Venice: May 1643

Pages 267-278

Calendar of State Papers Relating To English Affairs in the Archives of Venice, Volume 26, 1642-1643. Originally published by His Majesty's Stationery Office, London, 1925.

This free content was digitised by double rekeying and sponsored by the Arts and Humanities Research Council. All rights reserved.


May 1643

May 1.
Senato, Secreta. Dispacci, Inghilterra. Venetian Archives.
259. Gerolamo Agostini, Venetian Secretary in England, to the Doge and Senate.
No reply has yet been given to the king's last message, indeed parliament sent fresh orders to the commissioners to return and they reached this city at mid-day on Monday. Although these negotiations are completely broken off, yet the commissioners have given such an account of the excellent sentiments of the king and of the courtesy shown towards them that they have to some extent assuaged the feelings of the less fanatical. So instead of a very sharp declaration in which they intended to set forth his Majesty's repugnance to peace and the good of the realm, with mysterious conclusions, they now contemplate something more moderate, although disapproving the demands of the messenger.
At the time when the earl of Northumberland, the only commissioner of the Upper House and distrusted by the Lower, was with the king, one of the leaders of the party here intercepted and opened the letters he wrote to his wife, supposing that they contained his suspected designs. On his return the earl complained to him of this and went even further striking him with his stick. (fn. 1) The other put his hand to his sword and would have avenged the affront had not some of the lords who were present hurried up and prevented it.
Although the quarrel is private it has been taken up by the whole of the Lower House, who have carried a resolution that the earl has offended its liberties and privileges and is therefore deserving of punishment. The Upper House has made a similar declaration against the members of the Lower. So in order to settle these quarrels the two Houses have put aside all other business and met together both yesterday and to-day in numerous conferences, but they have not yet arrived at a mutually satisfactory adjustment.
The march of the earl of Essex was true, with all the parliamentary army, now numbering 20,000 combatants, besides 3000 volunteers under lord Gre expected to join them. Waller also is marching in that direction with his men. Essex has sent a corps of 7000 men commanded by Schipon, general of the city of London, to attack Reading, as the first blow, an important place fortified by the king which serves as an outwork to Oxford. The earl subsequently took up a position with the rest of the army to prevent succour. The town is defended by 2000 brave soldiers commanded by a Catholic governor. They gave a good account of themselves at the first encounter, as after allowing the parliamentarians to advance and take some outer works, they fired a mine, which drove them back with many killed and obliged them to abandon some guns. Giving up hope, therefore of taking the place by assault, Schipon decided to besiege it, and if he persists there is fear that the place may be lost, as it is not thought that they have provisions for more than a month at most. If so the king will hardly be safe at Oxford as he has not forces enough to resist so great an army unless he is joined by his other armies. For this reason he has cut some bridges to prevent Essex from crossing the river Thames, and has recalled Prince Rupert, who was in Warwickshire besieging Lizfil. He has lost some men there and for his credit's sake cannot leave without taking it. By the enclosed proclamation his Majesty has again declared the earl of Essex a rebel with all his commanders. He represents to the people and the common soldiers how they are being beguiled into committing treason. He urges them to abandon their arms, offering them employment and reward. But under the present circumstances even those who support his Majesty consider this reply a sign of weakness or fear since there is no hope of its producing any good effect on the obstinacy of their disposition.
After defeating Fairfax, Newcastle pursued him to the very borders of Yorkshire, to Liz, but falling into an ambush laid by Fairfax with the people of the district and his few remaining men, the earl had to withdraw with the loss of 100 of his followers.
The government of Scotland has sent a letter to parliament here asking for a list of the names of Scotsmen engaged in its service, as well as of those who remain with the king, as they propose to confiscate the goods of the latter and inflict other punishments, as upon criminals. They also complain of his Majesty detaining the commissioners sent to him, not permitting them to go to London to fulfil their commissions or even to return home. No reply has yet been sent to the letter, but it will serve as a text for encouraging the disposition which is shown in Scotland to intervene in favour of this side.
