Venice: April 1521

Pages 109-119

Calendar of State Papers Relating To English Affairs in the Archives of Venice, Volume 3, 1520-1526. Originally published by Her Majesty's Stationery Office, London, 1869.

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April 1521

April 1. Sanuto Diaries, v. xxx. p. 52. 183. Martin Luther.
On this morning, in the churches where sermons are preached, the preachers, by order of the Legate (Legato) with the Signory's permission, published the excommunication of such as read, or keep in their houses, &c. the works and books of Friar Martin Luther, of the order of Hermits, according to the bull issued at Rome.
April 1. Sanuto Diaries, v. xxx. p. 117. 184. Antonio Surian to the Signory.
Had been to King Henry, who was returned from the place whither he went from fear of the plague.
Acquainted him with the summaries of the news from Syria, to which he listened attentively, expressing regret for the defeat of Gazelli, as Sultan Soliman would next attack Christendom. He then said there was no fear of the Emperor's coming into Italy this year, because he had no money; and swore that as earnestly as he prayed God to cure the Princess, so did he desire peace between his confederates, mentioning amongst them the Signory. He was exerting himself to induce all to be content with their own possessions, and whoever might give occasion of war would displease him greatly. He said he had written to the Emperor to preserve the peace of Christendom; and came to the conclusion that the Emperor could not go to Italy from lack of money.
The King then recommended to the Signory a nephew of his, the Lord Reginald [Pole], (fn. 1) who is going to study at Padua.
In Scotland, the Archbishop of [St. Andrew's] (the first dignity there), who was Legate, has died. Many applications were made to the King of France for the vacant see, which is in his gift, as he rules Scotland.
Yesterday the four French hostages arrived in London; and their predecessors return home.
Beseeches the Senate to appoint his successor.
Dated 1st April. Registered by Sanuto, 27th April.
April 6. Sanuto Diaries, v. xxx. p. 131. 185. The Same to the Same.
The French secretary had been sent for by Cardinal Wolsey, who complained that the most Christian King had violated the articles of his agreement with the Emperor, by causing Robert de la Marck and the Duke of Guelders to make war on the Emperor with French assistance and favour, and that the King of Navarre likewise meant to attack the Emperor; which proceedings greatly displeased King Henry, as he wishes for peace between all the powers. The secretary justified the French King, saying that the Duke of Guelders was not his subject, and that the Emperor made these charges in order to furnish himself with an excuse for not paying King Francis the 200,000 crowns. Mons. Poliot, (fn. 2) who has arrived lately, also laboured to convince the Cardinal, and at length appeased him; Poliot had come on his way to Scotland. The above complaint was made by the Imperial secretary in London, who had been lately sent from Flanders by Madame Margaret.
Mons. de Planis had arrived from Scotland, whither he had been sent by the most Christian King, and now he returns to France. The Scottish ambassadors are not coming to England, but the French ambassador here [Marigny] has exerted himself to have the truce with Scotland prolonged for two or three years more, on the plea that in the meanwhile some means of agreement will be found. The Imperialists in London have circulated two new bubbles (levate); one, that Robert de la Marck has been routed by 700 of the Frenchmen in Flanders who have taken service under Madame Margaret; the other, that the negotiation has been renewed for the marriage of the daughter of the King of Portugal to the Emperor.
London, 6th April. Registered by Sanuto, 6th May.
April 10. Sanuto Diaries, v. xxx. p. 91. 186. Alvise Gradenigo to the Signory.
The Pope had received letters announcing the Emperor's return to Flanders for an interview with the King of England.
Rome, 10th April. Registered by Sanuto, 16th April.
April 15. Sanuto Diaries, v. xxx. p. 150. 187. Antonio Surian to the Signory.
Cardinal Wolsey has been ill of fever, so that he gave audience to no one but King Henry, who visited him one day, and remained with him a long while.
The French ambassador from Scotland, Mons. de Planis, has arrived, on his way to France, and the Scottish ambassadors have not come; and Mons. d'Aubigni has remained in Scotland. De Planis brings back word that they are willing to prolong the truce for another year without any farther embassy, and in the meanwhile a peace is to be negotiated. King Francis had written to King Henry to this effect, urging him to prolong the truce. Already on the borders some forays have been made.
