Venice: May 1533

Pages 400-415

Calendar of State Papers Relating To English Affairs in the Archives of Venice, Volume 4, 1527-1533. Originally published by Her Majesty's Stationery Office, London, 1871.

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May 1533

May 3. Deliberazioni Senato (Secreta), v. lv. p. 82, tergo. 883. Motion made in the Senate concerning the Ambassador in England.
The nobleman Carlo Capello, our ambassador in England, having requested the election of his successor as his private interests suffer from his absence, especially owing to the death of his consort:
Put to the ballot, that an ambassador to the King of England be elected to succeed Ser Carlo Capello, receiving for his expenses 140 golden ducats monthly, as received by said Ser Carlo and his predecessors, without being bound to show any account; with the obligation to keep eleven servants and the same number of horses, including those of the secretary and his servant; also to keep two running footmen, (fn. 1) and to depart when and with such commission as ordered by this Council.
Ayes, 153.
Amendment to the foregoing motion:—
The present movements (moti) and occurrences in England, being of such important nature, connecting themselves with respects and interests affecting the Emperor, (fn. 2) the King of the Romans, and other potentates; and as it therefore becomes the Signory to act with such reserve as not to dissatisfy anybody; and as to make a fresh election of a new ambassador to that most Serene King at present might cause umbrage or anxiety (pensiero) to some one, contrary to what is aforesaid, it is therefore proposed—
That the election of an ambassador to the King of England be deferred for the present, until a more seasonable moment.
Ayes, 52. Noes, 2. Neutrals, 3.
May 4. Sanuto Diaries, v. lviii. p. 202. 884. Carlo Capello to the Signory.
The Consul Dom. Domenico Erizo has complained to me that at Hampton, wools belonging to foreigners are loaded in the names of Venetian merchants. Wrote yesterday to Messer Marin Zapello (fn. 3) not to load them, for the reasons assigned in my letter, and said I would speak to the Duke of Norfolk. He told me it was an imputation against the custom-house officers (costumieri customers). There is no code or law in this consulate, and I hear that our merchants have frequently accommodated Ragusans, Florentines, and Genoese, who export wool in their name, which is ill done.
London, 4th May. Registered by Sanuto, 16th June.
May 5. Sanuto Diaries, v. lviii. p. 74. 885. Prothonotary Casal in the College.
The English ambassador came into the College about a dispute with his landlord, Ser Tomaso Contarini, concerning the house inhabited by him in the quarter of . . . . . which seems to have been rented by him. He has the lease for another year, but wishes to give it up now.
May 7. Sanuto Diaries, v. lviii. p. 135. 886. Marin Giustinian to the Signory.
I have visited the English ambassador [Sir John Wallop], who confirmed to me that the marriage had taken place, and that Queen Anne appeared with the royal insignia, and dined in public; and the King appointed her officials, as in the service of the repudiated (derelicta) Queen; and it is said they believe her to be pregnant. Three days previously the King sent the Duke of Norfolk and the Duke of Suffolk to tell the repudiated Queen what was to happen; and she replied so patiently, prudently, and firmly, that she was considered worthy of very great commendation.
He then told me that in the Parliament nothing more had been done with regard to the Apostolic See, than [to enforce] the ancient statute (constitution) for appeals in ecclesiastical matters to be submitted to England, which include matrimonial cases, and thus comprise this one of the King.
The mission of the groom of the chamber (varleto de camera) sent by the most Christian King to England and Scotland related to the truce for one year, and he [Wallop] believes it will be made, though the two countries were still fighting. He then told me that King Francis and the Lord Steward have announced to him the conference at Nice with the Pope, and that they will conclude the marriage of the young Duchess (Duchesina) the Pope's niece, to the Duke of Orleans, which will take place on next St. John's Day. This interview and marriage have also been confirmed by a nephew of the Cardinal de Grammont, who also stated that [the Pope] will give the Duke of Orleans territory in Italy, namely, Parma and Piacenza.
The Scottish ambassador (fn. 4) says that the Duke of Albany, (fn. 5) the uncle of the young Duchess—who is called “Madame de Boulogne”—will be sent from Lyons to the Pope, his journey preceding that of the Lord Steward; and it is also said that he will go as commander of the French fleet to meet his Holiness. This Duke is the “Protector” of Scotland, so the ambassador's authority is good; and he confirmed the [report of the ?] negotiation for the annual truce [between England and Scotland] (et confirmò la tregua si tratta annual) and the marriage of his King to Madame Madeleine, the daughter of his most Christian Majesty, which would have been already concluded had not the English King thwarted it. He added that the Queen of France will remain at a short distance from Nice.
St. Amand, 7th May. Registered by Sanuto 26th May.
May 7. Sanuto Diaries (Originals), v. lviii. 887. Marco Venier to the Signory.
