were enemies, as they subject them to the results of a tacit war, while they, on their side, lost no opportunity of showing affection and respect for his Majesty. If this wind blew more strongly it would drive the Provinces to come to terms with the Spaniards, and if England suffers from this either in trade or in other ways, she will only have herself to thank.
He went on to tell me about the Dutch ambassador at Venice leaving for Paris. (fn. 12) He did not think that a successor would be appointed, an agent could do all that was necessary.
The Earl of Arundel confirms his decision to wait for the emperor at Linz, and that in the mean time he has gone to confer with the King of Hungary at Norlinghen.
The Court has all gone to Oatlands, where his Majesty is amusing himself with the princes, his nephews, in the pleasures of the chase.
His Majesty has granted the post formerly occupied by the late Earl of Carlisle to the Earl of Holland, who petitioned for it with more eagerness and humility than the others. (fn. 13)
The merchant of the King of Persia, together with the ducal missives of the 26th January, has arrived here only at this moment. I will help him diligently, as directed, provided he is able to express what he wants. So far I have found a difficulty about this, as he has no interpreter, I hope he will not leave here dissatisfied.
I have received this week the State despatches of the 30th ult.
Cersey, the 27th June, 1636.


  • 1. The king's ketch Miniken with mails, taken off-Calais on the 8th May N.S. Cal. S. P. Dom., 1635-6, pages 392, 393.
  • 2. Joseph Avery.
  • 3. John Zawadski.
  • 4. He crossed in the Happy Entrance, Capt. George Carteret. Cal. S. P. Dom., 1635-6, page 527.
  • 5. The warship taken was the Black Bull of Amsterdam, Captain Jan van Galen. On the 14/24th May she had engaged two Dunkirkers off Falmouth, driving one of them back into that port and chasing the other into Helston, where the Dutch captured her. Nine days later Northumberland with the fleet fell in with the Black Bull and her prize and sent them both into Portsmouth for enquiry. Cal. S. P. Dom., 1635-6, page 428 ; Northumberland's Journal in S. P. Dom., Vol. CCCXLIII, No. 72 ; Memorial of Beveren of 2nd July, S. P. Holland.
  • 6. The ambassador was John Zawadski, who had come from Brussels after seeing the Princess Palatine at the Hague. (See the preceding Vol. of this Calendar, pages 561, 564.) He was lodged at Caron House in South Lambeth, formerly the property of Noel Caron, Dutch ambassador in England from 1604 to his death in 1624. Cal. S. P. Dom., 1636-7, page 247 ; Wheatley : London, Vol. I., page 335.
  • 7. This appears to refer to the Black Bull. (See No. 6 at page 6 above), though it was taken off the Isle of Wight and was the subject of reclamations by Beveren.
  • 8. Frederick Maurice de la Tour d'Auvergne, duke of Bouillon was proceeding to Flanders to take up the command of the French cavalry there. He crossed from Calais to Dover, where he was on the 31st May N.S., visiting Canterbury on the 1st June, and was taken to Ostend by Captain Carteret, in the Happy Entrance. Père Anselme : Hist. Gen. de la Maison Royale de France, Vol. IV., page 540. Cal. S. P. Dom., 1635-6, pages 447, 448, 527.
  • 9. Arundel reached Linz on the 14th June, N.S. See his despatch of 6/16 June. S.P. For. Germany, Empire.
  • 10. The Black Bull of Amsterdam, taken off the Isle of Wight on the 2nd June, N.S. Cal. S. P. Dom., 1635-6, page 450.
  • 11. The Sampson of Flushing, Captain Jan Verdieux, taken on the 19th August, 1635. See the preceding Volume of this Calendar, page 446 and note.
  • 12. William van Lier, sieur de Oosterwijk was appointed to succeed Langerach at Paris on the 7th June 1636. De Jonge : Nederland en Venetie page 214.
  • 13. The post of first gentleman of the Bedchamber. Salvetti reported this appointment on the 30th May. Brit. Mus. Add MSS., 27962G.