Yesterday the French ambassador received a post from France,. with letters for the King and Cardinal, whereby the most Christian King exculpates himself from the charge made by the Emperor about Robert de la Mark, &c.; and with regard to his having granted passage to the Switzers for their march into Italy to serve the Pope, he says it was for the security of his Holiness. The ambassador had as yet been unable to deliver the letters either to the King or the Cardinal.
On that day (15th April) the King caused the imprisonment of the Duke of Buckingham in the Tower under custody. He is one of the chief personages in England. The reason is not known, though it is understood that for the last 500 years not one of his ancestors has died in bed; and his father was beheaded.
The ambassador urges the dispatch of his successor.
London, 15th April. Registered by Sanuto, 13th May.
April 18. Sanuto Diaries, v. xxx. p. 130. 188. Giovanni Badoer to the Signory.
This morning King Francis heard mass in the church of an abbey where he (Badoer) lodges, and told him he had something to say to him. Went afterwards to the palace, when he was informed by the King that the Emperor's ambassador had again spoken to him, explaining he did not imply that the Emperor wished for war, but that it should be ascertained juridically whether the clauses had been violated, and requesting King Francis to send Robertet to the borders, there to meet some other person who would be appointed by the Emperor. The King replied that the ambassador had told him the Emperor considers himself at war, so that farther discussion was useless. The ambassador rejoined that he had not spoken in that form; and Mons. de Melanon (sic) (fn. 3) having requested him (the King) to refer the matter for arbitration to Madame [Louise of Savoy], he consented, and the ambassador is gone to her, together with Artoes. (fn. 4)
The King said he had cleared himself with the King of England, and written to the Electors of the Empire and to the Pope, who, according to letters received by him from Rome, will enter the league, and his Majesty has sent the power of attorney for its conclusion.
Dijon, 18th April. Registered by Sanuto, 6th May.
April 19. Sanuto Diaries, v. xxx. p. 150. 189. Antonio Surian to the Signory.
The French ambassadors (fn. 5) went to Cardinal Wolsey and told him what King Francis had written. They also had audience of the King, who, at the persuasion of France, consents to prolong the Scotch truce for a year. The Cardinal complained of the present movements, saying it was not for the interest of King Francis to wage war on the Emperor now that he is holding the Diet in Germany, and desired them to write to their King that it would be for his advantage to adjust matters with the Emperor. The Cardinal offered his mediation; but the French ambassador says he does not believe King Francis will place himself in the hands of King Henry, or of Wolsey, as he distrusts them.
The Duke of Buckingham is still in custody in the Tower; his trial is procrastinated in order to effect other arrests. The Duke was plotting to obtain the crown on the death of the present King. (fn. 6) His chancellor [Robert Gilbert] has been arrested, and the brother of the Earl of Chectria (sic. Westmoreland?); (fn. 7) so it is supposed the Duke will be beheaded.
Will communicate to the King and Cardinal the summaries transmitted by the State of news from Syria and Constantinople.
Dated 19th April. Registered by Sanuto, 13th May.
April 19. Sanuto Diaries, v. xxx. p. 130. 190. Giovanni Badoer to the Signory.
The expedition against Navarre will be made, but the French await the reply from England.
Dated 19th April. Registered by Sanuto, 6th May.
April 19. Sanuto Diaries, v. xxx. p. 140. 191. Francesco Cornaro to the Signory.
On a summons from the Emperor, Friar Martin Luther arrived at the Court on the 16th, with a herald and a safeconduct, and on the morrow of his arrival entered the presence of the Emperor, with whom were the Electors and Princes.
The Emperor inquired whether the books printed in his name were his, and whether he would withdraw them and recant, as they were condemned by the Pope as being replete with heresy. Luther replied the books were his, and requested time for reply, which was conceded with great difficulty until yesterday, when he reappeared before the Court. After delivering a long discourse, urging the Emperor and their Lordships not to molest him, he endeavoured to convince them that what he had written was perfectly true, and said he would persist in this proposition, unless the contrary were shown on the authority of holy writ, demanding a disputation to that effect. This was denied him, because all the articles had been already condemned by the Church and Councils; and therefore he was ordered to declare what he meant to do. He then reasserted his opinion, declaring that it could be demonstrated by true arguments that unjust decrees had been made in the said Councils.