I have been with the Emperor's ambassador, the Count de Cifuentes, who told me his Holiness informed him that he, the Pope, had been requested by the most Christian King (fn. 6) to confer with him at Nice, to treat matters against the Infidels and Lutherans; the ambassador replied it was a matter to discuss with the Emperor, and the Pope said, “It is a thing not yet determined.” Cifuentes thinks the Emperor would advise against (con-conseiaria) this conference, and told the Pope he would conclude the marriage of his niece. His Holiness said he thought he should, but that it would be a marriage and nothing more (solum simplice noze—query, not a political alliance).
They then spoke about the English marriage, and Cifuentes urged his Holiness to settle the matter. The Pope replied it required much consideration, that he would ponder the matter well, and do justice. The Archbishop of Capua [Nicholas Schomberg] tells me the Pope said to him about England that it was requisite to procede rather reservedly (an pocho di andar intertentuto) in order not to give cause to the King to effect something else.
In the last consistory the demand made by the Cardinal de Tournon in the name of the most Christian King against those who follow the Lutheran views (via) was again proposed, and it was determined to manifest to all those in France who shall be in this Lutheran via after proclamation, and to such as adopt the Lutheran doctines, that they cannot take advantage of the law concerning such as lapse (caschano) into errors for the first time, but may be punished corporally as shall seem fit to his Majesty. The Cardinals Monte and Campeggio were charged to draw up the writing.
Yesterday the Emperor's daughter arrived in this city; by the Pope's order she was met by his guard and attendants, and by the Imperial and Portuguese ambassadors; and before going to her lodging, she went to kiss his Holiness's foot. Today she visited him, and as she does not speak Latin the late Vice-Queen of Naples, widow of Don Carlo de Lanoy, replied, returning thanks, etc., saying how much love her deceased husband bore the Pope, to whom she had much obligation. Last evening her husband the Duke Alexandro came hither post from Florence.
The Cardinal of Bari (fn. 7) has also come to Rome: I visited him today, and he told me he found two great matters (ponti) one, the congress of Nice, the other, the marriage of England; that on the third evening after his arrival, he supped with the Pope, and told him this conference of Nice would not produce any effect; that he was of opinion the Emperor, for his honour, will not choose it to be held; and concerning the marriage of England he expects something to take place.
Rome, 7th May. Registered by Sanuto 13th May.
May 8. Sanuto Diaries (Originals), v. lviii. 888. Marco Antonio Contarini, Venetian Ambassador in Spain, to the Signory.
It is said that the King of England has espoused his new wife publicly.
Barcelona, 8th May. Registered by Sanuto 11th June.
May 9. Sanuto Diaries, v. lviii. p. 202. 889. Carlo Capello to the Signory.
After my letter of the 4th the King made the mandatary (il Dottor) (fn. 8) summon Queen Katharine for this morning before the Archbishop of Canterbury to defend her rights. Her Majesty denied being either able or willing to defend them; nor would she acknowledge any other judge than the Pope. The mandatary said that by not assenting to have the judgment passed here, she would be subject to the statute called præmunire, which signifies the confiscation of all property and person to the King (la qual importa la, confiscation di tutti li beni e la, persona, sua im potestà dil Re.) The Queen replied that she marvelled at the mandatary's imprudence, as being the person she is, not only is her body also in the King's power, but her personal effects likewise, nor has she any thing else, except her soul, which is of God. Notwithstanding this, the Archbishop went in person to within a mile of the Queen's residence (fn. 9) to hear her. It is said her Majesty will not appear, so that on the morrow of the Ascension sentence will be passed declaring her “contumax
Three days ago, the Imperial ambassador [Eustace Chapuys] had audience of the Royal Council He spoke haughtily, and said that if their Lordships thought to make the people believe that the Emperor will not take heed of these things, they deceive themselves; and that he (the ambassador) would not fail to proclaim publicly that the Emperor will rather risk all his realms than ignore justice. The ambassador is preparing for his departure.
Great preparations are being made for jousts and entertainments for the coronation of the new Queen; and his Majesty has determined to confer knighthood on all Englishmen whose annual rental exceeds 40 pounds sterling; and those who will not accept this dignity are to pay a certain sum according to their revenues; by which means he will realise a great sum of money, and his Court will be increased by a large amount of gentry.
The embassy of the Duke of Norfolk and others has been deferred until after the coronation.
The Imperial and French ambassadors consider it certain that the interview at Nice between the Pope and the most Christian King, will take place, and that his Holiness will then and there unite the most Christian King and the Emperor against the King of England; and this is the general opinion. Others say, that at this congress they will negotiate the confederation of the Christian powers against the Turk; the Pope thus delaying the arrangements for the council, and the disturbances in Germany; (fn. 10) and it is believed that this conference will take place with the Emperor's consent.