In spite of the strong letter of the Most Christian to the earl of Holland to release the Capuchin fathers, the effect of which has perhaps been diminished by the news arrived this week that his Majesty is in danger of his life, these fathers were put on ship yesterday, in the river here and sent across the sea, without paying their debts or providing them with any commodities. It was announced that this was not done with reference to France, but to the queen. The parliamentarians here are greatly incensed against her as they believe that without her encouragement and aid the king would never have put himself in a position to resist.
London, the 1st May, 1643.
[Italian ; the part in italics deciphered.]
Enclosure. 260. Gracious offer of pardon by his Majesty to the rebels at present in arms against him under the command of Robert, earl of Essex.
Dated at our Court at Oxford, the 18th April in the 19th year of our reign. (fn. 2)
[Italian, from the English ; 3 pages.]
May 2.
Senato, Secreta. Deliberazioni. Rettori. Venetian Archives.
261. To the Captain of the Galeasses.
Commendation of his treatment of the English who refused him recognition. Expect to receive full information from him of what hurt they suffered, where they were going, with what cargo, from whence they came, the names of the ships and their captains. In the future he will be guided in a normal and equitable manner by the tenor of the commissions which he holds.
Ayes, 112, Noes, 1. Neutral, 3.
May 8.
Senato, Secreta. Dispacci, Inghilterra. Venetian Archives.
262. Gerolamo Agostini, Venetian Secretary in England, to the Doge and Senate.
Negotiation being now abandoned the decision of these differences is now left to arms and the uncertain event of war. No judgment can be formed about this except the ultimate ruin of the kingdom, with the utmost danger to the king and his house unless he receive prompt assistance from his victorious forces in the north.
The siege of Reading continues and Essex with the rest of the army occupies his first quarters to prevent relief and for reinforcing the besiegers, who are in great need of this, being constantly harassed by sorties of the besieged, whose governor has been seriously wounded. The parliamentary soldiers suffer severely from the sword and from the severe weather, which is colder than the winter, and by the lack of food, all of which has to be brought from this city, and is mostly asked in alms. The hospitals are already full of wounded and sick and never a day passes that a considerable number does not arrive, to the universal horror, as the people here are quite unaccustomed to the horrible aspects of war, especially civil war.
The general has written to parliament that there will be great difficulties in the way of taking the place if it is well provided, and it would be easier to set it on fire. They replied that he must adopt any expedient rather than abandon the enterprise, as a retreat from this first attempt would prejudice their arms and his reputation too greatly, and would cause serious resentment in the city of London, which has urged it. So to give the soldiers fresh vigour they are sending to the army this very day 40,000l. sterling, which will be escorted by four companies of horse, raised and maintained for this sole purpose.
The governor of Reading, wounded as he is, shows courage in the defence although it is believed that he cannot hold out long, as he is short of powder, of which the king's own munitioners are in want. For this reason, not considering it advisable to confine himself to Oxford only, which is insecure, the king has advanced to Wallingford, half way to Reading, more convenient for relieving that town, and a position that can be fortified, so as to form an obstacle in any case to the army of Essex, at least until reinforcements arrive from the North, in which case the king inclines to give battle.
Last Tuesday Prince Rupert joined his Majesty after having taken Lizfil, (fn. 3) where he left a garrison of 300 infantry under a good commander. We hear, however, that the town is again besieged by the parliamentarians with the people of the country. The place is not important in itself, but because the armies of York are bound to come that way. They write from there that Fairfax having shut himself up in Liz with a small following has assured the queen that he will not bear arms against the king any more. Accordingly Newcastle, with over 15,000 soldiers, master of that district, after he has secured the chief places, proposed to march with the queen towards Oxford next week. From what we hear they will bring a supply of money, but what is more important, powder and arms of which there is a great shortage in the royal army.