On that day, the 19th, the Emperor and the Electors and Princes dismissed Luther, and caused a writing in the Emperor's hand to be read to him, purporting that as the Emperors and Princes, his predecessors, had always done their utmost not only to preserve the Catholic faith, but to augment it, and had ever been obedient to the Apostolic See, his Majesty intended to do the like; and therefore his firm intention was that all the books of Martin, wheresoever found, should be burnt, and he himself punished as a notorious heretic, and likewise those who favoured him in any way. To effect this, the Emperor requested all the Electors and Princes to unite with him, as they had apparently promised when they determined to send for Luther to the Court.
Worms, 19th April 1521. Registered by Sanuto, 11th May.
April 19. Sanuto Diaries, v. xxx. pp. 144,145. 192. Reading in the Senate of the Emperor's Protest to the Electors against Martin Luther. (fn. 8)
We are determined to protect the Church like our predecessors, and to maintain what was ordained by the Council of Constance and all other councils, whereby it is certain one solitary friar errs in his opinion, which is contrary to that of all Christendom. I have, therefore, resolved utterly to hazard (exponer) my realms and signories, my body, blood, life, and soul. Having heard the obstinate reply which Luther gave yesterday in the presence of you all, I declare that I repent me of having so long delayed prosecuting him and his false doctrine; and my determination is to proceed against him as against a public heretic.
Written with my own hand this day, 19th of April 1521.
(Signed) Carolus.
Registered by Sanuto, 11th May.
April 19. Deliberazioni Senato Secreta, v. xlviii. p. 183, tergo. 193. Chain pawned to the Master of the Rolls.
Motion made in the Senate.
Whereas the nobleman Andrea Badoer, late ambassador in England, was compelled to borrow from the reverend Vice-Chancellor 300 ducats, with whom as security he deposited the gold chain given him by the King; and whereas the said Vice-Chancellor died, and by the law (ordeni) of England his goods lapsed to the royal treasury, as customary with other ecclesiastical property; and whereas it is impossible to obtain the chaiu, and present it to the procurators of St. Mark, according to the letter of the Venetian law; and whereas Andrea Badoer is not responsible for more than he received for the chain; and whereas he is content, as the chain of his successor Sebastian Giustinian was sold for 370 ducats, to pay to the procurators the sum of 370 ducats:—
Put to the ballot,—that on “Ser” Andrea paying to the procurators the 370 ducats for the value of the said chain, that item be balanced and settled (sia conzà et saldà la partida), as fair and just.
Ayes, 114–118. Noes, 4 4–4 4. Neutrals, 0–1.
[Italian, 21 lines.]
April 21. Senato Terra, v. xxii. p. 9. 194. Embassy in England.
Put to the ballot that the motion relative to the chain given by the King of England to Andrea Badoer be lost.
Ayes, 63–57.
Put to the ballot that the motion be carried.
Ayes, 98–103.
” 0.
” 1–2.
Nothing carried, the majority required being three-fourths.
April 23. Sanuto Diaries, v. xxx. p. 178. 195. Antonio Surian to the Signory.
Had conversed with Cardinal Wolsey, to whom he communicated the Levant news. The Cardinal told him the Diet was well nigh ended, and that the King of France was waging war on the Emperor, through Robert de la Mark, the Duke of Guelders, and the King of Navarre; that this displeases King Henry, because he wishes for peace between the Christian powers; and that should King Francis persist, he (King Henry) cannot do less than assist the Emperor. He would fain be the person to adjust these differences, and had dissuaded both the Emperor and the most Christian King from entering Italy. The Emperor would return to Flanders, and perhaps to Spain, to arrange affairs there; and, in short, King Henry would not care to maintain his alliance with France. Communicated all this to the French ambassador in London, who told Cardinal Wolsey that the most Christian King does not choose [to have] judges; yet he exculpates himself with regard to Robert de la Mark and the Duke of Guelders, declaring it is not his business to prevent them from giving trouble; though, on the other hand, he is bound to defend the King of Navarre according to the articles of the agreement made at Noyon. No prolongation of the truce has yet arrived from Scotland.
Details his conversations with Cardinal Wolsey relative to Martin Luther. Papal briefs have arrived in London ordering the works of Luther to be burnt, and the King will make provision accordingly, so that none of them shall be found on this island. The King is writing a work against Luther, and will publish it and send it to the princes of Christendom, including our Signory. It will be meritorious for a king to have written a book in favour of the Christian faith, and much to the praise of his Majesty. (fn. 9)
Requests that his successor may be dispatched, he having already been 30 months at the English Court.