Six days ago the Papal Nuncio Dom. Ubaldino Bandinelli, (fn. 11) who was despatched by the Pope from Bologna to the most Christian King, and then to England, arrived here. He went to France, to speak about the Council. He says the interview will take place; that it has the Emperor's consent; and that one day at Bologna when the Pope was talking with the Emperor, the latter was heard to say, “It seems that the most Christian King will accept the bargain.” The Pope replied,” I have no doubt of it; and if necessary I will go to Provence to confer with his Majesty;” and the Emperor commended this.
Nothing is heard from Scotland; yesterday a messenger from France, on his way thither, passed through London; it is hoped that an adjustment will take place.
The troops who were in Holland remain there; it is not known in whose pay they are.
The Lubeck fleet of 25 large ships, lately captured 5 Dutch vessels.
The City of Munster, which expelled its bishop, has made terms with him, giving him his living and sovereign authority (dandoli il viver e ch'el godi il dominio) and he is not to interfere with their rites; and after his death, the sovereignty is to return to the laity.
London, 9th May. Registered by Sanuto 16th June.
May 10. Lettere del Collegio (Secreta), File no. 13. 890. The Doge and College to Carlo Capello, Ambassador in England.
Send him a summary of the contents of their letters, dated Constantinople the 3rd April, with which he is to acquaint the King as usual.
May 13. Sanuto Diaries, v. lviii. p. 232. 891. Marin Giustinian to the Signory.
Has seen the Duke of Albany, who departs tomorrow for Auvergne, of which province he is governor. He says that the congress will certainly take place at the commencement of September.
The papal nuncio, the Bishop of Faenza, tells me the Queen of England was crowned on the 30th ult.
The papal nuncio, Dom. Ubaldino, has arrived here from England; I have not yet visited him. (fn. 12)
Lyons, 13th May. Registered by Sanuto 24th June.
May 13. Sanuto Diaries (Originals), v. lviii. 892. Marco Venier to the Signory.
The Imperial ambassador the Count di Fuentes (sic), (fn. 13) having received advices from Constantinople through the Viceroy of Naples, sent to communicate them to me, and I enclose the copies.
The Pope told me he had been urged by the Imperial ambassador to proceed against the King of England according to justice (a proseguir per justitia contra il Re de Ingilterra, al che li ha fatto molta instantia); and that he (the Pope) answered that the King had offended the Divine Majesty, and the Apostolic See, and his Imperial Majesty with regard to the ties of blood; that it was well to consider, and then act in concert, both spiritually and temporally; that the Emperor, being the advocate of this Holy See, was bound to defend it by force of arms, and his Holiness likewise with spiritual weapons, but it is to be remembered that this stir of arms would be also against the most Christian King, owing to the close friendship between him and England, and that war might cause detriment to the Christian religion; and that it would seem well to delay this matter (e che li pareria ben se intro-metesse tempo a questo).
The Emperor's daughter departed hence four days ago for Naples, accompanied by the Cardinal of Bari, and by the Imperial ambassador and the Duke Alexandre) [de' Medici]; and the Pope gave her a jewel of the value of from five to six thousand crowns.
Rome, 13th May. Registered by Sanuto 24th May.
May 14. Sanuto Diaries, v. lviii. p. 135. 893. Marin Giustinian to the Signory.
Conversed with the English ambassador [Sir John Wallop], who came from Paris, having been at the Court; he lodged with me for two days, and I accommodated him with horses. He says he lately discussed with the most Christian King the conference of Nice, and the marriage of the young Duchess, in order that his Majesty may mediate concerning that of his King; and it has been arranged for the Duke of Norfolk to attend the conference with a great number of prelates in the name of all the clergy of England, forming a company of 500 horsemen. The most Christian King answered that the Duke of Norfolk must come post, so that they may be together with the Pope on St. John's day, the term being subsequently prolonged to the end of July. Then, speaking of the marriage of the Duke of Orleans, he said he knew not how it would please the Emperor to hear he was to have territory in Italy; and that they would then require other things contrary to the articles of agreement. He also says the most Christian King will have a great number of galleys, of which 24 are in readiness, and to man them, he has taken out of prison all the malefactors and felons.
He told me, in the next place, that the marriage of Queen Anne to his King took place on the 10th of January last, by the advice (co'l conscio) of the most Christian King, on which account (per il che) the brother of said Anne came to this Court, and the King gave him a most beautiful and costly litter.
I spoke subsequently with the Papal Nuncio about this conference, which he denied entirely, saying he knew nothing about it.
Iserne, his Majesty's groom of the chamber (varleto di camera) has returned from Germany, whither he went about the marriage of Madame Isabella of Navarre to Duke Frederick of Bavaria, and other projects (interenimenti).
I request that the name of the English ambassador may be kept secret, so as to enable me to obtain other advices from him.
Moulins, 17th May. Registered by Sanuto 26th May.