The Scots constitute the essential point, being earnestly called upon by one side and diverted by the other with all their might. The king has at last permitted their commissioners to go, though with an undertaking not to come here. But parliament has sent two members of the Lower House to confer with them and to concert their mutual interests. (fn. 4) The king also, fearing that when the commissioners arrive in Scotland they may assemble their parliament, has sent five lords of that nation who were with him to strengthen his party and prevent prejudicial decisions if they can. (fn. 5)
The commissioners of parliament here upon affairs of state had decided to send deputies to all the princes of Christendom to inform them of the reason why parliament was constrained to take up arms, but when the question was brought before the Houses this was opposed, because of the danger that the deputies might not all be received, and also because if they gained the mastery they would enjoy consideration among the princes owing to their own strength, even without this office, so the decision has been dropped.
The quarrel between the earl of Northumberland and a member of the Lower House has been referred to commissioners, who are leaving the matter undecided in order not to give offence to one side or the other by a decision.
These last days the king has deprived lord Se, whom he recently refused to receive as one of the commissioners of parliament of the very lucrative office of Keeper of the Wardrobe, which he gave him in order to win him over.
London, the 8th May, 1643.
263. Gerolamo Agostini, Venetian Secretary in England, to the Doge and Senate.
As I was closing my packet news reached me that the king has been repulsed in an attempt to relieve Reading from Wallingford, many of his soldiers being killed and taken. Owing to scarcity the place surrendered yesterday evening, after a siege of ten days, on the usual honourable terms, taking away four guns and leaving ten. They say that the citizens to escape a sack have undertaken to pay half a pound sterling for each soldier, but in spite of this some disorder ensued. They add that General Essex, without delay, decided to march on Oxford, where the king left a small garrison, and that Waller should join him there with his army from Gloucester. His Majesty is thus in a difficult situation, with the armies on one side and Reading on the other. Although I have good grounds for believing that all this is true, yet amid all the excitement here I cannot venture to affirm it, though I thought proper to forward news of such consequence.
London, the 8th May, 1643.
May 15.
Senato, Secreta. Dispacci, Inghilterra. Venetian Archives.
264. Gerolamo Agostini, Venetian Secretary in England, to the Doge and Senate.
The fall of Reading was quite true, to the great regret as well as astonishment of all good servants of the king, who based their hopes on the safety of a place fortified with such expense and industry, garrisoned by the bravest soldiers, and the royal army itself going short to provide it with food and munitions of war, the lack of powder being a false pretext published by traitors. The besieging army being distressed by the first encounters and exhausted by constant toil and hardship, Essex himself was despairing of taking the place, when the governor happened to be dangerously wounded in the head by some splinters of stone, caused by a cannon shot, and was rendered incapable of acting. The command devolved upon Colonel Fildinch and other subordinate commanders of his party, well affected to the parliament through their connections with it, and by their advice a flag of truce was raised at the very moment when the royal army was appearing with relief. The royal army had great difficulty in crossing the Thames, where they could not make use of their cavalry, in which the king is the stronger. The parliamentarians offered a vigorous resistance, encouraged by the flag of truce, which disheartened the royalists. These fled in disorder and so the army had to return unsuccessful and with loss. Fildinch took this opportunity to parley and deliver up the place without the governor knowing anything about it, until he had to leave. The king, who was with the army in person, has left a suitable garrison in Wallingford and retired to Oxford, deeply afflicted in mind and body too. An enquiry being held there to bring to light the accomplices of the betrayal, Colonel Fildinch has been condemned to military execution, but they do not know how to carry it out. From this it is feared that the evil has deeper roots, and on this account this prince deserves compassion, so amiable for all in his character but betrayed by all for his bad fortune.
His Majesty has reviewed his army which numbers 10,000 foot and 8000 horse. On the appearance of Essex he wished to give battle, taught by this accident that he cannot trust his person to an enclosed fortress and particularly Oxford, which is unsafe. His councillors differ among themselves ; they are divided into three parties and each is jealous of the others, leaving the king confused and irresolute in his mind.