London, 23rd April. Registered by Sanuto, 27th May.
April 25. Contarini's Original Letter Book, Letter No. 3. St. Mark's Library. 196. Gasparo Contarini to the Signory.
Arrived at Worms on Saturday the 20th of April, but the Emperor being occupied by business concerning the affair of Friar Martin Luther, (fn. 10) which during the whole of the last few days has occupied him and the electors, his (Contarini's) audience was delayed until St. Mark's Day, when the Vice-Chancellor and the marshal of the household, with the Imperial counsellors, conducted him to the palace.
In a hall, seated on a chair of state covered with gold brocade and surmounted by a canopy of the same material, sat the Emperor. On one side of him were seated all the Electors of the empire, with the exception of the Duke of Saxony; on the other, the Cardinals of Sion and Gurk.
Before the Emperor stood Mons. de Chièvres, the Chancellor, [Gattinara], and many other princes, both German, Flemish, and Spanish.
When the ambassadors entered the Emperor rose, and when they were in the act of kissing his hand, he doffed his bonnet.
When he (Contarini) delivered his credentials, the Emperor caused a bench covered with red velvet to be brought, and desired the ambassadors to cover and be seated. This they declined, and when the Emperor again urged the acceptance of this compliment, requested to be allowed to address the Emperor in a standing posture. The permission was granted; but his Majesty chose the ambassadors to remain covered.
His speech was answered by the Chancellor, (fn. 11) and when the ambassadors took leave the Emperor embraced them with marks of great love and goodwill.
Worms, 25th April 1521.
[Italian, 3 pages.]
April 25. Sanuto Diaries, v. xxx. p. 145. 197. Gasparo Contarini, Venetian Ambassador with the Emperor Charles V., to Nicolo Tiepolo, LL.D., and his companions.
I have neither spoken to nor seen Friar Martin Luther, although he remained in this town until yesterday morning. I was constrained to act thus, for he has very active enemies and very powerful partisans, and the affair is conducted with incredible acrimony. I have heard from many that amongst other follies he believes that any layman in the state of grace is competent to administer the Sacrament of the Eucharist, (fn. 12) that marriage may be dissolved, that fornication is not sin, and that all things chance from necessity, (fn. 13) though this I heard solely from the Cardinal of Sion [Matthew Scheiner]. Besides these errors, I understand that he is most imprudent, very unchaste, and ignorant of the doctrines [of Christianity].
During the last few days he was urged by the Princes here, and in the Emperor's name, to retract, but he nevertheless persisted in his obstinacy, and so today (sic) his Majesty made a declaration in his own hand against him, the copy of which is sent to the Signory.
I cannot tell you how much favour he enjoys here, and which is of such a nature that on the Emperor's departure and the dissolution of the Diet I suspect it will produce some bad effect, most especially against the prelates of Germany.
In truth, had this man been prudent, had he restricted himself to his first propositions, and not entangled himself in manifest errors about the faith, he would have been, I do not say favoured, but adored, by the whole of Germany. I was told so at Augsburg by the Duke of Bavaria and many others, and I see the same by experience.
Exhorts Nicolo Tiepolo to go to his legation in England, as the career of a diplomatist is very distinguished and most honorable, extremely like that of a student, save that it is grander. There were many learned men, Greek and Latin scholars, and philosophers at Worms, though he had not yet made acquaintance with them.
Martin Luther departed yesterday morning (sic) on a waggon (sopra una careta), accompanied by 20 horsemen. (fn. 14)
Worms, 25th April 1521. Registered by Sanuto, 25th April.
April 25. Sanuto Diaries, v. xxx. p. 149. 198. Giovanni Badoer to the Signory.
Was told by the Chancellor [Duprat] that they were expecting letters from England about attacking the Emperor.
According to report, Robert de la Mark had made a stir on the borders of 'Flanders.
The ambassadors were at Dijon, including even the Imperialist, who had not departed.
King Francis has received letters from the Pope [informing him] that his Nuncio had obtained mandates to burn the works of Friar Martin Luther throughout the kingdom [of Naples], and that they were not to be either printed or sold there.
Dijon, 25th April. Registered by Sanuto, 13th May.