May 14. Sanuto Diaries (Originals), v. lviii. 894. Marco Venier to the Signory.
The Scottish ambassador here is intent on accomplishing the marriage of his King to Madame Madeleine, the most Christian Kings daughter. The Pope thinks he will succeed, because, if unable to obtain her, he was commissioned to go to Flanders to Queen Maria, and conclude the marriage with the eldest daughter of the King of Denmark; and his Holiness said, “The King of England would be averse to this, lest the war with Scotland continue.”
The Pope then told me that the Imperial ambassador had persuaded him to act against the English King, and that he had answered him that he would allow the Imperial agents to hasten the legal proceedings. (Poi Soa Santilà mi disse che l'Orator Cesareo lo havea persliaso a far contra il Re Anqlicho, al qual havea risposto, lasseria che li agenti Cesarei solicitasse a proceder di jure.)
Rome, 14 th May. Registered by Sanuto 24th May.
May 16. Sanuto Diaries, v. lviii. p. 156. 895. Marin Giustinian to the Signory.
On the 15th, the most Christian King made his entry into this city with his sons and the Queen, being met by the whole town with all possible honour; and as usual, this community presented him with a silver mill, said to be worth 1,000 crowns, which present his Majesty gives to his servants (qualli presenti soa Maestà dona a soi servitori).
The King and others have received letters from Rome dated the 5th, purporting that the Pope had announced in consistory to the Cardinals, the conference to be held with his most Christian Majesty at Nice. The Lord Steward, after a long conversation with the Imperial ambassador, said to me, “There can be no doubt the Pope will come to Nice, and I have to tell it you in the King's name, and his Majesty will speak to you.” He then took me to the King, who, after a long colloquy with the Imperial ambassador, said to me, “Ambassador, it has seemed fit to our Holy Father to come to Nice, about the middle of July; so we will discuss at this congress both matters relating to the faith and other things concerning Christendom in general; and I tell you especially, that the Signory may rely on having in me not only the most affectionate of Princes, but the most anxious of men for the advantage and honour of the State, because they refused to join this last Italian league with the Emperor, and I have known that they refused chiefly on my account; and although I believe his Holiness will not speak about the Signory's affairs, yet should he do so, be assured that he will address himself to one who is most attached to the State.” I thanked his Majesty, saying that the Signory had not less trust in him than in any other sovereign. In reply to an enquiry made by me, he then said, “The Pope will come by sea; he will have Antonio Doria's three galleys and the three ships built by him, and those of the knights of St. John, which will be ten in number. I shall send him 22 galleys, six banked fustes, and eight galleons, being 40 vessels in all, which together with the Pope's ten, will be 50 sail; so that he may come without apprehension of Andrea Doria, by whom I will not be circumvented; and I put 100 harquebusiers, 40 archers, and 20 men-at-arms on board of each of the galleys; and the companies of the Lord Steward, of the Duke of Albany, and of the Count of Tenda will be on board. The Duke of Albany will be commander of the entire armada. The Lord Steward will precede me; I believe he Avill depart from Lyons, to make arrangements at Nice; and he will confer with the Bishop of Faenza, who is coming in the name of the Pope. The Duke of Norfolk, one of the chief personages in England, will come on behalf of his King. The Duke of Savoy will place Nice and the fortress in the hands of the Pope, who will consign it to me for my security, and I promise him to give it back, after the congress, and not to speak of my disputes with the Duke, until after the expiration of two months from that time.” I asked his Majesty about the marquisate of Montferrat, owing to the death of the Marquis, and the seizure of Alba and other places in that territory by the Marquis of Saluzzo. His Majesty replied, “He lays claim to that state, he and the deceased being descended from two brothers; I wrote to him that having so good a right I advised him to defend it by right;” and his Majesty seemed averse to strife (e mostrò non voler novità).
I then asked about the affairs of Scotland and England, and the King said, “The truce will certainly be made, and speedily; the King of Scotland has now referred it to me, and I will arrange those affairs.”
An ambassador from the Duke of Savoy has arrived here, I do not know for what purpose; but when talking to him about what will become of the county of Asti, he said he was come to adjust all disputes with the King, who will give him audience, which he had never chosen to do hitherto; and he added that his Duke will have a claim on the state of Montferrat on account of dowry of a certain Madona Bianca of Montferrat, who married a Duke Carlo of Savoy.
The English ambassador [Sir John Wallop] supped with me today, and told me that the French galleys at Marseilles are not in good order, on which account the conference at Nice was delayed until July. It is said here that [Andrea] Doria might prevent the Pope's coming, but the most Christian King when talking with me said, “The Emperor has 34 galleys, 12 of which will remain in Spain, 6 go to Sicily, and there are 16 with Andrea Doria, with whose fleet the Pope would be very well able to cope.”