The other side is rendered so insolent by this signal victory that they no longer doubt carrying their designs to completion. They have printed pamphlets declaring that God has prospered them for having expelled the Capuchins. To render thanks for this parliament has permitted the people to demolish from its foundations a most beautiful pyramidal cross surrounded with figures of saints of exquisite workmanship, made in the time of the Catholic religion, which was the most conspicuous ornament of the principal street of this city. (fn. 6) This lasted three days, always with the presence of a company of horse to prevent riots, and with a great crowd of people, the majority blessing the deed but others, although of the same religion, detesting and deploring it. They intend to do the same with all the crosses on the churches, and for the same purpose to make most careful search in all the houses to destroy these idols, as they call them.
Although General Essex had decided to march on Oxford after the taking of Reading, he seemed to be moving too slowly to effect this, and accordingly orders were sent to him to move. He did so the day before yesterday and news comes to-day that he has taken Wallingford without resistance. As this has been a formidable place for some time, there arise similar suspicions of intelligence. He has no fear of anything except that the queen may join the king with a part of the forces of the North, or that his Majesty may retire with his whole army to York. So he has directed the armies which are near the routes to advance and prevent this junction at all costs. At the same time they have decided here to send two commissioners to Scotland, to urge them strongly to move, without which they fear they cannot destroy those forces and secure themselves from anxiety on that account.
The forts round this city are now completed and admirably designed. They are now beginning the connecting lines. As they wish to complete these speedily and the circuit is most vast, they have gone through the city with drums beating and flags flying to enlist men and women volunteers for the work. Although they only give them their bare food, without any pay, there has been an enormous rush of people, even of some rank, who believe they are serving God by assisting in this pious work, as they deem it.
The deputy of parliament in Holland has made a vigorous remonstrance in the General Assembly against the Prince of Orange for giving orders to Admiral Tromp to allow two of the frigates bought by his Majesty at Dunkirk, to pass to his service. (fn. 7) So sharp an office and one calculated to cause trouble in the government was not altogether liked. Although they made him show the express instructions of the parliament, they wished all the same to oblige him to afford some satisfaction of respect to the prince. But the deputy applied to the Province of Holland, the one which most favours the party here, and he got off with no more than the obligation to inform parliament that the information was unfounded.
They write from Holland that the alliance with the French has been confirmed for another year on the old terms, and that the rendezvous of the Dutch army was commanded for the 15th inst. at Fort Wet. The Prince is to set out for Breda, taking his wife with him. The universal opinion is that the present campaign will be less remarkable for enterprises on all hands and less toilsome than appearances indicated and than was presupposed.
The States have granted a passage to the corpse of the Cardinal Infant. I send these particulars with mortification because I can only supply news that is late and uncertain, depending on the sea and the pens of others.
London, the 15th May, 1643.
[Italian ; the part in italics deciphered.]
May 22.
Senato, Secreta. Dispacci, Inghilterra. Venetian Archives.
265. Gerolamo Agostini, Venetian Secretary in England, to the Doge and Senate.
The tale of victories increases for the Lower House and the people, including the death of the Most Christian. (fn. 8) They care nothing for the Upper House, which opposes few or none of their decisions. The Lords have realised, though late, how feeble a share they have in the government, and how impotent they are at present to make their moderate views prevail against popular passion.
More than 20,000 persons are working voluntarily daily without pay on the fortifications of this city, which will be completed in a few weeks, and they are already beginning to furnish the principal positions with guns.
General Essex now on one pretext and now on another puts off moving or engaging the royal army, which is ready and determined. Delay suits his private interests, to maintain his usefulness and authority, but it causes some dissatisfaction to those who rule, who are continually stimulating him, from the fear that reinforcements may reach the king sufficient to prevent the completion of their designs. They believe on other grounds that these are near realisation, and are preparing a declaration which will pave the way for the final bold decisions.