April 26. Sanuto Diaries, v. xxx. pp. 141–144. 199. Gasparo Contarini to his brother-in-law Matteo Dandolo, LL.D. and Knight.
Had held a conversation with the Duke of Cariati about Martin Luther. Four days ago Luther arrived at Worms on the Emperor's summons, with a guarantee that he should receive no harm, and go away when and whithersoever he pleased.
The day before he (Contarini) entered Worms, Luther was asked, in the presence of the Emperor and the Electors, whether the works which circulated in his name were issued by him. He replied that he should wish to know what works were attributed to him, as some might not be his. An index of their titles being then read to him, he admitted to their authorship. He was then asked whether he affirmed the truth of their contents. To this question he declined to reply without time for consideration. The Emperor objected to this demand, because Luther did not deserve its grant, and because he had known for a long while why he was summoned; but, as a favour, the matter was deferred until the morrow, and he was desired to return at the same hour.
Luther then departed, and when he came back at the appointed hour he spoke at great length before the Emperor, in German, against the Pope and the Court of Rome. He also maintained that the Council of Constance, which condemned John Hus, erred wickedly by passing sentence against him, and that he (Luther) would persevere in that opinion until confuted by argument or authority derived from holy writ. The Emperor then dismissed him, and very early on the following morning sent [to the Diet?] a certain rescript in his own handwriting, stating that he was descended from Catholic Kings and most Christian Emperors, and therefore would not degenerate from his forefathers; that with all his might he would oppose the heresies of Luther, and inflict punishment on all his adherents; and that for this purpose he (the Emperor) would hazard both his realms and his life.
This rescript being presented to the Electors, they requested time to consult and decide on the matter, and went back to the Emperor several times, assenting apparently to the decree, but raising many objections; and as yet nothing is settled. The Emperor, however, seems to be firmly opposed to Luther, and not without reason, for Luther has reached such a pitch of madness and fury that he rejects the decrees of the Councils; says that any layman can administer (confici posse) the sacrament of the Eucharist; that matrimony can be dissolved; that simple fornication (fornicationem simplicem) is no sin, and hints at that community of women of which Plato treats in his Republic.
During the night of the day on which the Emperor dismissed Luther, a writing was placarded on the doors of the Cathedral, whereby 400 nobles and persons innumerable of inferior grade threatened the opponents of Luther and defied them to battle, making especial mention of the Bishop of Mayence, whom they vituperated grossly.
Had Luther conducted himself at Worms with greater moderation and prudence, and not meddled so erroneously with sacred matters, but abided by his original proposition, he would have had all Germany on his side, such is the bias towards his ravings of many of the Germans.
Has great apprehensions, because, as Luther said of himself, he is a man who will not relinquish his opinion, either through argument, fear, or intreaty. On the departure of the Emperor, and when the Diet is dissolved, Luther will raise great disturbances throughout Germany, much to the cost of the German bishops and all the clergy there, and indeed with danger to the Christian religion. He has many powerful partisans, who encourage him, and against whom no one dares to. . . . . . .
Luther's books are sold publicly in Worms, although the Pope and the Emperor, who is on the spot, have prohibited them. Within their own dwellings many of the chief Princes [of Germany?] encourage Luther. Does not know how the affair will end, but dreads the result. Has neither spoken to the man, nor even seen him, at which he (Dandolo) will perhaps marvel; but the question is treated so acrimoniously that the nature of the times requires this reserve. Luther disappointed the expectations of almost everybody at Worms, for he exhibits neither moral purity nor any prudence. Of scholarship he is devoid, and in short excels solely in imprudence.
Worms, 26th April 1521. Registered by Sanuto, 11th May.
April 27. Senato Terra, v. xxii. p. 11, tergo. 200. English Wools.
Decree of the Senate that from this time forth, till March 1522, Frankish wools (lane francesche) may be brought to Venice either by Venetian subjects or by aliens, and in both Venetian and foreign bottoms, with this condition, that those conveyed by land exported from the staple of Calais do pay one quarter of freight; those brought from England by sea by way of Leghorn, to pay one-third of freight; others coming by way of Ragusa or from the places of the Gulf to pay three quarters of the freights to the Signory's Flanders galleys, to which they by right belong.
Ayes, 89.
[Italian, 10 lines.]