It is reported here, that the marriage of the Pope's niece [Catherine de' Medici] to the Duke of Orleans will take place, Parma and Piacenza being given as dower.
Provisions are one-third dearer. At Lyons and at Avignon the prices will be most exorbitant.
Moulins, 16th May. Registered by Sanuto 5th June.
May 20. Sanuto Diaries, v. lviii. p. 202. 896. Carlo Capello to the Signory.
Messer Ubaldino [Bandinelli], the Papal Nuncio, has shown me his commission, of seven articles.
1. That the Council be held for the benefit and conservation of the Christian commonwealth.
2. Princes who shall not be able to attend it may send thither legitimate procurators.
3. Should any Prince not assent to the convocation, that it be held by those who do assent.
4. Should any one not assent to the decrees of this Council, and therefore oppose the Pope, that all the other Princes be bound to lend the Pope their favour and assistance.
5. In the meanwhile (in questo tempo) the Lutherans to make no innovation whatever.
6. Before the announcement of this Council the Princes to agree where it is to be held.
7. The places proposed for the Council are Mantua, Bologna, Piacenza, and Turin.
Immediately on the settlement of the aforesaid points, the Council to sit.
His Majesty spoke the Nuncio fair and in general terms, saying that the Duke of Norfolk will convey his resolve to the congress which will be held; and he gave him a cup, worth 300 crowns, and he departed.
On the 14th, a secret envoy from the most Christian King arrived, to acquaint the King with the congress to be held at Nice, and to urge him to send the Duke of Norfolk. A messenger from the Duke of Saxony and Frederick the Count Palatine has also been here, and went away the day before yesterday. He announced that a diet of the greater part of Germany is being held at Constance, and will close at Whitsuntide. They are to discuss the creation of a new King of the Romans, and wish his Majesty and the most Christian King to consent to this.
The coronation of the new Queen will take place on the 8th June, and great preparations are being made for entertainments.
The hostilities between Scotland and these English have been mutually suspended through the intervention of the most Christian King; and the ships of the King of England have returned to the mouth of the Thames.
London, 20th May. Registered by Sanuto 16th June.
May 21. Sanuto Diaries (Originals), v. lviii. 897. Marco Venier to the Signory.
I have spoken to the Imperial ambassador the Count de Cifuentes, and communicated to him the advices from Constantinople.
The Pope has told me the King of France wishes the peace of Italy to continue, and the agreement between the Emperor and himself to be observed, and says he will not fail in the. matter of the Infidels, or in providing for the Lutheran affairs, and that good consideration must be had about the Council, to effect which he was of opinion that his conference with his Holiness should be held speedily. The Pope told me he answered that the matter was grande and that he would consult the Cardinals.
He also informed me that the French Cardinals said that at this congress some expedient might be negotiated concerning the marriage of the King of England, and that should his Holiness wish it, the French King would make the Duke of Norfolk come in the name of the English King; to which he answered that in this matter there were many difficulties, both spiritual and temporal, and it was necessary to know the will of the Emperor.
Rome, 21st May. Registered by Sanuto 26th May.
May 23. Sanuto Diaries, v. lviii. p. 204. 898. Carlo Capello to the Signory.
The Duke of Norfolk will depart on Monday next the 26th, having sent his baggage, and the greater part of his attendants; he goes straight to Lyons, and thence to Nice. His Majesty hopes the Duke will adjust the affair of the divorce with the Pope, through the most Christian King, who has hopes of inducing his Holiness to comply with the King's wishes.
London, 23rd May. Registered by Sanuto 16th June.
May 23. Parti Comuni Consiglio X., v. ix. p. 23, tergo. 899. Motion made in the Council of Ten by the Chiefs.
That licence for carrying arms be conceded to six servants of each of the under-written ambassadors,—
The Rev. Apostolic Legate;
The Magnifico the Imperial Ambassador;
The Rev. Ambassador of the most Christian King;
The Rev. Ambassador of England;
and to four servants of each of the following ambassadors, namely, of the magnificos the ambassadors of—
The most Illustrious Duke of Milan;
” ” ” of Ferrara;
” ” ” of Mantua;
” ” ” of Urbino;
the said ambassadors declaring upon oath that the servants notified by them are in their pay and in their houses; and their names to be noted in the book of licences of this Council as usual.
Ayes, 16. Noes, 0. Neutrals, 0.
May 24 Deliberazioni Senate (Secreta), Filza 8. 900. The Doge and Senate to Carlo Capello, Venetian Ambassador in England.