His Majesty, having levelled the surroundings of Oxford, keeps in the country with his army, as he will not trust himself to fortified places and that unsafe one in particular. He expects reinforcements from the North, whence news has come that Newcastle is about to set out with a part of the men there, leaving the rest under the command of General Chin. He places all his hopes in a battle, which may easily destroy him, but cannot possibly restore him altogether. Because of this there are constant dissensions among his councillors, to such an extent that it was announced here recently that his Majesty had had eight of them arrested to satisfy the opposite party. This is not absolutely verified, but it is true that those who urge an accommodation on any conditions are excluded from the Council of War. Yet to please them the king has abased himself to send a messenger here, in which, taking his text from an old request of parliament to consent to a certain gathering of money for the affairs of Ireland, he points out the need for a good peace in this kingdom to assist that one. (fn. 9) After considering the message for three days they have converted their reply into a declaration condemning it as unnecessary and improper. Some of the best intentioned proposed to offer the king the first conditions for an accommodation, but the proposal was not seconded, as generosity has no place in the present government.
The proximity of the royal and parliamentary armies leads to some encounters or small skirmishes between the cavalry, the spirit of Prince Rupert speedily provoking a response from the other side ; but no action of importance has occurred yet. It is true the parliamentarians were beaten at Banbury with the loss of 400 men by the son of the earl of Northampton, who succeeded to the command of his father, dead some weeks ago.
The earl of Warwick with the fleet is beginning to translate into deeds the ill will felt against the Spaniards for some losses inflicted on individuals in the fisheries, having taken a ship with a rich cargo of money, proceeding from Spain to Flanders, on the pretext that it was going to Ireland. This comes opportunely for the public needs, and so they mean to appropriate the cargo without thinking of restitution, trusting to the counter claims that may arise in connection with the frigates which the king has provided himself with at Dunkirk to attack the parliamentary shipping.
To reinforce his party in case parliament meets in Scotland without his authority, the king has sent thither five lords of the country, of those with him. These, pretending they were going on private affairs, by the order indeed of their government, obtained passports from the parliament here. Now a letter has been intercepted in which they ask the queen to give them an escort, so that they may go in safety to her to receive her commands and arrange what they are to do on behalf of the royal cause. (fn. 10) This letter has been handed to the commissioners of Scotland now here, who have sent it to their leaders. It is represented as a great betrayal by those lords intended to upset the union between the two kingdoms, so it is believed they will be punished as traitors. Thus, among other misfortunes, the king will lose this advantage, which is considerable, as with this assistance his party might have balanced the other in that kingdom.
Parliament has been annoyed at the slight regard paid by the States General in Holland to the offices of their deputy Stricland about the order given to Admiral Tromp permitting the passage of the royal frigates. They thought of sending another deputy, but consider that a repetition of the same offices by the same voice will produce more effect. Accordingly they have sent a gentleman to him with orders to assure the States General that the Prince of Orange is most pernicious to their government. This he will do in set terms, while reminding them, if necessary, of the obligations they are under to England, which supported them with the blood and money, without which they would never have attained to their present power. He is also to try and get the influential and friendly, not to say partisan province of Holland, to take proceedings against Vice Admiral Tromper, who has admitted that he allowed the frigates to pass by virtue of a letter from the Queen of England. They think that this cannot have happened without his being supported by at least verbal orders from the Prince, since he is not the servant of the queen and is under no possible obligation to obey her.
I have your Excellencies' letters of the 30th April with information of the action taken by the Captain of the Galeasses against two English ships that were contumacious. I will use the information but only if the matter is brought up.
London, the 22nd May, 1643.
[Italian ; the part in italics deciphered.]
May 29.
Senato, Secreta. Dispacci, Inghilterra. Venetian Archives.