April 27. Senato Terra, v. xxii. p. 12. 201. English Wools.
Put to the ballot in the Senate, that from the 1st of next June till the end of November following wools be brought to Venice solely by land from the staple of Calais, and from no other place, on payment of one-fourth of the freights to the Signory's trading galleys, to which they ought to belong, as decreed heretofore.
Ayes, 60. Noes, 0. Neutrals, 1.
[Italian, 22 lines.]
April 28. Contarini's Original Letter Book, Letter no. 4, St. Mark's Library. 202. Gasparo Contarini to the Signory.
With regard to Friar Martin Luther, the Electors and Princes, by consent of all the members of the Diet, have answered the demand made of them in the Emperor's protest (fn. 15) thus,—that as the matter was momentous they besought him to allow them to treat with Luther apart, and obtain from him the recantation required by his Majesty, namely, of such points as directly impugned the decrees of the Council of Constance and others, leaving in suspense Luther's imputations against the Papal authority. It is supposed that this was done designedly, in order to restrain the Pope, and make him agree to the Emperor's wishes. (fn. 16)
The Diet also requested his Majesty to send a commissary of his own to attend the conference with its own delegates, but the Emperor would only consent to the Diet's acting ex se, and granted but three days' time, which having expired without any result, his Majesty sent a doctor of laws and one of his secretaries to Friar Martin, with a peremptory and final intimation to the effect that unless he retracted all the assertions before mentioned, he must depart on the following morning; twenty days' time being conceded him to quit Germany, in accordance with the safeconduct granted by his Majesty, who, on the expiration of that period, is determined to seize and punish him, as his errors deserve.
To this the Friar replied that he would make no recantation whatever, and on the contrary demanded that his arguments should be refuted by holy writ. He then departed.
It is not known where he will reside, though we are assured the Princes of the Empire have promised his Majesty that they will always be ready to take any steps he may choose for the punishment of this friar, which may God grant, by reason of his numerous followers and the great favour enjoyed by him in these parts of Germany.
Worms, 28th April 1521,
[Italian, 3 pages.]


  • 1. “Un suo nepote Domino Renaldo.”
  • 2. Denis Poillot.
  • 3. Qu. Adrian de Meleun, who had been one of the French hostages in England.
  • 4. Qu. La Artege, a French captain.
  • 5. Marigny, Poillot, and (probably) De Planis.
  • 6. “Farse re por”(sic. poi?) “la morte di questo Re.” “Por” is not Italian. If the word was “per” it would mean “by the death, &c.,” and not “on” or “after.”
  • 7. Brother for brother-in-law. Catharine Stafford was married to the Earl of Westmoreland and her sister Mary to Lord Abergavenny, who was imprisoned at the same time as the Duke of Buckingham; but, according to Burke, the husband of Catharine Stafford did not become Earl of Westmoreland until 1523.
  • 8. This document has been printed at length in the Lettere di Principi, vol. i. p. 92, and in Roscoe's Life of Leo X. A copy of this protest, in French, exists in the Public Record Office.
  • 9. This extract serves to date Letter No. lxxxi., Ellis, series 2, vol. 1. pp. 286–288.
  • 10. Luther entered Worms on Tuesday the 16th of April 1521, and departed thence on Friday the 26th (see Roscoe's Life of Leo X., vol. iv, p. 40; edition, Liverpool, 1805).
  • 11. This chancellor was Mercurino Arboreo, a native of Gattinara in Piedmont. On the death of Mons. de Chièvres he became the Emperor's prime minister, and to him may be mainly attributed the expulsion of the French from the Milanese.
  • 12. “Quod a quolibet layco existente in gratia sacramentum heucarestiæ confici queat.”
  • 13. “Et quod omnia eveniunt de necessitate.”
  • 14. According to Roscoe, Luther quitted Worms on the 26th of April.
  • 15. This document is entered in Sanuto's Diaries. See 19th April 1521.
  • 16. “At the commencement of 1521 Leo X. was closely allied with France, and therefore the Imperial Cabinet made use of Luther to keep the Pope in awe. Subsequently, in date February 6th, 1525, we are told (also by Gasparo Contarini) that Charles V., when expressing his indignation at the ungrateful and treacherous manner in which he had been abandoned by Clement VII., hinted at the possibility of taking his revenge by declaring Martin Luther “an honest man.”