With regard to what was said to you—first by the King and then by the Lord Chancellor—about the publication of the confederacy lately made at Bologna, the printed copies of which make it appear that it includes the Republic, we commend your reply; for we, having been requested to join the confederacy, did not modify our treaty of peace and confederacy stipulated at Bologna in 1529; and the present confederacy having been lately formed between the Pope, the Emperor, and others, without our intervention, certain printers at Bologna—and not in Venice—from love of gain have named our Signory as one of the contracting parties. (fn. 14) This being resented by us, we wrote to our ambassadors with the Pope and the Emperor to complain, and caused the Imperial ambassador to write to his Majesty. Their answers purported that this took place unknown to them, and that they regretted and blamed the cupidity of said printers; and that had they known it in time to remedy it, they would not have failed to do so. You will therefore declare as aforesaid, without showing any particular anxiety in the matter on our part, save for the welfare, quiet, and tranquillity of all Christendom.
Enclose summary of letters from the ambassador and vice-bailiff at Constantinople, dated 18th and 23rd ultimo, for communication to the King.
It is reported that negotiations are on foot for a conference at Nice, between the Pope and the most Christian King. Ascertain whether this conference is to take place—what is to be negotiated on the occasion, and whether it is with the consent of other powers.
Ayes, 177. Noes, 4. Neutrals, 0.
May 26. Sanuto Diaries, v. lviii. p. 188. 901. Marin Giustinian to the Signory.
Arrived here on the 24th, and spoke with the English ambassador [Sir John Wallop], who said he had letters from Rome dated the 8th, to the effect that the Pope's voyage to Nice; would not take place so speedily, the paragraph in his letter being as follows:—
“Our Lord is irresolute and in great suspense about this voyage for the conference; he awaits letters from Spain.”
The ambassador told me he had sent another courier express to his King, and that the Duke of Norfolk, who is to go to Nice, would accelerate his journey so as to be at Avignon by the 28th June; adding, “I will try and learn from the Lord Steward, and you shall hear.”
Lyons, 26th May. Registered by Sanuto 11th June.
May 27. Sanuto Diaries, v. lviii. p. 169. 902. The Same to the Same.
The English ambassador told me he had letters from Rome of the 18th instant from Casal and the other ambassadors (fn. 15) of his King, and, yesterday at midnight, when the courier arrived with the letters from Rome, the most Christian King sent for him immediately, and he spoke to the Lord Steward, who told him that by letters from Rome, they perceived that the Pope was very doubtful about coming, and had cooled, saying, he awaited letters from Spain, and a reply from his most Christian Majesty, which was written 20 days ago, and that until he received them he could not determine. The English ambassador said to the Lord Steward in reply, “Do you wish me to write to the Duke of Norfolk to speed his journey?” The Lord Steward replied, “Write warmly.” The ambassador having rejoined, “The Pope's coming is doubtful, and the Duke of Norfolk not having departed, it would be well for him to delay his coming,” the Lord Steward continued, “Write to him to come notwithstanding, as there is no doubt of the Pope's coming, though it is quite true he wrote to us about a certain matter, the reply to which was not sent by us until four days ago from this place. On receiving our letters, we are certain that he will at any rate depart.” The ambassador says he does not know what this reply, concealed by the Lord Steward, is; he supposed it to relate to his King's marriage, and that it was unfavourable for his Majesty, and he read to me a paragraph in the letters from Rome, to the effect that the Pope will not have the galleys of the knights of Rhodes (dilla Religiom) as the prior of Rome (il prior di Roma) who commands them, is the dependent of his Holiness, who is the cause of this. This was confirmed to him by the Lord Steward and the Admiral, and they told him that the French fleet numbers 20 galleys, in excellent order, and will supply the place of the Rhodians.
I have been unable to execute the commands given me in the Signory's letters of the 20th March and 30th April, as the King has been occupied. Yesterday the Dauphin made his entry into this city, being honourably met by all the nations (fn. 16) and by the whole town; the Queen being also met in like manner by the whole town with much more pomp and ceremony, as all the nations, both on foot and horseback, went forth to meet her, richly clad with costly surcoats and much embroidery, besides 3,000 infantry of the town who went in like manner. All the ambassadors were invited to this entry, namely, Papal, Imperial, English, I, and Ferrara. The Scottish ambassador did not appear, as his affairs are not well adjusted with the King of England. The ambassador from Savoy was not invited, because the King professes to consider his Duke contumacious, for the cause written in my letter of the 10th February last, but six days ago he had audience of his Majesty, nor is anything further known. This Court is much crowded (ingrossata) though there have yet to come, the King of Navarre, the Cardinal de Bourbon, the most Illustrious de Vendôme, the Duke of Norfolk, Mons. de Guise, and others, who are all expected indubitably. This town cannot accommodate so many men and horses, and this has caused a great scarcity of all things, and most especially of lodgings bread, corn, and stabling; and the quantity of bread sold for one French sous equal to rather more than three marchetti is so small, that I never remember to have got less for three marchetti at Venice, however great the scarcity may have been there. The poor people eat very coarse and bad bread; corn has trebled in price; and should the Court remain here some days longer, the cost will become unbearable. I know not how I shall be able to defray such vast expenditure, as even in the midst of plenty my need exceeded my means; and at this Court negotiations are carried on at table. I pray God to relieve me in one way or the other.