266. Gerolamo Agostini, Venetian Secretary in England, to the Doge and Senate.
When after so many repeated orders and supplies of money it was thought that General Essex was on the point of engaging battle with the king, he appeared in person in this city with some of his chief officers. He went straight to parliament and there represented that the money received was not nearly enough to pay the soldiers their due, and he had abstained from distributing it, feeling sure that without full payment they would not be inclined to move. Upon reckoning up it was found that the whole army were creditors for 120,000l. sterling, which he asked them to provide at once, when he gave them hopes of all success from the courage of his troops.
The members were not all entirely pleased with this procedure, but feeling that perfect dissimulation was necessary under existing circumstances, they sent to the city, pointed out their requirements and charged them to make provision and to do so with all speed.
While Essex was staying here awaiting the result of his demands, news arrived that the succour from York led by the duke of Lenos, has reached the king without any opposition. This event has served to cool their ardour effectively, to such an extent that the parliamentarians have remonstrated with the general at the opportunity, lost by his delay, of taking advantage of the king's weakness, reminding him of two other similar occasions. But he has laid the blame on three commanders, whom he says he directed to unite in order to prevent this succour, and tried to use the incident for enhancing his own authority, demanding the baton of Grand Constable of the realm. This would render him supreme, and equal to the king himself, who never ventured to grant this office, except for a single day. The question was discussed in the Lower House, by whom the highest powers have been conferred upon this general, but he has not yet been able to realise his demands, though he persists in pressing them, for the sake of gain. According to his own partisans he has given himself possession of a very rich property forfeited by a lord who has taken the king's side. (fn. 11)
The reinforcement which has reached his Majesty consists of 2000 horse and dragoons, 30 carts with arms and munitions and 20 more with provisions collected on the way. No infantry has come though that is most needed, but it is expected that 30 companies will soon march, which are ready at Newark. It behoves the queen and the earl of Newcastle to remain in Yorkshire with the rest, owing to the pressure of their supporters in that district, from fear of subjection and the spoilation of their goods by the other side if they went away.
In fulfilment of the commands of parliament the city of London devoted every effort to provide all the money possible. They have already paid 17,000l. which was ready, and the aldermen lending 40,000l. more, to be repaid with the first money received.
To accelerate this they are collecting three months in advance the partisan and exorbitant weekly tax on all families. Thus the city and the kingdom are daily abandoned by large numbers, not only of foreigners, but Englishmen too. Yet the general still stays on, not yet satisfied with the amount, which can hardly be augmented.
To form a fund for the support of the fleet they are beginning to tax food, a course formerly so greatly abhorred by the English. The Lower House has already voted an unsupportable burden on wine, beer and tobacco, and so they will go on with the rest. The House has been greatly agitated these last days over a proposal to counterfeit the great seal of the realm. All were not prepared to agree to this, but in the end the promoters carried the point, though only by a few votes. The pretext advanced was that for the maintenance of this admirable parliament, now much reduced by the condemnation of malignants and by death, the great seal is required for ordering the new elections, but actually by this act they betray that disposition to change the government which hitherto they have tried to keep concealed. These decisions need the assent of the Upper House, but incapable of any further resistance to the violence of the Commons they will have to give way in the end, the more so as in a recent conference they were clearly told that if they did not promptly support what the Commons desired, that body would act by themselves and not even inform them of any of their deliberations, a declaration which caused signs of alarm among the Lords. Thus subsequently they assented to the confiscation of the property of the royalists ; to the assignment of 30,000l. sterling upon these in satisfaction of the old debts to the Scots, and to the appointment of commissioners to send to Scotland to urge the government there to assist parliament in the recovery of the county of York. They kept all these resolutions held up for some days, to avoid refusing them to their own prejudice or assenting to them to that of his Majesty ; and now the members of the Lower House go about distributing among themselves the houses in this city and outside and other property of that sold, which serve for comfort and delight.