Lyons, 27th May. Registered by Sanato 11th June.
May 27. Sanuto Diaries (Originals), v. lviii. 903. Marco Venier to the Signory.
Today the Imperial ambassador received letters from the Emperor dated in Barcelona the 12th inst., (fn. 17) informing him that his Majesty has heard of the Congress, and desiring him to tell the Pope that he does not approve of it (che lui non lo lauda) it not seeming to him apposite (al proposito) adducing many reasons for its not being held, but should his Holiness have a firm promise from the most Christian King that nothing shall be treated save matters relating to the Christian religion, his Holiness might do what he pleased, as his Imperial Majesty did not choose any one to be able to say that the King of France wished to do some good deed, and that he the Emperor was the cause of preventing him. This the ambassador represented to the Pope, and his Holiness declared to him he would neither treat nor take any other course or way than that of the quiet of Italy, and its maintenance; not wishing to make any alteration in the agreement stipulated at Bologna.
His Imperial Majesty also writes of having heard from England what displeased him, without saying more, but he had not yet received the letters written to him by Count Cifuentes on the 3rd and 8th instant, concerning the colloquies on this subject between the ambassador and the Pope.
Rome, 27th May. Registered by Sanuto, 31st May.
May 28. Sanuto Diaries, v. lviii. p. 170. 904. Marin Giustinian to the Signory.
In this hour communicated to the King the contents of the Signory's letters of the 20th, and the summaries and advices contained in those of the 30th April and 9th May.
His Majesty said: “I imagine that the Turk feels his honour wounded by the loss of Coron, and would fain recover it by all means possible, but the money and outlay would be great. By these threats, he seeks its restitution, but the Emperor intends to keep it; though as he (the Turk ?) meditates an attack by sea and land, and the invasion of Italy, his Imperial Majesty should not talk so largely (così lavgamente). Heretofore the Pope and the Emperor wished the Grand Master of Rhodes [Philippe Villiers de L'Isle-Adam], who is a Frenchman, my servant and good friend, to take Coron for the habitation of that order and to defend it; and he wrote to me—as the Grand Masters are dependent on this Crown, and have two thirds of their revenues in this kingdom—asking my opinion; and here at Lyons I answered him, that if he could defend Coron against such a potentate as the Turk, I should approve of the undertaking; but seeing that an Emperor can with difficulty defend the place, still less could he the Grand Master hold it; and if taken, it would be the ruin of the entire Order. I believe nothing will be done.”
The Lord Steward will depart for Nice in three or four days. He will be accompanied by the Duke of Albany, who is come from Auvergne for this purpose. He says “that the King of Scotland has referred his disputes with the King of England for arbitration to the most Christian King, and thus peace will certainly be made.” This was confirmed by the Scottish ambassador, who said that in a few days everything will be settled. The King said: “Write to the Signory that the Emperor thought of giving his niece—the eldest daughter of the King of Denmark—to the King of Scotland; the negotiation has been cut short.” His most Christian Majesty did not say a word about the marriage of his own daughter to the King of Scotland.
Lyons, 28th May. Registered by Sanuto 11th June.
May 29. Sanuto Diaries (Originals), vol. lviii. 905. Mafio Bernardo.
Trial of Mafio Bernardo for traducing the Republic in England; dealing with the wool-staplers; impeding the importation of English wools into Venice, and injuring the Venetian trade and the traffic of the Flanders galleys. (fn. 18)
The Senate met in the afternoon at the suit of the Avogaria. (fn. 19) It was a full house. After the motion had been read, the kinsfolk of Mafio Bernardo withdrew. Bernardo came into the Senate-hall with his brother Bartolo, and eight advocates.
The State Avogador Jacomo da Canal, and his colleagues, stated the case, and made a fine oration. Thirty pages of the process were read, and the hour being late, they postponed the perusal of the remaining twenty-five until tomorrow.
May 30. Sanuto Diaries (Originals), v. lviii. 906. The Same.
The Senate assembled at the suit of the Avogaria against Ser Mafio Bernardo. Proceedings again adjourned.
May 31. Sanuto Diaries, v. lviii. p. 193. 907. Marin Giustinian to the Signory.
I spoke with the Admiral (fn. 20) about this conference; he said it would take place speedily, adding: “We have 22 light galleys in excellent order; we shall send them to Hostia to fetch him (a levarlo) and on his arrival at Nice we will discuss matters against the Infidels, and the Lutheran affairs, and the Duke of Norfolk also will be present.” I inquired how the Pope bears the marriage of England. He replied: “Very ill indeed; and that King is still more estranged from him: he has caused very great mischief; he chose to act in his own fashion: he ought to have waited for this conference. Letters are expected from Rome.” He said that the disputes between England and Scotland have been referred to the most Christian King. The Emperor has chosen to give the King of Scotland his niece, the eldest daughter of the King of Denmark, and gives the Duke of Milan the other daughter, who is four years old. (fn. 21) These English ambassadors (fn. 22) do not approve of this interview, although the congress [of Nice] is the consequence of the interview in Picardy. (fn. 23)
Lyons, 31st May. Registered by Sanuto 14th June.


  • 1. “Stafficci.” The literal translation would be “stirrup-men;” they ran by the side of the horsemen, with whom they kept pace on the longest journeys, and in England these active pedestrians were called “running footmen.”
  • 2. “Intervenendo li respetti et interesse di Cesare,” etc.
  • 3. By the entry dated 9th January 1532, it is seen that the Venetian Consul at Southampton was a Genoese, by name Nicolin da Conta, who was perhaps succeeded by Marin Zapello.
  • 4. Abbot of Arbroath ? (See “State Papers,” Scotland, vol. i. p. 31.)
  • 5. John Stewart, Protector and Governor of Scotland in 1515, made his final retreat to France in 1523. In 1505 he married Anne de la Tour, whose sister, Madeleine, became the mother of Catherine de Medici by Lorenzo, Duke of Urbino. (See Burke's Extinct Peerages, p. 781.)
  • 6. “Sun stato con il Signer Conte de Cifuentes, orator di la Cesarea Maiestà, et mi ha ditto come erra stato col Pontefice, qual li havia ditto di la rechiesta del Re Xmo.”
  • 7. Stefano Gabriel Merino, a Spaniard, Archbishop of Bari, who had been Imperial Ambassador to Clement VII., as stated in the footnote to entry dated 23rd April.
  • 8. The term “mandatary” is used by Craumer, Archbishop of Canterbury, in his letter to Henry VIII., dated Dunstable, 12th May 1533. (See State Papers, vol. i. p. 394.)
  • 9. The Queen resided at Ampthill, and Cranmer went to Dunstable, as seen by his letter of the 12th May.
  • 10. “Ea questo modo il Papa farà intertener le cose di far il Concilio et li motti di Alemagna.”
  • 11. In vol. vii. p. 459, “State Papers,” there is the King's letter (the last of the series in the reign of Henry VIII.), to the Pope, acknowledging receipt of the brief delivered by the Nuncio. The letter is dated Greenwich, 20th May 1533.
  • 12. By Capello's letter, dated London, 20th May, it appears that Ubaldino Bandinelli had then just quitted England; in which case he could not have been at Lyons on the 13th May.
  • 13. In a former letter Cifuentes, which is the correct name.
  • 14. This falsification by the printers of the treaty between Clement VII., Charles V., Milan, Genoa, Ferrara, Sienna, and Lucca, is alluded to by the Venetian historian, Andrea Morosini, vol. i. pp. 367, 368. The treaty was dated Bologna, February 1533. I do not find it in Dumont.
  • 15. The English ambassadors at Rome at this time were Gregery Casal, Edmund Boner and William Benet. (State Papers, vii. 454–465.)
  • 16. “Da tutte le nazioni,” foreign traders established at Lyons.
  • 17. By a letter dated Barcelona, 27th April 1533, which the Emperor addressed to his Ambassador in Venice, Dom Lopes de Sora, it appears that he landed at Roses on the 21st April, having embarked at Genoa on the Tuesday in Passion week, 8th of April, the day after the decision of the divorce in London.
  • 18. Mafio Bernardo was one of the wealthiest of the Venetian merchants domiciled in England in the first half of the 16th century, and some account of his misdeeds may he read in Capello's letter dated 14th March 1533. So far as I can understand Sanuto's account of the trial, Bernardo attempted to farm the English wool staple, and thus monopolize the importation of English wools into Venice. The historian, Andrea Morosini (vol. ii. pp. 168, 169), records the murder, near Ravenna, of Mafio Bernardo in the year 1546, the deed having heen effected by his relations (and by the envoy of Henry VIII., Lodovico dalle Arme, to whom he had revealed certain state secrets which the Bang's “Bravo” feared he might divulge), for the sake of obtaining his immense property.
  • 19. Office of the “Attornies-General, or State Attornies.”
  • 20. Philippe Chabot, Seigneur de Brion, succeeded Bonnivet in the post of Admiral of France. (See Brantome, “Des Hommes Illustres et Grands Capitaines.”)
  • 21. In an entry dated 11th June, the younger Princess of Denmark is said to be thirteen years old.
  • 22. Query at Rome. Sir John Wallop was alone at Lyons.
  • 23. This remark seems to have been made by Philippe Chabot, who was present at the conference of Calais, on which occasion he received the Garter from Henry VIII. (See entry dated 31 October 1532.)