The Upper House has also passed the declaration against the king which I reported was being prepared. It consists in laying the blame for the rupture of the peace negotiations upon his Majesty, who showed such a desire for them. It concludes with a firm resolution of the parliamentarians to carry through what they have undertaken, at all risks, offering pardon to those who state they have been deceived, and who abandon the king. I now hear they are drawing up a manifesto to inform all princes of their pretended rights, having met with a great deal of opposition to the proposal to do this by means of deputies.
The people here are still busy with the work of the fortifications and equally so over the destruction of crosses and figures. This very day there was a great concourse to pull to pieces the royal monuments in the church of Westminster, which was one of the finest ornaments of this city, admired by all foreigners for its antiquity and the perfection of the beautiful marble carving.
They have sent orders to the earl of Warwick to send a squadron to the coast of Ireland, fearing that if the Scots move to help them here the king may bring over a good number of Irish to this kingdom, who are already armed and ready to serve him. Prince Maurice has gone with a few troops to encounter Waller, who is near Bristol. There was a report of an engagement between them in which the prince was worsted and slain, but it is not verified. The county of Devon has risen against viscount Obton, reducing his army to a wretched plight, incapable of offering further resistance in Cornwall to the parliamentary forces. However, the king does not lose heart and has laid siege to Northampton.
The States General refuse audience to the deputy of this parliament, though he is supported by the province of Holland. In spite of this, he himself realises that he exceeded the limits of etiquette against the Prince of Orange, and so it seems likely that they will accept any explanation here and will moderate their violence against the Prince. Joachimi, who was ambassador here and still bears the title, is co-operating to this end, with letters to his friends of the parliament. His Highness postpones taking the field not only because of this disturbance but because he is disinclined for any enterprise this year, although the defeat and rout of Mello by the French (fn. 12) may supply him with a motive.
London, the 29th May, 1643.
[Italian ; the part in italics deciphered.]


  • 1. Henry Marten, on the 28th April.
  • 2. Printed in Rushworth : Hist. Collections, Part III, Vol. II, page 315.
  • 3. On the 1st May, N.S. He left Colonel Hervey Bagot in charge there. Shaw : History and Antiquities of Staffordshire, Vol. II, page 241.
  • 4. The statement seems premature. The instructions to Michael Welden, who was sent to Scotland, are entered in the Journals on the 17th May, O.S. ; those to John Corbet who went after Welden had arrived, on the 27th June, O.S. Journals of the House of Lords, Vol. VI, pages 49, 112.
  • 5. The earls of Roxburgh, Kinnoul and Lanerick arrived at Edinburgh with instructions from the King on the 15th May, O.S. Rushworth : Hist. Collections, Part III, Vol. II, page 463. There seem to have been at least three others, viz. Morton, Annandale and Carnwath, Baillie : Letters and Journals, Vol. II, page 77.
  • 6. The Cheapside Cross. Only one day, May 2—12, is usually assigned to this destruction.
  • 7. On the 25th April ; the text in Dutch is printed in Aitzoma : Saken van Staet en Oorlogh, Vol. II, page 880.
  • 8. Louis XIII, died on the 14th May.
  • 9. The message is printed in the Journals of the House of Lords, for the 8th May, O.S., Vol. VI, pages 36, 37.
  • 10. Six lords were sent viz. Morton, Roxburgh, Kinnoul, Lanerick, Annandale and Carnwath. Baillie : Letters and Journals, Vol. II, page 77.
  • 11. Arthur baron Capel of Hadham, one of the nine peers impeached in June, 1642, for joining the king at York. The Commons proposed to indemnify Essex out of Capel's lands. The Lords took exception to singling out any particular estate for this purpose and on the 17th May, O.S., the Commons agreed and voted 10,000l. to Essex for life out of forfeited lands in general. The vote was endorsed by the Lords nine days later. Journals of the House of Lords, Vol. V, page 714, VI, pages 48, 64, Journals of the House of Commons, Vol. III, page 89.
  • 12. At Rocroi on the 19th May.